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The Integration of Ninorte-Samarnon

Folk Literature in the Language Classroom:


The Speech 111 Class Scenario
Kristine Mae G.Balanon-Destura

Introduction
Folklore
literature

of

has

been

group

defined
of

as

people,

the

totality

handed

down

of
from

generation to generation by word of mouth. In consists


of the belies and customs, proverbs, riddles, songs,
myths, legends, tales and all other manifestations and
practices of primitive and illiterate people and of the
common people of civilized society.

But due to the

advent of technology and high tech gadgets, there has


been

very

noticeable

decline

in

awareness of these folk literatures.

the

peoples

People tend to

disregard these narratives which hold the tradition of


the place they are in.
and

sing

the

modern

Communities tend to patronize


songs

especially

those

of

the

western culture and ail to know the customs which the


folk

speech

brings,

and

societies

ail

to

establish

strong bonds with their ancestors through knowing the


legends and tales of their civilization.

It is not too late, however, or us to revive and


get to know the culture that we seem to disregard.
Education

is

viewed

to

be

an

important

medium

in

spreading information about the world, the society and


culture.

As

provided

in

Article

XV,

Section

8(4)

our

Philippine Constitution, All educational institutions


shall aim to inculcate love of country,

teach duties

of citizenship, and develop moral character, personal


discipline,

and

scientific,

vocational efficiency.

technological

and

Section 9(2) likewise states

that Filipino culture shall be preserved and developed


of

national

institutions

identity
and

Thus,

organizations

all

shall

educational

inculcate

and

promote love or country and preservation of culture.


This

could come

into realization

if folk

literature

shall be endorsed in the language classrooms.


The

State

beliefs

shall

consider

and interest

formulation

and

the

customs,

of national

implementation

Further,

traditions,

communities in

of

State

the

Policies.

Thus, implicitly, stating that folk literature should


be injected into the peoples consciousness to build a
community with strong sense of nationalism, and firm
prudence

or

nationalism

should

hold

true

in

the

language classrooms.

In

the

University

of

Eastern

Philippines,

folk

literature is barely discussed in the classroom.

The

one semester subject Literature of the Filipinos talks


about literary masterpieces in the Philippine context.
But

it

is

enough

to

warrant

strong

sense

nationalism and patriotism among the students?

of

Of the

four or more years of stay in the University, the one


semester period of endorsement of folk literature is
just a meager percentage of the total period students
apportion in school, which should be time enough or
them to foster among themselves strong bond with their
countrys heritage and tradition.

Through this paper, educators could have an idea of


how folk literature can actually be made part of the
language classroom.

Specifically, this paper deals on

how folklore is integrated in Speech 111 lessons.

Discussion
In a speech class, where students are taught the
basics

of

oral

communication,

diverse

structures

dialogs, and different forms of public speaking using


the English language, we may ask how possible it would
to promote folk literature while, at the same time,
promoting proficiency in the English language.

I would like to focus my discussion on the use of


Ninorte-Samarnon

folk

literature

in

the

Speech

111

classroom particularly, the Ninorte-Samarnon-translated


folktales.

Speech 111 is a class which needs the students


active oral participation in order or the teacher to
determine

whether

learning

is

achieved.

Over

the

years, I tried a variety of activities or the students


to perform and or me to measure I the course objectives
are met.

Activity 1

One of the activities the students performed was


the art of oral reading or storytelling.

With the use

of folktales, the students had a good practice of Voice


Projection

and

Desirable

Speaking

among the topics in the syllabus.


designed

to

test

appropriately

whether

the

Voice,

which

are

These activities are

the

different

students

can

use

aspects

of

the

paralinguistic elements of the voice and if the tone of


the voice used is appropriate in given utterances.

On

my part, through this activity, I was able to determine


the students reading comprehension and familiarity and
knowledge of words.
still

found

sometimes

it

While some performed well, others

hard

arriving

at

articulating
their

simple

meaning.

At

words
any

and

rate,

remediation class for reading proved helpful.

Activity 2

With the use of the English translated folktales,


another activity was designed or group work.

The class

was divided into groups depending on the class size.


They were assigned to create a stage drama out of the
folktale.

The names and other acts remain, but the

students were allowed to improvise their dialogues on


the note that the essence of the story should not be
lost.

This is to allow all the members of the group to

Participate

in

the

activity.

As

folktales

are

relatively brief and epigrammatic, the students were


given the freedom to add some lines in the story, some
of the narration could be modified or delivery.
Activity 3

Another challenging activity was the introduction


of a literary character.

Based on a folk narrative

assigned to them, the students picked out one character


that they have to introduce.

The idea is similar to

introducing a guest in a program or gathering.

The

students gathered information about the character of


the story; his/her physical description, achievements,
family

background,

etc.

They

made

this

as

their

starting point in composing their introduction of their


chosen

character.

They introduced

the character

of

their choice observing correct pronunciation, posture


in public speaking, and voice projection.

The activities fronted are but a few examples of the


many possible activities a teacher can devise in order
to draw students participation in class and at the
same time inculcating love for country and preservation
of culture.

The activities will make the students know

their country better and be bonded with the tradition


and customs o the place they are in.

Conclusion

In

our

will

to

promote

good

insights,

understanding, and learning or the students, we should


not be limited to what our reference textbooks say.

In

a class like Speech 111, where most of the references


are foreign authored, we cannot expect that we will be
given sample activities which will cater to the needs
of Filipino students.

It is now the job of the teacher

to device activities suited to the kind of students we


have at the same time promoting their own culture; in

essence contextualizing lessons or utmost learning.


teacher

should

always

bear

in

mind

that

activities

(e.g. quizzes, long exams, practical activities, etc.)


should

enhance

students

knowledge

and

skills

but

should not promote cultural bias, that while folklore


materials

are

used,

there

could

be

recommended

materials to work rom but the students may have their


choice as well.

Since transmission is the only means through which


culture

continues

to

live,

we

should,

then,

instruments in the transmission of culture.


Putnams

principle

puts

it

the

most

be

And as

significant

folklore to a child is that which he has the closest


ties.
own.

We should foster among our students love or our


Let the students do something which they can

relate to.

Otherwise, if we will be confining our

students to activities they could hardly relate to, it


is almost impossible to achieve the kind of learning we
expect from them.

As this is just an initial step in the promotion of


love or country and preservation of culture (in the
confines
People

of

from

my

classes,

other

fields

we
of

are

not

stopping

disciplines

could

here.
also

consider the integration of folk literature into their


fields of study.

Let us be inventors, let us not be afraid to make


something of our own.

A paper submitted to Dr. Leonila A. Longcop in


Folklore.
Reference:
Eugenio, Damiana. Philippine Folklore and Nationalism.
Proceedings of the Second National Symposium on
the Philippine Folklore.
Quezon City: UP
Folklorists Inc. 1985.

Inabaknon Folksongs in Literature Class


Maria Cora E. Cabacang

Introduction
There is no better way to practice nationalism and
love of country than to enjoy reading the stories such
as legends, myths, and folktales as told by our own
people.

This

Filipino

author,

folklore.
our

is

according
who

to

Gaudencio

stressed

the

Aquino,

importance

a
of

Or him, we discover the vigor and charm of

traditions,

the

beauty

of

our

customs,

the

uniqueness of our mores, as well as the pitfalls of our


own

weaknesses

and

idiosyncrasies.

We

have

rich

cultural heritage of which we can be proud o and which,


by all means, we have to preserve or posterity and make
use of it in constructive ways.
As a literature and language teacher, this is a
great challenge to use folklore in teaching.

Over the

years, language teachers have become adept at using new


approaches

in

teaching

culture.

Folklore

is

one

resource that has been fully exploited, but can lead


students to a deeper understanding of their roots and
at

the

same

time

experiences.

The

involve
use

them

of

in

folklore

rich
in

language
language

classroom, besides strengthening cultural and literary


understanding,
learning.

has

The

distinct

folk

advantages

narrative

style

for
is

language

simple

and

direct and employs colorful imagery, natural dialogue,


and the redundancy necessary in the initial stages of
second

language

effectively

used

learning.
as

language production.

Folklore,

stimulus

to

indeed,
oral

or

can

be

written

A number of advantages folklore has been observed


in order for the learners to truly appreciate the rich
literary

heritage

Filipino

oral

ancestors
proverbs

the

traditions

lived

folktales,

of
their

myths,
that

Filipino
are

they

reflective

daily

legends,
can

people.

lives

be

of

and

folksongs,

Various
how

it

is

our
in

riddles

and

well-experienced

and

understood by the young generation.


Local folklore is best introduced in language and
literature classes.

Using the original text, one can

truly appreciate different forms of literature owing to


the

short

and

simple

language.

They

are

fun

and

entertaining for most of us have fond memories of these


in our childhood.

The tales and sayings use patterns

of language and plot that make learners easy to retell


and lend better to memory.

It is also best to use in

comparing the cultural practices in different times and


places

because

symbols

and

it

involves

archetypes

human

used

are

experiences.
norms

for

The

endless

debates among students classroom that may lead to an


improved

the

performance

in

the

language

skills

expected of them in the course. They are great sources


of honing the learners skills and at the same time
uniting

both

the

young

and

the

adult

for

they

are

basically experienced at home.


One common problem among literature teachers is to
capture the interest of the learners.

This will depend

on the skillful manipulation of the materials and the


class management style of the language and literature
teacher.

His or her objective is to let them eel the

beauty of folklore and appreciate their own practices

and

culture.

This

will

be

of

great

advantage

to

college students, especially if they are not aware of


such

materials

anymore

due

to

actors

such

as

media

influence.

Discussion
I chose to present a folk song in my English class.
As

most

authors

emphasized

that

Filipinos

are

born

singers, they sing when they play, when doing house


chores, or even at idle moments.

They also sing when

they are in love or when in grief.

Singing is a form

of expression. When you sing the folksongs of a certain


place you are recounting the customs, traditions and
beliefs of the people. One popular folksong in Capul is
Pagkahalap-halap.

It is originally in Inabaknon, the

native language of the town. Although the language is


very

peculiar

to

the

rest

of

the

province,

college

students could be very interested and quite challenged


learning an original text that comes from a town of
Northern Samar but which has a different language.

The

translation will be provided to the students or literal


understanding of the text.
In teaching the elements of a poem especially rhyme
and meter, one can easily use the text and discuss its
meanings.

The teacher can begin presenting the rhyming

words in the text and later form a rhyming scheme.


Because the text is very short, it is very easy and a
simple activity to the class.
Pagkahalap-halap si baybay kalsada

I pangngagihan na si manga dangkanda

I manga sarit si manga nanay na

Agpangandok kuno bago agpamasyada.

Padairay ako si Son Diraray ray

Angala may ako buwa na si piraway

Ngan pakapangko ko adda bakay-bakay

Atibos may hamok atumpa si bay-bay

Next

is

to

assign

the

stressed

and

unstressed

syllables in the text in preparation or identifying the


meter and foot used.
Pagkahalap-halap
Pag ka /ha lap/ - ha lap/ si bay/ bay kal/sa/da,
I pang/ nga gi/han na/si ma/ nga dang/ kan da.
I ma/ nga sa/ rit na/ si ma/ nga na/ nay na,
Ag pang/ an dok/ ku no/ ba go/ ag pas/ ya da.
Pa da/ I ray/ a ko/ si Som/ Di ra/ ray ray,
A nga/ la may/ a ko/ bu wa/ na si/ pi ra/ way.
Ngan pa/ ka pang/ ko ko/ ad da/ bak ay/ -ba kay,
A ti/ bos may/ ha mok/ a tum/ pa si/ bay- bay.
The text used an iambic hexameter.

It is iambic

because it consists of one unstressed syllable followed


one

stressed

syllable

in

foot.

because every line has six meters.

It

is

hexameter

This provides a

very enjoyable activity because the learners are told


to

recite

the

poem

emphasizing

unstressed syllables in every line.

the

stressed

and

Ater the discussion one the technical aspect, the


teacher can continue to an analysis of the text. Since
this is a song, it should be sung in class.
the

beauty

appreciate

of
it,

the
a

song

good

and

for

the

singer

who

knows

To justify
students
it

can

invited to the class. It can also be pre-recorded.

to
be
The

text translation can be presented here.

Pictures can

also

for

be

used

to

motivate

the

students

them

to

easily grasp the culture of the people of Capul and the


situation that gives rise to the folksong.
Pagkahalap-haklap
Pagkahalap-halap si baybay kalsada
The sea shore is amazing
I pangangagihan na si mga dangkada
The road where maidens take
I manga sarit si manga nanay na
They ask permission from their mothers
Agpangandok kuno bago agpamasyada.
To fetch water but what they
did was just to wander.
Padairay ko si Son Diraray ray
I went to Zone Diraya,
Angala may ako buwa na si piraway
To harvest pili
Ngan pakapangko ko adda bakay-bakay
When I had one full basket
Atibos may hamok atumpa si bay-bay.
It fell down on the sea shore.

The students are made to discuss the culture of the


people
compare

before
and

as

reflected

contrast

in

their

the

views

song.
with

They

can

their

own

experiences now or those from other places to have a


very rich sharing and discussion of the text.

Finally,

they can be required to sing the song by group to be


presented the following meeting.

Conclusion
Using

folk

materials,

particularly

folksongs

in

literature is an example of teaching holistically where


the

teacher

teaches

the

content,

the

message,

format, the values and culture of the people.


also

modeling

looking
thing,

into
but

upon
a

the

students

seemingly

which

serves

the

unimportant
as

It is

importance
and

foundation

the
of

ordinary
of

our

knowledge and humanity.

A paper submitted to Dr. Leonila A. Longcop in Folk


Literature