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1

Cl ass XI I , Mat hs

Uni t : Al gebr a

S.No Chapt er For mul a

1.1 Ty pes of mat r i x :

=

ij

mxn

A a is a:

Diagonal matrix if

ij

a = 0,when i ≠ j

Square matrix if m = n

Row matrix if m = 1

Column matrix if n = 1

Scalar matrix if

ij

a = 0, when i ≠ j,

ij

a = k,

(some constant), when i = j

Identity matrix if

ij

a = 1, when i = j

& = 0, when i ≠ j

ij

a

Zero matrix if

ij

a = 0.

1.2 Oper at i ons on mat r i ces.

-A = (-1) A (Negative of a matrix)

A – B = A + (-1) B (Difference of matrices)

A + B = B +A

(Commutative law of addition)

A + (B+C) = (A + B)+C

(Associative law of addition)

k(A+B) = kA + kB (Multiplication by scalar)

(k+ l)A= kA + lA (Multiplication by scalar)

A (BC) = (AB) C (Associative law)

A (B+C) = AB + AC (Distributive law)

(A+B)C = AC + BC (Distributive law)

1 Mat r i ces

1.3

Pr oper t i es of t r anspose of a mat r i x .

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2

If =

ij

mxn

A a , then =

ji

nxm

A' a

(A')'= A

(kA)' = kA'

(A+B)' = A'+B'

(AB)' = B'A'

1.4 I nv er se of a mat r i x .

If AB = BA = I, where A & B are square

matrices, then B = A

-1

or A = B

-1

& (A

-1

)

-1

= A

1.5 Sy mmet r i c & Sk ew - sy mmet r i c mat r i ces.

A is symmetric if A = A'

A is skew symmetric if A' = -A

2 Det er mi nant s 2.1 Val ue of a det er mi nant of or der 2.

=

= = ÷

11 12

21 22

11 12

11 22 12 21

21 22

a a

If A then,

a a

a a

A a a

a a

a a

2.2 Pr oper t i es of det er mi nant s.

For any square matrix A

= =

'

A A , whereA' transposeof A

If we interchange any two rows (or

columns), then sign of determinant

changes.

If any two rows (or columns) are identical

or proportional then the value of

determinant is 0.

If we multiply each element of a row (or

column) of a determinant b7y constant k,

then the value of determinant is multiplied

by k.

Multiplying a determinant by k means

multiply each element of one row (or

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3

column) by k.

If = =

3

ij

3x3

A a , then k.A k A

If elements of a row (or column) can be

expressed as sum of two or more elements

then the determinant can be expressed as

sum of two or more elements.

If to each element of a row (or column) of

a determinant the equi-multiples of

corresponding elements of other two rows

or columns are added, then the value of

determinant remains same.

A has inverse if and only if A is non-

singular

Value of determinant is equal to the sum of

product of element of a row (or a column)

with its corresponding cofactors.

If elements of one row (or column) are

multiplied with cofactors of elements of any

other row (or column), then their sum is 0.

2.3 Mi nor & Cof act or s.

Minor (M

ij

) of an element a

ij

of the

determinant of matrix A is the determinant

obtained by deleting the i

th

row & j

th

column.

Cofactor of a

ij

is A

ij

= (-1)

i+j

M

ij

2.4 Adj oi nt & I nv er se of a Mat r i x .

11 12 13 11 21 31

21 22 23 12 22 32

31 32 33 13 23 33

a a a A A A

If A a a a ,thenadjA A A A

a a a A A A

= =

where, A

ij

are cofactors of a

ij

A

-1

=

1

(adj A)

A

2.5

Ar ea of a Tr i angl e.

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4

is

Area of a triangle with vertices (x

1

, y

1

), (x

2

,y

2

)

& (x

3

,y

3

)

=

1 1

2 2

3 3

x y 1

1

x y 1

2

x y 1

2.6 Si ngul ar & non- si ngul ar mat r i ces.

Singular if = A 0

Non-singular if = A 0

2.7 Sol ut i on of l i near equat i ons.

+ + =

+ + =

+ + =

=

= = =

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3

If a x b y c z d

a x b y c z d

a x b y c z d

thentheseequationscanbewrittenasAX B,where

a b c d x

A a b c ,X y andB d

z a b c d

For X = A

-1

B if:

A ≠0, there exist unique solution

A =0 & (adj A)B≠0, there exist no solution

A =0 & (adj A)B= 0, there exist infinitely

many solutions.

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