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HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

ForStudentsofHumanPhysiology BIOLUA4
Summer2015~Tues Thurs(9:00AM10:50AM)
Dr SusanLee(susan.lee@nyu.edu)

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Human body has 10 physiological organ systems


Four systems are involved in the exchange of materials
between external and internal environments
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Integumentary system - protective boundary


Musculoskeletal system support / body movement
Respiratory system- exchanges of gases
Digestive system takes up nutrients / water and eliminates
wastes
Urinary system removes water ad excretes wastes
Reproductive system produces eggs / sperms
Immune system protecting internal environment for foreign
invaders
Circulatory / Cardiovascular system
Central Nervous System & Peripheral Nervous System
Endocrine system

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Organ Systems of the Body

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Organ Systems of the Body

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Organ Systems of the Body

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Organ Systems of the Body

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Homeostasis
110oF
Set Point: o
98-98.8 F
The ideal normal
value of a variable
65oF

Values of variables fluctuate around the set point to establish


a normal range of values
What is the set point for body temperature?

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Negative Feedback

Changes in Blood Pressure During Exercise

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

180 mmHg

120 mmHg

80 mmHg

Deviation from the usual range of values helps meet changing demands

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Positive Feedback

Positive Feedback:
When a deviation occurs, response is to make deviation greater
Leads away from homeostasis and can result in death

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Body Planes

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Body Cavities
Spinal cord
vertebrate

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Abdominal Subdivisions

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Serous Membranes

Cover the organs of trunk cavities


& line them
Parietal lines cavity walls
Visceral covers organs
Serous fluid secreted for
lubrication by membranes

Named for their specific cavity &


organs
Pericardium refers to heart
Pleura refers to lungs and
thoracic cavity
Peritoneum refers to
abdominopelvic cavity

Inflammation of the serous


membranes

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Serous Membranes

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Chemistry

Inorganic Chemistry:
Generally substances that do not contain carbon
Water
Oxygen

Organic Chemistry:
Study of CARBON-containing substances
Any organic molecules associated with living organisms
are called Biomolecules.
Biomolecules consist of 3 elements: C H O

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Water

Inorganic
Stabilizes body temperature
Necessary for many chemical reactions of life
Mixing Medium
Mixture: Substance physically but not
chemically combined

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Acids and Bases; Salts and Buffers

Acid: A proton donor or any substance that releases hydrogen ions

Bases: A proton acceptor or any substance that binds to or accepts


hydrogen ions

Salts: A cation consisting of other than a hydrogen ion (H+) and other
than an anion or hydroxide ion (OH-)

Buffers: A solution of a conjugate acid-base pair in which acid and base


component occur in similar concentrations

pH was originally written by Dr Srensen as pH (1909), and it stands


for pondus hydrogenii which means "potential Hydrogen". The
terminology refers to acidity due to a predominance of hydrogen
ions (H+) in an aqueous (water containing) solution.

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

The pH Scale

Refers to the Hydrogen


ion concentration in a
solution
Neutral: pH of 7 or
equal H+ and OHions
Acidic: a greater
concentration of
hydrogen ions
Alkaline or basic:
a greater
concentration of
hydroxide ions

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

There are 4 kinds of biomolecules


1.
2.
3.
4.

Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleotides

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Organic Chemistry

Carbohydrates (C, H, O)
Composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

Lipids (C, H, O)
Composed mostly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

Proteins (C, H, O, N)
Composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen

Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA


Composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)


Composed of adenosine and three phosphate groups

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Carbohydrates

Monosaccharides
Simple sugars: glucose, fructose, galactose
Disaccharides
Two simple sugars bound together by
dehydration:
sucrose, lactose, maltose
Polysaccharides
Long chains of many monosaccharides:
glycogen in animals;
starch and cellulose in plants

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Monosaccharides

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Disaccharide and Polysaccharide

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Lipids

Lipids: Can be dissolved in non-polar organic solvents as alcohol or


acetone but relatively insoluble in polar solvents like, water
Fats: Ingested and broken down by hydrolysis
Triglycerides: composed of glycerol and fatty acids
Phospholipids: Important structural component of cell membranes
Eicosanoids: Derived from fatty acids
Steroids: Cholesterol, bile salts, estrogen, testosterone, progesterone
Fat-soluble Vitamins

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Steroids

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Proteins

Amino acids: The building blocks of protein

Peptide bonds: Covalent bonds formed between amino acids


during protein synthesis

Structure
Primary, secondary, tertiary, quartenary

Enzymes: Protein catalysts


Lock-and-key model
Active site
Cofactors
Coenzymes

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Peptide Bonds

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Proteins

are made up of amino acids (20 different


AA commonly occur in natural proteins)
and are the building blocks.

All amino acids have a similar core structure:


A central C atom is linked to H atom,
an amino group (-NH2)
a carboxyl group (-COOH) and
a different amino acid (-R)

Peptides
Polypeptides
Proteins

COOH - CNH2

Conjugated proteins: glycoproteins / glycolipids / lipoproteins

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Proteins

are made up of amino acids (20 different


AA commonly occur in natural proteins)
and are the building blocks.

All amino acids have a similar core structure:


A central C atom is linked to H atom,
an amino group (-NH2)
a carboxyl group (-COOH) and
a different amino acid (-R)

R1

COOH - C- NH

R2

CO - C- NH2
- HOH

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Peptide Bonds

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Structures & Symbols of the 20 amino acids

Alanine

Leucine

Lysine
N

Asparagine

Methionine

Aspartic Acid

Phenylalanine

Cysteine

Proline

Serine

Glutamine

Threonine

Glycine

Tryptophan

M
Tyrosine

Valine

Arginine
A

Glutamic Acid

L
Histidine

Isoleucine

L
D

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Humans can synthesize all but 9 out of 20 amino acids.


Those 9 amino acids must come from dietary groups
Essential Amino Acids
Isoleucine
Leucine
Histidine
Threonine
Tryptophan
Methionine
Lysine
Valine
Phenylalanine

Phenylalanine
Valine
Threonine
Tryptophan
Isoleucine
Methionine
Histidine
Leucine
Lysine

A mnemonic used to remember these acids runs:


I Like Humans To Try Making Life Vibrant & Pleasant !

PVT TIM HaLL

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA

DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid


Genetic material of cells copied from one generation to next
Composed of 2 strands of nucleotides
Each nucleotide contains one of the organic bases of
adenine or guanine which are purines and
thymine or cystosine which are pyrimidines

RNA: Ribonucleic Acid


Similar to a single strand of DNA
Four different nucleotides make up organic bases except
thymine is replaced with uracil (pyrimidine)

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Nucleotides and Nitrogenous Bases

A=T A=U
C=G

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

DNA Structure

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

Energy currency of the body


Provides energy for other chemical reactions as anabolism or drive cell processes
as muscle contraction
All energy-requiring chemical reactions stop when there is inadequate ATP

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Organic molecules associated with living organisms are called BIOMOLECULES

4 kinds of Biomolecules
Carbohydrates Lipids

Proteins

These are used by the body for energy and as


the building blocks for cellular components

CH2O

CHO

CHONR

Nucleotides
This is involved in the
structural components
of:
- genetic material
(DNA / RNA)
- compounds that
carry energy (ATP)
- regulates
metabolism (cAMP)

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Carbohydrates
Ex:

carbons with water


(CH2O) is the basic formula

Glucose (C6H12O6)
smallest type of carbohydrate

Simple sugars end in OSE


Enzymes end in ASE

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Lipids (fats) are also made up of CHO but as a rule


they contain much less O2
There are not soluble in water since they are nonpolar
structure.
Lipid are called FATS if it is solid at room temp
are called OILS if its is liquid at room temp
If lipids are derived from animal source = LARD / Butter
If lipids are derived from plant source = OIL
Saturated = bad fat (meat)
Unsaturated = good fat (olive oil)

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Diet which lacks essential amino acids result in a protein


deficiency. The body tends to deaminate (removal of N) the
amino acids and convert proteins into fats & carbohydrates.
A balance of essential amino acids is necessary for a high
degree of net protein utilization. Eating a balance diet is
mixing foods that provides a mixture of essential amino acids
thus, limiting the loss of nitrogen through deamination and
increases overall net protein utilization.
While there are no protein-deficiencies among populations
consuming adequate calories, it is common among
populations that are chronically undernourished (i.e., eating
disorders).

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

CELLS AND TISSUES

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Cell Structure and Function

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

The cell is composed of:

nucleus

cytosol /
Intracellular fluid

cytoplasm

cell membrane

Non-membranous organelles
cytoskeleton
centrioles
centrosomes
flagella
ribosomes
cilia

membranous organelles
Mitochondria
ER
Golgi apparatus
Lysosomes
peroxisomes

Extracellular fluid

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Cell Characteristics & Functions of the cell

Plasma Membrane - Outer cell boundary

Cytoplasm
Cytosol / Cytoplasm
Cytoskeleton

Organelles
Specialized structures that perform specific functions

Functions
Basic unit of life
Protection and support
Movement
Communication
Cell metabolism and energy release
Inheritance

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Plasma Membrane

Intracellular versus extracellular


Membrane potential
Glycolipids and glycoproteins
Fluid-mosaic model

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Phospholipids

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Membrane Lipids

Phospholipids form a lipid bilayer


Hydrophilic (water-loving) polar heads
Hydrophobic (water-fearing) non-polar heads

Cholesterol: Determines fluid nature of membrane


Membrane Proteins
Integral or intrinsic
Extend from one surface to the
other

Peripheral or extrinsic
Attached to either the inner or
outer surfaces of the lipid bilayer

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Glycoproteins as Marker Molecules

Allow cells to identify on


another or other molecules
Glycoproteins
Glycolipids
Examples:
Immune system
Recognition of oocyte
by sperm cell

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Channel Proteins

Non-gated ion channels


Always open

Ligand gated ion channel


Open in response to
small molecules that
bind to proteins or
glycoproteins

Voltage-gated ion channel


Open when there is a
change in charge
across the plasma
membrane

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Receptors

Receptor molecules
Exposed receptor site

Linked to channel proteins


Acetylcholine

Linked to G proteins
Alter activity on inner
surface of plasma
membrane

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Enzymes and Carrier Proteins

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Membrane Transport

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Movement through the Plasma


Membrane
Penetrating vs Non-penetrating particles
(solutes)
Passive Transport or Diffusion
Osmosis
Mediated transport mechanisms
Facilitated Transport / diffusion
Active transport

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Diffusion

Movement of solutes from an area of


higher concentration to lower
concentration in solution
Concentration or density gradient
Difference between two points
Viscosity
How easily a liquid flows

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Diffusion

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Osmosis

Diffusion of water (solvent) across a selectively


permeable membrane
Important because large volume changes caused by
water movement disrupt normal cell function
Cell shrinkage or swelling
Isotonic: cell neither shrinks nor swells
Hypertonic: cell shrinks (crenation)
Hypotonic: cell swells (lysis)

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Osmosis

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

OSMOLARITY AND TONICITY

Osmolarity is the total concentration of


solutes of BOTH penetrating and nonpenetrating solutes
Tonicity is the total concentration of solutes
of ONLY non-penetrating solutes
A normal osmolarity of a cell is 300mOsm.

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

OSMOLARITY AND TONICITY


Isosmotic A solution having the same total solute
concentration (osmolarity) as another
solution regardless of its composition of
membrane-penetrating and nonpenetrating solutes
Hyperosmotic A solution containing greater than
300 mOsm/L of solutes
regardless of
its composition of membrane-penetrating
and non-penetrating solutes
Hyposmotic
A solution containing less than 300
mOsm/L of solutes regardless of its
composition of membrane-penetrating and
non-penetrating solutes

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

OSMOLARITY AND TONICITY


Isotonic

A solution containing 300 mOsm/L of solutes of


non-penetrating solutes regardless of its
concentration of membrane-penetrating solutes
that may be present

Hypertonic A solution containing greater than 300 mOsm/L


of solutes of non-penetrating solutes
regardless of its concentration of membranepenetrating solutes that may be present
Hypotonic

A solution containing less than 300 mOsm/L of


solutes of non-penetrating solutes regardless
of its concentration of membrane-penetrating
solutes that may be present

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Osmosis

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Mediated Transport Mechanisms

Involve carrier proteins

Characteristics
Specificity
To a single type of
molecule

Competition
Saturation
Rate of transport
limited to number
of available carrier
proteins

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Saturation of a Carrier Protein

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Passive, Facilitative Transport &


Active Transport
Conc. gradient

Carrier?

Energy?

Passive transport
(Simple Diffusion)

Down

No

No

Facilitated Transport

Down

Active Transport

Up

Yes

Yes

No
Yes

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Nucleus

DNA dispersed throughout


Consists of :
Nuclear envelope: Separates nucleus from cytoplasm and
regulates movement of materials in and out
Chromatin: Condenses to form chromosomes during cell
division
Nucleolus: Assembly site of large and small ribosomal units

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Chromosome Structure

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

DNA Structure

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Overview of Protein Synthesis

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Cytoplasm

Cellular material outside nucleus but inside


plasma membrane
Cytosol: Fluid portion
Cytoskeleton: Supports the cell
Microtubules
Microfilaments
Intermediate filaments

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Organelles

Small specialized structures for particular


functions
Most have membranes that separates
interior of organelles from cytoplasm
Related to specific structure and function
of the cell

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

cytoplasm cytosol intracellular fluid

Non-membranous organelles

membranous organelles

cytoskeleton
centrioles
centrosomes
flagella
ribosomes
cilia

Mitochondria
ER
Golgi apparatus
Lysosomes
peroxisomes

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Centrioles

In specialized zone near nucleus:


centrosome

Each unit consists of microtubules

Before cell division, centrioles divide,


move to ends of cell and become
spindle fibers

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Ribosomes

Sites of protein
synthesis

Composed of a large
and small subunit

Types
Free
Attached to
endoplasmic
reticulum

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Membranous organelles are separated from the


cytosol by one or more phospholipid membranes
similar to the cell membrane. Many membranous
organelles, have hollow interiors (lumen).

Non-membranous organelles

membranous organelles

cytoskeleton
centrioles
centrosomes
flagella
ribosomes
cilia

Mitochondria
ER
Golgi apparatus
Lysosomes
peroxisomes

cytoplasm cytosol intracellular fluid

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Overview of Protein Synthesis

Overview of Protein Synthesis

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Transcription
Copies DNA to
form mRNA
tRNA carries
amino acids to
ribosome

Translation
Synthesis of a
protein at
ribosome

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Endoplasmic Reticulum
Types
Rough
Attached ribosomes
Proteins produced
and modified

Smooth
Not attached
ribosomes
Manufacture lipids

Cisternae: Interior
spaces isolated from
rest of cytoplasm

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Golgi Apparatus
Modification,
packaging,
distribution of
proteins and lipids
for secretion or
internal use
Flattened
membrane sacs
stacked on each
other

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Function of Golgi Apparatus

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Action of Lysosomes

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Peroxisomes and Proteasomes

Peroxisomes
Smaller than lysosomes
Contain enzymes to break down fatty and amino
acids
Hydrogen peroxide is a by-product of breakdown
Proteasomes
Consist of large protein complexes
Include several enzymes that break down and
recycle proteins in cell

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Cell organelle
Mitochondria
Metabolism
Glucose anabolism and catabolism

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Mitochondria are the powerhouse of the cell

Outer membrane
Inner membrane
Inner membrane folded = cisternae
Center of inner membrane = matrix (contains enzymes,
ribosomes, granules and DNA)
Between outer and inner membrane = inter-membrane
space (where ATP production occurs).

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Mitochondria

Provide energy for cell

Major site of ATP synthesis


(inter-membrane)

Membranes
Cristae: Infoldings of
inner membrane
Matrix: Substance
located in space formed
by inner membrane
(enzymes, ribosome, DNA)

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

Energy currency of the body


Provides energy for other chemical reactions (such as
anabolism or catabolism) and
drive cell processes (such as muscle contraction)
All energy-requiring chemical reactions stop when there is
inadequate ATP

HumanPhysiologySummer2015 Dr SusanLee

Overview of Cell Metabolism