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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

CHAPTER 1:
Fundamentals

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Vertical Monopolies
Within a particular geographic market, the electric utility had
an exclusive franchise

Distribution

In return for this exclusive


franchise, the utility had the
obligation to serve all
existing and future customers
at rates determined jointly
by utility and regulators

Customer Service

It was a cost plus business

Generation
Transmission

2012 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Vertical Monopolies
Within its service territory each utility was the only game in
town
Neighboring utilities functioned more as colleagues than
competitors
Utilities gradually interconnected their systems so by 1970
transmission lines crisscrossed North America, with
voltages up to 765 kV
Economies of scale keep resulted in decreasing rates, so
most every one was happy

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Current Midwest Electric Grid

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

History, contd 1970s


1970s brought inflation, increased fossil-fuel prices, calls for
conservation and growing environmental concerns
Increasing rates replaced decreasing ones
As a result, U.S. Congress passed Public Utilities Regulator
Policies Act (PURPA) in 1978, which mandated utilities must
purchase power from independent generators located in their
service territory (modified 2005)
PURPA introduced some competition

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

History, contd 1990s & 2000s


Major opening of industry to competition occurred as a
result of National Energy Policy Act of 1992
This act mandated that utilities provide nondiscriminatory
access to the high voltage transmission
Goal was to set up true competition in generation
Result over the last few years has been a dramatic
restructuring of electric utility industry (for better or worse!)
Energy Bill 2005 repealed PUHCA; modified PURPA

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

State Variation in Electric Rates

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

The Goal: Customer Choice

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

The Result for California in 2000/1

OFF

OFF

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

The California-Enron Effect


WA
MT

ND

MN

OR
ID

WY

NV

SD

WI

CA
AZ

CO

IL
KS
OK

NM

NY

MI

PA

IA

NE
UT

VT ME

MO

AR

IN OH W
KY
TN

VA VA

N
H
MA
RI
C
NT
DJ D
M
E
C
D

NC
SC

MS AL GA
TX

LA

AK

FL
HI

electricity
restructuring

delayed
restructuring

no activity

suspended
restructuring

Source : http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/chg_str/regmap.html

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

August 14, 2003 Blackout

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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

2007 Illinois Electricity Crisis


Two main electric utilities in Illinois are ComEd and Ameren
Restructuring law had frozen electricity prices for ten years,
with rate decreases for many.
Prices rose on January 1, 2007 as price freeze ended; price
increases were especially high for electric heating customers
who had previously enjoyed rates as low as 2.5 cents/kWh
Current average residential rate (in cents/kWh) is 10.4 in IL,
8.74 IN, 11.1 WI, 7.94 MO, 9.96 IA, 19.56 CT, 6.09 ID, 14.03
in CA, 10.76 US average

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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Review of Phasors
Goal of phasor analysis is to simplify the analysis of constant
frequency ac systems
v(t) = Vmax cos(wt + qv)
i(t) = Imax cos(wt + qI)

Root Mean Square (RMS) voltage of sinusoid

1T
Vmax
2
v(t ) dt

T0
2
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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Phasor Representation
Euler's Identity: e jq cosq j sin q
Phasor notation is developed by rewriting
using Euler's identity
v(t ) 2 V cos(w t qV )
v(t ) 2 V Re e j (w t qV )
(Note: V is the RMS voltage)
2012 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.

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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Phasor Representation, contd


The RMS, cosine-referenced voltage phasor is:
V

V e jqV V qV

v(t )

Re 2 Ve jw t e jqV

V cosqV j V sin qV

I cosq I j I sin q I

(Note: Some texts use boldface type for


complex numbers, or bars on the top)
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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Advantages of Phasor Analysis


Device

Time Analysis

Phasor

Resistor

v(t ) Ri (t )
di (t )
v(t ) L
dt

V RI

1t
i (t ) dt v(0)

C0

1
V
I
jw C

Inductor
Capacitor

V jw LI

Z = Impedance R jX Z
R = Resistance
X = Reactance
Z =

R2 X 2

(Note: Z is a
complex number but
X
=arctan( ) not a phasor)
R
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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

RL Circuit Example

V (t )

2 100cos(w t 30)

60Hz

i(t)

X wL

42 32 5 36.9

V
10030

Z
536.9
20 6.9 Amps
20 2 cos(w t 6.9)
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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Complex Power
Power
p (t ) v(t ) i (t )
v(t)

= Vmax cos(w t qV )

i (t)

= I max cos(w t q I )

1
cos cos [cos( ) cos( )]
2
1
p (t ) Vmax I max [cos(qV q I )
2
cos(2w t qV q I )]
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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Complex Power, contd


Average Power
1
p (t ) Vmax I max [cos(qV q I ) cos(2wt qV q I )]
2
Pavg

1T

p (t )dt

T0
1
Vmax I max cos(qV q I )
2
V I cos(qV q I )

Power Factor Angle = =qV q I


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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Complex Power
S V I cos(qV q I ) j sin(qV q I )
P jQ
V I

(Note: S is a complex number but not a phasor)

P = Real Power (W, kW, MW)


Q = Reactive Power (var, kvar, Mvar)
S = Complex power (VA, kVA, MVA)
Power Factor (pf) = cos
If current leads voltage then pf is leading
If current lags voltage then pf is lagging
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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Complex Power, contd


Relationships between real, reactive and complex power
P S cos
Q S sin

S 1 pf 2

Example: A load draws 100 kW with a leading pf of 0.85.


What are (power factor angle), Q and S ?

-cos 1 0.85 31.8


100kW
S
117.6 kVA
0.85
Q 117.6sin(31.8) 62.0 kVar
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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Conservation of Power
At every node (bus) in the system
Sum of real power into node must equal zero
Sum of reactive power into node must equal zero
This is a direct consequence of Kirchhoffs current law, which
states that the total current into each node must equal zero.
Conservation of power follows since S = VI*

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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Conservation of Power Example


Earlier we found
I = 20-6.9 amps
S V I * 10030 206.9 200036.9 VA

36.9

pf = 0.8 lagging

SR VR I * 4 20 6.9 206.9
PR 1600W

I R

(Q R 0)

SL VL I * 3 j 20 6.9 206.9
2

Q L 1200 var I X

(PL 0)
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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Power Consumption in Devices


Resistors only consume real power
2

PResistor I Resistor R
Inductors only consume reactive power
2

Q Inductor I Inductor X L
Capacitors only generate reactive power
2

QCapacitor I Capacitor X C
QCapacitor

VCapacitor
XC

1
XC
wC

(Note-some define X C negative)


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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Example
First solve
basic circuit

400000 V
I
4000 Amps
1000
V 400000 (5 j 40) 4000
42000 j16000 44.920.8 kV
S V I * 44.9k20.8 4000
17.9820.8 MVA 16.8 j 6.4 MVA
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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Example, contd
Now add additional
reactive power load
and resolve

Z Load 70.7

pf 0.7 lagging

I 564 45 Amps
V 59.713.6 kV
S 33.758.6 MVA 17.6 j 28.8 MVA
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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Power System Notation


Power system components are usually shown as
one-line diagrams. Previous circuit redrawn
17.6 MW

16.0 MW

28.8 MVR

-16.0 MVR
59.7 kV

17.6 MW
28.8 MVR

40.0 kV

16.0 MW
16.0 MVR

Transmission lines
Generators are
Arrows are used
are shown as a
to show loads
shown as circles
single line
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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Reactive Compensation
Key idea of reactive compensation is to supply reactive
power locally. In the previous example this can
be done by adding a 16 Mvar capacitor at the load
16.8 MW

16.0 MW

6.4 MVR

0.0 MVR
44.94 kV

16.8 MW
6.4 MVR

40.0 kV

16.0 MW
16.0 MVR

16.0 MVR

Compensated circuit is identical to first example with


just real power load
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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Reactive Compensation, contd


Reactive compensation decreased the line flow from 564
Amps to 400 Amps. This has advantages
Lines losses, which are equal to I2 R decrease
Lower current allows utility to use small wires, or
alternatively, supply more load over the same wires
Voltage drop on the line is less
Reactive compensation is used extensively by utilities
Capacitors can be used to correct a loads power
factor to an arbitrary value.

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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Power Factor Correction Example


Assume we have 100 kVA load with pf=0.8 lagging,
and would like to correct the pf to 0.95 lagging
S 80 j 60 kVA

cos 0.8 36.9

PF of 0.95 requires desired

cos 1 0.95 18.2

Snew 80 j (60 Qcap )


60 - Qcap
80

tan18.2 60 Qcap 26.3 kvar

Qcap 33.7 kvar


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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Distribution System Capacitors

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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Balanced 3 Phase () Systems


A balanced 3 phase () system has
three voltage sources with equal magnitude, but with an
angle shift of 120
equal loads on each phase
equal impedance on the lines connecting the generators to
the loads
Bulk power systems are almost exclusively 3
Single phase is used primarily only in low voltage, low
power settings, such as residential and some commercial

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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Balanced 3 No Neutral Current

I n I a Ib I c
V
In
(10 1 1
Z
*
*
*
*
S Van I an
Vbn I bn
Vcn I cn
3 Van I an
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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Advantages of 3 Power
Can transmit more power for same amount of wire (twice
as much as single phase)
Torque produced by 3 machines is constant
Three phase machines use less material for same power
rating
Three phase machines start more easily than single phase
machines

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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Three Phase Wye Connection


There are two ways to connect 3 systems
Wye (Y)
Delta ()

Wye Connection Voltages


Van

Vbn

Vcn

V
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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Wye Connection Line Voltages


Vcn

Vca

Vab
-Vbn
Van

Vbn
Vbc

Vab

( = 0 in this case)

Van Vbn V (1 1 120

3 V 30

Vbc

3 V 90

Vca

3 V 150

Line to line voltages are


also balanced
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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Wye Connection, contd


Define voltage/current across/through device to be phase
voltage/current
Define voltage/current across/through lines to be line
voltage/current

VLine 3 VPhase 130 3 VPhase e

j
6

I Line I Phase
S3

*
3 VPhase I Phase

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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Delta Connection
For the Delta
phase voltages equal
line voltages
For currents

Ica
Ib

Ia I ab I ca

Ic

3 I ab

I b I bc I ab

Ibc

Iab

Ia

Ic I ca I bc
*
S3 3 VPhase I Phase
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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Three Phase Example


Assume a -connected load is supplied from a 3
13.8 kV (L-L) source with Z = 10020

Vab 13.80 kV
Vbc 13.8 0 kV
Vca 13.80 kV

I ab

13.80 kV

138 20 amps

I bc 138 140 amps

I ca 1380 amps
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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Three Phase Example, contd


I a I ab I ca 138 20 1380
239 50 amps
I b 239 170 amps I c 2390 amps
*
S 3 Vab I ab
3 13.80kV 138 amps

5.7 MVA
5.37 j1.95 MVA
pf cos 20 lagging
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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Delta-Wye Transformation
To simplify analysis of balanced 3 systems:
1) -connected loads can be replaced by
1
Y-connected loads with ZY Z
3
2) -connected sources can be replaced by
VLine
Y-connected sources with Vphase
330

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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Delta-Wye Transformation Proof

From the side we get


Vab Vca
Vab Vca
Ia

Z Z
Z
Hence

Vab Vca
Z
Ia
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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Delta-Wye Transformation, contd


From the Y side we get
Vab

ZY ( I a I b )

Vca ZY ( I c I a )

Vab Vca ZY (2 I a I b I c )
Since

Ia I b I c 0 I a I b I c

Hence

Vab Vca 3 ZY I a

3 ZY

Vab Vca

Z
Ia

Therefore

ZY

1
Z
3
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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Three Phase Transmission Line

43

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Per Phase Analysis


Per phase analysis allows analysis of balanced 3 systems
with the same effort as for a single phase system
Balanced 3 Theorem: For a balanced 3 system with
All loads and sources Y connected
No mutual Inductance between phases

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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Per Phase Analysis, contd


Then
All neutrals are at the same potential
All phases are COMPLETELY decoupled
All system values are the same sequence as sources. The
sequence order weve been using (phase b lags phase a
and phase c lags phase a) is known as positive
sequence; later in the course well discuss negative and
zero sequence systems.

45

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Per Phase Analysis Procedure


To do per phase analysis
1. Convert all load/sources to equivalent Ys
2. Solve phase a independent of the other phases
3. Total system power S = 3 Va Ia*
4. If desired, phase b and c values can be
determined by inspection (i.e., 120 degree phase
shifts)
5. If necessary, go back to original circuit to determine
line-line values or internal values.

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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Per Phase Example


Assume a 3, Y-connected generator with Van = 10 volts
supplies a -connected load with Z = -j through a
transmission line with impedance of j0.1 per phase. The
load is also connected to a -connected generator with
Vab = 10 through a second transmission line which also
has an impedance of j0.1 per phase.
Find
1. The load voltage Vab
2. The total power supplied by each generator, SY and S

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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Per Phase Example, contd

First convert the delta load and source to equivalent


Y values and draw just the "a" phase circuit
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Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Per Phase Example, contd

To solve the circuit, write the KCL equation at a'


(Va'

10)(10 j ) Va' (3 j ) (Va'

j
3
49

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Per Phase Example, contd


To solve the circuit, write the KCL equation at a'
1
'
'
'
(Va 10)(10 j ) Va (3 j ) (Va
j
3
10
(10 j
60) Va' (10 j 3 j 10 j )
3
Va' 0.9 volts

Vb' 0.9 volts

Vc' 0.9 volts

'
Vab
1.56 volts

50

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Per Phase Example, contd


*
'
Va Va

Sygen 3Va I a* Va
5.1 j 3.5 VA
j 0.1
"

" Va
Sgen 3Va

' *
Va

5.1 j 4.7 VA
j 0.1

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