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Designing HVAC Systems for

ECBC Compliance
Dr. Satish Kumar
International Resources Group
Chief of Party, ECO-III Project

Designing Sustainable Buildings - ISHRAE Event


Mumbai
March 29, 2008

Overview










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Macro Trends in the Building Sector


ECBC Basics
Implementation Under ECO-III
Role of HVAC
Thinking Before HVAC Design
Impact of HVAC: Thermal Comfort, IEQ
Non-refrigerative Cooling
ECBC Requirements
Commissioning
Acknowledgements and Contact Information

Electricity Use in the Commercial


Sector is increasing

Source: BEE

Bombay
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Delhi, Gurgaon
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ECBC Scope
 Sets the minimum energy performance standards
for design and construction
 Mandatory scope covers Commercial buildings
 Connected load in excess of 500kW or Contract demand
in excess of 600 kVA
 Recommended for all commercial buildings with
conditioned area 1000 m2 or more

 Applies to New as well as Existing Buildings


 Building components included





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Building Envelope (Walls, Roofs, Windows)


Lighting (Indoor and Outdoor)
Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) System
Service Water Heating and Pumping
Electrical Power and Motors

Compliance Options
Building System

Compliance Options
Prescriptive
Option

Envelope
HVAC
Lighting
Electric Eqpt &
Systems
Service Hot
Water and
Pumping

Mandatory
Provisions
(required for most
compliance
options)

Trade Off
Option

Whole Building
Performance

Energy Code
Compliance

Prescriptive Approach
 Each building/system component should
have specific performance value
Max. U-factor of Building
Element (W/m2-C)
For Hot & Dry Climate Zone
Roof Assembly: 0.261
Opaque Walls: 0.440
Sky Lights: 11.24 with curb
Vertical fenestration: 3.30

Illustration: Dictionary of Architecture, Francis D K Ching


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Trade-off Approach
Component performance value can be less
BUT
Overall performance of system complies with
ECBC

Less efficient components


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Illustration: Dictionary of Architecture, Francis D K Ching

More efficient system

Whole Building Performance


Approach
 Component and systems Modeling
 Enclosure, Lighting, HVAC

 Physical Processes
 Daylighting, Heat-flow, Airflow

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Illustration: Andrew Marsh ECOTECT, IES<VE>

Energy Modeling and ECBC


 Allows to test ideas and designs without
compromising performance
 Helps the design team in
 Heating & cooling load calculation
 Selection and sizing of the HVAC system
 Conducting parametric studies to optimize design

 Many energy analysis tools (e.g. Energy Plus,


DOE 2, Transys, etc.) available
 Manual heat transfer calculations (e.g. 1 TR/250
sq. ft. of office space) should be strongly
discouraged for buildings with highly interactive
systems
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Well & Poorly Designed Building


Envelope (Building Auditing)

Uses/ Benefits

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Source: Greenpeace

 Building Diagnostics
 Locate HVAC problem
areas
 Detect building moisture
issues
 Locate Electrical Problems
 Easy non-invasive/nondestructive testing
 Detect plumbing problems

ECBC Implementation Plan in ECO-III


 Awareness and Technical Resources
 Tips Sheets
 ECBC User Guide
 Demonstration Project with DLF

 Capacity Building Program


 ECBC training workshops
 Building Energy Modeling Capacity Development
 Curriculum Enhancement

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Technical Issues Related to ECBC


Implementation in HVAC
Heating Ventilation & Air Conditioning System

HVAC Technology: Wonderful


Invention But Deploy it Prudently
Before air conditioning came to Houston in the 1920s,
British foreign service officers stationed at the consulate there
considered the steamy climate so wretched that every three
days spent counted as four days towards their retirement
Today, 95% of the citys homes and perhaps an even higher
share of its commercial buildings are air conditioned.
Even portions of outdoor facilities from football
stadium, to zoos and amusement parks are air conditioned,
giving new meaning to the term space cooling. All of this
comes with a significance price.
In 1982, Houston citys residents and business paid
$3.3 billion for cold air, more than the gross national product
of each of African nations
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Before you start


 Reduce cooling load by controlling
unwanted heat gain
 Optimize the Delivery System
 Apply non-vapor compression cooling
techniques
 Serve the remaining load with high
efficiency refrigerative cooling
 Expand the comfort envelope
 Thermal Comfort Parameters
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Before you start

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Getting Started








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Driving Factors: Health, Comfort, and


Productivity
Factors affecting thermal comfort
Determining loads
Right Size the HVAC System
Use of Energy Modeling
System interactions
Commissioning
O&M

Thermal Comfort Parameters

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Indoor Environment Quality (IEQ)


 Role of Temperature and Humidity
 Sick Building Syndrome
 Impact of IEQ on Health and Productivity
 Ensure good IEQ While Designing and
Commissioning HVAC systems





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Quality of Intake Air


Maintain Minimum Ventilation Rates
Recirculation of Indoor Air
Maintenance of the HVAC System
Integrated Approach to IEQ

How Air Conditioner Works

Process diagram of a chilled water air conditioning

 Market Share of Different


Types of AC Units
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Source: 2007 Sales Data Emerson Climate Technology

Where are the Savings?


 Component Efficiency : before and after
retrofit
 Air Handling Unit represents a big portion of
the total system savings

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Energy Saving Potential in HVAC System Design (Based on US data)

Non Refrigerative Options


 Evaporative Cooling
 Direct evaporative cooler
 Indirect evaporative cooler

 Desiccant Heat Recovery


 Solid desiccant wheels

 Ground Source Heat Pump


 Ground-water source heat pumps (GWHP)
 Ground-source closed-loop heat pumps (GSHP)

 Absorption Cooling
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Evaporative Cooling

Direct Evaporative Cooler


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Indirect Evaporative Cooler

Desiccant Heat Recovery


 Helps in Air dehumidification- reduces
cooling load
 Reduce/eliminate refrigerative airconditioning

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Absorption Cooling
 Thermo-chemical
Compressor
 Less common in India
but Growing Interest
 Due to high Electricity
Tariffs
 Growing availability of
natural gas on a
commercial basis
 Utility and manufacturer
rebates exist
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ECBC Table 5.2.2-2 Chillers


Table 5.2.2-2 Chillers
Equipment Class

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Minimum COP

Minimum IPLV

Test Standard

Air Cooled Chiller <530 kW


(<150 tons)

2.90

3.16

ARI 550/590-1998

Air Cooled Chiller 530 kW


(150 tons)

3.05

3.32

ARI 550/590-1998

Centrifugal Water Cooled Chiller < 530 kW


(<150 tons)

5.80

6.09

ARI 550/590-1998

Centrifugal Water Cooled Chiller 530 and <1050 kW


( 150 and <300 tons)

5.80

6.17

ARI 550/590-1998

Centrifugal Water Cooled Chiller  1050 kW


( 300 tons)

6.30

6.61

ARI 550/590-1998

Reciprocating Compressor, Water Cooled Chiller all sizes

4.20

5.05

ARI 550/590-1998

Rotary Screw and Scroll Compressor, Water Cooled Chiller


<530 kW
(<150 tons)

4.70

5.49

ARI 550/590-1998

Rotary Screw and Scroll Compressor, Water Cooled Chiller


530 and <1050 kW
(150 and <300 tons)

5.40

6.17

ARI 550/590-1998

Rotary Screw and Scroll Compressor, Water Cooled Chiller 


1050 kW
( 300 tons)

5.75

6.43

ARI 550/590-1998

Chiller Efficiency
 New Chillers are far more efficient than their
predecessors; even though CFCfree
refrigerant are less efficient than CFC
refrigerants

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Trend in Chillers Efficiency

Integrated Part-Load Value (IPLV)


 Efficiencies are measured at peak load and
at IPLVs
 IPLV = 0.01A+0.42B+0.45C+0.12D
For COP and EER:
Where:
 A=COP or EER at 100%
 B=COP or EER at 75%
 C=COP or EER at 50%
 D=COP or EER at 25%
Reference: ARI 550/590-2003
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Refrigerant
 Absence of a direct relationship between
GWP & ODP: Challenges in developing a
rating system
 Trade-off - Optimum environmental
 CFC: high ODP, high GWP, more EE
 HCFC: low ODP, low GWP, lesser EE

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Things to remember when buying


a chiller







Plan ahead
Buy only as much chiller as you need
Check market availability
Use computer simulations
Maximize system efficiency
Select unequally sized machines for multiple
chiller installations
 Obtain competitive bids
 Monitor the system on an ongoing basis
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Air Handling Unit


 Design options for improving air distribution
efficiency include






Variable-air-volume (VAV) systems


VAV diffusers
Low-pressure-drop ducting design
Low-face-velocity air handlers
Fan sizing and variable-frequency-drive (VFD)
motors
 Displacement ventilation systems

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Economizer
 A collection of dampers, sensors, actuators,
and logic devices
 Decide how much outside air to bring into
 90% air re-circulated in commercial
buildings

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Distribution System
Air-based systems
AIR (AIR-CONDITIONER)
CONDITIONED SPACE

DUCT

Water-based systems
WATER/ STEAM
CONDITIONED SPACE

PIPING SYSTEM

Positive: leak less heat, easier to insulate, no


noise, zonal distribution, even temp.
Negative: water availability
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Important Tips for Efficient Duct


System





Plan early
Avoid unnecessary joints and bends
Properly install with the correct airflow
Seal, insulate and size properly

Table 5.2.4.2 Ductwork Insulation ( m2-C/W)


Required Insulation
Duct Location

Supply Ducts

Return Ducts

Exterior

R-1.4

R- 0.6

Ventilated Attic

R-1.4

R- 0.6

Unventilated Attic without Roof Insulation

R-1.4

R- 0.6

Unventilated Attic with Roof Insulation

R- 0.6

No Requirement

Unconditioned Spaceb

R- 0.6

No Requirement

No Requirement

No Requirement

R- 0.6

No Requirement

Indirectly Conditioned Spacec


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Buried

Building Commissioning and System


Balancing
 Systematically evaluating all pieces of
equipment
 Commissioning: Quick payback
 Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing
(TAB)






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Identification of a Traverse Location


Determining Outside Air Quantity
Duct Leakage
Determining Pump Flow
Sizing Balancing Valves
Fan and Pump Curves

What is in it for Developers


 Why should developers care?
 When they may sell the building to someone else
 If they retain ownership, pass along the operating costs to
tenants

 A Well-designed and commissioned HVAC system


can improve health and productivity of occupants;
 First-cost savings and more real estate space
 Smaller components
 Smaller ducts and pipes
 Smaller back-up power system

 O&M cost of running HVAC system gets reduced up to 3% of annual rent


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Acknowledgements
 USAID and BEE
 ECBC HVAC Tip Sheet
 E Source Technology Atlas on Cooling and
Heating
 ECO-III Team: Anurag Bajpai and Ravi
Kapoor

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Thanks!!!
For More Information, please contact
Dr. Satish Kumar
Chief of Party, USAID ECO-III Project
Phone: +91-11-2685-3110
Fax: +91-11-2685-3114
Email: eco3@irgssa.com
URL: http://www.eco3.org/downloads.htm

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