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Preface
Supplier of Automotive Parts Company (SAPCO) was established in 1993 and
became the pioneer in automotive parts supplying in the Iranian car-making
industries. SAPCO is the greatest branches of Iran Khodro Company, the largest
auto-manufacturer in Iran. It is actively involved in engineering, quality and planning
aspects of auto-parts.
One of the main engineering and technical sections in Sapco is "Department of Tool
Engineering" which supports all of the supplying groups in the field of planning and
developing the process of "Tool Manufacturing" as the foundation of supplying of
parts. The main target for Department of Tool Engineering is to manage the
procedures in which the tools have been manufactured with suitable standards and
target price. Therefore, the Metal Stamping Dies team has been persuaded to publish
a reference standard to lead the process of manufacturing contracts reach the above
factors.
Using "Die Design Standard of Sapco" helps to reach an optimized result for the
designing and manufacturing the dies with size G5 (less than 700mm length) and
Progressive type. This reference is useful for the designers and manufacturers of
metal stamping dies, students of technical universities and other groups involved in
this industry. In order to use this standard book, it is better to seek the needed subject
in the content which is ordered based on the steps needed from design to
manufacturing and general elements such as die shoes and guides to principal part
such as punch and dies steel blocks, etc.
Preparing this standard book would not be possible without the helps of our
colleagues in the Metal Stamping Dies group, whom special thanks should go to Mr.
Mohammad Tajedin the head of stamping dies department as the technical
supervisor, Mr. Soroush Chehrenegar as author, translator, editor and illustrator, Mr.
Hossein Nouri, Mr. Javad Sadeghi, Mr. Mehrdad Olfatian, Mr. Mostafa Naghdi and
Mr. Mehdi Parto as the illustrators and authors team.
In addition, we will appreciate any criticism and suggestion about this book to
improve it in the next edition.

Metal Stamping Dies department of SAPCO


Nov. 2005

Content
Process sheet
Die Lay Out
Strip layout
Final version of assembly drawing
Part detail drawing
3D CAD Data specifications
Measurement report of finished part
Instruction of die installation and setup
Clamping methods
Transportation
Feeder specifications for progressive die
Die shoes and guiding systems
Punch and die
Punch, die, clearance and gaps
Critical points on the die
Piercing on the inclined surface
Blank holder and strip guide
Punch holder
Methods of locating
Pilot pin in progressive tool
Controlling the feed by side cutter
Scrap cutter
Strip pusher
Part box, Scrap box and chute
Stop blocks
Stock Block
Bottoming marker
Cam units
Cam pad
Springs and its positioning
Standard bolts
Standard pins
Types of flange
Flange in corners
Spring back in bending
Bead design
Air vent systems
Coordinate hole
Surface roughness in the die elements
Calculations
Die Painting
Identification plaques of die
Appendix A
Appendix B1
Appendix B2
Appendix C
Appendix D
Appendix E

1
3
5
7
8
9
11
12
13
15
18
19
22
31
32
33
34
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39
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50
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89

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Title:

Date: Nov.2005

Page 1 of 81

Process sheet

The process of die design for each part begins with sketching of the processes of the
part, which will be brought separately in the compartments of a table, called process
sheet. Each one of the processes generally includes one of the principal operations
such as cutting, forming, drawing or trimming. The process sheet should contain the
processes, which form a flat sheet metal to a fully formed part. Following
requirements and information should be included in the process sheet:
Tool number, arranging from 1 to n (n is the last tool number).
Operation number shows the order of operations added to a "OP", e.g. OP05, OP10,
OP20, OP30,
As a rule, it should be named the first operation to "OP10" for "Draw" operation.
However, If a blanking operation needs before to the OP10, it will add an "OP05" e.g.
for a blank operation. In the case of needs to any other operations between the regular
operations, it should be used a median operation name for them. For example: Op05,
Op10, Op15, Op20, Op25, Op30, Op40, etc.
Operation name is the name of an operation in which one of the principal operations
such as Draw, form, Trim, Re-strike, etc. is to be done on the panel.
Tool size is general dimensions of tool (width, length, and height), used for choosing
of appropriate press and to estimation of total weight of the tool.
Tonnage of press (or press force) is amount of minimum required force to apply
operation easily, used for choosing appropriate press.
Die specifications specify whether die should produce right hand or left hand part or
both.
Part number is an identifier for the technical number of parts.
Thickness is the thickness of raw sheet metal.
Approver Identifications with its date should contain signature of drafter, checker or
approver with printing date.
Page number specifies the number of sheets attached.
Material specifies the raw sheet metal material used in the operations.
Blank areas are used to sketching operation processes. Direction of feeding and
pressing should be shown.
(See a sample of process sheet in the next page)

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool

Created by:
Page 2 of 81

Date: Nov.2005
Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

............
............
............

297

Press
(ton)
60

Thickness:
2 mm

Fe

Press
(ton)

Separate

Date:
XX.XX.XX

Date:
XX.XX.XX

Die
Spec.
R
L
R&L ALN

Sht.No.
1 of 1

Die material: SPKR


Press
Die
(ton)
Spec.
R
L
R&L ALN

ed

Press
(ton)
60

SAPCO-Department of Die and tool

Checked:
XXXXXXX

Fe

Die
Tool Op.
Tool
Op.
Name
No. No.
Dim.(cm)
Spec.
R
L
70x40x30
20
Sep.
R&L ALN

Drawn:
XXXXXXX

Die
Tool Op. Op. Name
Tool
Spec.
No. No.
Dim.(cm)
R
L
R&L ALN

Die material: SPK

ed

Press
(ton)
60

(Sheet Metal Tools)

Operation Sheet

Flange up

Die
Tool Op.
Tool
Op.
Name
Dim.(cm)
Spec.
No. No.
R
L
70x40x30
10
Flg. up
R&L ALN

Material:
XXXXXX

Press

Number:
Date:
Attach.:

Blank

Part No:
XXXXXXXXXX

Press
(ton)

Press

Die
Tool Op. Op. Name
Tool
Spec.
No. No.
Dim.(cm)
R
L
R&L ALN

Feed

Tool Op.
Tool
Op.
Name
No. No.
Dim.(cm)
05
Blk./Pie. 70x45x30
Pierce

Part Name:
XXXXXXXXXX

Die material: SPKR


Tool Op. Op. Name
Tool
No. No.
Dim.(cm)

130

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Title:

Date: Nov.2005

Page 3 of 81

Die Lay Out

In order to preview the general concepts of die design, detailed die layout drawing of
the processes should be prepared completely before die design. See the sample of die
layout drawing in the index A. Each die layout drawing should include following
information:
Title Block should contain general information such as part name, part number, tool
name, tool operation number, material and thickness of sheet metal, toolmaker name
and its logo, signature of drafter, checker and approver with printing appropriated date.
Scale, sheet number and other needed information should be added too. Title block
should be placed on the right hand lower corner.
Operations side Boxes, should be ordered upward vertically above the title block
which contains concept sketches brought from the process sheet. Following
information should be included in the side boxes:
a) Operation sketch showing the operation in which one of the principal operations,
such as drawing, trimming, flanging, piercing, cam pierce or other operations will be
applied. In addition, illustration of press direction and feeding the panel should be
shown.
b)In order to obtain the best result in the forming of the part during the stroke of tool,
suitable rotation angle of punch and die surfaces should be defined based on the
rotation angle of CAD data during die face design, if needed. In other words, the
draft angles should be considered regarding to the ease of ejection of panel in
direction of press.
c) Operation name according to the assumed operations should be notified.
d)Operation number according to the order number of the operations should be
notified.
e) Press tonnage according to the estimated force for the assumed operations should be
shown in the appropriate box.
Modifications table shows the modifications generated and announced by the client.
Notes area should be added if there is any important notification to toolmaker.
Line type table shows the type of the used border lines of each one of the operations
with a specific pattern separately.

Procedure of loading and unloading the panel from die, whether it is manual or
automatic, should be specified.
Plan view of panel is a single plan of panel showing the operations from the first to
the final. Each one of the operations should be defined using a specific patterned line
in a legend table. Following items should be specified on the plan view:

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 4 of 81

Sectional views show the detail of operations of specific paths in which the loaded
panel on the punch and die is being illustrated.
Scrap cutter locations surrounding the punch should be indicated.
Overlaps shows the previous trimmed edges which are extended to the current trim
operation.
Gooseneck shows the overlapped area of the flange punches.
Bottom markers in the appropriate locations should be indicated.

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Title:

Date: Nov.2005

Page 5 of 81

Strip layout

If the die to be made is progressive, instead of plan view of panel in the die layout, the
layout of strip should be drawn. In order to optimize the usage of material on the strip
or blank and decrease the waste material, the layout of blanks should have the
minimum waste material. See the following examples:

Ok!

Not Ok!

Ok!

Not Ok!

Ok!

Not Ok!

In the above strip layouts the "e" is (1.25t) in which "t" is the material thickness and
should not be less than 2mm.
In order to avoid twisting of strip, the blanking and trimming large holes should be
laid out preferably in the end of the strip. If such operation has been laid out in the first
stage, it causes the twisting of the strip in the entrance of strip guide and therefore the
strip cannot feed easily.

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 6 of 81

In order to avoid tearing of strip on the areas in which the strip is weak, using a bead
or any embossed shape in the previous stages should be applied.
For the high rate of production, the distance between the die holes should be at least
15mm if applicable. If it is not applicable, idle stages should be used when the die will
be weak against the shearing and forming forces.
Strip

Die

Weak

Weak

Not Ok!

These distances should


be Min 15mm.

Die
Idle Stage

Idle Stage

Strip

Narrow cutting operations or cutting around weak areas should be done in separate
stages.

Narrow cutting
(is cut in two stages)

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Title:

Date: Nov.2005

Page 7 of 81

Final version of assembly drawing

Final version of assembly drawing is a structural drawing shows the functional


relations between the parts of die. Assembly drawing of each die should be prepared in
the shut or closed die. (See sample in the index B)
Each assembly drawing should contain following items:
Sectional and sub-sectional views in the condition of shut (closed die), plans on
upper and lower die, Strip layout which shows the operations and the order of stages,
strip width, feed direction, if the die is progressive.
Diagrams shows the specifications of the used springs which specifies the rates of
strength under specific pressures, applied cam units etc.
Part list includes specifications of components of die. It should generally contain
following information:

a) Number (No.) shows the order of component


b) Part name is description of the component
c) Material is the material used to manufacture the component
d) Finished size is general size of the component
e) Item No. is the quantity of each item
f) Standard No is the material standard number of the component
g) Hardness is the condition of hardness of the part
Title block should contain general information such as part name, part number, tool
name, tool operation number, material and thickness of considered sheet metal, Scale,
sheet number, toolmaker name and its logo, signature of drafter, checker and approver
with printing appropriate date and other needed information.

There are two methods for laying out of upper and lower plans, sections and views of
die. See these two methods in the samples of final version of assembly drawing in the
index B1 and B2.

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Title:

Date: Nov.2005

Page 8 of 81

Part detail drawing

In order to manufacture the parts of each die, a set of detail drawings of its
components should be prepared. Each one of the parts of die should have separate
detail drawing in an ISO standard format. The format of each drawing includes
drawing frame with title block in a standard size of A4, A3 or larger size if required.
Other applications of engineering drafting standards such as dimensioning, tolerances,
surface finishing, etc. should be added on the part drawing, if applicable.
A single sheet drawing of related or similar parts could be prepared if the ease of
usage of the drawing does not affect with the complexity of drawing.

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Title:

Date: Nov.2005

Page 9 of 81

3D CAD Data specifications

In order to maintain and repair the die and its components during the production, 3D
Cad data of the die with the 2D drawings should be included, if applicable. In the draw
dies, the CAD data of the die, punch or blank holder (generally is a surface 3D model)
should be prepared with location of the coordinate hole axis as a reference for CNC
machining purposes on the lower and upper shoes or the blank holder. Direction and
location of X, Y, and Z-axes should be defined.

Draw Die with


Blank Holder

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 10 of 81

Die face
CAD data

In the blank dies, the profile of die, punch or pad, which generally is a 2D curve,
should be prepared with the location of the coordinate holes axis on the lower and
upper shoes or pad as a reference for machining purposes. Direction of X, Y, and Zaxes should be defined.

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Title:

Date: Nov.2005

Page 11 of 81

Measurement report of the finished part

In order to approval of die, Measurement report of the part should be prepared by


toolmaker. The following table is a sample of a measurement report and the required
information.

Measurement Report
Client:

Project:

Part Number:

Part Description:

Date:

Quantity:

Dim. Dim. Measuring Measurement


Dim.
Upper
Lower
Number
Equipment
Result
Nominal Difference Tolerance Tolerance Error

Measurer's
Comments

1
2
3

VC

81.52

81

0.52

+0.2

-0.2

PP

24.95

25

0.05

+0.25

-0.25

PP

5.55

0.55

+0.1

-0.1

0.32
0.45

6
...
n
Measuring Equipment:
CMM - Coordinate Measuring Machine; CF - Checking Fixture; VC - Vernier Caliper; MC - Micrometer;
MI - Microscope; TM - Thickness Measurer; PP - Profile Projector; PR - Protractor
Dim. Element:
L - length; D - Degree; R - Radius
Metrology Department:

The Technician:

Measurement Date:

Page ... of ...

Issue Date:

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Title:

Date: Nov.2005

Page 12 of 81

Instruction of die installation and setup

In order to define and set the specifications needed for the instruction of die
installation, following items should be considered:
1-Die layout:
a) Work area or contents of work that is trimming area, flanging area, etc.
b) Orientation of pressing
c) Working directions which are loading and unloading direction and front side of
the die.
2-Size of die that is Front/Back Right/Left Height (Die Shut Height)
3-Material of die components that is body of die, cutting edges, bend edges
4-Production system
a) Full Automation (loading and unloading with vacuum jaws)
b) Semi-automation (loading with hand unloading with vacuum jaws)
c) Transferring line
d) Automated feeding with coil of material at the start and chute at the end
e) Loading manually (loading and unloading with hand)
5-Press specifications
a) Loading/Unloading system
b) Locating and positioning systems on the bolster
c) U-slots for fixing and locating the die
d) Cushion pin locations (pitch)
e) Location of scrap holes
f) Bolster and Ram size
g) Press Shut height and open height
6- Press specifications in the die maker or producer site
a) If user specifications such as bolster size, ram size, shut height, cushion pin pitch,
blank holder open entry is possible for tryout within the die maker site
b) If user's specification can be changed for tryout within the die maker site
c) If there is any requirement for specific die structure
7-Data and documents of coordinated components of die and production
8-User's standards and specifications

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Title:

Date: Nov.2005

Page 13 of 81

Clamping methods

In order to clamp the die in a fixed and stable position following methods should be
used:
1- Using fastening bolt to clamp the die shoe,
Clamping Bolt
Press bolster T slot

Die Shoe

Press bolster

2- Using clamp with a series of riser blocks,


Die Shoe

A series of riser blocks

Press Bolster

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 14 of 81

Die Shoe

riser
Press bolster

3- Using clamp with an adjustable riser,


Die Shoe

Adjustable riser
Press bolster

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Title:

Date: Nov.2005

Page 15 of 81

Transportation

In order to transport the die in a safe condition, hooks and fastening strips should be
made.
Minimum four transporting hooks and four transporting strips should be used in each
die. Transporting strips and hooks should not be installed in same sides of die shoes.
The transportation hooks should be installed in the longer side of the die shoe.

Min 3mm

Min. 8mm

A-A

For the die shoes smaller than 300x300mm size, it is permissible to use two strips
only.
For transportation, using following types of hooks are allowed. (Refer to fibro
standard number 213.11, 213.12 and 213.13)

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005
B

Page 16 of 81

Transportation hooks should be used with the cables to move or turn over the die.

Installation and positioning cables on the transportation hooks


Relief space under hooks should be provided so that the cable can easily pass through
the space between the press bolster and the hook. A relief of Min 20 mm is required.

Less than 20mm (Not Good)


Over 20mm (Good)
If transportation cable goes over the corners of die, a 5x5mm chamfer should be
provided on such area.

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Not good!

Date: Nov.2005

Good!

Page 17 of 81

Good!

Countermeasure for slip on angular part of die

In order to avoid dangers involved in the transportation of dies, the eccentricity and
unbalancing during the transportation should be considered. The balancing of die and
its weight should be considered so that die can be lifted on a horizontal level. In figure
A and B, balanced conditions are shown.

If the above requirements cannot be obtained, following alternative should be


provided.

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Title:

Date: Nov.2005

Page 18 of 81

Feeder specifications for progressive die

Feeder should be a separate accessory and feed the roll automatically into position in
which stamping will occur.
1-Feeder should be used in a progressive die When:
a) The high rate of production is the most important factor in production plan
b) The part precision leads the production process to provide precise feeding instead
of manual feeding
2-Regarding the kind of duties, feeders should be selected:
a) Roll feeder with regulated drive, feeding of strip into press, adjustable feeding
stroke with regulated drive, central lubrication, automatic roll release, End of
strip monitoring.
b) Roll feeder with fixed drive, fixed drive, change of stroke via exchangeable rolls
central lubrication, automatic roll release
c) Roll feeder for narrow strip, adjustable fixed feeding stroke, automatic roll
release, end of strip monitoring
d) Pneumatic gripper feeder for wide strip, adjustable feeding stroke, automatic roll
release, end of strip monitoring
3-High precision electrical feeders should be used, if the result of division of the part
precision (that is the minimum tolerance value in the part drawing) in to the number
of stages gives a micron value. In other words, the high precision electrical feeders
should be used for micron precisions.
4-Medium precision mechanical feeders should be used, if the result of division of the
part precision (that is the minimum tolerance value in the part drawing) in to the
number of stages gives an approximated 0.03mm or more. In other words, the
Medium precision mechanical feeders should be used for over hundredth precisions.
5-Scrap collector system
a) Roll scrap, which should be rolled in a coil
b)Scrap breaker, which should be used when the scrap is better to break to small
scraps

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 19 of 81

Title:
Die shoes and guiding systems
All of the components of die should be fastened on the die shoes as a precise
basement.
1. Die shoes should be made of ST52 and have ground surfaces.

2. All of the die shoes should have 4 sets of guiding post and bush.
3. FIBRO Standard parts should be considered as the principal standard. Other similar
standards are acceptable.
4. Surface roughness of guide posts and guide bush should be in
condition.
5. Guide posts or guide bushes should have lubricating grooves.
6. The length of the guide post should be long enough to enter the guide bush, before
contact between the blank holder and part.

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 20 of 81

7. In order to locate the guide post in a fixed position, clamping rings with fastening
bolts should be used.

8. When the die is shut, the guide post should be lower than the upper die shoe
(minimum 3mm).

9. Blank holders with length more the 500mm, should have both guide posts and spool
retainer.

Shoe

Ball bearing
Guide Post
O20 H7
r4

Pad

Over500mm

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 21 of 81

10.Progressive dies with more than four stages should have ball bearing guide bushes.

11.In order to prevent misassemble upper and lower shoes, guide posts and heel guides
should be fool proof.

12.Die shoes with more than 800mm length, should have both guide posts and heel
guides with wear plate, if needed.

13.Possibility of lubrication for all wearing surfaces of the guides should be


considered. Wear plates should have either graphite inserts or lubricating grooves.

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Title:

Page 22 of 81

Punch and die

1-The die and punch should be made of suitable material and hardness (refer to the
following table). In addition, there should not be any welding, crack or porosity on
their main surfaces and edges. If the cracks, porosities or other material failures are far
enough from the main edges or functional surfaces, they should be repaired using
welding techniques.
Thickness
Trim
of sheet
materials (mm) Punch

Production Rate
Over 1,000,000
(High production rate)
500,000 to 1,000,000
(Medium production rate)
250,000 to 500,000
(Medium production rate)

1.3343
1.2436

t<3
Hardness

602 HRC 602 HRC

t<3

1.2436 1.2436
1.2080 1.2080

Hardness

602 HRC 602 HRC

1.2080

Hardness
50,000 to 100,000
(Small production rate)

t<3

1.2080

Hardness
t<3

1.2080

Hardness

1.2080
1.6580

1.2080
1.6580

552 HRC

552 HRC

552 HRC

552 HRC

1.2510
1.6580

1.2510
1.6580

1.6580
1.1740

1.6580
1.1740

552 HRC

552 HRC

552 HRC

552 HRC

1.2510
1.6580

1.2510
1.6580

1.6580
1.1740

1.6580
1.1740

552 HRC

552 HRC

552 HRC

552 HRC

1.2510
1.6582

1.1740

1.1740

552 HRC

552 HRC

552 HRC

1.6582

1.1740
1.7225

552 HRC

552 HRC

1.6582

1.7225

552 HRC

552 HRC

1.2510
1.6582
552 HRC

1.6582

1.2080

602 HRC 602 HRC

552 HRC

1.6582

1.2080

602 HRC 602 HRC

Draw, Form Draw, Form


& Restrike & Restrike
Punch
Die

1.2080
1.2510

1.2080

602 HRC 602 HRC

Flange &
Bend Die

1.2080
1.2510

1.2436
1.2080

Hardness

t<3

Flange &
Bend Punch

1.3343
1.2436

602 HRC 602 HRC

1.2436
1.2080

t<3

100,000 to 250,000
(Small production rate)

Around 2000
(Limited production rate)

Trim
Die

552 HRC

1.1740
1.7225
552 HRC

1.7225
552 HRC

If the size of Draw, Form & Restrike dies are greater than G5, the punch & die can be
made of GGG60+Ni+Cr+Mo with Standard Material Number 0.7060
Following table shows the various names of the some common materials in the trade.
1.3343
..

ROCHLING

1.2436

1.2080

BOHLER

BOHLER

(GIGANT M 5U) (SPEC.K.R)

(SPK)

1.2510

1.1740

1.6580

BOHLER BOHLER BOHLER


(AMUTIT)

(MS 60)

2-Surface roughness for punch and die should be

1.6582
BOHLER

(VCN 200) (VCN 150)

1.7225
..

ROCHLING
(MO 40)

or 0.4~1.6 Ra.

3-In order to provide ease of maintenance of large punches and dies, and to prevent
deformation of them after heat treatment they should be made of separate sectional
steel blocks (See index C). Each one of the sections should be fixed indirectly to die
and punch holder or directly to die shoe with minimum 2 bolts and 2 dowel pins. For
each one of the sections a back up key should be used to eliminate the thrust forces
against them.

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

25

Page 23 of 81
Back up Key
Punch

25

Back up Key

Sec A-A

Back up Key

Pocket for key


Die Shoe

4-Punches made of EDM wire machining, should be fixed in the punch holder. In the
large sections of punch (more than 100x100mm), a back up key should be used to
eliminate thrust forces.
Bolt

Dowel pin

Max100

Bumper
A
Punch

Punch Holder
Max100
SEC. A-A

5-According to the profile of the die hole, for the parts with the thickness lower than
3mm, the following distances should be considered. For the thicknesses more than
3mm, the distances should be increased.
Min 35mm

min 30mm

min 35mm

min 45mm

6-The punches with thin wall should be held in a punch holder:


A: With one or more dowel pins:

Bumper
A

A
Punch

Punch Holder
SEC. B-B
B
Punch Holder

Punch

SEC. A-A

min 45mm

Min 30mm

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 24 of 81

B: Make a step using EDM wire machining in a same time with punch and then weld
them to each other using brass weld:

C: Other type of punches (e.g. standard punch or all types of punches with stepped
tail) should be gripped in a punch holder.

min5mm
For grinding

7-In order to avoid breaking of die steel blocks and ensure of fixed positioning of die
elements, following spaces should be made.
For lower than 3mm thickness strip
min12mm

6-8 mm for Low rate production


8-12 mm for high rate production

15

20

min5mm

min20mm

min 1mm

8-Scrap hole of the trimming dies should be tapered. Right angle scrap hole is
allowable but tapered one is preferable. Die shearing walls should have an appropriate
height according to the part thickness. The following values are allowed for the parts
with the thickness lower than 3mm. For the thicknesses more than 3mm, the distances
should be increased.
90

Very good.

1-3

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 25 of 81

90

Good.
a

Max2mm

(a= 8mm for less than 200,000 stroke and 12mm for more than 200,000 stroke)
9-For small dies, a tapered hole of 15'-20' is enough. The right angle scrap hole is not
required.
15'-20'

10- In order to grind the faces of the die freely parallel to each other and with the die
hole axis perpendicular to the shoe faces, die should be inserted in a pocket (die
holder) and then fastened to the die shoe. In such condition, guide posts will not get
accident with grinder during grinding. In addition, as there is not enough space to
grind the die block seat on the die shoe, the die should not fasten to the die shoe
directly.

//

Accessible

min 5
Die
Die holder
Lower shoe

Work order:
1- Assemble die (without the die hole) in die holder.
2- Machining of bottom face of die holder parallel with
to top face of die // .
3- Manufacturing the die hole with the assembled
die holder.
4- Grinding the die face with die holder simultaneously.
OK

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 26 of 81

//

Die

Lower shoe

The guide posts do not allow grinding of die.


Not OK!

11- In the case of using small dies, using button die inserted in the die steel block is
essential.
Die holder

Die

Inserted button die

12- There should not be any gap and space between the sectional steel blocks. The
split line of the steel blocks should be perpendicular to the die face.
Split line
Sectional
90

Sectional

Split line
Sectional

Sectional
0
=9

Not Ok!

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 27 of 81

13- The splitting line of the sectional steel blocks should not be positioned at the
corners of the parts. (See index C).
14- In the weak and breakable areas, separate inserted steel blocks should be used.
Separate inserted
block die

15- It should not be used shim or any other filler between the steel blocks of punch (or
die) and back up keys.
Adjusting Shim

Die

Back up key

16- Cutting dies should be made of SPKR or other similar material and 602HRC
hardness. (Refer to the material table)
17- The dies which are affected by thrust forces, together with screw and dowel pin,
back up keys should be used as well. (See index C)
18- The distance between the die face and the head of the screws (or dowel pins),
should be at least 5mm.

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 28 of 81

19- Distances between screws and dowel pins from the cutting edges should not be
less than 12mm.
Min12mm

Min12mm

20- All of the sectional steel blocks of die should have at least two screws and two
dowel pins. The material number of the each one of the steel blocks should be marked
apparently on their top surfaces.
S0
4

Sectional Punch
(or Die)
Pins
S0
2

S0
1

S0
3

Bolts

The number of each steel


block should be marked.
(For example: S01=SPK No.1)

21- When using a button die with a specific profile (non-circular form), a lock pin
should be used to prevent rotation of button die.
Lock pin

(a) Locked by pin

Key

(b) Locked by key

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 29 of 81

22- Button dies for adjacent holes should be positioned as shown in the following
figures.
Lock pin

Lock pin

Button dies

Button dies

Solid button die

Partial cut of button die

23- The distance between the button die and the nearest edge of the die is related to
the thickness of material. See following figures:

Double dotted lines


are standards
diameter of button die.

x
If: t>1.5=> X=8mm
If: t<1.5=> X=6mm

24- Following notifications should be considered when using button die holder:
a) Use button die holder for mass production (over 100,000 strokes).
b) Use button die holder for thick material (t >0.5mm).
c) Button blocks should have hardened backing plates when FPM (force per mm)
of work is 0.5 or greater, regardless of production rate.
d) Standard button blocks are preferable to use, if required.
e) The last choice is homemade button blocks.

Back up plate 6mm

25- In order to chute scraps, following notifications should be considered:


a) Scrap chute angle for piercing is Min 25.
b) Sheet metal thickness for scrap chutes is 2.5mm.
c) Scrap chutes width should be at least 15mm wider than the maximum scrap
dimension.
d) The diameter of scrap holes under the button die and its retainer shown in
the following figures.
e) The diameter of scrap hole should conform with the standard of drill sizes.
(See the figures in the next page)

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 30 of 81

Button relief hole+2mm

Min2

Button relief hole+min4mm

Urethane

F
F+2
F+4

Min25

6
F+

Min25

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 31 of 81

Title:
Punch, die, clearance and gaps
The clearance between trimming punch and die should be according to the following
table. The thickness and material of part should be considered as well. The materials
of part are categorized to the three following divisions:
a) 1100 and 5052 aluminum alloys, all tempers
b) 2024 and 6061aluminum alloys; brass, all tempers; cold rolled steel, dead soft;
stainless steel soft
c) Cold rolled steel, half hard; stainless steel, half hard and full hard; all of the
common used steels in the automotive industries such as ST12, ST13, ST 14, and
ST37 and

punch

die

group2

group1
metal
thickness%

thickness

die

clearance

group3

metal
thickness%

clearance

metal
thickness%

0.5 mm

0.011 mm

%2.25

0.015mm

%3

0.019 mm

%3.75

0.6 mm

0.014mm

%2.3

0.018mm

%3.05

0.023 mm

%3.8

0.7 mm

0.016 mm

%2.35

0.022 mm

%3.1

0.027 mm

%3.85

0.8 mm

0.019 mm

%2.4

0.025 mm

%3.15

0.031 mm

%3.9

1 mm

0.025 mm

%2.45

0.032 mm

%3.2

0.04 mm

%3.95

1.2 mm

0.03 mm

%2.5

0.039 mm

%3.25

0.048 mm

%4

1.5 mm

0.038 mm

%2.55

0.05 mm

%3.3

0.061 mm

%4.05

1.75 mm

0.045mm

%2.6

0.059 mm

%3.35

0.072 mm

%4.1

2 mm

0.053 mm

%2.65

0.068 mm

%3.4

0.083 mm

%4.15

2.5 mm

0.068 mm

%2.7

0.086 mm

%3.45

0.105 mm

%4.2

3 mm

0.082 mm

%2.75

0.105 mm

%3.5

0.128 mm

%4.25

3.5 mm

0.098 mm

%2.8

0.124 mm

%3.55

0.151 mm

%4.3

4mm

0.114 mm

%2.85

0.144 mm

%3.6

0.174 mm

%4.35

4.5mm

0131mm

%2.9

0.164 mm

%3.65

0.198 mm

%4.4

5 mm

0.148 mm

%2.95

0.185 mm

%3.7

0.225 mm

%4.45

6 mm

0.18mm

%3

0.225 mm

%3.75

0.27 mm

%4.5

The clearance (gap) between bending punch and die should be (0.9-1.2 Metal
thickness). For materials with less hardness ~0.9 and for materials with more hardness
~1.2 should be applied.
The clearance (gap) between draw punch and die for soft materials should be (1.1
Metal thickness) and (1.2 Metal thickness) for hard materials.

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Title:

Page 32 of 81

Critical points on the die

In order to strengthen the die against to the working forces, the critical areas and the
retaining walls that may include possibility of breakage or crack should be designed
with enough wall thickness. In the case of using button die, the minimum distance
between the die and die holder should not be smaller than 3mm (See fig. A). If the
hole is larger than 12, the thickness should be increased accordingly (See fig. B).
Max o12

Min 4

Min30

Min30

Min 3

(Max) O4

2.2(min)

Min30

Min30

If the round holes are close to each other, following dimensions should be applied:

O4~O10

4(min)

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Title:

Date: Nov.2005

Page 33 of 81

Piercing on the inclined surface

In order to pierce the hole in an inclined surface, without changes in diameter, piercing
direction of datum hole should not be over 7 against pierced surface.
d1

e.g.:
+0.2
D=O15 0
X=Tan7 x 0.8 = 0.098
d1 =Cos7 x 15 + 0.098 = 14.986
Die of actual piercing
d1 = 15.2

OD

0.8t

If small pierces are on the inclined surface, following dimensions should be included:

Max20

(b)

(c)

Max15

(d)

(a)

0
Max3

Max10

d1>O5

d1>10
2S

2S

d1<
=O5

d2
d2

d2
Max.10 if d1 =
< O5
Flat edge

Max.20 if d1>O5
shear on edge

Max.30 if d1 > O10


shear on edge

Flat edge if inclined


angle up to 15
* common in (b) and (c)

* Dimension d2 should be greater than scrap size.


If inclined angle is over 7 and accuracy is required, an allowable increase should be
provided on hole size. Necessity of allowance should be decided by examining the
function of the hole. In order to pierce holes to a full circle, pierce punch and die
should be oval which includes higher cost.

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Title:

Date: Nov.2005

Page 34 of 81

Blank holder and strip guide

In order to obtain the best result of quality of the part, fixed location for the blank or
stabilized movement for the strip should be provided. Blank holder and strip guide is
used to provide fixed and stable location and movement of part over the die.
The cutting edges of the punch should be inside the blank holder when the die is open,
minimum 3mm. (a)
Punch and blank holder should have appropriate clearance between each other.(b)
Appropriate fillet or chamfer should be made in the corners of the blank holder hole
through which the punch is passed (a). If the diameter of the punch is less than
30mm, the blank holder should be hardened or a hardened bush should be inserted
on it.
Blank holder should be made of VCN200, MS60, or other similar materials with the
same properties and hardness.

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 35 of 81

For each one of spring located in blank holder, a spool retainer should be used. The
length of bearing of spool retainer in punch holder or in upper shoe should not be less
than 15mm. Spool retainer limits the travel of the pad or blank holder.

Strip guide and blank holder should be used for all progressive dies.

In order to transport large blank holder, transporting hook is required.

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 36 of 81

The methods of fastening strip guide to the die are showing bellow. In order to fix the
strip guide, dowel pins should be used also.
bolt
Very Good!

In order to lead the strip into the guides, its entrance should have suitable lead angle:
10
Sec.A-A
30

Lead angle specifications

Lead angle

If the strip guide is out of the shoes, it should be made either safety bumpers or a
hinged type guide to prevent possibly collision or damages on it.

Strip guide with safety bumpers

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Hinged type strip guide

Page 37 of 81

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Title:

Date: Nov.2005

Page 38 of 81

Punch holder

Standard punches should have punch holder.

Bumper

Punch Holder
Punch

The punch bumper plate is required for punches with a diameter less than 30mm.

Bumper plate

Punch Holder
Punch
<O30

The punch bumper plate should be made of SPK or similar materials with suitable
hardness (542HRC).

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Title:

Date: Nov.2005

Page 39 of 81

Methods of locating

As a rule, in order to locate the part (panel) on the die face in single operation dies, die
face area should be greater than blank size to place the locators. According to the
geometry of part, following methods of location may be used:
Shape locators:
When using shape of the part as a locator, following restrictions should be considered:
Max120

10-30

Block locators are required when the shape locator cannot prevent small gaps.

Dower Pins

5mm

Gauge
blocks

Dowel pin required after tryout

Block locators to prevent rotation

In the parts with a shallow shape (small depth), scrap cutters holds part of locators
also, however, the block locators are required to prevent rotation of part.

Relief for upper edge engagement

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 40 of 81

Pin locators
In trim dies because of insufficient area on the shape of the die, pin locators should be
used on panel holes for diameters more than 20.
OverO20

10

30

R5

If the size of hole is 8- 20mm, a pin locator should be used in addition to the shape
of the part. If the shape of the part with the pin is not sufficient to locate, bounding
locators, which prevent the rotation of part, should be used too.
3-5

13-20

O5-O20

Pilot pin locators


This pin should be applied to a hole with diameter less than 8mm. It serves as a final
locator after utilizing side locators. The gap between side locators and panel is
indicated on the right drawing. Locating hole are required as outside the panel as
possible.

20
-3

R
0

gap 0.5-1

Pad knockout stroke +2


for general engagement

D - 0.2

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 41 of 81

Notifications on the method of locating part using holes


To use a hole as a locating feature, following important hints should be considered:
1- A hole with stable accuracy of position on piercing operation
2- A hole with no deformation through all operation
3- Diameter of hole is 0.2 mm less than pin diameter. For example if diameter of hole
is equal 20, location pin diameter should be 19.8
5- The diameter of pin should be indicated on the drawing
Stay locators
Stay is required for small and unstable location areas. The panel should be kept
balanced. It should be made with removable structure. Safeties on delivery & storage
should be considered. For locating & stability, touching area should be as small as
possible.

Location Stay

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Title:

Date: Nov.2005

Page 42 of 81

Pilot pin in progressive tool

In order to bring the strip in its exact location in progressive die, pilot pins should be
used. The clearance between the pilot pin and its hole should be 0.02-0.05mm or
H7/h6 fitting. All pilot pins should have a ground surface with surface roughness of
. All pilot pins should be hardened to 502 HRC. The cylindrical part of the pilot
pin should be (1.5t) which "t" is the thickness of material.

Pilot Pin

Sheet material

Punch holder

See Det. X

1.5t

H7/h6

Clearance=0.03~0.05mm

According to the condition in which there is a hole or not in the part, one of the
following methods of using pilot pin should be applied:
a) Direct pilot pins:
In this case, there is at least one hole on the part to use pilot pin directly.

Pilot pins

b) Indirect pilot pins:


In this case, there is no hole on the part. Therefore, it should be made a hole out of the
main area of the part (on the waste area of the strip) for using pilot pin.

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 43 of 81

Types of pilot pins:


One is the pilot pins which installed in the punch face directly (a) and the second is
installed on the punch holder (b).
Press fit

Screw retainer

Punch
See det.A

K=1.5t

(a)
Det.A

Punch

Spring loaded

(b)

The clearance between pilot pin and its die hole should be %5 of the diameter of pilot
pin.
Punch holder

O10

O10.5

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Title:

Date: Nov.2005

Page 44 of 81

Controlling the feed by side cutter

In order to control the feeding strip in the progressive dies, using side cutter is
essential. According to the part accuracy and product tolerances, one or two side
cutter(s) should be used.
Stage 2

Stage 3

Stage 1

Final Part
Pitch

Scale x2

In order to avoid the remaining waste material at the end of the strip, after passing the
first side cutter(s), based on the part accuracy and tolerances, one side cutter or a fixed
pin should be used at the final station, as well.
In order to eliminate the possibility of remaining burrs after side cutter stage, the
profile of side cutter should be made as shown in the following figures (B or C).

STRIP
The "burr" will remain and do not
allow the strip pass canel easily!

MIN 10

SIDE CUTTER

MIN 10

The "burr" will remain but allow


the strip pass the canel easily!

SIDE CUTTER
30

1-2 mm

According to the
side cutter size
STRIP

MIN 10

DETAIL D

SIDE CUTTER

3-10mm
R

DETAIL E

Max 1mm

The "burr" will not remain


but side cutter will be high
D cost to make!

1-2mm

STRIP

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 45 of 81

A steel heel for each side cutter should be used, if the side cutter cutting face is flat. At
least 2 bolts and 2 dowel pin should be used.

Grinder

Grinder is geting accident


with the side cutter punch!
(Rotate the grinding direction 90)

(Grinding support)
Use a supporting block to eliminate Remove the springs
the movement of pad during grinding.

grinding!

(Grinding support)

For the specifications of material and heat treatment of punch and die, which is used
for side cutter(s), refer to the section of punch and die.

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Title:

Date: Nov.2005

Page 46 of 81

Scrap cutter

In order to cut down the scraps surrounding trimming punch, scrap cutters should be
added around it.
Size of scrap cutter

H<L is as principle.
"H" should be the dimension in which scrap can fully
rotate. Back up is required, if panel thickness is over
1.6mm. Screw and dowels should be used too.
t<2
M12 x 50
O13 x 50

t >2
M16 x 50
O16 x 60

Layout of scrap cutter


The scrap cutters should be placed around the punch based on ease of falling the
scraps to one side. Provide 5-10 degree plane inclination for placing cutters, if
required. As a rule, scrap cutters should be placed in right angle against trim line.
However, if trim line forms a concaved curved, cutters should be placed parallel to the
centerline.

Lay out according to the shape of the part


In case of a notch or a projecting edge on the trimmed side, cutters should be laid out
as below.

10

(in case of projecting)

If cutters cannot be arranged as in above, let the scrap fall positively.


If there is a step in the punch profile, the cutter should be inevitably inclined more than
20 degrees to let the scrap fall positively.

20

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 47 of 81

In case of sloped die face (1530), cutters should be laid out as below.

Layout of cutters in the corners of punch should be done as follow:

radius tangent

X
The cutter should be Place of cutter
placed as close as to should not get out
radius tangent of
of trim line .
drawing.

Gravity of scrap
should be outside
of this line .

The strength of cutting steels should be considered.


Scrap
cutter

Avoid placing a cutter at which extremely long cutter is required.

good

not good

good

A punch and the edge of scrap cutters should not face each other.
UPPER STEEL
PAD

VIEW A

LOWER STEEL
SCRAP CUTTER

material
thickness

entrance of
cutting edge

t<1.6

h=6

1.61< t <1.9

h=7

1.9 < t <2.6

h = 7.5

2.6 < t < 3.9

h=9

LOWER STEEL

Entrance of cutting edge

UPPER STEEL

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 48 of 81

Layout of scrap cutters should be according to part profile.

It should not be remained more than two corners on a scrap.

Good

Not good

In order to provide easy falling of scraps, the angle between the scrap cutters should be
either parallel or obtuse to each other.

Q ~ 5

Parallel

Line

In the complex parts, falling scraps should not be crossed or collided with each other.
Good

Not good

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Title:

Date: Nov.2005

Page 49 of 81

Strip pusher

Progressive dies should be equipped with spring pusher in order to eliminate


undesirable movements of the strip in the strip guide during the press action. The
following three types of the pusher are allowed:
Strip
Die

B-B

Strip guide

FEED
Strip guide
Pusher

Strip

Die

A-A
Strip guide
Pusher
A

A
Die

FEED

Strip

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Title:

Date: Nov.2005

Page 50 of 81

Part box, Scrap box and chute

Shoes with downward outlet for blanks and scraps should have riser blocks in order to
provide a space to locate part box, scrap box and their guide rails. Scraps and blanks
should have separate container. The material of part box, scrap box and chute should be
ST37 with 2-3mm thickness.

It should be at least 3mm distance between the lower face of the boxes and the press bolster.
(see above figure)

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 51 of 81

In order to have a safe stocking of die and preventing scrap chute damages (when scrap
chute is larger than die shoes), it should be used hinged scrap chute. (Fig. B)

The scrap chute should be made of ST37 with 2.5mm thickness or other similar material.
In order to facilitate the part exit from the final station of progressive dies, a slope of more
than 25 degrees at the end of the channel should be considered.

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 52 of 81

It could be provided a sloped scrap chute in the die steel without using any chute directly,
if applicable.

Very good

Good
Min25

Good
Min25

If in the final station discharging of the part cannot be easily done, a vibrator could be
used.

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Title:

Page 53 of 81

Stop blocks

In order to terminate the shutting travel of die, stop blocks should be used between the
upper and lower shoes. It provides a specific distance between the die and punch. When
the contact surfaces of stop blocks reach each other, it means the press travel is adjusted.
This could be controlled using spotting paint.
Minimum four stop blocks is needed for each die. The bearing surface of the stop blocks
should be parallel to each other. Stop blocks in all dies should have the same thickness.
Stop blocks should be made of CK45 (1.1191). Following types of stop blocks are
applicable:

stop block

stop block

stop block
holder bolt

Section A-A
Section B-B

Very good

Good

Good

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Title:

Page 54 of 81

Stock Block

Min
30mm

Min
30mm

In order to store dies in a safe condition, stock blocks (or storing blocks) should be made.
Stock blocks should be made as much as the quantity of stop block sets (at least four). They
will be positioned between the upper and lower stop blocks to provide a suitable distance
between punch and die during stocking. At this time, the upper and lower shoes should be
fastened to each other using fastening strips.
The height of stock blocks should be long enough to prevent contact between the punch and
die. The guide posts should be entered in bushes Min 30mm during storing. Stock blocks
should be made of CK45 (1.1191)

stock block
stock block

Following types of stock blocks are permissible:

Needs M6 bolt
for connection
cable or chain

Type A
(Very good)

Type B
(good)

Type C
(good)

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Title:

Date: Nov.2005

Page 55 of 81

Bottoming marker

t=Thickness panel

0.3(t>0.8)

See detail A

0.2(0.6<t<0.8)

Bottoming marker should be used for forming dies, such as Draw and Restrike in order to
check whether the forming process is completed or not.
Insert bottoming markers on a horizontal flat face of die at right angle to the part surface as
much as possible. The place on the part in which the markers is marking on, should have the
least material flow. According to the size of the part, one or two markers are required to check
the formation of different areas of the part. The hardness of bottom marker should be 60~64
HRC.

Adjusting
shim
Bottoming
marker

Detail A

Panel

As far as possible, the circular mark of bottom marker should be placed on the scraps not on
the part.

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Title:

Page 56 of 81

Cam units

If an operation includes a specific direction rather than press normal direction which can not
be performed in a regular stroke, a type of CAM unit should be used in order to change the
direction of the press action.
Potential damages to CAM units, when they return to their first positions, should be
considered during the design of the die.
One of the following standard types of CAM units is used to the specific action such as
trimming, flanging, piercing, etc, if applicable:
Horizontal CAM is used for operations in a direction parallel to horizon line.
Horizontal cam

Sz

touching with cam driver

Min 30

touching with die guide

L4

Min 10

S1

Sz

touching with pad

1 start of

working

S
entrance
cam pad stroke

1 = 50 in principle

K Min 5
S1

bottom
dead point

cam slider stroke

Bevel cam

Min30

min10

Bevel CAM is used for operations in an inclined direction.

L4

S2

S1
1
f
rt o
s t a in g
k
wo r

S
2

Min

K
K

S1

S2

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 57 of 81

Inversed bevel cam


min30

S1

L4

S2

sta
wo rt of
rkin
g

min10

S2

k
s1

Min
5

Horizontal flying CAM, is used for the operations in which it is better to provide larger
space to make ease of loading and unloading of part. In this case, the slide (fixed part of the
CAM unit), will be fastened to the lower shoe.
S

S2

min30

Horizontal flying cam

pa
ra
lle
l

S2

S1

in1
0

S1

L4

Bevel flying cam

S3

L4

L1

10
in
M

S2

S1

L1
L1

L1

S2

Min30

S3

r
Pa

S1

l
le
al

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 58 of 81

min30

Horizontal double CAM, is used for the conditions in which the part does not have the
possibility of ejection over the punch (For example, in the flange die).

L2
L4
1

min20

S1

S4

L1

L2

L3

L1

min20

S4

S3

L3 min20

Horizontal double cam


(Cam stopper built-in)

K
S3

S2

S1
S2

Horizontal double cam


(Independent cam stopper)
2

L3
L2
L4

L1

min20

L1

L2

S3

L3

S1

min15

S3

S2

K
S2

S1

40 in general

horizontal cam slide

30 for larger thrust

driver stroke

/2+40for general

1= 2
2 <30

Angles of
driver

m
ca

sl

de

1= 2

Bevel cam slide


r
st

e
ok
2

/2+30for larger thrust

should be decided to make


2
driver
stroke same with or
2 >30
larger than cam slide stroke.

Note:
In both cases the following amounts are preferable for MAX
Larger cam 2 =22
Smaller cam 2 =30

2.

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 59 of 81

Bevel cam
F=W u + W
=W (Cos . u + Sin )

W2

F:Return pressure

Horizontal cam

u :0.25(coefficient of friction)
W:Cam weight
W 1 :Pressure against F
W 2 :Vertical Pressure to the surface

F=W X u

1
Cos( 1 + 2 )
V= fTan( 1 - 2 )
Q= f

Load per unit area


SOF(Fc + gr)
SOF(Br + gr)

Q= f
2

490 n/cm2
1,960 n/cm2

1
Cos( 1 - 2 )

V= f Tan( 1 - 2 )

Q&V: unit pressure on wear plate


F:Required pressure of working

F=working pressureX 1.5(safety factor)


+ returning spring pressure + cam weight
Q= f

1
Cos 1

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

W2

Page 60 of 81

F=W X u - W 1
=W x (Cos . u - Sin )

W
W1

Return by spring
Spring should be installed on a well balanced position to avoid moments on cam slide. The
means of installing spring should be chosen by its peculiarity among the following three
types:
A: Built in holder
Advantages: a) It can be installed relatively in compact b) Good safety.
Disadvantages: a) Restriction on arranging wear plates b) Large slide for small cam

B: Built in punch cam slide


Advantages: Simple structure
Disadvantages: a) Height of cam slide b) Difficulty in setting cam slide c) Possibility of
interference with scraps

For setting provide spring


guide on side without
counter bore.

No interference
between bolt and
spring.

Provide on shallow
side of counter
bore.

Two Places should be prepared for use of set bolts for all
C: Installed outside of cam slide
Advantages: a) Simple structure b) Cam slide can be small c) Easy spring setting
Disadvantages: a) Larger size of die due to spring b) Some problems on safety

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Title:

Date: Nov.2005

Page 61 of 81

Cam pad

MAX 1.0

Following considerations for Cam pad should be provided:

Monoblock pad permitted

Cam pad type

<10

>10

Application of cam stopper


Urethan cam stopper

Cam slider

W(mm)

Weight(kg)

The number

~ 149

15 ~ 99

150 ~ 299 100 ~ 249

0
-0.02
+0.02
0

0
-0.05

0
-0.03

Clearance on cam sliding area


The following illustration is showing the clearance between the "cam" and "side walls and
bed".

cam

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Title:

Page 62 of 81

Springs and its positioning

S1

The Fibro standard springs (or other similar types) should be applied for the needed cases in
each die and the diagram of the suitable spring under the calculated pressure with other
required information should be added as follows:

Ln

L2

Fn

(L0) free length

L1

F2

preload deflection

Sn

S2

F1

(FIBRO Standard Number should me noted.)

L1...Ln = compressed lengths (mm)


F1...Fn = Loads (N) causing compressed lengths L1...Ln
S1...Sn = Deflection (mm) caused by Loads F1...Fn
= Spring coefficient (N/mm) i.e. force causing deflection of 1mm
C
S
= Working stroke of spring i.e. working deflection
Preloading force is caused by the force exerted by the fastening bolts

Preloading force is caused by the force exerted by the fastening bolts and the weight of pad or
etc. and is not counted in the main calculations of press tonnage or pad pressure. The amount
of the preload deflection is calculated as follows:
Def PR = Def AM Def W

Compacted spring
(Wire against wire)
(Not a allowed !)

(Lpr) preload deflection


Max allowable
deflection
Free length

F Max
Working deflection

Def PR: Amount of the preload


deflection
Def AM : Maximum allowable
deflection of spring
Def W: Working deflection assumed
by die designer

The spring force in any level of "L" is defined as follows:


Fpr = Lpr N C
Fpr: Preload force (N)
Lpr: Preload deflection length (mm)
N: Number of springs

Fn = Ln N C
Fn: load causing length Ln (N)
Ln: deflection length under
"n"(mm)
N: Number of springs

force

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 63 of 81

Min8mm

In order to position the springs stably in the die shoes or other steel blocks of die, one of the
following methods is permissible (The springs shown are under the pressure):

Min
15mm

If a set of springs with their locating pockets has been assumed, it should be left a thickness of
Min 15mm.

(In case of a row


of spring pockets)

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Title:

Page 64 of 81

Standard bolts

T
S1
S2
I

S1
S2
I

Dimensions of bolts, fastening parts, fastening strength and fastening torque are shown in the
following table:

d2
d1

d2
d1

a: Fastening strength (kg)


b: Fastening torque (kg cm)
d1

M4
M5
M6
M8
M10

5
6.5
6.6
9.0
11.0

8.5
10.0
11.0
14.0
17.5

10
15
20

M12
M16
M20
M24
M30
M36

14.0
18.0
22.0
26.0
33.0
39.0

20.0
26.0
32.0
39.0
48.0
58.0

25
30
40
50
60
70

Dia of screw

S1

S2

d2

15
20
25

22
30
35

3.25
4.1
5.1
6.9
8.6

30
35
45
55
65
75

42
50
63
76
90
105

10.4
14.2
17.7
21.2
26.8
32.3

6
10
10
15
15
20
25
30
35

750
1365
2165

M6
M8
M10

92
220
430

29
69
138

3145
5845
9130
13150
20910
30465

M12 735
235
M16 1800 656
M20 3520 1104
M24 6085 1909
M30 12050 3805
M36 21000 6625

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 65 of 81

Title:
Standard pins
In order to fix the steel blocks of punch and die or any other part on the die, in addition to
fastening bolts, dowel pins should be used too. following table shows the specifications of
standard pins.

d h8

m6

dh11

75

C
L

m6
d h8

0.8

1.2

1.5

2.5

10

12

(13)

14

16

20

25

30

40

50

h11
t

0.12

0.15

0.18

0.23

0.3

0.4

0.45

0.6

0.75

0.9

1.2

1.5

1.8

2.5

4.5

7.5

0.8

1.2

1.6

2.5

10

12

12

16

16

20

25

32

40

50

Part weight (g)

Length

2
3
4
5
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
24
28
32
36
40
45
50
55
60
70
80
90
100
120
140
160
180
200

0.008
0.012

0.018

0.027

0.044

0.016

0.025

0.036

0.063

0.105

0.165

0.245

0.020

0.032

0.045

0.072

0.133

0.204

0.303

0.024

0.033

0.064

0.085

0.155

0.248

0.365

0.640

1.02

0.028

0.048

0.072

0.113

0.280

0.320

0.466

0.840

1.30

1.97

3.68

0.062

0.080

0.141

0.253

0.347

0.577

1.04

1.64

2.41

4.37

7.01

0.074

0.081

0.165

0.302

0.474

0.633

1.23

1.95

2.35

5.16

8.24

12

0.125

0.195

0.351

0.565

0.799

1.44

2.26

3.29

5.95

9.47

12.8

16.3

19

0.224

0.401

0.677

0.910

1.63

2.57

3.73

6.74

10.7

15.6

16.4

21.4

28.3

0.451

0.705

1.02

1.83

2.88

4.17

7.52

11.9

17.2

20.5

23.8

31.5

0.500

0.762

1.83

2.03

3.19

4.61

8.31

13.2

19.2

22.6

26.2

34.7

0.937

1.35

2.43

3.50

5.50

9.89

15.6

22.8

25.8

32

41

57

105

1.57

2.82

4.42

6.49

11.5

18

25.4

31

35.8

47.5

76

120

1.79

3.21

5.03

7.3

10

20.5

30

35

40.6

53.9

85.6

136

198

3.6

5.65

8.19

14.5

20.1

33.6

37.4

45.5

49.3

95.6

161

220

4.0

6.27

9.63

16.2

25.5

37.2

43.6

50

66

105

167

262

450

7.03

10.2

18.1

28.2

41.7

43.8

56.2

74.5

118

136

270

496

7.80

11.3

20.1

31.7

45.2

54

62.3

82.5

139

205

298

545

1190

12.4

22.1

34.8

50.7

59.2

68.3

90.4

142

225

396

595

1200

13.5

24.0

37.9

55.2

64.4

74.4

93.2

155

244

354

644

1240

28

44.1

64.1

74.8

86.5

114

179

263

410

723

1290

32

50.3

73

85.7

98.6

180

204

321

466

842

1340

56.5

82.1

93.6

111

145

223

360

522

941

1490

69.7

91

106

123

161

253

328

573

1040

1650

109

127

147

192

302

475

680

1240

1950

143

171

224

351

563

802

1440

2260

195

256

400

600

914

1630

2570

288

449

707

1030

1800

2870

498

784

1140

2080

3180

0.341

St50 or 9520k
Pin Specification:
dl

1.53

Tolerance
m6
h8
h11

10.2
14.2

Allowable deviation in
the Length of Pins
<10
10-50
<50
0.3
0.5
0.8
0.5
1
1.5
0.5
1
1.5

56.4

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Title:

Page 66 of 81

Types of flange

IF the shapes on the plan or section views are straight, the entrance should be 3mm from
tangent.
Pad

R={

Die
R

3mm from
radius tangent

if t<1.2
if t>1.4

R= 3
R= 5

R=Redius of flang die


t=thickness

Punch

If the flange line is a curve, the amount of entrance on the punch (L) should be constant on
working direction. ("l" is flange length)
Press direction

Curved flanging line

Flanging punch

If there are different lengths on the flange, the amount of entrance (L) should be constant
along the flanging line.

l1

l2

Press direction

Flanging punch

For simple flanges it should be used a simple flange punch (See left hand figure). If the flange
is not simple, the using pad should have form of the part. (See right hand figure)
Pad

Pad
Die

shape in
previous
operation.

Die
Punch

Punch

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 67 of 81

In order to flange the part with a complex form, the form of the punch should be similar to the
part. Such flanging operations are called spank flange. (See following figures)
When spring back is expected, parting line should be inside of tangent radius even if R5

Pad
Pad

Die

Die

R< 5
Punch

Punch

2mm from tangent if R>5


Pad

Pad

Die
R<5

Die
Punch

Punch

Pad
Pad
Die
Die

R
Punch
Punch

Pad
Die
R

Punch

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Title:

Page 68 of 81

Flange in corners

As the bend die would make much abrasion on the corners, the following condition should be
considered on the sectional die:

1- Stretch flange, with over 15% elongation, and hard facing treatment or welding treatment:

Bend line
Trim line

Percentage of shrinkage =

L-l
l

2- Shrink flange, with over 15% shrinkage, steel insert in corner area:

Trim line
Bend line

Percentage of shrinkage =

l-L
l

Insert block is not necessary if flange length is less than 10mm. (following case)

With large radius (>30)

corner notched

below 5mm

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Title:

Page 69 of 81

Spring back in bending

In the bending operation, after removing the pressure, the part tends to recover itself
elastically and its bend radius becomes larger. Under certain conditions, it is possible for the
final bend angle to be smaller than the original angle (negative spring back).

Springback =

Before ending pressure

Following methods are used to reduce or eliminate spring back in bending operations, if
applicable:
(a)

(b)

(c)

< 90

(d)
90

90

< 90
W
P(counter)

In the compensation method (a) the metal is bent more than the final angle, therefore, it
springs back to the desired value. In some cases, some trial and error is required to choose the
suitable bending angle.
The following design (left hand figure) can create the bend but it is hard to achieve the
necessary over-bend, which must be created to allow the metal to return to 90 degrees.
The design (right hand figure) works best when the metal is bent over a radius that is equal to
or less than metal thickness. This design achieves the over-bend by coining the radius at a
point slightly above the lower tangent point of the bend radius. By vertically shimming the
forming section up and down, the gap, as well as the amount of coining, can be adjusted.
Adjusting shim

Pressure pad

Radius equals
inside bend radius
plus metal thickness

Bending
punch

Pressure pad

True Bend Radius


Lower die
section

Bending
punch

Lower die
section

Very Good!

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Title:

Page 70 of 81

Bead design

In order to control the flow of the material between punch and die, beads or binder should be
added to the die face and in the opposite side on the punch.
Sheet material

Bead

Die

Punch
Blank holder

Both Round and square beads can be used. The beads are either unitary or inserts types.

H=W/2
A=R1+C+R2+W/2
B=R3+R4+C+W
: Dimension C
R1=1~2 C=8
R1?2.5 C=6
e.g. R1=2, R2=8, W=10, R3=R4=3
A=2+8+8+5=23mm
B=3+3+6+10=22mm

15 min

R1

R1

R1

R2

C
B

Dimensions needed for insert beads are as following:

Positioning of bolts on the bead is as follows:

W
H
R
(Refernce)

8
4
1.5

10 12
5 6
2

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 71 of 81

Trapezoidal beads

General
8

To improve yeilding
5
7
R3

R0

.5
.5
R1

.
R0

R0

.5

R3

maintain plan
(13)

7
(13)

in 7mm

match the inclined surface in certain.

Step bead
A= R1+ R2+C

Unitary bead
A

Min. 7mm For Dimension C.

A=5+3+7=15mm

R2

eg. R1=5, R2 =3

R1

When trim line is located on the step bead, following method is preferable:

MIN 4mm

When trim line is located on die face:


D=5mm

Trim line

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Title:

Date: Nov.2005

Page 72 of 81

Air vent systems

On any locations on the die face, which may have the possibility of air trap, for example
space between the draw punch and die, or guiding posts and bushes, air vent holes or grooves
should be made. Depend on the expanse of the punch and die face in the draw tools, several
holes may needed.

Punch

Blank
holder

Die

Air vent groove should be made on the top face of the upper shoe where the press ram may
cause air trap.
Press upper ram
Air vent groove

Upper shoe

Air vent groove


(Top View)

Upper shoe

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Title:

Date: Nov.2005

Page 73 of 81

Coordinate hole

All of the die shoes should have coordinate holes in order to establish X and Y machining
references.

Using precise pins inserted in these holes will make unique reference for the machining of
steel blocks and other elements of die, which fastened on the shoes.

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Title:

Date: Nov.2005

Page 74 of 81

Surface roughness in the die elements

Each one of the elements of die should have a smoothed surface related to their function.
Following table shows the suitable surface roughness needed in each die.
Surface roughness
Triangular
indication

Arithmetical Mean
Roughness (Ra)

Application

0.4

1.6

3.2

6.3

Surfaces for shape, trim edge,


bend edge and sliding
Connecting surfaces of steel

12.5

25

Finished surface not connected to other parts


Roughly finished surface with less importance
(finished by grinder)

50

100

Natural surfaces of casting and steel

Some examples of usage of the surface roughness marks are shown in the following drawing.

Guide post

Die
(or die holder)

Lower shoe

Created by:

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Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
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Date: Nov.2005

Title:

Page 75 of 81

Calculations

1- Holding pressure in Draw dies (using soft steel panels):


PH = B L Pn
PH: holding pressure (kg)
B: average width of blank holder (mm)
L: average periphery length of blank holder (mm)
Pn: required pressure for unit of area (kg/mm2)
The classification of the Pn is defined in the following table:
Pn

Purpose

Example

0.13

Mainly drawing

Rear fender, Wheel house outer,


Front pillar

0.22

Drawing and bulging

Tail gate inner, Door inner, Tail


gate outer, Wheel house inner

0.29

Mainly bulging

Front panel, Door outer,


Hood outer, Roof

2- Stripping pressure in Trim dies:


Stripping pressure varies according to metal thickness and shape, but generally stays within
4~20% of trimming pressure.
Extremely high stripping pressure would be required if clearance is below 10% of thickness.
In the case of soft steel panels, stripping pressure can be described as below:
Metal thickness
Below 2 mm
Within 2~4.5 mm

Shape of panel

Stripping pressure (Ps)

Simple shape

Ps = P0.05 or =17.20Lt

Complex shape

Ps = P0.06 or =19.60Lt

Simple shape

Ps = P0.07 or =24.50Lt

Complex shape

Ps = P0.08 or =27.00Lt

Over 4.6 mm

Ps = P(0.10~0.12)

Ps: Stripping pressure (N/mm2)


P: Trimming pressure (N/mm2)
L: Cutting length (mm)
t: Metal thickness (mm)
Above calculation describes stripping pressure on the starting point of operation.
3- Calculation of pad pressure
Pad pressure depends on the thickness or shape of the panel, but is generally require 15~30%
of bend pressure.
Panel type

Pad pressure

Outer panel

P = PB0.3 or =6Lt

Inner panel

P = PB(0.15~2) or = 3.5~4

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 76 of 81

P: Stripping pressure (N)


PB: Trimming pressure (N)
L: Cutting length (mm)
t: Metal thickness (mm)
"P" is the load at the beginning point of pad operation.
4- Calculation of ejection pressure and pad:
a) The ejection pressure of an external pad:
Size

Large die

Ejection pressure

Punch

3% shearing pressure
Outer Pad

Small die

Die

5% shearing pressure

b) The ejection pressure of an internal pad:


Size

Large die

Ejection pressure

Die
Inner
Pad

5% shearing pressure

Small die
With a
thick and 10% shearing pressure
hard
material

Punch

5-calculation of draw pressure:

Fz: deep drawing pressure


d1: punch diameter
S: material thickness
Rm: tensile strength
B: Draw ratio: B=D/d1
Bmax: Max draw ratio
D: blank diameter

Fz
Fn

d1

Fn

Fz = (d1+S) SRm1.2 [(B - 1)


x(Bmax - 1)]

dn
D

(In general, the approximate value of draw pressure is 0.7shear pressure.)


6- Holding pressure in Draw dies:

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 77 of 81

Fn: Pad force


2 2
/ 4(D -dn )P D: Blank diameter
dn: Diameter of effective
dn = 2(R+S) + d
area of pad
P: Pad pressure

Fn =

Steel
P = 2.5 N/mm2
copper
P = 2-4 N/mm2
Aluminum P = 1.2- 1.5 N/mm2

a. In general, the approximate value of draw pressure is (1.3shear pressure).


b. The radius of punch and die edges in draw dies is minimum (4t) in which the "t" is
the thickness of material.
c. The maximum height of draw is (0.7diameter of draw punch)
6- Bending pressure in Bend dies:
Type of bend

Figure

Bending force

Simple bend
(straight bend line)

F' = 0.2 F

Curved bend
(Curved bend line)

F' = 0.3 F

Restriked bend

F' = 0.5 F

(In these calculations, F' is Bending force, and F is shearing force.)


7- Pad pressure in bending die:
Type of bend die
Pad pressure
F'' = 0.4 F' - weight of pad
Pad in top
F'' = 0.4 F' + weight of pad
Pad in bellow

(In these calculations, F' is Bending force, and F'' is pad pressure.)

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Title:

Page 78 of 81

Die Painting

Elements of progressive and G5 dies should be painted using the standard table of colors, as
follows:
Painting Colors

Standard code

NO

Position of Painting

Scrap box and part box

Blue

RAL5024

Scrap chuter

Blue

RAL5024

Transportation strip

white

RAL9016

Safety cover

yellow

RAL1018

Note: Other elements of die should be remained without coating of paint.

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Title:

Page 79 of 81

Identification plaques of die

In order to identify the specifications of each die, a specific plaque should be provided for
each one of the following specifications. All plaques should be riveted to the die with 5mm
distance from the edges of the die.
1- General specifications plaque should be attached to all dies and it implies that the die is the
possession of SAPCO.

Part No.
Tool Code

Supplying Automotive Parts Co.

Part Name
Mfg. Date

Tool Maker
Tool Type

Weight (kg)

Size (mm)

2- The contents of the general specifications plaque should be filled as follows:

Part No.

9609906580

Tool Code

1203121427

Part Name

FRT RH DOOR INNER FRAME STIFFENER

Tool Maker

SEPEHR

Mfg. Date

Pierce OP30

Weight (kg) 4000+3000

Tool Type

Size(mm) 2200

Supplying Automotive Parts Co.

1300

06/2004

850

3- If there is not enough space to attach the general specifications plaque, a simple plaque as
shown in the following picture, should be attached:

Supplying Automotive Parts Co.

Part No.
Tool Code

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 80 of 81

4- If the tool is progressive type, the following plaque should be attached on it:

Pitch (mm)

Progressive Tool

Thickness

Feed Type

Press Type

Strip Width

5- In order to specify the direction of feed (loading the part) following plaque is needed.

6- In order to specify the front side of the die, following plaque should be attached:

7- If the die is equipped with Nitrogen gas spring, following plaque should be attached:

WARNING!
THIS DIE IS EQUIPPED WITH HIGH PRESSURE NITROGEN GAS SPRING.
MAX CHARGING PRESSURE
BAR/
PSI. GAS SPRING MUST BE
PROTECTED AGAINST SIDE LOAD, HIGH TEMPERATURE, GRINDING DUST
AND WELDING PARTICLES. GAS SPRING ARE TO BE REMOVED IN THE DIE
ONLY IN LOAD FREE POSITION.

Created by:

DIE DESIGN STANDARD Department of Die and Tool


Supplying Automotive Parts Co.
(SAPCO)

Date: Nov.2005

Page 81 of 81

8- If the die is to be applied with air pin, the layout of the press bolster and other needed
information should be attached as shown in the following plaque:

PRESS SPECIFICATIONS

PRESS TYPE

CUSHION PRESSURE(Ton)

CUSHION HEIGHT ABOVE BOLSTER(mm)


2
CUSHION Stroke(mm)
4

9- The locations of each one of the mentioned plaques on the die is shown as followed:

A- General specifications plaque


B- Progressive die
C- Front side of the die
D- Nitrogen gas spring
E- Layout of the press bolster
F- Direction of feed

INDEX D - Die design check list for progressive and G5 dies

Sapco.
Die Check List ( progressive & G5)

Die and Tool Department of


PART NAME :

PROJECT NAME:
PART NO:

REMARK :

DRAWING NO:
DIE & OP NO:
SUPPLIER:

SIGNATURE :

NAME:
DATE:

Test

Row

Controling visual aspects of part (burrs, tears, creases and deformations)

The head of punch and blank holder should be controled by die spot operation against the die surface in order to
control bedding out of the die main faces.

Controling of spotting of heel guide with length of more than 800mm

When the die is closed, the guide post should be lower than the upper die set (min 3 mm)

Dies with downward outlet for parts and scraps, should have riser.

The length of the guide post should be long enough to enter the guide bush, before the conact between the blank
holder and part.

The genral dimensions of die should be appropriated with press bolster sizes .

The bearing surfaces of the stop blocks and stock blocks should be parallel to each other and their diameter
should be same.

Loading and unloading of the panel should not be affected by the use of CAM units.

10

The possibility of damages of CAM units in their actions should be controled.

11

Using Cam unit mechanism according to Sankyo standard

12

Scraps and parts should have separate boxes.(If possible)

13

Scrap and part boxes should have guiding rails.

14

15

16

In flange dies, the flanged edges of part should pass through the die entry.

17

The ballancing condition of pads and ejectors, in the start and end of gripping action, should be controled in all of
the stages in progressive dies.

18

Controling of 1/3 of radius and cut band area and 2/3 of break in the trimed edges of blanck or parts

Pre Buy Off

ITEM (PROGRESSIVE & G5)

In oder to facilitate the egression of part in the final station of progressive dies, a slope of more than 25 degrees
at the strip guide should be considered.
For any locations in die, which may have the possibility of air trap, for example " space between the draw punch
and die" or " guide posts and bushes", suitable air vent holes or grooves should be considered in the design.

Page 1 of 3

Buy Off

Comments

SAPCO

Test

Row

19

In order to avoid waste material at the end of the strip after passing the first side cutter, based on the part
accuracy and tolerances, one or more side cutters or fixed pin should be used at the final stations.

20

Larger punches and dies should be made sectional.

21

Punches which are made by wire cut operation should be inserted in the punch holder with sliding fit tolerance.

22

Surface roughness for punch, die and blank holder, should be in

23

The dies and punches should be made of suitable material and hardness. Also, there should not be any welding,
cracks or voids on their surfaces.

24

The length of bearing of spool retainer in punch holder or in upper shoe, should not be less than 15mm.

25

Punch and blank holder should have appropriate clearance between each other.

26

Appropriate fillet or chamfer should be included to the corners of the blank holder holes, through which the punch
is passed.

27

The minimum quantity of stop block for each die is 4.

28

29

30

31

Shearing walls should have appropriate height according to the part thickness and production rate.

32

Distances between screws and dowel pins from the cutting edges should not be less than 12mm

33

The splitting line of the inserted steel blocks should not be positioned at the corners of the parts.

34

Blank holder should be made of VCN200 or MS60 or other similar steels with the same properties and hardness.

35

The minimum distance between the die face and the head of screw or dowel pin, should be minimum 5mm.

36

The distance between trimming edges of die and outer contour, should be at least 30mm.

37

The use of punch holder is required for each one of te die with small punches.

38

The punch bumper plate is required for punches with a diameter less than 30mm.

39

Progressive dies with more than 4 stages should have guide posts with ball bearing bushes.

40

Guide posts and heel guides should be fool proof.

41

Guide posts or guide bushes should have lubrication grooves.

42

Using spool retainer and a set of guide post and bush is essential when the blank holder size is more than 500mm.

Pre Buy Off

ITEM (PROGRESSIVE & G5)

condition.

There should not be any gap and space between the inserted steel blocks and their splitting line should be
perpendicular to the part profile.
Cutting dies should be made of SPKR or other kind of steels with the same mechanical properties and minimum
60HRC hardness.
For dies which are affected by thrust forces, together with screw and dowel pin, back up keys should be used as
well.

Page 2 of 3

Buy Off

Comments

Test

Row

43

All of the sharp edges and corners of shoes, dies and blank holders should have 45 chamfer

44

Stock blocks should be included in the dies.

45

For each one of the dies, an identification plaque including operation name, part name,part number, left/right hand
of part and tool weight should be prepared.(refer to standard)

46

In order to specify the feed direction, a separate plaque should be prepared.

47

All of the dies should have coordinate holes for machining references. 0,0 refernce point should be marked.

48

For transportation, hooks and fastening strips should be made.

49

Transportation hook for large blank holder is required.

50

The ease of maintenace should be considered.Also, the main elements of die should be replaceable easily.

51

The seats of spring should be machined and a guide pin should be prapered.

52

Strip pusher should be used as much as required along the strip guide.

53

A heel in semi-cutting punches should be used, e.g. side cutters. (heels should be fastened to the die set with 2
bolts & 2 pins)

54

Using springs of Fibro standards or similar

55

Dies with more than 800mm in length, should have heel guides with the appropriate wear plates in addition to
guide posts.

56

Using Daton (punch-die) sets for regular shape holes.

57

In order to fasten the die on the press bolster, using U slots or clamping area is needed.

58

Using center line marks or groove in each die.

59

Using shank hole (threaded) in upper shoe in order to fasten the upper die to press ram.

60

Using part list in order to cotrol the size & material of the dies elements (such as punch, die, pad,)

61

When the die is open, the cutting edges of the punch should be inside the blank holder(minimum3mm)

62

Using a fastening cable or chain, in order to fasten storing block to the lower shoe.

63

Shim and other kind of fillers should not be used to fill back up keys gaps.

64

Spare part list should be included according to standard & contract.

65

Minimum thickness of bushes in the spool retainer should not be less than 3mm.

66

Possibility of sharpening in edges of punch and die (in the shearing dies).

67

The clearance between guide post and guide bush in trim dies should be 0.25 of the clearance between punch
and die.

Pre Buy Off

ITEM (PROGRESSIVE & G5)

Page 3 of 3

Buy Off

Comments

INDEX E - Technical Requirements


Supplying Automotive Parts
Co.

Technical Requirements
Progressive and sheet metal tools
Documentation

1. Operation sheet of part processes is required.


2. Die lay out or strip lay out for each die should be included.
3. The final version of assembly drawing of die is required.
4. The 3D CAD data of die should be included.
5. Part list of die elements should be prepared.
6. Spare part list should be included.
7. Material certificate of die components is required.
8. The heat treatment report for the steel blocks is required.
9. CMM report of finished parts should be included, if required.
10. Maintenance plan.
11. Standard parts certificates.
12. Instruction of die installation and setup.
13. The feeder specification sheet for progressive dies is required, if applicable.
Strip, strip lay out and strip guide
14. Minimum waste material on strip lay out should be obtained.
15. Strip guide entrance should have a tapered entry.
16. In order to ensure safe leading of strip, strip guide should be start before the side
cutter location and it might be extended out of the die.
17. In order to avoid twisting of strip, the blanking and trimming large holes should be
laid out preferably in the end of the strip.
18. Strip guide and spring blank holder should be used for all progressive dies.
19. In order to avoid tearing of strip in the positions in which the strip is thin, using a
bead in the previous stations should be considered.
20. An adjustable location and positioning of panel or strip should be considered.
21. All holes which their locations are related to each other and specific tolerance is
included in them, should be punched in a single operation, if possible.
22. Idle stations should be used when die will be weak against the shearing and forming
forces.
23. Narrow cutting operations should be done in separate stages.
24. In order to avoid deformation of holes and trimmed edges, the correct sequence of
piercing, trimming, forming and bending operation should be considered.
25. Working operations in a progressive die should be combined as a single operation
and additional stages should be avoided, if possible.
26. Idle stations should not have breathing effect.
Punch, die and blank holder
27. Larger punches and dies should be made in sectional form.
28. Those punches which are made by wire cut operation should be inserted in the punch
holder.
condition.
29. Surface roughness for punch, die and blank holder, should be in
30. When the die is open, the cutting edges of the punch should be inside the blank
holder (minimum 3mm).

31. The head of punch and blank holder should be made of the exact shape of the part. In
other words, the head of punch and blank holder should be finished by spotting
operation against the die surface.
32. The dies and punches of the tools should be made of suitable material with the
required hardness. Also, there should not be any welding, cracks or voids on their
surfaces.
33. In order to avoid the wrong installation of removable punches (ball lock type), the
punch shanks should have various diameters and stepped forms.
34. The clearance between trimming punch and die, also between bend and draw punch
and die, should be according to the related standards, thickness and material of part.
35. Punch and blank holder should have appropriate clearance between each other.
36. Appropriate fillet or chamfer should be included to the corners of the blank holder
holes, through which, the punch is passed.
37. A tapered scrap hole in the end of the shearing wall of the die is preferable.
38. There should not be any gap and space between the inserted steel blocks and their
splitting line should be perpendicular to the part profile.
39. Cutting dies should be made of SPKR or other kind of steels with the same
mechanical properties and minimum 60HRC hardness.
40. For dies which are affected by thrust forces, together with screw and dowel pin, back
up keys should be used as well.
41. Die shearing walls should have an appropriate height according to the part thickness
and production rate.
42. Transporting hook for large blank holder is required.
43. The splitting line of the inserted steel blocks should not be positioned at the corners
of the parts.
44. In the weak and breakable areas, inserted steel blocks should be used.
45. Blank holder should be made of VCN200, MS60, or other similar steels with the
same properties and hardness.
46. In order to locate the guide pins on the die face, in single operation dies, die face area
should be greater than blank size.
47. In order to adjust the inserted steel blocks and back up keys, the use of shim is not
allowed.
48. The minimum distance between the die face and the head of screw (or dowel pin),
should be minimum 5mm.
49. The distance between trimming edges of die and outer contour, should be at least
30mm.
Punch holder, bumper plate, pilot pin and spool retainer
50. The use of punch holder is required for each one of the dies with small punches.
51. The punch bumper plate is required for punches with a diameter less than 30mm.
52. The punch bumper plate should be made of SPK or similar materials with the
required hardness.
53. For each spring located in blank holder, a spool retainer should be added.
54. The length of bearing of spool retainer in punch holder or in upper shoe, should not
be less than 15mm.
55. The minimum thickness of spool retainer bushes should not be less than 3mm.
56. The maximum difference between the pilot pin diameter and punch diameter should
not be more than 0.05mm.
57. Pilot pins should be in exact and equal distances from the center lines of the die.
58. Pilot pins should be aligned with the center line.

Side cutter
59. In order to control the feed in progressive dies, using the side cutter is essential.
60. One or more side cutters should be used according to the part accuracy and
tolerances.
61. In order to avoid the remaining waste material at the end of the strip after passing the
first side cutter, based on the part accuracy and tolerances, one or more side cutters or
fixed pin should be used at the end of the final stations.
62. A steel heel for each side cutter should be used.
Guiding units
63. When the die is closed, the guide post should be lower than the upper die set
(minimum 3mm).
64. All of the dies should have 4 sets of guiding post and bush.
65. Dies with more than 800mm in length, should have heel guides with the appropriate
wear plates in addition to guide posts.
66. Progressive dies with more than 4 stages should have ball bearing guide bushes.
67. Guide posts and heel guides should be fool proof.
68. Surface roughness of guide posts should be in
condition
69. Guide posts or guide bushes should have lubricating grooves.
70. Using spool retainer and a set of guide post and bush is essential and when the blank
holder size is lager than 500mm, heel guides should be used.
71. The length of the guide post should be long enough to enter the guide bush, before
the contact between the blank holder and part.
Stop block and stock block
72. Minimum bearing strength for each stop block should be 10,000 PSI.
73. The minimum quantity of stop block and stock block for each die is 4.
74. The contact surfaces of the stop block should be parallel to each other.
75. The bearing surfaces of the stock block should be parallel to each other.
76. Stop block in all dies should have the same thicknesses.
77. Stock block in all dies should have the same thicknesses.
CAM units
78. Loading and unloading of the panel should not be affected by the use of CAM units.
79. The prevention of potential damages to CAM units, when they return to their first
positions, should be considered during the design of the die.
General items
80. All of the sharp edges and corners of shoes, dies and blank holders should have a 45
degree chamfer.
81. Safety area (for those dies with a length of more than 800mm) and stock blocks
should be included in the design of the dies.
82. In case that the blank ejector is used in a die, its stroke should be sufficient for the

complete ejection of the part.


83. Progressive dies should be equipped with strip pusher.
84. For each one of the dies, an identification plaque including operation name, part
name, part number, left/right hand of part and tool weight should be made.
85. In order to specify the feed direction, a separate plaque should be made.
86. All of the dies should have coordinate holes for machining references.
87. For transportation, hooks and fastening strips should be made.
88. During the design and manufacture of dies, the ease of maintenance should be
considered. Also, the main die elements should be replaceable.
89. Distances between screws and dowel pins from the cutting edges should not be less
than 12mm.
90. The material and number of each one of the inserted steel blocks should be engraved
on their top apparent surfaces.
91. Dies with downward outlet for parts and scraps, should have the required blocks as
bridge at the bottom of the lower shoe.
92. Dies with downward outlet for parts and scraps should have part box and scrap box.
93. Scraps and parts should have separate boxes.
94. Scrap and part boxes should have guiding rails.
95. Shoes should be made of ST52 and have ground surfaces.
96. In order to facilitate the part exit from the final station of progressive dies, a slope of
more than 25 degrees at the end of the guide should be considered.
97. A sufficient space for loading and unloading of panel should be considered in the
design of die.
98. For any locations in die, which may have the possibility of air trap, for example
"space between the draw punch and die" or "guide posts and bushes", suitable air
vent holes or grooves should be considered in the design.
99. All of the inserted steel blocks of die should have at least two screws and two dowel
pins.
100. In the design of die the safety of operator should be considered.
101. In flange dies, the flanged edges of part should pass through the die entry.
102. The ejectors should be balanced in all of the stations, when they are at the start and
at the end of griping action.
103. The spring back in the bending operations should be considered.
104. For all of the dies in which the scraps would fall around the punch, scrap chute is
needed.
105. In case that the part exit is not completely done in the final station, a vibrator should
be included in the scrap chute.
106. Stock blocks should have enough length so that guide posts remain in guide bushes,
minimum 30mm.
107. Possibility of lubrication for all wearing surfaces should be considered.
108. Standard parts should be purchased according to the attached table.
109. The guarantee of dies should be 1,000,000 strokes/shots.
110. Spare parts for all dies should be prepared according to the attached table.

Technical Requirements

Spare Parts

Supplying Automotive Parts Co.

For Progressive and G5

Notes:
* = ellipse, square, round and irregulars shape.
= each size or kind which used

PART NAME

MARK

REMARK

Dayton
"
"
"

---------

PUNCH RETAINER

*5
5<*10
10<*15
15<*

SPARE
PARTS
8
6
4
2
0.1

"

Min.1 Piece

BUTTON DIE

"

---

STRIPPER

"

---

GUIDE BUSH

SANKYO

---

SPRING

STEEL SPRING
URETHANE
SPRING

1
1

FIBRO

---

"

---

WEAR PLATES

0.1
0.1
1

"
"

"
"

"

---

"

---

0.4

"

Min. 1 Piece

0.1
0.1

SANKYO
FESTO

Min. 1 Piece
"

PIERCCE PUNCH

PLATES

SPECIFICATION

CAM PLATES

CAM

SPRING PLNGER
PNEUMATICS INS

CAM BOTTOM
GUIDE
CAM POSITIVE
RETURN
BLOCK
PREHEM LINK
&DRIVER

Technical Requirements

Standard Parts

Supplying Automotive Parts Co.

For Progressive and G5


Notes:
*= ellipse, square, round and irregulars shape.
= each size or kind which used

PART NEME

SPECIFICATION

MARK

ACCURACY &
MATERIAL
According to
Commercial

GUIDE STOP

DAYTON

SANKYO

GUIDE STOP SET

GUIDE BUSH

STEEL SPRING

FIBRO

URETHANE SPRING

WEAR PLATES

CAMUNIT

CAM(stroke side)
PLATES

CAM BOTTOM
GUIDE PLATE
CAM POSTITIVE
RETURN
CAM POSITIVE
RETURN BLOCK

CAM STOPPER

CYLINDER TUBE

FESTO

FIXED TYPE
MOVEABLE

SANKYO
SANKYO

SCREW

SANKYO
DIN 912

DOWEL PIN

DIN 9779

BALL CASTER

SANKYO

STOCK GUIDE
COMPONSATOR

SANKYO

JUMPING STAND

SANKYO

PIERCE PUNCH
PUNCH RETAINER
BUTTON DIE
STRIPPER

SPRING
PLATES

CAM

PENUMATIC
INS.

GAUDE
SPOOL RETAINER

BLANK DIE INS.

According to
Supplier standard

10.8.11.8
(12.9 ONLY FOR SPOOL RETAINER)

Notes: