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You are on page 1of 52

CHAPTER 1:

Fundamentals

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Vertical Monopolies

Within a particular geographic market, the electric utility had

an exclusive franchise

Distribution

franchise, the utility had the

obligation to serve all

existing and future customers

at rates determined jointly

by utility and regulators

Customer Service

Generation

Transmission

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Vertical Monopolies

Within its service territory each utility was the only game in

town

Neighboring utilities functioned more as colleagues than

competitors

Utilities gradually interconnected their systems so by 1970

transmission lines crisscrossed North America, with

voltages up to 765 kV

Economies of scale keep resulted in decreasing rates, so

most every one was happy

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

1970s brought inflation, increased fossil-fuel prices, calls for

conservation and growing environmental concerns

Increasing rates replaced decreasing ones

As a result, U.S. Congress passed Public Utilities Regulator

Policies Act (PURPA) in 1978, which mandated utilities must

purchase power from independent generators located in their

service territory (modified 2005)

PURPA introduced some competition

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Major opening of industry to competition occurred as a

result of National Energy Policy Act of 1992

This act mandated that utilities provide nondiscriminatory

access to the high voltage transmission

Goal was to set up true competition in generation

Result over the last few years has been a dramatic

restructuring of electric utility industry (for better or worse!)

Energy Bill 2005 repealed PUHCA; modified PURPA

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

OFF

OFF

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

WA

MT

ND

MN

OR

ID

WY

NV

SD

WI

CA

AZ

CO

IL

KS

OK

NM

NY

MI

PA

IA

NE

UT

VT ME

MO

AR

IN OH W

KY

TN

VA VA

N

H

MA

RI

C

NT

DJ D

M

E

C

D

NC

SC

MS AL GA

TX

LA

AK

FL

HI

electricity

restructuring

delayed

restructuring

no activity

suspended

restructuring

Source : http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/chg_str/regmap.html

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

10

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Two main electric utilities in Illinois are ComEd and Ameren

Restructuring law had frozen electricity prices for ten years,

with rate decreases for many.

Prices rose on January 1, 2007 as price freeze ended; price

increases were especially high for electric heating customers

who had previously enjoyed rates as low as 2.5 cents/kWh

Current average residential rate (in cents/kWh) is 10.4 in IL,

8.74 IN, 11.1 WI, 7.94 MO, 9.96 IA, 19.56 CT, 6.09 ID, 14.03

in CA, 10.76 US average

11

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Review of Phasors

Goal of phasor analysis is to simplify the analysis of constant

frequency ac systems

v(t) = Vmax cos(wt + qv)

i(t) = Imax cos(wt + qI)

1T

Vmax

2

v(t ) dt

T0

2

12

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Phasor Representation

Euler's Identity: e jq cosq j sin q

Phasor notation is developed by rewriting

using Euler's identity

v(t ) 2 V cos(w t qV )

v(t ) 2 V Re e j (w t qV )

(Note: V is the RMS voltage)

2012 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.

13

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

The RMS, cosine-referenced voltage phasor is:

V

V e jqV V qV

v(t )

Re 2 Ve jw t e jqV

V cosqV j V sin qV

I cosq I j I sin q I

complex numbers, or bars on the top)

14

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Device

Time Analysis

Phasor

Resistor

v(t ) Ri (t )

di (t )

v(t ) L

dt

V RI

1t

i (t ) dt v(0)

C0

1

V

I

jw C

Inductor

Capacitor

V jw LI

Z = Impedance R jX Z

R = Resistance

X = Reactance

Z =

R2 X 2

(Note: Z is a

complex number but

X

=arctan( ) not a phasor)

R

15

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

RL Circuit Example

V (t )

2 100cos(w t 30)

60Hz

i(t)

X wL

42 32 5 36.9

V

10030

Z

536.9

20 6.9 Amps

20 2 cos(w t 6.9)

16

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Complex Power

Power

p (t ) v(t ) i (t )

v(t)

= Vmax cos(w t qV )

i (t)

= I max cos(w t q I )

1

cos cos [cos( ) cos( )]

2

1

p (t ) Vmax I max [cos(qV q I )

2

cos(2w t qV q I )]

17

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Average Power

1

p (t ) Vmax I max [cos(qV q I ) cos(2wt qV q I )]

2

Pavg

1T

p (t )dt

T0

1

Vmax I max cos(qV q I )

2

V I cos(qV q I )

18

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Complex Power

S V I cos(qV q I ) j sin(qV q I )

P jQ

V I

Q = Reactive Power (var, kvar, Mvar)

S = Complex power (VA, kVA, MVA)

Power Factor (pf) = cos

If current leads voltage then pf is leading

If current lags voltage then pf is lagging

19

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Relationships between real, reactive and complex power

P S cos

Q S sin

S 1 pf 2

What are (power factor angle), Q and S ?

100kW

S

117.6 kVA

0.85

Q 117.6sin(31.8) 62.0 kVar

20

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Conservation of Power

At every node (bus) in the system

Sum of real power into node must equal zero

Sum of reactive power into node must equal zero

This is a direct consequence of Kirchhoffs current law, which

states that the total current into each node must equal zero.

Conservation of power follows since S = VI*

21

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Earlier we found

I = 20-6.9 amps

S V I * 10030 206.9 200036.9 VA

36.9

pf = 0.8 lagging

SR VR I * 4 20 6.9 206.9

PR 1600W

I R

(Q R 0)

SL VL I * 3 j 20 6.9 206.9

2

Q L 1200 var I X

(PL 0)

22

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Resistors only consume real power

2

PResistor I Resistor R

Inductors only consume reactive power

2

Q Inductor I Inductor X L

Capacitors only generate reactive power

2

QCapacitor I Capacitor X C

QCapacitor

VCapacitor

XC

1

XC

wC

23

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Example

First solve

basic circuit

400000 V

I

4000 Amps

1000

V 400000 (5 j 40) 4000

42000 j16000 44.920.8 kV

S V I * 44.9k20.8 4000

17.9820.8 MVA 16.8 j 6.4 MVA

24

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Example, contd

Now add additional

reactive power load

and resolve

Z Load 70.7

pf 0.7 lagging

I 564 45 Amps

V 59.713.6 kV

S 33.758.6 MVA 17.6 j 28.8 MVA

25

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Power system components are usually shown as

one-line diagrams. Previous circuit redrawn

17.6 MW

16.0 MW

28.8 MVR

-16.0 MVR

59.7 kV

17.6 MW

28.8 MVR

40.0 kV

16.0 MW

16.0 MVR

Transmission lines

Generators are

Arrows are used

are shown as a

to show loads

shown as circles

single line

26

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Reactive Compensation

Key idea of reactive compensation is to supply reactive

power locally. In the previous example this can

be done by adding a 16 Mvar capacitor at the load

16.8 MW

16.0 MW

6.4 MVR

0.0 MVR

44.94 kV

16.8 MW

6.4 MVR

40.0 kV

16.0 MW

16.0 MVR

16.0 MVR

just real power load

27

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Reactive compensation decreased the line flow from 564

Amps to 400 Amps. This has advantages

Lines losses, which are equal to I2 R decrease

Lower current allows utility to use small wires, or

alternatively, supply more load over the same wires

Voltage drop on the line is less

Reactive compensation is used extensively by utilities

Capacitors can be used to correct a loads power

factor to an arbitrary value.

28

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Assume we have 100 kVA load with pf=0.8 lagging,

and would like to correct the pf to 0.95 lagging

S 80 j 60 kVA

60 - Qcap

80

29

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

30

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

A balanced 3 phase () system has

three voltage sources with equal magnitude, but with an

angle shift of 120

equal loads on each phase

equal impedance on the lines connecting the generators to

the loads

Bulk power systems are almost exclusively 3

Single phase is used primarily only in low voltage, low

power settings, such as residential and some commercial

31

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

I n I a Ib I c

V

In

(10 1 1

Z

*

*

*

*

S Van I an

Vbn I bn

Vcn I cn

3 Van I an

32

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Advantages of 3 Power

Can transmit more power for same amount of wire (twice

as much as single phase)

Torque produced by 3 machines is constant

Three phase machines use less material for same power

rating

Three phase machines start more easily than single phase

machines

33

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

There are two ways to connect 3 systems

Wye (Y)

Delta ()

Van

Vbn

Vcn

V

34

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Vcn

Vca

Vab

-Vbn

Van

Vbn

Vbc

Vab

( = 0 in this case)

3 V 30

Vbc

3 V 90

Vca

3 V 150

also balanced

35

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Define voltage/current across/through device to be phase

voltage/current

Define voltage/current across/through lines to be line

voltage/current

j

6

I Line I Phase

S3

*

3 VPhase I Phase

36

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Delta Connection

For the Delta

phase voltages equal

line voltages

For currents

Ica

Ib

Ia I ab I ca

Ic

3 I ab

I b I bc I ab

Ibc

Iab

Ia

Ic I ca I bc

*

S3 3 VPhase I Phase

37

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Assume a -connected load is supplied from a 3

13.8 kV (L-L) source with Z = 10020

Vab 13.80 kV

Vbc 13.8 0 kV

Vca 13.80 kV

I ab

13.80 kV

138 20 amps

I ca 1380 amps

38

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

I a I ab I ca 138 20 1380

239 50 amps

I b 239 170 amps I c 2390 amps

*

S 3 Vab I ab

3 13.80kV 138 amps

5.7 MVA

5.37 j1.95 MVA

pf cos 20 lagging

39

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Delta-Wye Transformation

To simplify analysis of balanced 3 systems:

1) -connected loads can be replaced by

1

Y-connected loads with ZY Z

3

2) -connected sources can be replaced by

VLine

Y-connected sources with Vphase

330

40

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Vab Vca

Vab Vca

Ia

Z Z

Z

Hence

Vab Vca

Z

Ia

41

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

From the Y side we get

Vab

ZY ( I a I b )

Vca ZY ( I c I a )

Vab Vca ZY (2 I a I b I c )

Since

Ia I b I c 0 I a I b I c

Hence

Vab Vca 3 ZY I a

3 ZY

Vab Vca

Z

Ia

Therefore

ZY

1

Z

3

42

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

43

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Per phase analysis allows analysis of balanced 3 systems

with the same effort as for a single phase system

Balanced 3 Theorem: For a balanced 3 system with

All loads and sources Y connected

No mutual Inductance between phases

44

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Then

All neutrals are at the same potential

All phases are COMPLETELY decoupled

All system values are the same sequence as sources. The

sequence order weve been using (phase b lags phase a

and phase c lags phase a) is known as positive

sequence; later in the course well discuss negative and

zero sequence systems.

45

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

To do per phase analysis

1. Convert all load/sources to equivalent Ys

2. Solve phase a independent of the other phases

3. Total system power S = 3 Va Ia*

4. If desired, phase b and c values can be

determined by inspection (i.e., 120 degree phase

shifts)

5. If necessary, go back to original circuit to determine

line-line values or internal values.

46

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Assume a 3, Y-connected generator with Van = 10 volts

supplies a -connected load with Z = -j through a

transmission line with impedance of j0.1 per phase. The

load is also connected to a -connected generator with

Vab = 10 through a second transmission line which also

has an impedance of j0.1 per phase.

Find

1. The load voltage Vab

2. The total power supplied by each generator, SY and S

47

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Y values and draw just the "a" phase circuit

48

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

(Va'

j

3

49

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

To solve the circuit, write the KCL equation at a'

1

'

'

'

(Va 10)(10 j ) Va (3 j ) (Va

j

3

10

(10 j

60) Va' (10 j 3 j 10 j )

3

Va' 0.9 volts

'

Vab

1.56 volts

50

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

*

'

Va Va

Sygen 3Va I a* Va

5.1 j 3.5 VA

j 0.1

"

" Va

Sgen 3Va

' *

Va

5.1 j 4.7 VA

j 0.1

51

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