Teacher’s Manual Science Form 2 Learning Objectives : Analyzing Acid and Alkali Aim : To determine the acidic and

alkaline substances in daily life. ( C10-b: state mv, rv, cv) Variables : Manipulated : Type of substances. C10-a Responding : The color changes of litmus paper. Relevant variable Fixed/Constant : Volume of solutions. Hypothesis Apparatus Materials : The substances is acidic when the blue litmus paper turn to red, the substances is alkaline when the red litmus paper turn to blue. : Test tube, red litmus paper, blue litmus paper. : Soap solution, lime juice, distilled water, lime water, vinegar, baking powder and pineapple juice.

Procedures: 1. Seven beakers are prepared. C10-3 2. A beaker is filled with 10 ml of soap solution. (C10-c): action on the manipulated 3. Procedure 2 is repeated by using other substances. variable. 4. Each beaker is labeled as follow : Beaker A B C D E F Solutions Soap solution. Lime water Baking powder Vinegar Pineapple juice Lime juice

5. A red litmus paper is put into beaker A followed by a blue litmus paper. 6. Procedure 5 is repeated with beaker B, C, D, E, F and G. 7. The changes of the litmus paper are observed and recorded. Diagram:


Red litmus paper

Blue litmus paper

10ml types of solution C1-d (a,b,c) : Similarities : volume of solution : Difference : acidic solution and alkaline solution C1-e : state the change occur; the changes of litmus paper C1-f : Acidic = blue to red; alkaline = red to blue C5-d (a,b) : the past experience, students have already known the changes of litmus paper 6. Observation: a) Table of results Beaker A B C D E F C5-c C8-a Solutions Soap. Lime water Baking powder Vinegar Pineapple juice Lime juice The Color change of litmus paper Red to Blue Red to Blue Red to Blue Blue to red Blue to red Blue to red Condition of substances Alkaline Alkaline Alkaline Acidic Acidic Acidic C6



: The outcome/ result from the activities : Data through the observation

From the table

C6- 3

b) From your observation, list down i. Acidic substances; Vinegar, lime juice and pineapple juice ii. Alkaline substances; Baking powder, lime water and soap. c) What are the color changes of litmus paper for i. Acidic substances; Blue to red. C8-b: have a pattern ii. Alkaline substances; Red to blue. d) State the relationship between the types of solution and the changes of litmus paper. From the observation, when the blue litmus paper turn to red, the substances is acidic. While if the red litmus paper turn to blue, the substances is alkaline. C8-c, C8-d : relationship between manipulated variable and responding variable

8. Discussion and analysis. 8.1. Give the operational definition for : i. Acidic is when blue litmus paper turns to red if it is put into acidic solution. C9-b: define C8-3 ii. Alkaline is when red litmus paper turns to blue if put into the alkaline concepts by C9-a: solution. describing what Defining concepts by 8.2. should be observed i. Are the properties of an alkaline shown by the dry baking powder? describing what must be done No. ii. What can be done to change the red litmus paper to blue? Add water to the baking powder. iii. State whether lime juice and lime water is acidic or alkaline? C9-3 a) Lime juice : acidic. b) Lime water :alkaline. iv. Give two other examples for acid substance and alkaline substances that we have been using in our daily life. Acidic substances: Apple juice and soda water. Alkaline substances: Milk and toothpaste. 9. Conclusion : Vinegar, lime juice and pineapple juice are acidic substances. While baking powder, lime water and soap are alkaline substances.

Construct C1 C5 C6 C8 C9 C10 Total

Mark 3 3 3 3 3 3 18

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