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Mecaelah S.

Palaganas
2014-20608/ BS Materials Engineering
Chem 16 THU/THQR2
Ms. Jonica Ella Doliente
EXPERIMENT 1
CHEMICAL CHANGES
QUESTIONS:
1. What type of process and/ or chemical change is observed in 1, 2, 3, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, and 5?
2. Why must zinc be added gradually to the solution in procedure 4.1?
3. What is the purpose of the test using ammonia solution?
4. Why must HCl be added to the solid after the reaction with zinc dust is completed?
5. Why is it not advisable to dry the copper directly over the Bunsen flame?
6. Calculate the percent recovery in the experiment. Does your result refute the Law of
Conservation of Matter?
ANSWERS:
1. 1 It is a double displacement reaction because Cu(NO3)2 reacted with NaOH, thus
producing a Cu(OH)2 and Na(NO)3.
2 It is a decomposition reaction because copper (II) hydroxide decomposed into separate
compounds, H2O (l) and CuO (s).
3 It is a double displacement reaction, because Cu displaced H, and SO4 displaced O.
4.1 This is a single replacement reaction because zinc replaced copper in CuSO4, forming
ZnSO4 and solid copper.
4.2 It is a combination reaction given that Cu2+ and 4NH3 yields Cu(NH3)42-.
4.3 This is a single replacement reaction since zinc replaced H in HCl.
5 Theoretically, it is an oxidation reaction specifically a combination reaction because
Cu(II) ions were heated, and because Cu combined with O2.
2. Zinc must be added gradually to the solution in 4.1 because it reacts with copper ions to
produce copper which is a displacement reaction. As this copper metal accumulates with
zinc, the blue color due to the aqueous copper gradually fades as Cu 2+ ions are reduced to
metallic copper. This reaction gives off a lot of heat which makes the reaction beaker in
bare hands to be hot, thats why a gradual addition of zinc is needed. Also, by adding the
zinc gradually the surface area of zinc in contact with the CuSO4 solution is increased.
3. The purpose of the test using ammonia solution is to confirm that the zinc was completely
mixed with the copper (II). This test is important as it reveals any copper ions which have
not been converted to copper metal. If you add a few drops of the solution to some ammonia
and it turns blue, it means that there is still copper present. An incomplete reaction may
lead to wrong percent recovery at the end of the experiment.
4. After the reaction with zinc dust is completed, HCl must be added to remove the excess zinc.
Since zinc is more reactive than copper and has a lower ionization energy and oxidation
potential than that of copper, HCl will only react with zinc and produce a soluble zinc salt
which will be rinsed away.

5. It is not advisable to dry the copper directly over a Bunsen flame because the copper will
react with the oxygen in the air, and it forms oxides of copper which forms impurity with
the pure copper needed in this experiment.
6. Our result, which is 126% yield, does not refute the Law of Conservation of Matter. I think it
is mainly because of our errors while doing the experiment like sample was not fully dried
and still contained water or impurities were mixed in with copper causing it to weigh more
than it should.