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1


Cl ass XI I , Mat hs

Uni t : Al gebr a




S.No Chapt er For mul a
1.1 Ty pes of mat r i x :

=

ij
mxn
A a is a:
 Diagonal matrix if
ij
a = 0,when i ≠ j
 Square matrix if m = n
 Row matrix if m = 1
 Column matrix if n = 1
 Scalar matrix if
ij
a = 0, when i ≠ j,
ij
a = k,
(some constant), when i = j
 Identity matrix if
ij
a = 1, when i = j
& = 0, when i ≠ j
ij
a
 Zero matrix if
ij
a = 0.

1.2 Oper at i ons on mat r i ces.

 -A = (-1) A (Negative of a matrix)
 A – B = A + (-1) B (Difference of matrices)
 A + B = B +A
(Commutative law of addition)
 A + (B+C) = (A + B)+C
(Associative law of addition)
 k(A+B) = kA + kB (Multiplication by scalar)
 (k+ l)A= kA + lA (Multiplication by scalar)
 A (BC) = (AB) C (Associative law)
 A (B+C) = AB + AC (Distributive law)
 (A+B)C = AC + BC (Distributive law)

1 Mat r i ces



1.3



Pr oper t i es of t r anspose of a mat r i x .

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2

If =

ij
mxn
A a , then =

ji
nxm
A' a
 (A')'= A
 (kA)' = kA'
 (A+B)' = A'+B'
 (AB)' = B'A'

1.4 I nv er se of a mat r i x .

If AB = BA = I, where A & B are square
matrices, then B = A
-1
or A = B
-1
& (A
-1
)
-1
= A

1.5 Sy mmet r i c & Sk ew - sy mmet r i c mat r i ces.

 A is symmetric if A = A'
 A is skew symmetric if A' = -A

2 Det er mi nant s 2.1 Val ue of a det er mi nant of or der 2.


=


= = ÷
11 12
21 22
11 12
11 22 12 21
21 22
a a
If A then,
a a
a a
A a a
a a
a a

2.2 Pr oper t i es of det er mi nant s.

For any square matrix A
 = =
'
A A , whereA' transposeof A
 If we interchange any two rows (or
columns), then sign of determinant
changes.
 If any two rows (or columns) are identical
or proportional then the value of
determinant is 0.
 If we multiply each element of a row (or
column) of a determinant b7y constant k,
then the value of determinant is multiplied
by k.

 Multiplying a determinant by k means
multiply each element of one row (or

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3
column) by k.
 If = =

3
ij
3x3
A a , then k.A k A
 If elements of a row (or column) can be
expressed as sum of two or more elements
then the determinant can be expressed as
sum of two or more elements.
 If to each element of a row (or column) of
a determinant the equi-multiples of
corresponding elements of other two rows
or columns are added, then the value of
determinant remains same.
 A has inverse if and only if A is non-
singular
 Value of determinant is equal to the sum of
product of element of a row (or a column)
with its corresponding cofactors.
 If elements of one row (or column) are
multiplied with cofactors of elements of any
other row (or column), then their sum is 0.

2.3 Mi nor & Cof act or s.

 Minor (M
ij
) of an element a
ij
of the
determinant of matrix A is the determinant
obtained by deleting the i
th
row & j
th

column.
 Cofactor of a
ij
is A
ij
= (-1)
i+j
M
ij


2.4 Adj oi nt & I nv er se of a Mat r i x .


11 12 13 11 21 31
21 22 23 12 22 32
31 32 33 13 23 33
a a a A A A
If A a a a ,thenadjA A A A
a a a A A A


= =





where, A
ij
are cofactors of a
ij

 A
-1
=
1
(adj A)
A





2.5




Ar ea of a Tr i angl e.


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4
is
Area of a triangle with vertices (x
1
, y
1
), (x
2
,y
2
)
& (x
3
,y
3
)
= 
1 1
2 2
3 3
x y 1
1
x y 1
2
x y 1

2.6 Si ngul ar & non- si ngul ar mat r i ces.

 Singular if = A 0
 Non-singular if = A 0

2.7 Sol ut i on of l i near equat i ons.

+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
=


= = =



1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2
3 3 3 3
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2
3 3 3 3
If a x b y c z d
a x b y c z d
a x b y c z d
thentheseequationscanbewrittenasAX B,where
a b c d x
A a b c ,X y andB d
z a b c d

For X = A
-1
B if:
 A ≠0, there exist unique solution
 A =0 & (adj A)B≠0, there exist no solution
 A =0 & (adj A)B= 0, there exist infinitely
many solutions.