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FLYTECH AVIATION
ACADEMY
Indias Leading ISO 9001 Aviation Training School

Compiled by
Mr. Rushav Samant & Mr. J.K. Pandey

Revised on: 31st MAY 2014

Head office: Nagam Towers 3rd & 4th Floors NTR Circle Minister Road Secunderabad-03
PH: 040-6620 000, FAX: 040- 30604493

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Reference books:
Introduction to flight James Anderson
Aerodynamics James Anderson
Mechanics of Flight A.C. Kermode
Helicopter Aerodynamics R.W Procety
Automatic Flight Control E.H.J Pellet
Websites Referred:
Wikipedia
www.av8n.com
Edited by:
Rushav Samant

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INDEX

Topic
No.
P 3.1.1
P 3.1.2

Topic

Total
Hrs.
02

Physics of the Atmosphere


International Standard Atmosphere(ISA),application to
aerodynamics.
Aerodynamics
Airflow around a body;
Boundary layer, laminar and turbulent flow, freestream
flow, relative airflow, up wash and downwash, vortices,
stagnation;
The terms: camber, chord, mean aerodynamic chord,
profile (parasite) drag, induced drag,centre of pressure,

Page No.
05-09

07

10-31

06

32-34

02

35-37

10

38-47

Angle of attack, wash in and wash out, fineness ratio,


wing shape and aspect ratio;
Thrust, Weight, Aerodynamic Resultant;
Generation of Lift and Drag: Angle of Attack, Lift
coefficient, Drag coefficient, polar curve, stall;
Aerofoil contamination including ice, snow, frost.
P3.1.3

Theory of Flight
Relationship between lift, weight, thrust and drag;
Glide ratio;
Steady state flights, performance;
Theory of the turn;
Influence of load factor: stall, flight envelope and
structural limitations;
Lift augmentation.

P3.1.4

P3.2.1.1

Flight Stability and Dynamics


Longitudinal, lateral and directional stability (active and
passive)
Aero plane Aerodynamics and flight Controls Operation and
effect of: 10 Hrs
Roll control: Ailerons and spoilers; various types of
Ailerons: Differential aileron movement.
Pitch control: elevators, stabilizers, variable incidence

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stabilizers and canards;


Yaw control, rudder limiters; Roll causes Yaw and Yaw
causes Roll; Dutch Roll.
Control using elevons, ruddervators;
High lift devices, slots, slats, flaps, flaprons;

P 3.2.1.2

Drag inducing devices, spoilers, lift dampers, speed


brakes;
Effects of wing fences, saw tooth leading edges;
Boundary layer control using, vortex generators, stall
wedges or leading edge devices;
Operation and effect of trim tabs, balance and anti balance
(leading) tabs, servo tabs, spring tabs, mass balance
Control surface bias, aerodynamic balance panels.
High Speed Flight
Speed of sound, subsonic flight, transonic flight,
supersonic flight, Mach number, critical Mach number,
compressibility effect, shock wave, aerodynamic heating,
area rule; Sonic Bubble, Mach Cone, Sonic Bang, Aileron
Reversal
Factors affecting airflow in engine intakes of high speed
aircraft;
Effects of sweepback on critical Mach number.

04

48-57

P 3.1.2

Polar Curves

01

58-59

P3.RA.2.1

Theory of Flight Rotary Wing Aerodynamics


Terminology; Effects of gyroscopic precession; Torque
reaction and directional control;
Dissymmetry of lift, Blade tip stall; Translating tendency
and its correction;
Coriolis effect and compensation;
Vortex ring state, power settling, over pitching; Autorotation; Ground effect.
Flight Control Systems
Cyclic control; Collective control; Swash plate;
Yaw control: Anti-Torque Control, Tail rotor, bleed air;
Main Rotor Head: Design and Operation features;
Blade Dampers: Function and construction; Rotor Blades:
Main and tail rotor blade construction and attachment
Trim control, fixed and adjustable stabilizers; System

03

60-84

05

85-98

P3.RA.2.2

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operation manual
Hydraulic, electrical and fly-by wire; Artificial feel;
Balancing and Rigging.

P.3.1.1 Physics of the Atmosphere


Atmosphere is the ocean of air surrounding the earth extending up to 500 miles. Air is a fluid having very
low internal friction between the molecules with in limits as an ideal fluid. Air is a physical mixture of
many gases comprisisng of following atmospheric content:

The entire atmosphere is divided into four main gaseous layers. They are

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Troposphere extends up to 38,000 feet (11km) from the surface of the earth and stratosphere extends
from 11km to 25km these two layers are of main consideration when it comes to aero plane navigation.
With the increase in altitude the atmosphere air properties such as temperature, pressure, density and
humidity changes continuously. The study of these changes plays an important role in studying the
performance of aircraft.

The International Standard Atmosphere (ISA)


Because the pressure, temperature and density in the real atmosphere are continually changing, a
theoretical international standard atmosphere [the ISA or ICAO (International Civil Aviation
Organization) standard atmosphere] has been defined as, a measuring stick by the ICAO.
The international standard atmosphere has a mean sea level (MSL) pressure of 1013.20 mb (milli bar)
760 mm of HG/14.7 PSI/29.92 of HG/101.325 KPa.
The mean sea level temperature is taken as 15 C/288k/59F.

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Adiabatic Lapse Rate :


This is the increase or decrease in the temperature of air for a given change in altitude. Some times the
temperature of air about 1000 feet is higher than it is at earth surface. This condition is called inversion
generally in troposphere the temperature decreases with increase in altitude. Mountains, clouds, surface
winds, water bodies and sun shine all effect the air temperature.
In troposphere, under standard conditions temperature decreases at 1.98C, for each increase of 1000 feet
of altitude until a altitude of 38,000 feet (11km).
Adiabatic lapse rate varies form 3F per 1000 feet for moist air and more than 5F for dry air. But
standard rate shown in SCAD chart is 3.5F per 1000 feet.

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Pressure Change with Altitude :


The atmospheric pressure varies with height or altitude. The more the height the lesser the pressure, the
standard ISA mean sea level pressure is 1013.2mb and this decrease at about 1mb per 30 feet increase in
height.
At 600 feet in the ISA, the pressure will have decreased by approximately (600/30) = 20mb i.e., from
1013mb. It will have decreased to 993mb. If the point where your aeroplane is situated has a pressure of
993mb, then we say it has a pressure altitude of 600 ft i.e., it is the equivalent of 600 ft above the 1013mb
pressure level in the ISA.
Pressure altitude is the height in the international standard atmosphere above the 1013.2mb pressure level
at which the pressure equals tat of the aircraft or point under consideration

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Density :
As air is compressible when it is compressed it becomes denser. Density directly varies with pressure
while temperature is constant. Unit for density in SI system is Kg/m3. It is also expressed in slug/cubic
feet.
1 slug = 32.175 pounds = 14.59 kg.
Air density is presented by Greek letter(rho)
The density is directly proportional to pressure and inversely proportional to temperature.
With same thrust an a/c files faster at high altitude that at a low altitude because air offers less resistance
to a/c at high altitudes.

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Effect of Humidity :
Humidity is the condition of moisture of dampness in the atmosphere. The amount of water vapor that air
can hold depends on temperature. Higher the temperature of air, more vapor it absorbs.
Weight of water vapor is 5/8 of dry air. The vapor is directly proportional to temperature. As water vapor
is less in weight, when the humidity is more the air density is lesser. So density is inversely proportionate
to the humidity.
If the temperature is more, the air gets heated up through conduction and radiation. The heated air rises
and expands. This expansion causes drop in temperature and density also.
In humid conditions (rainy season / damped atmosphere) the aircraft requires longer runways for landing
and take off.
Relative humidity is defined as the amount of water vapor present in parcel of air compared to the
maximum amount than it can support (i.e. when it is saturated) at the same temperature.

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P.3.1.2 Aerodynamics

Airflow around a body :


Before going to the main topic we will learn different kinds of fluid flow, which will make us to
understand the main topic easily.
Types of fluid flow :
Steady and unsteady flows.
Uniform and non-uniform flows.
Laminar / viscous and turbulent flow.
Steady and unsteady flow :
Steady flow is defined as that type of flow in which the fluid characteristics like velocity, pressure,
density etc, at a point do not change with time.
Unsteady flow is that type of flow in which the velocity, pressure or density at a point changes with
respect to time.
Uniform and non-uniform flows :
Uniform flow is defined as that types of flow in which the velocity at any given time doesnt change with
respect to space (i.e. length of direction of the flow).
Non-uniform flow is that type if flow in which the velocity at any given time changes with respect to
space.
Laminar and Turbulent Flows :
Laminar flow is defined as that of flow in which the fluid particles move along well-defined paths or
streamline and all the streamlines are straight and parallel. Thus the particles move in laminas or layers
gliding smoothly over the adjacent layer. This type of flow is also called streamline flow or viscous flow.
Turbulent flow is that type of flow in which the fluid particle moves in zigzag way. Due to the movement
of fluid particles in a zigzag way, eddies formation takes place, which are responsible for high-energy
loss.
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Boundary Layer :
The behavior of the airflow nearest the surface through which it is flowing (cab be any solid surface,
including airfoil) is most important. A layer of fluid close to the surface of a moving body, through which
the velocity of the fluid changes from zero on the surface of the body to the velocity of the free stream, is
known as boundary layer.
Friction between a surface and the air flowing over it slows down the layers of air nearest to the surface.
The air actually in contact with the surface may in fact have a relative velocity of zero. The thickness of
this boundary layer, in which the relative velocity is reduced, is typically several millimeters.

Laminar and turbulent boundary layer


Thickness of the layer greatly exaggerated.
Transition point :
At some point of the surface the airflow with in the laminar boundary layer becomes turbulent and the
layer thickness significantly i.e. the flow changes form laminar to turbulent. This is known as transition
point. At this point the flow no longer flows in streamlines and the flow gets separated. So this is also
known as point of separation.

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Transition Point
It is always desired to make the flow streamline as long as possible. So the separation of the flow should
be avoided. The methods that are employed to avoid boundary layer separation are discussed later in this
book.
Note : With the increase in angle of attack the transition point moves forward towards the leading edge
and flow separation takes place very near the leading edge.
Free stream airflow :
There is not much difference between relative airflow and free stream airflow. Free stream airflow is
defined, as the airflow may exist over the airfoil at a distance away from the surface or airfoil. Where as
relative airflow is defined only before the leading edge of the airfoil.

Relative airflow :
It refers to the relative motion between a body and the remote airflow, i.e. the airflow far enough away
from the body not to be distributed by it.

Airflow can lift a flat plate


Up wash :
The upward deflection of air before reaching the airfoil is known as up wash.
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Down wash :
The downward deflection of current due to air by an airfoil or part of the aircraft at the trailing edge of
the reacting part.
Stagnation Point :

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The point at which the airflow is not in motion is known as stagnation point. Before reacting, the
aerofoil the airflow stops momentarily in front of the leading edge. This point is known as
stagnation point

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Camber (The cause for lift) :

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Increasing the camber on the upper surface causes the airfoil over it to accelerate more and to generate
more lift at the same angle of attack.
Wings with a large chamber, give a good lift, making them suitable for low spend flight and carrying
heavy loads.
It is quite evident that due to the camber there is a increase in velocity on the top surface, this in turn
decreases the pressure on the top surface, due to the decreases of pressure on bottom surface makes the
wing to rise up hence creating lift.

Low well cambered wing :


At the small positive angles of attack common in normal flight, the static pressure over much of the top
surface of the aerofoil is slightly reduced when compared to the normal static pressure of the free air
stream well away from the aerofoil. The static pressure beneath much of the lower surface of the aerofoil
is slightly greater than that on the upper surface.
From the pressure distribution it is estimated that there is maximum pressure difference at an angle of
attack around 15 - 16.
So the maximum lift is obtained at an angle of around 15 for general aerofoil shape.
The angle of attack (AOA) at which maximum lift is obtained is called as critical angle of attack or
stalling angle.
Up to critical angle of attack the lift increases, beyond which the lift decreases tremendously and stalling
takes place.
Stalling is a condition in flight where there is tremendous decrease of lift or tremendous increase of drag
or both.

Chord Line :

The line joining the leading edge and trailing edge of the airfoil is known as chord line, and the
distance between the leading edge and trailing edge is known as chord.
Chord / Chord length :
The length of the chord from leading edge to trailing edge is known as chord length or simply chord.

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Mean Aerodynamic Chord :


The imaginary line that divides the airfoil into two equal halves is known as mean camber line. Or
The line drawn half way between the airfoil (between upper surface and lower surface) is known as mean
chamber line. In tapered or trapezoidal wings the length the chord changes gradually from wing root to
wing tip.Mean aerodynamic chord is the chord, which divides the entire wing area into two equal halves
i.e., equal amount of wing area will be present on both sides of mean aerodynamic chord.
Bernoullis principles :
The production of the lift force by on aerofoil is explained by Bernoullis principle. Daniel Bernoulli
(1700-1782) was a Swiss scientist discovered this effect. It can be expressed as
P/ + V2 + gZ = Constant
Or
P/ g + V2/2g + z = Constant.
Or
P + V2 + gZ = Constant.
When considering the flow of air, the potential energy can be ignored for all aerodynamic practical
purposes.
Therefore, Kinetic Energy + Pressure Energy of a smooth flow is always constant. Therefore if one
energy raises other energy drops proportionately to keep the total energy constant.
In a simplified from Bernoullis theorem can be explained as fluid velocity increases pressure decreases
and when pressure increases velocity decreases. This is the basic principle involved in the production of
lift in aircraft.

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GENERATION OF LIFT:
MAGNUS EFFECT
The explanation of lift can best be explained by looking at a cylinder rotating in an air stream. The local
velocity near the cylinder is composed of the air stream velocity and the cylinder's rotational velocity,
which decreases with distance from the cylinder. On a cylinder, which is rotating in such a way that the
top surface area is rotating in the same direction as the airflow, the local velocity at the surface is high on
top and low on the bottom.
As shown in following figure, at point "A," a stagnation point exists where the air stream line that
impinges on the surface splits; some air goes over and some under. Another stagnation point exists at "B,"
where the two air streams rejoin and resume at identical velocity's. We now have up wash ahead of the
rotating cylinder and down wash at the rear.
The difference in surface velocity accounts for a difference in pressure, with the pressure being lower on
the top than the bottom. This low pressure area produces an upward force known as the "Magnus Effect."
This mechanically induced circulation illustrates the relationship between circulation and lift. An airfoil
with a positive angle of attack develops air circulation as its sharp trailing edge forces the rear stagnation
point to be aft of the trailing edge, while the front stagnation point is below the leading edge.
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Magnus Effect is a lifting force produced when a rotating cylinder produces a pressure differential. This
is the same effect that makes a baseball curve or a golf ball slice.
Air circulation around an airfoil occurs when the front stagnation point is below the leading edge and
the aft stagnation point is beyond the trailing edge.

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DOWNWASH EFFECT:
The downwash created by an aerofoil acting as the bound vortex slipstream creates a reaction lift as per
the Newtons 3rd law .

BERNOULLIS PRINCIPLE:

The differential pressure created due to the Bernoullis principle on an aerofoil surface help achieve lift.
Total Drag

Wing Drag

Profile Drag

Parasite Drag

Induced Drag

Interference Drag

This is the total drag of an a/c from all sources. It will be increases with use of flaps, dive breakers,
towering or under carriage, denoted cowlings, bad repairs, chipped or roughed surface, accumulation to
dirt and mud on fuselage and wing.

Wing Drag :
This drag is caused by the wings and includes profile and induces drag. The profile drag further splits
into two types :
Form drag
Skin friction drag.

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Form drag/pressure drag :


When an object is placed in moving airflow the direction of airflow changes to pass around the object. If
this change takes place smoothly, the drag will be less. If the object shape is such that (non-streamlined
shape) the airflow becomes turbulent and smooth airflow changes and eddies are formed.
Form drag is reduced by, streamlining the body.

Skin Friction Drag :


It is the drag caused due to air passing over aero-plane skin surface. This type of drag is more where air
density to more where air density and velocity is more.
The layer of air near the surface retards the layer further away due to the friction between them.
Therefore there is general increase in velocity in as the distance from the surface form the surface
increases therefore all surface of a/c should be made as smooth as possible. Skin friction drag depends on
area of surface over which air flows the speed of airflow and viscosity of air.
Induced Drag :
The drag that is included due to aerofoil surface because of pressure difference on aerofoil, which makes
the airflow turbulent, is known as induced drag.
In other words it is the penalty that we have to pay for getting the lift as the pressure difference is the
main reason due to which we are getting lift.
How induced drag is created :
Experiments with smoke show quite clearly that the air flowing over the top surface of a wing tends to
flow inwards. This is because the decreased pressure over the top surface is less than the pressure outside
the wing tip. On the other hand the airflow below the wing tends to flow outwards as the pressure below
the wing is greater than that outside the wing tip. Thus there is a continual spilling of the air around its
wing tip, from the bottom surface to the top.

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When the two airflows, from the top and bottom surface, meet at the trailing edge they are flowing at an
angle to each other and cause vortices rotating clockwise (viewed form the rear) from the left wing, and
anti-clockwise from the right wing all the vortices on one side tend to join up and form on large vortex
which is shed from each wing tip. Hence these are called wing-tip vortices.
In a sense, induced drag is part of the lift, so as we have lift we must have induced drag, and we can
never eliminate it altogether however cleverly the wings are designed. But the grater the aspect ratio, the
less violent are the wing-tip vortices and the less the induced drag.
Parasite drag :
It is the drag or air resistance which is produced by any part of aero plane that does not produce lift (nonlift producing surfaces).

E.g. : Landing gear, engine cowlings open inspection panels etc.


Form drag and skin friction are components of the parasite drag.
Interference Drag :
This is the drag caused due to interference of airflow between the adjacent parts of aero plane.

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E.g. : Intersection of wing to the fuselage this drag prevented by fitting fairing to attachment.
Thrust :
The force that is produced by engines (power plant) to make the aircraft move forward is known as
thrust.
Weight :
Every aircraft will have its own weight, which acts vertically downwards.
The detailed explanation of these forces will be discussed later.

More about lift and drag :


Experiments show that with in certain limitations the lift, drag of an aerofoil depends on :
The shape of the aerofoil
The plan area of the aerofoil
The square of the velocity
The density of air
When measuring drag we consider the frontal area of the body concerned, on aerofoil we take the plan
area.
With the above conclusion, we can express the lift and drag as

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Where CL = Coefficient of lift


= Density of air
v = velocity
s = surface area/plain area.

Lift L = CL

Where CP = Co-efficient of drag


= density of air
V = velocity
S = surface area / plan area

V2

Drag D = CP
V2

Coefficient of lift and drag :


The easiest way of setting out the results of experiments on aerofoil sections is to draw curves showing
how
The lift coefficient
The drag coefficient
The ratio of lift to drag --- after as the angle of attack is increased over the ordinary angles of flight.
It is much more satisfactory to plot the coefficient of lift, drag and pitching moment rather than the total
lift, drag and pitching moment, because the coefficients are practically independent of the air density,
the scale of the aerofoil and the velocity sued in the experiment, where as the total lift, drag depend on
the actual conditions at the time of the experiment.
The coefficients of lift and drag are the direct measure of total lift and drag.

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Drag Curve :
Here we find much what we might expect the drag is lest at about 0, or even a small negative angle, and
increase on both sides of this angle, up to about 6, however the increase in drag is not very rapid then
itgradually becomes more and more rapid, especially after the stalling angle when the airflow separates.

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The Lift / Drag ratio curve :


While designing an aeroplane, it is taken care that we get much lift, but as little drag as possible from the
lift curve. We find that we shall get most lift at about 15, from the drag curve least drag at about 0, but
both of these are at the extreme range of possible angles, and at neither of them do we really get the best
conditions for flight i.e., the best lift in comparison to drag, the best lift/drag ratio.
We find that the lift/drag ratio increases very rapidly up to about 3 or 4, at which angles the lift is nearly
24 times the drag, the ratio gradually fails off because, although the lift is still increasing, the drag is
increasing ever more rapidly, until at the stalling angle the lift may be only 10 to 12 times as great as the
drag, after the stalling angle the ratio fails still further until it reaches 0 to 90.
The chief point of interest about the lift/drag curve is the fast that this ratio is greatest at an angle attack
of about 2 or 4, on other words it is at this angle that the aerofoil gives its best all round results. It is
most able to do what we chiefly require of it, namely o give as much lift as possible consistent with a
small drag.

Aerodynamic resultant:
The net resultant aerodynamic force R acting through the centre of pressure
on the aerofoil represents mechanically the same effect as that due to the actual pressure and shear stress
loads distributed over the body surface.

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P.3.1.3 Theory of Flight

Relation between Lift, Drag, Thrust and Weight :


Lift, Thrust, Weight, and Drag
It is better to be on the ground wishing you were flying, rather than up in the air wishing you were on the
ground.
Aviation proverb.
4.1 Definitions
The main purpose of this chapter is to clarify the concepts of lift, drag, thrust, and weight. Pilot books
call these the four forces.
It is not necessary for pilots to have a super-precise understanding of the four forces. The concept of
energy (discussed in chapter 1) is considerably more important. In the cockpit (especially in critical
situations like final approach) I think about the energy budget a lot, and think about forces hardly at all.
Still, there are a few situations that can be usefully discussed in terms of forces, so we might as well learn
the terminology.
The relative wind acting on the airplane produces a certain amount of force which is called
(unsurprisingly) the total aerodynamic force. This force can be resolved into components, called lift and
drag, as shown in figure 4.1.

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Figure 4.1: Total Aerodynamic Force = Lift + Drag


Here are the official, conventional definitions of the so-called four forces:

Lift is the component of aerodynamic force perpendicular to the relative wind.

Drag is the component of aerodynamic force parallel to the relative wind.

Weight is the force directed downward from the center of mass of the airplane towards the center of the
earth. It is proportional to the mass of the airplane times the strength of the gravitationalfield.

Thrust is the force produced by the engine. It is directed forward along the axis of the engine.
It is ironic that according to convention, the total aerodynamic force is not listed among the four forces.

Figure 4.2: The Four Forces Low Speed Descent


Figure 4.2 shows the orientation of the four forces when the airplane is in slow flight, i.e. descending
with a nose-high attitude, with the engine producing some power. Similarly, figure 4.3 shows the four
forces when airplane in a high-speed descent. The angle of attack is much lower, which is consistent with
the higher airspeed. Finally, figure 4.4 shows the four forces when the airplane is in a climb. I have
chosen the angle of attack, the lift, and the drag to have the same magnitude as in figure 4.3.

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Figure 4.3: The Four Forces High Speed Dive

Figure 4.4: The Four Forces Climb


Note that the four forces are defined with respect to three different coordinate systems: lift and drag are
defined relative to the wind, gravity is defined relative to the earth, and thrust is defined relative to the
orientation of the engine. This makes things complicated. For example, in figure 4.2 you can see that
thrust, lift and drag all have vertical components that combine to oppose the weight. Meanwhile the thrust
and lift both have forward horizontal components.
Glide Ratio :

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Steady state flights Performance :


i.

Climbing performance :

The forces acting on an a/c during a climb are shown in the figure.
The thrust must equal the sum of drag plus the opposing component of weight.
The lift must equal to the opposing component of the weight.
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i.e. T = D + W sin
L = W cos
ii.

Straight and level :

For straight and level flight the opposing force must be equal and opposite i.e. lift = weight, thrust = drag.
Although the opposing forces are equal, there is a considerable difference between each pair of forces.
The lift and weight will much higher than the thrust or drag.
If the a/c files an uniform speed in straight and level flight then the a/c is said to be in equilibrium.
Theory Of Turn:
Forces in turns : if an airplane were viewed in straight and level flight from the rear (fig.320) , and if the forces acting on the airplane actually could be seen , two forces ( lift & weight ) would be
apparent , and if the airplane were in a bank it would be apparent that lift did not act directly opposite to
the weight it now avts in the direction of the bank. The fact that when the airplane bank lift acts ,

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Theory of Turning :

The wings of the aero plane are banked through the angle . Hence the lift vector is inclined at an angle
to the vertical and W = LCOS

Therefore the resultant force F, equals


L2 W 2 2 LWCOS (180 q )

Fr =
L2 W 2 2 LW (

COSq )

=
L2 W 2 2W 2 (QW LCOSq )

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L W
2

Fr =

LIFT AUGMENTATION:
Although any airfoil surface moving through air will be creating lift of its own bound by its nature
, there are many devices installed on an aircraft for enhancement of the lift produced there on. Those are
as follows :

Flaps /Slots/Slats
Movable stabilizers
Vortex generators
Flaps /Slots/Slats:
These increases the camber of the wing , increasing the wing plan thereby increasing the overall
wing area but on the other hand decreasing the aspect ratio.
Hence they create both lift and drag when deployed but the amount of reaction lift produced
dominates on the induced drag created. The best lift augmentation achieved is by slat & double slotted
fowler flaps which increases the angle of attack as high as up to 270 .
MOVEABLE STABLIZERS :
These have got the privilege of increasing the angle of attack there by increasing the lift without
any considerable change in attitude of the aircraft. Hence they do not affect the stability of the aircraft
while increasing the lift to that extent as is achieved by other lift augmenting devices.
VORTEX GENERATORS:
They help obtaining more of the lift by downwash effect by inducing more energized air mass
into the low energized trailing edge bound vortices.

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P.3.1.4 Flight Stability and Dynamics


Stabilities :
There are three types of stabilities
Longitudinal Stability
Lateral Stability
Directional Stability

Longitudinal Stability :
The stability of an a/c about lateral axis is known as longitudinal stability. If the a/c go far a live
(descending) or climb (pitching up) then the control is released the a/c should return to its original level
flight automatically if the a/c has good longitudinal stability.

Factors effecting longitudinal stability :


The position of C.G must not be too far back.
The pitching moment of main plane movement of center of pressure.
The pitching moment fuselage.
The angle at which tall plane fixed of fuselage, design of tall plane.
Lateral stability :
The ability of an a/c to achieve leveled wing altitude after being displaced from a level altitude by some
force (i.e. turbulent air) is known as lateral stability. Lateral stability is achieved about longitudinal axis.

Factors governing lateral stability :

Dihedral angle
Sweep hack of wing
High wing and low C.G arrangement
Placing most keel surface above C.G.

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Note :Keel surface : The complete surface which is seen in side elevation.
Directional Stability:
Stability about the vertical axis or normal axis is known as directional stability.
The a/c should be designed so that when it is in level flight the it must remain on its heading even though
the pilot takes his hands off from the control stick.
If an a/c recover or return automatically a skid, it has been well designed will and have good directional
stability. The vertical stabilizer of fin in the primary surface which controls directional stability.
Some times sweep back wing also provides directional stability.
In some of the a/c directional stability is added by using a dorsal fin and a long fuselage.

Factors effecting directional stability :

More keel surface behind C.G.


Fin area.

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Flaps :
Flaps are high lift devices or lift-augmenting devices that are used in increases lift during landing or take
off. When flaps are selected (lowered) the camber of the wing increases resulting in increase in lift.
Most high-speed aerofoil however has a mean camber line that is fairly straight and hardly curved at all.
If the trailing edge can be hinged downwards, then a more highly cambered aerofoil section results,
which mean it, can produce the required lift at a lower airspeed, i.e. it has become more of high-lift wing.
Virtually all aircraft have trailing edge flaps. Larger aircraft especially those with swept back
wings, often have leading edge flaps as well. These have a similar function to trailing edge flaps in that
they increase the camber of the wing and thus increase its effectiveness in producing lift.

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There are different types of flaps being used on todays commercial airplanes some of them are :

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More about Slats and slots :


If a small auxiliary aerofoil, called a slat, is placed in front of the main aerofoil, with a suitable gap or slot
in between the two, the maximum lift coefficient of the aerofoil may be increased by as much as 60
percent. Moreover the stalling angle may be increased from 15 to 22 or more.
Stalling is caused by the breakdown of the steady streamline airflow. On a slotted wing the air flows
through the gap in such a way as to keep the airflow smooth. Following the shape of the surface or the
aerofoil, and continuing to provide lift until a much greater angle is reached. This is one of the forms of
boundary layer control.
There are two types of slats generally used.
Controlled slat.
Automatic slat.

Controlled slat (Permanent / fixed slat) :


This slat is moved backwards or forward by a control mechanism, so that it can be closed at high
speed and can be opened at low speeds.

Automatic slats :
This slat is moved by the action of air pressure, i.e. by making the use of forward and upward
suction near the leading edge.

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Drag inducing devices

Drive brakes spoilers, lift dampers, airbrakes (speed breaks) :


The main purpose of these devices is to increase drag or to density lift or both. They are used to steepen
the gliding angle on some planes to check the speed before turning or maneuvering. They prevent the
speed from reaching critical value during dive. Their position may differ from plane to plane. They may
be on main wings or fuselage top depending upon the design.
Wing fences :
These are vanes of similar height to vortex generators, but running from leading edge to trailing edge
across the top surface of the wing. On heavily sweptback wings fences helps in arresting the span wise
flow of air along the wing which way cause a breakaway of the flow near the wing tips and so lead to tip
stalling.
Saw-tooth or dog-tooth :
These serve the same purpose as that of wing fences. In highly swept wings the tendency of the flow to
separate in the tip region first. This can cause problems like large changes in pitching moment. This
effect may be reduced by, introducing a notch on saw-tooth in the leading edge. The notch also generates
a strong vortex, which controls the boundary layer in the tip region.
Boundary layer control :
The usual tendency of boundary layer is start being laminar near the leading edge of a body, but there
comes a point, called the transition point, when the layer tends to become turbulent and thicker. As the
speed increases the transition point tends to move further, so more of the boundary layer is turbulent and
the skin friction greater.
So it is quite necessary to control the boundary lay separation.

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Suction method :

One of the methods of controlling the boundary layer is to provide a sourced of suction
near the trailing edge, with the object of sucking the boundary layer away. Blowing method :
An alternative and one easier method is to provide a source of blowing air from a similar position, thus
blowing away the boundary layer.

Vortex generators :
These are small plates or wedges projecting an inch or so from the top surface of the wing.
Fast moving air will be slowed down by, these vortex generators and help in delaying the flow separation.
This circulating air provides energy to the slow moving sluggish layer.
Stall wedges or leading edge device : high-lift devices can also be applied to the leading edge of the
aerofoil the most common types of which are fixed or movable slots and leading edge flaps (Krueger
flaps)used in BOEING AIRCRAFT.

Balancing the Control Surfaces :


The forces required to operate control surfaces would be excessive in case of huge and fast moving a/c .
To assist the pilot to move the controls in the absence of powered or power assisted controls, some degree
of balance is required this balance is called Aero dynamic balance.
Aerodynamics balance is achieved in several ways all of which decreases the force required to move the
control in flight. The flight effort required to move any control surface is determined by the aerodynamic
force acting through the center of pressure of the aerofoil multiplied by its distance from the hinge line.
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This force is known as the hinge moment of the control surface; The smaller the hinge moment lesser is
the effort required to move the surface through a given angle at a given speed at a given speed at a speed.
The types of aerodynamic balanced used are :

Horn Balance :
In this a proportion of the total area lies ahead of the hinge line. This is mostly given to rudders and
elevators.

Insert Hinge Balance :


This is generally done by hinging the control surface about a line set back from the leading edge of the
control surface.

In the above sold two methods usually not more than one-fifth of the surface may be in front of the hinge.
In each some part of the surface is 9in front of the hinge and each of it has its advantage.

Trimming and Balance Tabs :


A tab is the small hinged forming part of the trailing edge of primary control surface. If an a/c is out of
trim and requires, say a constant pulling force on the control column to maintain level flight would soon
tire the pilot. A tab can be used to trim out the holding force and ease the task of the pilot. Besides their
use for trimming, tabs have been adopted to a large variety of shapes, sizes, applications and method of
operation, giving the designer a broad range of solution to a particular problem.

Fixed tabs :

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Fixed tabs can only be adjusted on the ground and their setting is determined by one or more test
flight. An early form of fixed tab, sometimes still used on light aircraft, consists of small strips of
cord doped above or below along the trailing edge of the control surface. A strip of cord above the
trailing edge deflected the surface downwards, the amount of deflection on the length of the cord
used.

Trimming tabs :
These are used to trim out any holding forces encountered in flight such as those occurring after a change
of power or speed, or when the C.G. position change owing to fuel consumption, or after dropping
bombs, expending ammunition. These are pilot operated usually by hand wheels in the cockpit which
operate in the neutral sense. Some of the trimming tabs may be electrically operated by small switches.

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Control reversal
Control reversal is an adverse affect on the controllability of aircraft. To the pilot it appears that the
controls have reversed themselves; in order to roll to the left; for instance, they have to push the control
stick to the right, opposite of the normal direction.
There are several causes for this problem : pilot error, effects of high speed flight, incorrectly connected
controls, and various coupling forces on the aircraft.
Pilot error is the most common cause of control reversal. In unusual attitudes it is not uncommon for the
pilot to become disoriented and start feeding in incorrect control movements in order to regain level
flight. This is particularly common when using helmet mounted display systems, which introduce
graphics that remain steady in the pilots view, notably when using a particular form of attitude display
known as an inside-out display.
Incorrectly connected controls is another common cause of this problem. It is a recurring problem after
maintenance on aircraft, notably home built designs that are being flown, for the first time after some
minor work. However it is not entirely uncommon on commercial aircraft, and has been the cause of
several near-accidents.

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High Speed Flight

Speed of Sound
Speed of sound plays and important role in the field of aeronautics. The comparison of speeds of different
a/c is made taking speed sound as reference.
At sea level conditions (NTP/STP)
Speed of sound is = 340.17 m/s
= 760 mi/hr
= 1118 ft/sec
= 1216 KMPH
Speed of sound is generally denoted by a.
Subsonic Flight :
If the speed of an a/c is up to 0.78 mach then it is said to be subsonic flight.
Transonic Flight :
If the speed of an a/c is between 0.78 and 1.2 mach then it is said to be transonic flight.
Supersonic Flight :
If the speed of an a/c is between 1.2 and 5 mach then it is said to be transonic flight.
Mach Number :
It is the ratio of speed of any moving object to the speed of sound.
Mach number is denoted by M.
speed of object (can be a/c)
speed of sound
M=

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Critical mach number :


The free stream Mach number at which for the first time the local mach number will reach the sonic is
called critical mach number.

Explanation :
We all know that when air flow pasts a aerofoil there is an increase in velocity on the top surface of
aerofoil. Hence the velocity on the top of the aerofoil will be more than the free stream velocity for each
aerofoil there will be a free stream velocity for which the velocity on top of aerofoil (local velocity) will
reach sonic speed. Hence we have to remember that the free stream mach number will be less than the
local mach number.

For e.g. : The free stream mach number for a particular aerofoil be 0.78 for which the local mach number
reaches sonic speed (mach 1) then 0.78 is the critical mach number for that particular aerofoil.
Compressibility effect :
It was emphasized in the early chapters that air is compressible; it was also emphasized, though perhaps
not emphatically enough, that though it is compressible it does, in fact behave at ordinary speeds almost
as though it were incompressible. Of course such an assumption is not true, air is really compressible or
what is sometimes more important, expandable at all speeds and the density does change, i.e. increases or

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decreases, as the wings and bodies of aero planes move through air at quite ordinary speeds, but the point
is that the error in making the assumption is so small as to be negligible, while the simplification that the
assumption gives to the whole subject is by no means negligible.
As we approach the aped of sound the error in making this assumption of incompressibility can no longer
be justified, the air is definitely compressed, or expanded. We are now dealing with compressible and
expandable fluid.
It should be clear from this that the change is gradual, not sudden; it is all a question of deciding when
the error becomes appreciable, and a rough idea of the error involved may be obtained from the following
figures which the error in assuming the ordinary laws of aerodynamics when estimating the drag of a
body moving through air at the speeds mentioned.

Speed
m/s
45
90
134
179
224
268

Error in assuming incompressibility


Knots
87
175
260
347
436
522

Km/h
161
322
483
644
805
966

About %
Less than
4%
7%
11 %
16 %

It will be sufficiently clear from this that we must begin to change our ideas at speeds considerably lower
than 340 m/s.
Shock waves :
Let us see if we can find out a little more of what actually happens during the change from
incompressible flow to compressible flow, and so discover the cause of the mounting error in making the
assumption of incompressibility . Let us also investigate the shock, together with its cause and effects.
As the speed of airflow over say streamline body increases, the first indication that a change in the nature
of the flow is taking place would seem to be a breakaway of the airflow from the surface of the body
usually some way back, setting up a turbulent wake (figure below). This may occur at speeds less than
half that of sound and has already been dealt over and above that which is expected at the particular
speed as reckoned on the speed-squared law,

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As the speed increases still further, the point of breakaway, or separation point tends to creep forward,
resulting in thicker turbulent wake starting forward of the trailing edge. When we reach about threequarters of the speed of sound a new phenomenon appears in the form of an incipient shock wave
(Figures below). This can be represented by a line approximately at tight angles to the surface of the body
and signifying a sudden rise in pressure and density of the air, thus holding up the airflow and causing a
decrease of speed of flow.

Incipient shock wave

Incipient shock wave


(By courtesy of the shell Petroleum Co Ltd)
An incipient shock wave (taken by schlieren photography) has formed on the upper surface; the light
areas near the leading edge are expansion regions, separated by the stagnation area which appears as a
dark biob at the nose.

Aero Dynamic Heating :


We all know that friction increases temperature, an example of deterioration of energy from the highest to
the lowest form (from mechanical energy to thermal energy), natural process and skin friction in the
flow of fluids is no exception. We all know, too, that an increase of pressure, as in a pump, raises

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temperature; another example of the same process and the stagnation pressure on the nose of a body or
wing is no exception. So when an aero plane move through the air it gets hot; some parts more than
others, some owing to the temperature increase created by skin friction, some owing to that created by
pressure.
Many device have been tried, and no doubt many more will be tried, in an effort to counter this heating
problem. These devices may be classified under the following headings.

How the surface temperature rises with the Mach Number.


The graph relates to a height of 28000 ft (8500m) where the local temperature of the surrounding air is
-40 C.
To insulate the structure from the heat.
To use materials which can stand the high temperatures without serious loss of strength.
To encourage radiation from the surface and so reduce the temperatures.
To circulate a cooling fluid below the surface.
Refrigeration by any of the normal methods.
As regards = materials for the aircraft structure light alloys are suitable for Mach numbers up to 2, or
even higher for short periods. Between M2 and M4 titanium alloy may be the answer, but above 3 or 3
stainless steel is probably better as being more readily available.
It must be remembered that the crew, the equipment and the fuel must be protected as well as the
structure itself, so there is no point in using materials which will stand the high temperatures, unless there
is also refrigeration to keep the interior of the aircraft cool.
An interesting aspect of surface heating is the effect of shape. It is the speed of flow adjacent to the
boundary layer which is the deciding factor in the temperature rise and to some extent, of course, the
nature and thickness of the boundary layer itself and the speed of flow depends on the shape of the
body. But there is more in it than that. A rise in temperature is created owing to skin friction.
There is a tendency foe the breakaway and turbulent wake to start from the point where the shock wave
meets the surface which is usually at or near the point of maximum camber, i.e. where the speed of
airflow is greatest.

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Area rule :
We should by now realize that if the drag is to be kept to a minimum at (word incomplete) speeds, bodies
must be slim and smooth, and have clean lines. What is the significance of clean lines Well, it is often
said to be in the eye of the beholder, what looks right is right yes, but it depends in who looks at it; and
a little calculation, a little rule, formula, or what ever it may be will often aid our eyes in designing the
best shapes for definite purposes.
The area rule (figure below) is simply one of these rules, and put in its simplest form it means that the
area of cross-section should increase gradually to a maximum, then decrease for transonic speeds, and in
deed for high subsonic speeds, the maximum cross-sectional area should be about half-way, rather than
one-third of the way back, this giving more gradual increase of cross-sectional area with an equally
gradual decrease.
Transonic area rule
The transonic British Aerospace Buccaneer which finally saw action in the Gulf War shortly before
retirement. The bulge in the rear fuselage is for purposes of area rule.

The body in figure below obeys the area rule-but hasnt got any wings. If we add a projection to a body,
such as the wings to a fuselage, we shall get sudden jump in the cross-sectional area and that means that
the area rule is not being obeyed. What then can we do the answer is that we must decrease the crosssectional area of the fuselage as we add the cross-sectional area it is the total cross-sectional area that
must be gradually decreased.
Hypersonic flight :
The speed of an a/c above 5 mach then it is said to the hypersonic flight.
Subsonic = up to 0.78 mach
Transonic = 0.78 to 1.2 mach
Supersonic = 1.2 to 5 mach
Hypersonic = above 5 mach
Sonic speed = 1 mach
Characteristics of sub-sonic aerofoil :
High or max lift coefficient.
Thickness to chord ratio is more.
Small or stable movement C.P.
Sufficient depth to accommodate spars.

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High lift to drag ratio.


Characteristics of Supersonic Aerofoil :
Low lift to drag ratio.
Less camber and sharp leading edge.
Maximum thickness of aerofoil is about 50 % of chord.
Very less space to accommodate spars.
Note : Flat plate is most efficient section for supersonic flight and it is used on certain guided missiles.
Mach Cone :
It was illustrated the piling up of the air in front of a body moving at the speed of around, and explained
how the incipient shock wave is formed. This incipient shock wave is at right angles to the direction of
the airflow, and this means as near as matters at right angles to the surface of a body such as a wing.
Now suppose a point is moving at a velocity V (which is greater than the speed of sound) in the direction
A to D (Figure below). A pressure wave sent out when the point is at A will travel outwards in all
directions at the speed of sound; but the point will move faster than this, and by the time it has reached D,
the wave from A and other pressure waves sent out when it was at B and C will have formed circles as
shown in the figure, and it will be possible to draw a common tangent DE to these circles this tangent
represents the limit to which all these pressure waves will have got when the point has reached D.
Now AE, the radius of the first circle, represents the distance that sound has traveled while the point has
traveled from A to D, or, expressing it in velocities. AS represents the velocity of sound usually denoted
by a and Ad represents the velocity of the point V.
Speed of po int
Speed of sound
So the Mach Number M =

V
a

(as illustrated in the figure this is about 2).


The angel ADE, or a, is called the Mach angle and by simple trigonometry it will be clear that

Sin a =

a
V

1
M

In other words, the greater the Mach Number the more acute the angle a. At a Mach Number of 1, a of
course is 90.

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Mach Angle
If the moving point is a solid 3 dimensional body, such as a bullet, a complete cone called the Mach
Cone will be formed, the angle at the apex being 2 a. If the moving point represents a straight line such
as the leading edge of a wing, a wedge will be formed, again with an angle 2 a at the leading edge.
The tangent line DE is called a Mach Line, and it clearly represents the angle at which small wavelets are
formed; the velocity of the airflow can even be calculated by measuring the angle on photographs of the
wavelets.
Again the hydraulic analogy may be useful, since similar effects are seen when a ship passes through
water or a thin stick is placed in a fast moving stream of water. Only the region within the wedge formed
by the bow waves is affected by the stick; the water outside this region flows on as if nothing was there.
And the faster the flow, the sharper is the angle of the wedge.

It might be thought the Mach Line represented the inclination of the shock waves but this is not so.
Disturbances of small amplitude travel at the speed of sound, but shock waves, which are waves of larger
amplitude, actually travel slightly faster than sound, and therefore they form at a rather larger angle to the
surface. This fact is difficult to explain without going into the mathematics of fluid flow, which is quite
beyond the scope of this book, but the following explanation of how shock waves are formed may help us
to understand how their slope is determined.
Imagine a supersonic flow of air over a flat surface, This surface can never be perfectly smooth, and may
be considered as consisting of a very large number of particles or slight bumps. At each of these bumps a
Mach Line will be formed; its angle to the surface depending on the speed of the flow in accordance with
1
M
the formula sin a =
.
If the speed of flow is accelerating, the Mach Lines will diverge as the angle becomes more acute with
increasing speed.

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But if the speed of flow is decelerating the Mach Lines will converge, add up as it were, and form a more
intense disturbance or wave, one of greater amplitude.
[In Short : When the object files at speed of sound the pressure disturbances would accumulate
immediately in-front of the a/c in the form of a continuous line or waves. At even greater speed the
infinite number of pressure waves would produce a continuous line diverging backwards in the form of a
cone called mach cone. This cone marks the boundary of the sphere of the influence of the body.]
Effect of Sweepback :
The angular swept back of main planes relative to the fuselage or hull is known as sweep back.
The sweep angle is usually measured as the angle b/w the line of 25% of chord and a perpendicular to the
root chord. Low speed a/c have slightly swept back wings in order to shift the center of lift point on the
wing shaft and move it close to C.G in order to improve stability.

Advantage :
When the a/c is banked by a disturbance, the airflow over the lower wing passes with a greater effective
camber than that of raised wing, therefore relative greater amount of lift from the lower wing is achieved
which restores the a/c laterally.
Disadvantage :
Viewed from the front the smaller is the frontal area of the flaps and ailerons. These are less exposed to
the airflow thus decreasing the effectiveness of flaps and ailerons.

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Sonic Bangs :
We are now all too familiar with the noises made by aircraft breaking the sound barrier. These so-called
sonic bangs, or booms, are of course, caused by shock waves, generated by an aircraft, and striking the
ears of an observer on the ground, or his glass house, but there has been considerable argument as to the
exact circumstances which result in the shock waves being heard, why there are often two or more
distinct bangs, whether the second one came first, and so on.
An aircraft diving towards the earth at supersonic speed, and at an angle of say 45, then suddenly
slowing up and changing direction, will shed it shock waves, which will travel on towards the earth and
strike any observers which may happen to be in their path. It is certainly quite clear from schlieren
photographs that a bow wave approaches from the front as the speed of sound is approached and
conversely goes ahead of the aircraft when it decelerates below the speed of sound.
As far effects at ground level are concerned, we know that these become less intense with the height of
the aircraft; more intense with Mach Number, though not anything like in proportion; that they affected
by the dimensions of the aircraft, increasing with its weight and volume, and being of longer duration
according to its length; that they are more intense during accelerated flight.

are angle rearwards , like the bow waves on a ship or boat.

P.3.1.2 Polar curve (aviation)


A polar curve is a graph of, the rate of sink of an aircraft, often a glider, versus its horizontal speed.

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Contents
1.

Measuring a gliders performance

2.

Glide ratio

3.

Plotting the curve

4.

External links

Measuring a gliders performance

Knowing the best speed to fly is important in exploiting the performance of a glider. Two of the key measures of a
gliders performance are its minimum sink rate and its best glide ratio, also known as the best glide angle. These
occur at different speeds. Knowing these speeds is important for efficient cross-country flying. In still air the polar
curve shows that flying. In still air the polar curve shows that flying at the minimum sink speed enables the pilot to
stay airborne for as long as possible and to climb as quickly as possible, but at this speed the glider will not travel
as far as if it flew at the speed for the best glide. When in sinking air, the polar curve shows that best speed to fly
depends on the rate that the air is descending. Using may often be considerably in excess of the speed for the best
glide angle to get out of the sinking air as quickly as possible.

Polar Curve Showing Angle for Minimum Sink

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Polar Curve Showing Glide Angle for Best Glide

Glide ratio
The glide ratio is expresses as the ratio of the distance traveled to height lost in the same time. The ratio of the
horizontal speed versus the vertical speed gives the same answer. If the glider flies at 40 knots for an hour and
experiences a 2-knot (4 km/h) sink rate, it will travel 40 nautical miles and descend 2 nautical miles (4 km). The
guide ratio is 20 using both methods.

Plotting the curve


By measuring the rate of sink at various air speeds a set of data can be accumulated and plotted on a graph. The
points can be connected by, a line known as the polar curve. Each type of glider has unique polar curve.

The origin for a polar curve is where the air speed is zero and the sink rate is zero. In the first diagram a line has
been drawn from the origin to the point with minimum sink. The slope of the line from the origin gives the glide
angle, because it is the ratio of the distance along the air speed axis to the distance along the sink rate axis.

A whole series of lines could be drawn from the origin to each of the data points, each line showing the glide angle
for that speed. However the best glide angle is the line with the least slope. In the second diagram, the line has
been drawn from the origin to the point representing the best glide ratio. The air speed and sink rate at the best
glide ratio can be read off the graph. Note that the best glide ratio is shallower than the glide ratio for minimum
sink. All the other lines from the origin to the various data points would be steeper than the line of the best glide
angle. Consequently, the line for the best glide angle will only just graze the polar curve, i.e. it is a tangent.

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Theory of Flight

Terminology

Advancing Blade: Any rotor blade or wing on rotary wing


aircraft, in horizontal motion, moving into the relative wind is
called advancing blade.
Aerofoil: An aerodynamic surface designed to obtain a reaction
from the air through which it moves e.g. aileron, win^ rudder,
elevator, rotor blade etc.
Angle of Attack: An angle between the relative wind and the
chord line which is represented by the symbol
Pitch Angle: An angle between a fixed reference surface and
the chord of an airfoil.
Articulated Rotor: In a rotor craft wing design, each blade is
joined at its root to allow the blade to change pitch, lead and
lag, and flap, either individually or collectively, is known an
articulated rotor.
Autorotation: A rotorcraft flight condition, in which the lifting
rotor is driven entirely by action of the air flowing upward
through the rotor disk.
Blade Stall :The condition occurring when a rotor blade
operates at an angle of attack greater than the angle of
maximum lift.
Blade Twist :The twist, or variation in the blade angle, built into
a blade usually so that the blade angle decreases toward the
tip.
A deformation of a rotor blade by unequal air forces causing variation in the built-in blade angle from
root to tip.

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Coning Angle : The average angle between the span axis of a


blade of a rotary wing system and a plane perpendicular to the
axis of rotation.
Disk Area : The area of the circle described by the blade tips of
a rotating propeller or rotor.
Feathering : Change in the pitch angle of the rotor blades
periodically by rotating them around their feathering axis.
Feathering Axis : The axis about which the pitch angle of a
rotor blade is varied.
Flapping : The vertical movement of a blade about the flapping
hinge is known as flapping.
Flapping Hinge : The Hinge with its axis parallel to the rotor
plane of rotation, which permits the rotor blades to flap to
equalize lift between the advancing and retreating blades of
the rotor disc. It is also known as Delta hinge.
Hovering : A condition of rotorcraft flight where there is zero
horizontal and vertical motion of the rotorcraft.
Retreating Blade : On a rotary-wing aircraft in horizontal
motion, any rotor blade or wing moving with the relative wind.
Rotor Disk : The area of a circular plane described by the path
swept by the rotor blades.
Rotor Lift : The lift component, parallel to the plane of
symmetry and perpendicular to the line of flight, acting on a
rotor.

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Rotor Mast : A column or structure supporting a rotor on a


rotary-wing aircraft; usually called a mast or pylon.
Swash plate : The element used to transmit input from nonrotating helicopter control system to the rotating rotor control
system.
Axis of rotation : The line through the rotor head at right
angles to the plane of rotation (POR). The blades actually
rotate around this axis.
Tip path plane : The plane within which the tips of rotor blades
travel. It is parallel to the plane of rotation which acts through
the rotor head. A pilot may alter this plane through movement
of the cyclic control.
Tip path : The circular path described by the tips of rotor
blades.
Span : The span of the blade is the distance from root of the
blade to the tip of the blade, measured.

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Aerodynamics and Theory of Flight of the Helicopter

Symmetrical airfoils :
The airfoils which are used for helicopters are usually referred to as symmetrical airfoils, which mean
the airfoil section has the same shape above and below the chord line. This curvature of the airfoil is
referred to as the camber. Some successful designs have been built with an unsymmetrical airfoil,
meaning that the top and bottom camber are not the same shape.

Relative wind :
As the rotor blade moves, it is subjected to relative wind. The relative wind is the direction of the
airflow with respect to the blade. This is always opposite the flight path of the blade. For example, if
the blade moves forward horizontally, the relative wind moves backward horizontally. If the blade
moves horizontally, the relative wind moves forward horizontally. If the blade moves forward and
upward, the relative wind moves backward and downward. If the blade moves backward and
downward, the relative wind moves forward and upward.

Relationship between the flight path of an airfoil and the relative wind.
Relative wind is parallel and in the opposite direction to the flight path.
The forward moving blade is referred to as the advancing blade, while the backward blade is called
the retreating blade. The relative wind may be affected by several factors such as movement of the
rotor blades, horizontal movement of the helicopter, flapping of the rotor blade, wind speed, and
direction. The relative wind of the helicopter is the flow of air with respect to the rotor blade.
For example : when the rotor is stopped , the wind blowing over the rotor blades creates a relative
wind. When the helicopter is hovering in a no-wind condition, the relative wind is created by the
motion of the rotor blades. If the helicopter is hovering in a wind, the relative wind is a combination
of the/wind and the rotor blade movement. When the helicopter is in (forward flight, ) relative wind
created by the rotor blades, the movement of the helicopter, and possibly a wind factor.

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Pitch angle :
Pitch angle is the acute angle between the rotor blade chord and a reference plane. The reference
plane of the helicopter will be determined by the main rotor hub. The pitch angle is varied by
movement of the collective control which will rotate the blade about the hub axis, increasing or
decreasing the pitch. The pitch angle may also be varied by movement of the cyclic control which
will be discussed in detail later in this section. Often the pitch angle is confused with the angle of
attack.

The pitch angle of a rotor blade is the angle between


the control line and a reference plane determined
by the rotor hub or the plane of rotation.

Coning : The action of rotating blades slanted or lifted upward


at the tips to form a cone-shaped pattern.
Coning Angle : The average angle between the span axis of a
blade of a rotary wing system and a plane perpendicular to the
axis of rotation.

The angle of attack in relation to the relative wind.

Angle of attack :
The angle of attack is the acute angle between the chord line of the airfoil and the relative wind. The
angle of attack may be equal of attack may be equal to the pitch angle. How-ever, it may also be

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greater or less than the angle of attack. The pilot can increase or decrease the angle of attack by
moving the pitch angle of the rotor. When the pitch angle is increased. Then the angle of attack is
increased and vice versa. Since the angle of attack is dependent upon the relative wind, the same
factors that affect the relative wind also affect the angle of attack.

Lift :
Lift is the force produced by the airfoil that is perpendicular to the relative wind and opposes gravity.
The lift is developed by the rotor blade according the Bernoullis Principle, which simply states that
as velocity is increased, the pressure is decreased., This principle creates a low pressure at the top of
the rotor blade, while the bottom of the blade has an increased pressure. This applies to both
symmetrical and unsymmetrical airfoils. Whenever lift is produced; drag is also produced.

Drag :
Drag is the force which tends to resist the airfoils passage through the air. Drag is always parallel to
the relative wind and perpendicular to lift. It is this force that tends to slow down the rotor when the
angle of attack is increased in order to produce more lift. In fact, drag varies as a square of velocity.

Center of pressure :
The center of pressure is an imaginary point where the results of all the aerodynamic forces of the
airfoil are considered to be concentrated. This center of pressure can move as forces change.
On some unsymmetrical airfoils, this movement can cover a great distance of the chord of the airfoil.
As the angle of attack is increased the center of pressure moves forward, along the airfoil surface and
as the angle of attack is decreased the center of pressure moves forward along the airfoil surface. This
is of little consequence in fixed wing aircraft because longitudinal stability may be achieved in
several other ways.
On helicopters, because the rotor blades are moved from a fixed axis (the hub), this situation could
lead to instability in the rotor, with the rotor blades constantly changing pitch. For this reason, the
preferred airfoil is symmetrical where the center of pressure has very little movement. Accompanying
lift and drag is stall.
This is the reason that power must also be added in order to maintain the velocity of the rotor when
the pitch is added to the rotor system. This also means that the lift of the rotor could be controlled by
varying speed increasing or decreasing the relative wind. However, this situation is avoided because
of the slow reaction time, in favor of keeping the velocity constant and changing the angle of attack.

Effects on lift :
Lift will also vary with the density of the air, Air density is affected by temperature, altitude, and
humidity. On a hot day the air is less dense than on a cold day. Because of this, the rotor system will
require a higher angle of attack to produce the same lift. This will require more power to maintain
blade velocity. The same situation is true when changes in altitude occur. Often a helicopter may be
able to hover at sea level with a certain load but not at altitude because air is only two-thirds as dense
at 10,000 feet of altitude as it is at sea level. Humidity will have the same effect since humid air is
less dense than dry air.

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Forces on the rotor.


The lift developed by the helicopter has to be sufficient to overcome the weight. The heavier the
weight of the helicopter is, the greater the pitch angle and power requirement to overcome this weight
vs. lift action.
Also acting on the helicopter will be thrust and drag. Thrust is the force moving the helicopter in the
desired direction, while drag is the force which tends to resist thrust. Therefore, before any movement
may take place thrust must overcome drag.
Thus far the principles of flight have been much the same as that of the fixed wing airplane. However,
remember that the actual movements that govern flight will be accomplished by driving the rotor
blades in a circle rather than wings being flown in a straight line. Considering this situation, number
of forces are applied to the rotor system that are not present with the fixed wing.
Rotor droop occurs when the rotor is at rest.

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The rotor consists of a hub which is driven by the shaft (mast). Attached to the hub are the blades.
The blades are somewhat flexible, when at rest will droop due to the weight and span of the blade.
This is referred to a blade droop.
When the rotor is turned, this droop is overcome by centrifugal force, which will straighten the blade.
This centrifugal force will be dependent, upon the weight of the blade and the velocity. On small rotor
systems this could be approximately 20000 pounds. Larger system may approach 100.000 pounds of
centrifugal force per blade. With forces of this magnitude, the utmost care must be taken in
maintenance procedures.
In addition to centrifugal force, lift will react perpendicular to the rotor as pitch is applied to the rotor.
This will result in the blade seeking a new position which will be the result of centrifugal force and
lift.

Disc area :The area contained within the tip path plane. In
flight , this area is not a constant since it is affected by the
coning angle of the blades.

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Tip path, tip path plane, shaft axis and


plane or rotation.

Axis of rotation acts through the rotor head at right


tingles to the plane of rotation while the shaft axis
remains in line with the rotor mast.

Shaft Axis :
The line consistent with the rotor shaft (mast). Only when the plane of rotation is exactly
perpendicular to the shaft axis will the axis of rotation coincide with the shaft axis.

Lead - lagging (dragging) :Movement of a blade forward or aft


in the plane of rotation.

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Coning angle :

Blade angle can be altered by rotating the blade around


its feathering axis.
This movement of the blades is referred to as coning of the rotor. The amount of coning is dependent
upon the amount of lift and the weight of the helicopter. A helicopter with a light load will have less
coning than a heavily loaded one.
Note : The blade tips will pass through a circular surface formed by the rotor blades. This circular
plane is referred to as the rotor disc or the tip path plane.
The satisfactory relationship of the rotor blades to each other in flight is referred to as track. If this
relationship is incorrect, it is referred to as being out of track. Such a condition will result in
vibrations in the rotor system.

Thrust :
Thus far we have discussed the flight for the helicopter only in regards to obtaining lift, with little
mention of thrust. Since the rotor will produce lift force and at the same time propel the helicopter
directionally, thrust is most important. It is thrust that gives this directional movement.

Directional flight :
The rotor disc will be tilted in the direction of the movement desired. This will result in lift and thrust
being perpendicular to each other, giving the helicopter the ability to maintain flight and move
directionally.
Thrust is obtained by movement of the tip path plane of the rotor or rotor disc. If the helicopter is
ascending vertically or at a hover, lift and thrust are both in the same direction, vertical.
However, in order to obtain forward, backward, or sideward directional flight, the rotor disc will be
tilted in the direction of movement desired.
This will result in lift and thrust being perpendicular to each other, giving the helicopter the ability to
maintain flight and move directionally.
Movement of the tip path plane to change the direction of the helicopter is accomplished by changing
the angle of attack of the individual blades as they pass along the disc. In order to accomplish this, the
hub have provisions for a feathering axis, which simply allows the pitch to be moved.

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The feathering axis or pitch axis of the rotor.

Basic principles of the swash plate :


Tilts with cyclic control it does not rotate.

Horizontal Movement :
Two conditions have to be satisfied for the helicopter to fly horizontally. First, there must be force
acting vertically upwards to support the helicopters weight; secondly, another force must act in the
appropriate; horizontal direction. Since the helicopter has no separate or horizontal thrust, both forces
must be supplied by the main rotor. This can only be achieved by tilting the axis of rotation of the
rotor blades so that the total rotor thrust is inclined from the vertical; one component of the thrust
force supports the helicopter, and the other component produces horizontal movement.
When the helicopter is hovering in still air, the pitch angle is equal on all rotor blades and the thrust
being developed by each blade caused the blade to rise until balanced by the centrifugal force. The
rotor axis and the total rotor thrust direction are then vertical.
Now let us consider what would happen to a blade if its pitch was gradually increased during half a
revolution and then gradually decreased to its original value during remainder of the revolution. For
half a revolution the increasing thrust would lift the blade more and more above its normal height.
After that would gradually sink as its thrust decreased until, at the end of the revolution, it would be
back at its original height. If the remaining rotor blades were subjected to similar changes of pitch, at
exactly at the same point in rotation, the blade would rise, one after other, and reach their maximum
height as they passed the same rotational point. The blade would be then describing a conical path
with the cone axis and the total thrust force inclined from the vertical. The continuous alteration in the
pitch angle of the rotor blades as they rotate is known as a cyclic pitch change, and the same amount
of change and also the position in rotation at which it occurs are controlled by what is called the cycle
stick.

Effects of Gyroscopic Precision

Gyroscopic Precession :
The spinning main rotor of a helicopter acts like a gyroscope. As such, it has the properties of
gyroscopic action, one of which is precession. Gyroscopic precession is the resultant action or
deflection of a spinning object when a force is applied to this object. This action occurs
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approximately 90 in the direction of rotation from the point where the force is applied (fig below).
Through the use of this principle, the tip-path plane of the main rotor may be tilted from the
horizontal.
The movement of the cyclic pitch control in a two-bladed rotor system increases the angle of attack of
one rotor blade with the result that a greater lifting force is applied at this point in the plane of
rotation. This same control movement simultaneously decreases the angle of attack of the other blade
like amount, thus decreasing the lifting force applied at this point in the plane of rotation. The blade
with the increased angle of attack tends to rise; the blade with the decreased angle, of attack tends to
lower. However, because of the gyroscopic precession property, the blades do not rise or lower to
maximum deflection until a point approximately 90 later in the plane of rotation.

Gyroscopic Precession Principle : When a force


is applied to a spinning gyro, the maximum reaction
occurs 90 later in the direction of rotation.
In this illustration (fig. above) the retreating blade angle of attack is increased and the advancing
blade angle of attack is decreased resulting in a tipping forward of the tip-path plane, since maximum
deflection takes place 90 later when the blades are at the rear and front respectively.
In a three-bladed rotor, the movement of the cyclic pitch control changes the angle of attack of each
blade an appropriate amount so that the end result is the same a tipping forward of the tip-path
plane when the maximum change in angle of attack is made as each blade passes the same points at
which the maximum increase and decrease are made in the illustration (fig. below). For the twobladed rotor. As each blade passes the 90 position to the right, the maximum decrease in angle of
attack occurs. Maximum deflection takes place 90 later maximum upward deflection at the rear
and maximum downward deflection at the front and the tip-path plane tips forward.

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Rotor disc acts like a gyro. When a rotor blade pitch


change is made, maximum reaction occurs approximately
90 later in the direction of rotation.
Torque Reaction and Directional Control

Tail rotor thrust compensates for the torque


effect of the main rotor.

Torque Reaction and Directional Control


Newtons third law states that for every action there is an opposite and equal reaction. Therefore
when power is applied to the rotor system the fuselage of the helicopter will tend to move in the
opposite direction of the rotor. This tendency is referred to as torque. The torque problem plagued
designers since the inception of the helicopter. Several designs of rotor systems were tried to
eliminate this problem.

Compensation of Torque Reaction


Some means must be used to prevent the helicopter fuselage being turned. Several solutions are
employed to compensate the torque reaction. They are :
An off set propeller facing forward.
A propeller directing air flow over tail surfaces.
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A controlled jet of gas at the tail. NOTAR


Anti-torque tail rotor (Used in Chetak/Cheetah)
Dual or multi-rotor system. Coaxial, TANDOM, side by side.
Jet powered rotor blades. (Torque reaction is eliminated)

Anti Torque Tail Rotor


The tail rotor is a small propeller rotating in a vertical plane. The tail rotor is driven by a take off
drive from the main gear box and will always rotate whenever the main rotor is rotating. The tail
rotor by exerting a side thrust on a tail arm (Tail boom) neutralizing the torque reaction and
preventing the fuselage form turning.
For maximum efficiency this torque compensating rotor must be placed as for as possible from
the main rotor axis and its distance from the axis. This way anti-torque rotor is installed at the tail
of helicopter.
To balance varying torque moments and to change the helicopter heading the anti-torque moments
and to change the helicopter heading the anti-torque must itself be variable. For this purpose the
tail rotor is provided with a pitch change control system.
The tail rotor pitch variation is controlled by the pilot through rudder pedals. By actuating the
rudder pedals the tail rotor pitch can be increased or decreased collectively. This in turn increases
or decreases the side thrust produced by the tail rotors. By increasing or decreasing the thrust of
the tail rotors, the pilot will be able to move the fuselage in any direction under control and
thereby change the helicopters heading in flight as well as while taxying.
One such design was the coaxial helicopter which two main rotors were placed on top of each
other rotating in opposite directions. Another design requires two main rotors placed side by side.
Some of these designs actually used intermeshing rotors turning in opposite directions. Still other
designs have used single rotors powered at the tip by ramjets or hot air passing through the blade
and ejected through nozzles at the tip.
The disadvantages of these systems seem to outweigh the advantages to the point that most
helicopters use one main rotor with an auxiliary rotor on the tail to counteract torque.

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Anti-torque control is applied by the tail rotor.


Many of the conventional helicopters using tail rotors have found methods to help reduce this
power requirement in flight. One of these methods is a vertical fin, which is offset in order to keep
the fuselage straight during forward flight. This in turn unloads the tail rotor.

Auxiliary Rotor :
The force that compensates for torque and keeps the fuselage from turning in the direction
opposite to the main rotor is produced by means of an auxiliary rotor located on the end of the tail
boom. This auxiliary rotor, generally referred to as a tail rotor, or anti-torque rotor, produces
thrust in the direction opposite in the cockpit, permit the pilot to increase or decrease tail-rotor
thrust, as needed, to neutralize torque effect.

Dissymmetry of Lift
The area within the tip-path plane of the main rotor is known as the disc area or rotor disc. When
hovering in still air, lift created by the rotor blades at all corresponding positions around the rotor disc
is equal. Dissymmetry of lift is created by horizontal flight or by wind during hovering flight, and is
the difference in lift that exists between the advancing blade half of the disc area and the retreating
blade half.
At normal rotor operating RPM and zero airspeed, the rotating blade-tip speed of most helicopter
main rotors is approximately 400 miles per hour. When hovering in a no-wind condition, the speed of
the relative wind at the blade tips is the same throughout the tip-path plane (bottom fig. in the figures
below). The speed of the relative wind at any specific point along the rotor blade will be the same
throughout the tip-path plane; however, the speed is reduced as this point moves closer to the rotor
hub as indicated by the two inner circles. As the helicopter moves into forward flight, the relative
wind moving over each rotor blade becomes a combination of the rotational speed of the rotor and the
forward movement of the helicopter (top fig. in the figures below). At the 90 position on the right
side, the advancing blade has the combined speed of the blade velocity plus the speed of the
helicopter. At the 90 position on the left side, the retreating blade speed is the blade velocity less the
speed of the helicopter. (In the illustration, the helicopter is assumed to have a forward airspeed of

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100 miles per hour). In other words, the relative wind speed is at a maximum at the 90 position on
the right side and at a minimum at the 90 position on the left side.
For any given angle of attack, lift increases as the velocity of the airflow over the airfoil increases. It
is apparent that the lift over the advancing blade half of the rotor disc will be greater than the lift over
the retreating blade half during horizontal flight, or when hovering will roll to the left unless some
compensation is made. It is equally apparent that the helicopter will roll to the left unless some
compensation is made. The compensation made to equalize the lift over the two halves of the rotor
disc is blade flapping and cyclic feathering. It was Juan De Cierva who incorporated the flapping
hinge into each blade, eliminating this problem.

Dissymmetry of Lift: Comparison of rotor blade speed


for the advancing blade during hovering and forward flight.

Flapping hinge
This system is still used today in most multi-bladed systems. This flapping hinge allows each blade to
move freely about its vertical axis or to move up and down. This movement is referred to as flapping.
Since more lift is created by the advancing blade, the blade has a tendency to move up. This decreases
the amount of lift on the advancing side of the disc. At the same time, the retreating blade takes a
more horizontal position, which creates more lift because less lift is being created by the retreating
half of the disc (fig below).

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The flapping hinge is used to control dissymmetry of lift.

Seesaw system
Another method which is quite widely used for the correction of dissymmetry of lift is the seesaw
system. This system utilizes two blades. System one blade is advancing while the other is retreating.
Since the advancing blade moves up, and because the two blades are connected, the retreating blades
moves down a like amount, thus creating the seesaw action (fig below).

This seesaw action is used on semi rigid rotors.

Blade Tip Stall


The helicopter rotor blades, likely any airfoil, are subject to stall. However, a stall of the rotor is quite
different from that of the fixed wing.
As a brief review, it was learned that in forward speed the advancing blade is moving at a faster speed
than the retreating blade. As the speed of the helicopter increases, this speed differential becomes
greater.
Because of the dissymmetry of lift, the retreating blade will be seeking a higher angle of attack than
the advancing blade. This, couples with the low airspeed of the retreating blade, can lead to blade tip
stall. An airfoil may stall due to any of the following reasons:
Insufficient airspeed
Too great an angle of attack
Heavy wing loading
In a helicopter flying at 200 miles per hour, the advancing blade will have a tip speed of
approximately 600 miles per hour, while the retreating blade tip speed is reduced to 200 miles per
hour (Fig. drawn below). At this point, the root areas are producing no lift. The retreating blade must
continue to seek a higher angle of attack in order to maintain lift. Even though the blade has twist
built attack at the tips. This is due to the tilting of the rotor and its relationship to the inflow of air to
the rotor.
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It is not possible, however, to predict at what point the rotor will stall each time due to the forward
speed because several other factors must also be considered. One of these is wing loading. It is more
likely for the blade to the stall under heavy loads than under light loads. Heavy loading will only
decrease the speed at which the stall will occur. Other factors, such as temperature, altitude, and
maneuvers must also be considered. For these reasons a stall may occur at rather low operating
speeds.
In Fig. drawn below, a rotor system is shown with the stall area marked. If can be seen that as the tip
enters the stall condition, only a few inches are involved; but as the blade continues, several feet
towards the middle of the blade travel in the stall area, and then it will move out toward the tip.

Stall occurs first on the retreating half of the disc.


The indication of a stall condition will first be a vibration as each blade passes through the stall
region. The beat could be 2:1, 3:1, or 4:1 depending upon the number of blades in the rotor system. If
the stall continues, the helicopter will pitch up. Although the stall will occur on the left side of the
helicopter, due to gyroscopic precession, the result will be at the tail of the helicopter, which will
pitch the nose up.
When a stall is experienced, the corrective action is to reduce forward speed, reduce forward speed,
reduce and increase rotor speed if possible, but the important factor is always to unload the rotor
system.

Blade Sailing
This undesirable feature of the helicopter can occur in windy conditions when the blades are moving
slowly as they start to revolve or are stopping. The blade advancing into wind generates too much

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thrust for the low centrifugal force and is able to sail upwards with little restraint. As the blade moves
round to retreat with the wind it loses thrust and sails down from its abnormally high position. The
added momentum can bend the blade against its downward stops to such and extent that it strikes, the
helicopters rear fuselage or even the ground.
In gusty conditions blade sailing cannot be avoided, but the danger of a blade striking the fuselage
can be reduced by starting or stopping the rotor when the helicopter is facing out of wind. The lowest
sail position should then occur when a blade is to the side or aircraft and not over the rear fuselage.

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Translating tendency and Its Correction

Lateral drift compensation (Sikorsky Aircraft)


One of these characteristics is the translating tendency. This is a tendency for the whole helicopter to
drift in the direction of the tail rotor thrust. This is the result of the thrust of the tail rotor acting on the
entire helicopter. The situation is normally corrected by offsetting the mast, which will change the tip
path plane of the rotor. The built-in tilt of the rotor will cancel the translating tendency during hover.
In other helicopters, the tip path plane is altered by rigging the cyclic system to give the required tilt
when the cyclic is level.

Coriolis effect and Its Compensation


When a rotor blade of a three bladed rotor system flaps upward, the center of mass of that blade
moves closer to the axis of rotation and blade acceleration takes place. Conversely, when that blade
flaps downward, its center of mass moves further from the axis of rotation and blade deceleration
takes place. (Keep in mind, that due to coning, the rotor blade will not flap below plane passing
through the rotor hub and perpendicular to the axis of rotation.) The acceleration and deceleration
actions (often referred to as leading, lagging, or hunting) of the rotor blades are absorbed by either
dampers or the blade structure itself, depending upon the design of the rotor system.
Two-bladed rotor systems are normally subject to CORIOLIS EFFECT to a much lesser degree than
are three-bladed systems since the blades are generally under slung with respect to the rotor hub,
and the change in the distance of the center of mass from the axis of rotations small. The hunting
action is absorbed by the blades through bending. If a two-bladed rotor system is not under slung, it
will be subject to CORIOLIS EFFECT comparable to that of a fully articulated system.

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Coriolis effect is the change in blade velocity to


compensate for the changes in distance of the center
of mass from the axis of rotation as the blades flap.
CORIOLIS EFFECT might be compared to spinning skaters. When they extend their arms, their
rotation slows down because their center of mass moves farther from their axis of rotation.
When their arms are retracted, their rotation speeds up because their center of mass moves closer to
their axis of rotation.
The tendency of a rotor blade to increase or decrease its velocity in its plane of rotation due to mass
movement is known as CORIOLIS EFFECT, named for the mathematician who made studies of
forces generated by radial movements of mass on a rotating disc.
If the coriolis effect is not corrected, it will cause geometric imbalance of the rotor system, if the
blades are held in their respective position. This geometric imbalance will cause severe vibration and
undue stress on the blade roots. Due to the bending action in a chord-wise direction.

Vortex Ring, State, Power Setting, Over Pitching

DESCRIPTION :
In normal powered flight there is an Induced flow of air down wards through the rotor: In the event of
a fuselage movement normal to the rotor disc, it is possible to set-up airflow relative to the disc which
is directly opposed to the induced flow round the rotor. In particular, there is created a turbulent
vortex around the periphery of the disc which is called Vortex ring. The combination of conditions in
which vortex ring is likely to occur are as follows :
i
ii
iii

Powered flight with Induced flow through rotor.


Movement of the aircraft causing a relative flow normal to the disc from the opposite
direction.
Relatively still air conditions.

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Vertical Wind Tunnel.

Power Settling :
Besides the unsteadiness, one of the most unusual characteristics of the vortex ring is the high power
required to maintain rotor thrust. Pilots call it power settling based on their observation that in some
cases the helicopter keeps coming down even though full engine power is being used. Fig. below
shows the power and the collective pitch required to maintain constant rotor thrust in vertical descent
for a typical helicopter. Not only does the power required increase in the vortex-ring state, but so does
the collective pitch-apparently due to local blade stall during flow fluctuations.

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Power and Pitch Required in


Vertical Descent for Typical Helicopter

The range between 750 and 2,300 fpm for the helicopter shown in Figure above is the power-settling
condition., This situation can become a problem when making a nearly vertical landing approach with
a heavily loaded helicopter on a hot day when the power available is low.
Another scary scenario is an engine failure on a multiengine helicopter making a takeoff from a
rooftop. In this operation, the prudent takeoff path is vertical or even slightly backward so that in
case of an engine failure the helicopter can either return to the rooftop or (if high enough) go into
forward flight without descending below the level of the roof according to FAA rules. It is obvious
that if the rate of descent back to the roof with one engine inoperative puts it into the vortex-ring
state, then the landing may be more traumatic than the pilot might have anticipated.
Power settling has also been experienced during the downwind flare used for a quick stop or during a
crop-dusting turn. In any case where the helicopter catches up with it shown wake, the power required
to keep from falling out of the sky will suddenly increase.

The tail rotor too


The problems of operation in the vortex-ring state were first discovered on main rotors, but tail rotors
may get their share in conditions such as right hover turns and left sideward flight (for helicopters
with main rotors turning counter clock-wise). Not all helicopters experience these troubles, but for
those that do, a common symptom is a sudden increase in the turn rate, referred to by some pilots as
falling into a hole. This is due to the collective-pitch characteristics shown on figure above.

Autorotation
If a fixed wing loses its engine thrust, it can be made glide to a safe landing. For the helicopter to do
the same, provision must be made for the lift producing rotor blades to continue turning even when its
engine (s) has stopped. This is achieved by incorporating free-wheel unit in the rotor drive system so

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that the air flow forces can then drive the rotor blades. The process is called autorotation and it
provides enough lift to reduce the helicopters rate of decent to allow a safe engine-off landing.
The helicopter must incorporate a safely feature to provide for the condition that exists in the event of
power failure. This feature is called autorotation and is required before a helicopter can be certificated
by the Federal Aviation Administration. If power failure occurs the engine inertia in the rotor system
through a free-wheeling device associated with the transmission. This disconnect device, the first step
in the autorotation safety feature, will eliminate the engine drag from the rotor system as well as
preventing further damage to the engine.
The second step required for autorotation is to provide for adequate wind milling of the rotor during
descent and to create enough inertia in the rotor system so the pilot can apply sufficient collective
pitch to cushion the landing. Autorotation is accomplished by aerodynamic forces resulting from an
upward rotor inflow created by the descent of the helicopter. The turning of the rotor generates lift,
which makes it possible to continue controlled flight while descending to a safe landing. Remember
that during autorotation, aerodynamic force, not engine force, is driving the rotor.
If engine failure occurs, the pilot immediately lowers the collective-pitch control, thus reducing the
pitch of all rotor blades simultaneously. The cyclic-pitch control is moved forward to establish the
best forward speed for autorotation. Each helicopter has a characteristic forward speed, which
produces maximum lift and lowest rate of descent.
Once the collective pitch is at the low-pitch limit, the rotor revolutions per minute can be increased
only by a sacrifice in altitude or airspeed. If insufficient altitude is available to exchange for rotor
speed, a hard landing is inevitable. Sufficient rotor rotational energy must be available to permit
adding collective pitch to reduce the helicopters rate of descent before final ground contact.
At low altitudes and low forward velocities, power failure in a helicopter is hazardous because of the
difficulty in establishing sufficient auto rotational lift to make a safe landing. Manufacturers provide
airspeed-versus-altitude limitations charts to inform the pilot regarding the combinations of safe
altitudes and speeds.
Note that it is comparatively safe to hover and fly at low speeds at very low altitudes. After attaining
an indicated airspeed of 50 mph, or 44 km (22 m/s), it is comparatively safe to fly at any altitude
above 50 ft [16 m] because there is sufficient time to make the transition to the autorotation mode.
During autorotation, the outer 25 % of the blades produces the lift, the section between 25 and 70%
of the distance from the tip of the blades produces the driving force that keeps the rotor turning, and
the inner 25 to 30% produces neither lift nor drive in any measurable degree.
or
Autorotation is the process of producing lift with the rotor blades as they freely rotate from a flow of
air up through the rotor system. This ability of the helicopter is one of the features which separate it
from the fixed wing aircraft from a safety standpoint. With and engine or power train failure, the rotor
system will be disengaged, leaving the rotor system to move freely in its original direction and
produce lift, allowing the helicopter to glide.

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During normal operation, the flow of air going through the main rotor is downward. When the engine
is no longer producing power or it is disengaged from the rotor, the flow of air is upward. This
upward flow of air through the rotor will allow the rotor to continue turning.

Contribution of various portions of the rotor disc to the


maintenance of RPM during an autorotation
vertical autorotation (left); forward flight autorotation (right).
The autorotative region is an area approximately 25% to 75 % of the blade which drives the rotor
with the upward flow of air. The inner portion of the table is known as the propeller region of the
rotor. This area tends to slow down the tip speed of the rotor due to a small drag force. These
region are shown below.
During autorotation, it is most important that the RPM of the rotor be controlled. When the
aerodynamic forces of thrust and drag equalize on the rotor blades, the rpm of the rotor will
stabilize. If the rotor entered an updraft, the rpm would increase and a general lessening of the
angle of attack will follow along the entire blade. The change in the angle of attack will change
the force vectors, which will tend to slow the rotor down. The opposite will happen if the rotor is
caught in a downdraft, with the autorotative forces of thrust and drag equalize on the rotor blades,
the rpm of the rotor will stabilize., If the rotor entered an updraft, the rpm would increase and a
general lessening of the angle of attack will follow along the entire blade, The change in the angle
of attack will change the force vectors, which will tend to slow the rotor down. The opposite will
happen if the rotor is caught in a downdraft, with the autorotative forces tending to accelerate the
rotor back to normal speed. If the collective pitch remains constant, an overall increase in the
angle of attack will increase rotor RPM. For example, placing the helicopter in a flare. If the
helicopter is titles down, the RPM will decrease.

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Ground Effect
While hovering the weight is balanced by the lift. If power is reduced, the aircraft will descend as a result
of the excess of weight over the lift. The descent will again be acceleration until such time as parasite
drag form the fuselage, once again equates the forces, and the descent is then at constant speed. But in
practice it is found that as it nears the ground the rate of descend reduces, and indeed a new state of hover
may be achieved, i.e. at reduced power as compared with the original hover. The assumption must be
therefore that it is only the proximity of the ground which has caused the change in lift and this
phenomenon is known as ground effect.
This effect is most easily explained as resulting from an increased pressure are being created between the
rotor disc and the ground as a result of the normal downward flow of air through the disc being slowed to
some extent due to the influence of the immediately below the rotor. Because of this the effect is some
times known as ground effect.
or
Ground effect appears when the helicopter is within one-half of a rotor diameter from the ground. What
actually takes place is that the rotor is displacing, air downward at a much faster rate than it can escape
from beneath the helicopter. The cushion aids in supporting the helicopter while at hover in close
proximity to the ground. If the helicopter moves from this position at a speed grater than 3 to 5 miles per
hour, the ground effect will be lost.

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Flight control System

There are four basic control used during flight. They are these
The cyclic pitch control
Collective pitch control
The throttle and
The anti-torque pedals (For Directional Control)

The cyclic
The cyclic control is located in front of this pilot. It is used to tilt the rotor in all directions as
control is moved. Like the collective switches are usually provided on the cyclic grip for items
that must be used which the pilots hand is used on the control. This would include the
microphone for communication and trim switches for the aircraft. The trim switch is used to alter
flight controls fro the load. It will normally operate fore and aft and left-right trim. A friction lock
is provided for the cyclic so the force required moving it may be set figure below.

Figure : Typical friction control for cyclic

The collective
The collective stick is usually located on the left side of the pilot. It normally pivots from one end
and is raised and lowered to raise and lower the aircraft. This is the standard design. However,
one new design has changed it function to a push-pull type mechanism by repositioning the
collective.
It is common for additional items to be mounted on the collective, among the twist grip. This
twist grip on reciprocating engine helicopters is the throttle. Remember when using this type of
throttle that the closed position is towards the thumb as the collective is normally held. The
throttle was placed in that position because on the early helicopters, it was necessary to adjust
engine power as the collective was raised and lowered.

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Figure : Typical switches contained on the collective.

The twist grip is used to control the compressor rpm on helicopters having free turbine engines
and to operate the engine when the emergency fuel system is used.
A switch box is also often placed on the top of the collective. The early helicopters had a starter
button so it could easily be reached without removing the hand from the control. With turbine
powered aircraft, the box usually contains the trim switches for the engines, landing lights, and
searchlights, plus the starter button. It may other items that might be used while the pilot had his
hand on the collective.

Twist Grip Control or Throttle Control :


Rotation of the twist grip changes the fuel-control setting. The three basic positions used for the
twist grip settings are cut-off, idle, and maximum. The twist grip is fitted with a spring-loaded
idle stop to prevent the throttle from inadvertently being placed in the cut-off position during
flight. An adjustable friction control is used with the twist grip to maintain the selected position.
Raising and lowering the collective pitch has no effect on the twist grip position.

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Twist grip control or Throttle control

To change the twist grip setting, it must be rotated. It is seldom necessary to coordinate twist grip
and collective pitch operation, since the twist grip is in the full open position during all flight
operation.
Swash Plate
The swash plate transfers the movement of the cyclic and collective control from stationary pushpull to rotating push-pull movements that are transferred to the rotor system.

Figure 3: Basic collective swash plate movement.

When collective is applied, all the rotor blades collectively change pitch, which means that the
swash plate must be able to move up and down as it rotates. Fig. 3 shows this operation.

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Figure 4: Basic swash plate movement.

The cyclic movements are somewhat more complicated because they tilt the whole rotor system
left, right, fore and aft. This requires universal joint movement of the swash plate. The nonrotating part moves in the same direction as desired rotor movement. Action must be applied 90
degrees to the force to move the rotor, due to gyroscopic precession Fig. 4.
The helicopter can be moved in any direction desired merely by moving the cyclic pitch control
in that direction.

Yaw Control (Tail Rotors and Anti Torque Control) :

Introduction :
The tail rotor (sometimes referred to as an anti-torque rotor) is used for directional control of the
single main rotor helicopters. This system, like other systems on the helicopter, has as many
variations as there are helicopters.
For many years the tail rotor was one of the areas that plagued the would-be inventers of the
helicopter. The absence of the tail rotor idea brought about coaxial main rotors, tandem rotors,
and rotors located side by side, and intermeshing main rotors. The majority of helicopters are
equipped with tail rotors. Those not utilizing a tail rotor are used primarily by the military.
Even though the tail rotor has disadvantages, the main rotor/tail system seems to be the best
compromise at this time; the tandem main rotor being second best because of the complexity of
design.

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Typical rotor shafting using an intermediate


gear box and tail rotor gearbox.

Operation :
The tail rotor, like the main rotor, must be able to perform in much the same manner, with the
blades being able to change pitch and flap either independently or as a unit. However, no system
of lead-lag has been built into the tail rotor. The rotor blades must have a negative and positive
pitch capability to supply directional control under powered conditions and autorotation.
Directional control is accomplished by foot pedals similar to those used in fixed wing aircraft to
control the rudder. In fact, they are often referred to as rudder pedals, even though they arent.

Tail rotor blades :


Tail rotors are made of a number of different materials and with different designs. Many of the
newer blades are composites with some metal blades still in use. Some helicopters will use a towbladed system while others use a multi bladed system.

Pitch-change Mechanism :
For pitch change mechanism, a number of different systems are used. Most new helicopters
utilize push-pull to the tail rotor, while a few use cable. The pitch-change system may also have a
hydraulic boost on the control system, which is operated from the same system used for the
cyclic and collective.

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Anti-torque Pedals :
The anti-torque pedals are sometimes referred to as the rudder pedals. They are operated by the
pilots feet and change the pitch of the tail rotor, which is used to control the torque of the main
rotor. In addition to the anti-torque correction, the pitch of the tail rotor is changed to give the
helicopter heading control. During takeoff, the power applied to the main rotor is at its
maximum. At this time the highest positive pitch will be required by the tail rotor. On U.S. made
helicopters, this is added to the tail rotor by depressing the left pedal.
Note : Foreign-made helicopters have main rotors that turn in the clockwise direction, which
means that the torque will react in the opposite direction, requiring right pedal to be added during
takeoff. During cruising flight, the pedals are held in the neutral position, which applies some
positive pitch to the tail rotor in order to correct for the lesser amount of torque applied by the
main rotor.
The right pedal is applied when it is desirable to move the nose of the helicopter to the right. This
moves the tail rotor pitch to a negative angle. By applying the left pedal, the nose of the aircraft
may be moved to the left (Fig. 9)
In addition to giving directional control to the helicopter under engine power, the tail rotor must
be able to supply negative thrust during autorotation.
Since the tail rotor absorbs power from the engine which could be sued to produce lift and
thrust, it is advantageous to unload the tail rotor as mush as possible in forward flight. This is
usually accomplished by a vertical fin on the tail of the helicopter. This fin is often offset from
the centerline, assisting in torque correction during forward flight (Fig. B)

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Fig. 9 : The movement of the anti-torque pedals


is directly related to the amount of the main rotor pitch.

Main Rotor System

Introduction :
The main rotor is the wing of the helicopter. In addition to the normal stresses placed on the
wing, there are stresses imposed on the rotor system by centrifugal force. These forces are
coupled with motion which induces vibration, twisting movements and flexing placing the rotor
system under continuous stress during operation. Because of the critical nature of the rotor
system, maintenance and inspection of the helicopters rotating components must be entrusted to
a trained technician who understands the rotor system and its complexity.
Since its inception it has been the goal of every helicopter manufacturer to build the most
reliable, maintenance free and best performing rotor system possible. Through continuous efforts
in research and development, many improvements have been made in rotor systems. New
improvements have increased the finite life of components, decreased maintenance, and
increased performance in both lift and speed. Many improvements resulted in various rotor
system designs, each having advantages and disadvantages. The final result is a compromise,
adapting the greatest advantages with the least adverse characteristics possible. Only by
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incorporating these various designs have advances been made. This has resulted in a number of
different rotor systems being produced. The maintenance technician should be familiar with the
various systems to insure proper servicing and inspections. The purpose of this section is to
familiarize the technician with some rotor system and maintenance techniques.

Rotor Heads :
There are actually three major types of rotor heads in use today.
They are described as rigid, semi-rigid and articulated. The latter two (semi rigid and articulated)
are the most widely used.

Flapping axis associated with semi rigid rotors.

The semi rigid rotor heads are a two-bladed type and are under slung. This means that the major
portion of the head is below the top of the mast. This increases stability. The head must have a
seesaw action or flapping axis, using a gimbal or a pillow block trunnion arrangement at the top
of the rotor. This equalizes the lift forces of the advancing and retreating blades. The head must
also have a feathering axis for changing pitch.

Feathering axis of a rotor system.

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The fully articulated rotor head has provisions for independent flapping of the rotor blades by
using 3 hinge mechanisms for each blade. There must also be a means of allowing the blades to
lead and lag independently for equalization of lift of the advancing and retreating blades. Lead
and lag are accomplished by another hinge mechanism and a dampener to control the lead and
lag of the blade (Fig. 5-5). The head must also provide a pitch change for each blade.

Rotor Heads :
There are actually three major types of rotor heads in use today. They are described as rigid, semi
rigid and fully articulated. The latter two (semi rigid and fully articulated) are the most widely
used.
Rigid rotor heads

The rigid rotor system makes use of a feathering axis only. For this reason the possibilities of this
system have been neglected over the years due to the inability to correct for dissymmetry in lift.
The countrified helicopters that make use of the rigid rotors today use fiberglass blades which are
designed to flex, giving flapping motion as well as the lad-lag properties to the blade rather than
to the hub.
Semi rigid rotor heads
The semi rigid rotor is probably the most popular rotor system. However, some of the newly
designed heads may change this situation within a few years. The semi rigid rotor, like the rigid
rotor, makes use of a feathering axis for pitch change. In addition to this movement, the rotor is
allowed to flap as a unit. For this reason it is sometimes referred to as a see-saw rotor system.
Some are built with additional movement about the chord wise axis by use of a gimbals ring. The
reason for this additional movement is to compensate for the carioles effect as described earlier.
Other semi rigid systems correct this problem with a built-in correction factor in the swash plate,
which changes pitch angles during rotation.
Articulated rotor heads

The articulated rotor system is one that utilizes the feathering axis for the blade pitch, an
individual flapping hinge for each blade, and a lead-lag hinge for each blade. At the present time
there are probably not as many fully articulated heads as semi rigid heads, but because of new
technological developments in this area, this trend may soon be reversed.
The fully articulated rotor heads, like the semi rigid heads, have many designs. Although they
have always given a smoother operation, until quite recently the number of parts required in the
manufacture and maintenance has always been greater. With some of the newer designs, the
numbers of parts, as well as the maintenance requirements, have been reduced.

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Rotor blade Dampers Function and Construction :

Drag Hinge Blade Damper :


The hydraulic damper consists of a flange supporting a small hydraulic reservoir made of
transparent plastic material, a cylinder mounted on the flange and communicating with the
reservoir, a piston incorporating two opposed single action ball type relief valves. Two arms
connect the drag hinge pin, to the cylinder. The piston rod is connected to a fixed lever centered
on the drag hinge pin and splined to the droop restrainer shaft.

Dampeners :
The dampener units used in conjunction with the stabilizer bars differ in design. Both types use a
double action hydraulic action hydraulic dampener, which restricts the travel rate of the stabilizer
in both directions.

Typical hydraulic dampener used on the S-58.

The dampeners themselves consist of a cylindrical housing divided into four chambers by a wing
shaft. The wing shaft has passages which allow fluid to move from one chamber to the other
when the shaft is turned. An attached arm is connected to the stabilizer bar through the linkage.
Since the rate of movement of the bar is important, a metering valve is used to control the flow.
This valve is adjustable and temperature compensated to control the flow rate. This is
accomplished by use of a Plexiglas tube that expands and contracts with changes with changes in
temperature.

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Dampener assembly used in conjunction with the stabilizer bar.

The other dampeners work in much the same manner. They too are attached to the mast by a
frame assembly below the rotor head. The metering valve is somewhat different, utilizing a cam
and slider valve assembly. This gives the dampener a variable orifice, resulting in a difference in
the rate of movement. Slow movement of the dampener causes low fluid flow through the orifice,
which offers little resistance. Rapid movement increases the resistance.
The maintenance of these dampeners is somewhat limited. Both dampeners require fluid level
checks and occasionally need additional fluid. A sight gauge and a filler plug are provided for
that purpose. Problems may be encountered in filling the fluid level if too much air is present in
the dampener. Timing of the dampener is a primary concern. The Bell 47 dampener may be
checked for timing by disconnecting the linkage and attaching a special arm and weight to the
arm. This is then raised and let fall free. It should take four seconds plus or minus Vz second, for
the dampener to return to its neutral position. If the timing is not correct the dampener to return
to its neutral position. If the timing is not correct, the dampener may be adjusted by moving the
Plexiglas tube in and out. At times it will not be possible to correct the timing. In this situation,
the dampener must be removed and replaced. Often, in order to determine its condition,
dampener movement can be felt for soft and hard spots.
The other dampeners are checked for timing by raising the stabilizer to the stops and returning it
to neutral position. It should take five seconds, plus or minus 1 second. There is no possible
adjustment for this dampener. It can only be replaced.
Dampener problems include becoming too hard or too soft. Too soft will result in an over stable
helicopter and delayed control response. Too hard control will result in an unstable helicopter
with too quick a control response.

Hydraulic dampener :
The hydraulic dampener makes use of a cylinder and piston with fluid passing through a
controlled orifice. Dampeners of this type are adjustable so the rate of the dampener can vary.
Many of the newer dampeners are sealed units, making field adjustment impossible.

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Rotor Blades
The first rotors were made of wood and used on several of the early models. Many are still in use
today. Next came metal blades, generally of bonded constructions, with some still sued in current
production.

Typical wooden blade construction.

The next type of construction is the composite blade. Utilizing several types of materials,
including fiberglass, in its construction. This is the newest type of blade.
Since the rotor blade is the wind of the helicopter, it is very important that its care and inspection
are well understood. The blade produces the lifting force of the helicopter and is exposed to many
load factors not common to the fixed wing. This includes centrifugal force, twisting movements
and rapid span movements. For this reason, the blades are a most critical item and should be
treated as such.
Fly-by-Wire (FBW) Control Systems
Introduction :
The potential benefits of fly-by-wire (FBW) control of civil transport aircraft have long been
recognized, and some of the first aircraft to which the technique was applied were the Concorde
(elevon control) and the Boeing 767 for the control of its wing spoiler system. It was only with
the design and development of the Airbus a320, however, that benefits have been fully exploited
whereby FBW/digital computer systems have complete control over all flight control surfaces.

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Another significant feature of this aircraft is that each pilot has a side-stick type of controller in
place of the more conventional control column.
An FBW system has a number of advantages, the most notable of which may be highlighted as
follows :
Weight saving
Reduced maintenance times
Gust load alleviation :
Another advantage of the use FBW, which has been utilized for some years, is that it may be used to
control the ailerons in a manner which will alleviate the effects of wind gusts.
Automatic manoeuvre envelope protection :
The computers limit the response of the controls and thereby ensure that flight manoeuvre envelope
limits of bank, pitch, yaw, speed, angle of attack and g forces are not exceeded.
Improved handling
Fuel saving

Balancing :
The main rotor system, like any other rotating object, requires balance. This procedure is
accomplished both statically and dynamically in order to insure smooth.
Tail Rotors Balancing
During manufacture, the shafts are normally statically balanced only; the clamps used were
positioned to reduce the possibility of vibration and the tail rotor blades are balanced against a
master blade. These precautions, however, will not eliminate the need for balance in the field.
The tail rotors will still require a static balance, both span-wise and chord wise, and will require
dynamic balance as well.
Static balance can be accomplished in several different ways. As on the main rotor, balancing
equipment for the specific tail rotor is often available from the manufacturer. Universal balancing
equipment is also available for a number of tail rotors. Addition of weight in areas other than
those authorized would be dangerous. Basically the balance procedure for the tail rotors is
similar, except the actual balancing point may vary.

Overview of tail rotor rigging :


Some anti torque systems are more difficult rig than others. Like other flight control system,
some systems use rigging pins, protractors, and jigs to position the control while rigging. All of
these devices are used to help simplify the system. it may have been noticed that the pitch of the
tail rotor was set for left pedal only in this procedure. The right pedal is assumed to be set in this
system by the extreme left pedal position.
Many of the newer helicopters are using this method of setting for the extreme position, while the
older helicopters are rigged for a neutral position and then checked for the extreme position. The
use of protractors is becoming rare, with manufacturers more interested in fixed lengths rather
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than degrees. This is probably due to the desire to eliminate a maintenance error with the
protractor.
From time to time, it may be necessary to install a tail rotor. The tail rotor may be installed in
various ways. Usually the tail rotor is splined to the output shaft of the gearbox and rests on a set
of split cones. If it is a two-bladed rotor, flap stops are incorporated in the attachment and may be
adjustable by shims to limit the flap travel in such situations, the blade flap angle must be set as
shown in Fig. the rotor itself will be held to the shaft by a nut. If the same tail rotor is to be
removed and replaced, no other maintenance procedures will be required. However, if it is not the
same tail rotor, track, balance and pedal creep may have to be set, in addition to the installation
procedures.
On some tail rotor systems pedal creep may be adjusted. This is done through counter weights
attached to the tail rotor. Pedal creep may be adjusted by adding or subtracting washers from the
arms or rings. To check pedal creep, the pedals are set to neutral when the helicopter is at the
designated power setting. When the feet are taken off the pedals, the pedals should remain in
neutral. If the left pedal moves forward, the weights are too heavy and weight must be removed.
If the right pedal creeps forward, more weight must be added. The weight of these washers must
be equal at all times or balance will be affected. Pedal creep should always be checked in a nowind condition.
Many other maintenance procedures may be included on specific tail rotors. For this reason all
maintenance should be done in strict accordance with the maintenance manual.

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