You are on page 1of 28

INTRODUCTION

1.1

The purpose of the preliminary visual survey was to make an initial assessment of
the fire effects, the structural damage, and to devise an outline plan for deliberate
forensic investigations. The plan aimed at estimating reasonably accurate and
pragmatic residual strength of the structure and evolving a rehabilitation scheme
as economic as possible with the desired levels of safety for the future use of the
building.

1.2

A brief description of the required parameters and the possible means to obtain
them had been given in Part-I of the report. It must be mentioned that the
processes involved require an in-depth knowledge of the dynamics of fire and its
effects. In addition, the means and methods for evaluation of fire affected
structures are empirical in nature based on a limited data. The problem is further
accentuated by the unpredictable concrete behavior under varying as well as
similar circumstances. An effort has been made to organize the structural
investigations in a manner expected and required of a sound professional approach
to the problem in hand.

1.3

Scope. This report has been divided into two volumes as described below:
1.3.1

1.3.2

Volume – I. It contains:
1.3.1.1

Forensic investigation scheme.

1.3.1.2

Structural Survey.

Volume – II. It comprises of:
1.3.2.1

Material tests.

1.3.2.2

Load tests.

1.3.2.3

Interpretation of test results.

FORENSIC INVESTIGATION SCHEME
2.1 These investigations are required to assess the residual material properties to ascertain
the structural evaluation in its damaged state. The required parameters include the
temperatures attained in fire, the fire duration, temperatures to which the structural
members and materials were exposed. The plan is described in subsequent
paragraphs.
2.2 Structural Survey
2.2.1

Line and Level Survey. The residual deformations were found in slabs of
almost all the floors affected by fire. It was desirable to ascertain
deflections in all affected slab panels but it was not possible due to time
constraints and colossal work involved in removal of floor components
and exposing the slab surfaces.

2.2.2

Spalling of Concrete. Spalling was investigated to ascertain the thickness
of spalled concrete and the extent of damaged concrete due to heating.

2.2.3

Concrete Colour. The property of concrete to change the colour when
exposed to high temperatures was used to arrive at residual strengths and
collated with other field data.

2.2.4

Recording and Measurements of Cracks
2.2.4.1

Cracks of each individual member was recorded on drawings.

2.2.4.2

Widths of cracks was measured and recorded with the help of
crack detection microscope (precision level 0.02 mm).

2.2.4.3

The variation of crack depths along their axes was noted for
severely damaged members.

2

Core wall - 3 Affected Members i.1 Destructive Testing. The concrete cores were extracted and tested from the structural members as under: a.2. The number of readings taken on different members are given below : i.3 Material Testing 2.1 Concrete 2. Columns - 1168 v. Core wall - 136 iv. Slabs - 3020 ii.1. Beams - 170 iii.Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Measurements were made with PUNDIT equipment as under: b. i.3. Slabs - 151 ii. Slabs - 11 ii. Beams - 7 iii. Core wall - 3 Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) a. 2.2 Non Affected Members i.1.3.3. Beams - 2040 iii. Column - 147 Schmidt Rebound Hammer tests were carried out on concrete members. Beams - 3 iii. b. Columns concrete core- 3 48 . Slabs - 5 ii.

4 2.3.3.2 Reinforcing Steel.1 Slab - 6 Samples 2.2.2.2. The floor selected for the load tests were: 2. Coupons from the following RC members were tested for their tensile strength: 2.3 Roof Top was selected because slab had its cover spalled off.4.2 Tenth Floor was selected because of extensive deflection of slab and cracking of the beam.4. Two slab panels were loaded to record and analyze behavior of two floor panels and the intermediate beam.1 Ninth Floor was selected because of excessive calcination on slab soffits and the beam. 2.2 Core wall - 3 Samples Load Tests.3. These were conducted on three floors. 2.4. 4 .

4H - Two point grid reference of the slab panel right bottom corner. D-E - Beam runs between grid lines D and E. c. This part presents the detailed examination of fire affected structural elements in the building. 7H - Two point grid reference of column location. Slab designated as 6S4H. b. b.1 Slab.4 b. indicates: a. e. 6 - Floor number (sixth floor). 3. Core Wall identified as 6WE corresponds to: 5 .2.2. 3.2 3. c.2.2. 3. A structural element identification system was devised to designate each member with a unique number based upon location of the member. 6 - Floor associated with bottom of the column element. C - Column element. S - Slab element. B - Beam element. for example. The identification of each element is explained in subsequent paragraphs 3. 6 - Floor number (sixth floor). Floors were also numbered from Basement to Roof. Each slab panel was identified by two digits and two alphabets arranged alternately starting with a digit. Grid lines running in E-W direction are numbered from 1 to 11 and those running parallel to N-S direction were labelled with alphabets from A to L as shown on typical plan attached as Drawing Sheet No 1/35.2 Structural Element Identification System.3 Beam identified as 6B8(D-E)S indicates: a. d. S - Observation direction is southwards.STRUCTURAL SURVEY 3. c. Column identified as 6C7H means: a.1 General. 8 - Beam is spanning on grid line 8.

3. Line and Level Survey 3.3.3. 3. 6 . Typical observations are as follow: 3.Beam 10BH(5-6) had 14 mm vertical deflection at center.2.1 Slab Elements a.3.3. No other member in vertical plan had significant changes in their geometry. b. Beam 7B8(D-E) had 12 mm vertical deflection at center. 3. b. Beam Elements a.3. 3. b.Panel 9S4E had a maximum deflection of 40 mm.3.3 a. b. 6 - Floor number (sixth floor).1).2 Horizontal Plane.1 Line Survey 3. E - Observation direction is eastwards.2.2 Level Survey. None of the structural element in horizontal plane had significant changes in their geometry.1. Expansion joint between main building and emergency staircase had widened at the top by 32 mm (Fig. W - Core wall element.2 Panel 10S4F had a maximum deflection of 43 mm.1 Vertical Plane a.3. Slab and beam elements were studied for their vertical deflection in level survey.1. c.

1: Widened vertical expansion joint at roof level. 3.Fig. 3.4 Spalling of Concrete 7 .

c.3 Columns. g.3. k.2 a. Slab panel RS7J 37 mm. 3.4 Core Walls. Slab panel RS7H 56 mm. Slab panel RS6H 50 mm. i. Slab panel RS4E 37 mm. b. 3. Location of the affected portion is given in drawing sheets 2/35. Slab panel 6S7E 20 mm. Slab panel RS6E 25 mm. 8WN 30 mm. Depth of observed spalling is as under: 3.8).4. 3.2 to 3. l.9). 12WN 80 mm. Beams.4. Slab panel RS5E 62 mm. Slab panel RS7D 37 mm. Slab panel 5S3G 25 mm. Concrete cover of column 8C8F had spalled with max depth of 40 mm (Fig.1 Slabs. f. Slab panel RS7E 75 mm. 3. e.7). d. h. Spalling of concrete cover on beam 14B7(G-H)N was observed as 50 mm deep (Fig. 6WS 50 mm. Spalling of concrete cover at three locations was observed as under (Fig. j. 3. 4/35 and 31/35. 8 . 3. Slab panel RS5D 37 mm. Slab panel RS9E 50 mm.4. Spalling of concrete cover on eleven slab panels in the main building and at one location in emergency lift well was observed (Fig.4.10): a. c. b.

2: Spalling of concrete cover from slab panels 5S3G and 6S7E. 9 . 3.Fig.

Fig.3: Spalling of concrete cover from slab panels RS4E and RS5D. 3. 10 .

3. 11 .Fig.4: Spalling of concrete cover from slab panels RS5E and RS6E.

12 . 3.5: Spalling of concrete cover from slab panels RS7D and RS7E.Fig.

Fig.6: Spalling of concrete cover from slab panels RS6H and RS7H. 13 . 3.

14 .Fig. 3.7: Spalling of concrete cover from slab panels RS7J and RS9E.

8: Spalling of concrete cover from beam 14B7(G-H). 15 . 3.Fig.

3. 16 .Fig.9: Spalling of concrete cover from column 8C8F.

5 Concrete Colour 17 .10: Spalling of concrete cover from core wall 8WN and 12WN. 3.Fig. 3.

7.4 Aluminium Alloys.11).5. 3. 14 and 15 Pink grey Concrete elements on ninth.16).2 Concrete colour on various floors was observed as below: a. Floors 10.6 Recording and Measurement of Cracks.02 mm) and recorded on the drawings appended as drawing sheets 2/35 to 32/35. 3. The cracks were marked on the affected elements with highlighter as per their true locations. Following was observed: 3. 3.7.5 Lead. Variation of crack widths along their longitudinal axes had also been noted and recorded on drawing sheets 33/35 to 35/35.7 Related Observations.7.14). 3. Slab top surface cracks were also observed (Fig. 3. 3.5. 13 and 16 Light grey c. Debris were examined to collect additional information that could be helpful for subsequent investigations. The charring depth was observed from 25 mm to 37 mm on different floors (Fig.3.1 3. 18 . Subsequently. Most of locks were made of aluminium alloy and were found melted (Fig. 3.3 Wood. 3. Summary of distressed members is listed in Table 3. tenth and eleventh floor were found calcinated. 3.2 Steel.7. 3.13). furniture and tube rod shades were found disfigured (Fig.15). Floors 4 to 6 Carbon deposition b.7.1 Glass. these were measured with the help of crack detection microscope (precision level 0. Floors 7. computer casings.12). 3. Spalling of plaster and cracking in the walls was observed on all the floors. Lead had completely melted (Fig. 11. Glass panes were observed melted and disfigured (Fig. Floors 8.1.6 Masonry Wall. lockers. 9 and 12 Yellowish grey d. Wooden members used for false ceiling and partitions were burnt. 3.7. Steel almirahs. 3.

2 to 0.4 0.1 to 0.2 to 0.6 0.5 0.6 Slab 15 0.2 to 0.2 Slab 28 0.1 to 0.4 Beam 23 0.2 to 0.2 to 1.1 to 0.1 to 0.2 to 0.2 to 0.4 Column 4 0.2 Slab 06 0.14 to 0.5 0.12 to 0.6 Beam 12 0.12 to 0.1 to 0.12 to 0.2 to 0.8 Slab 28 0.4 0.4 Slab 28 0.0 0.1 to 0.4 0.2 to 0.6 Column 10 0.2 to 0.Floor 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Roof Slab Element Type No.1 to 0.1 to 0.4 0.6 Beams 20 0.1 to 0.2 to 0.2 to 0.6 Column 08 0.2 to 0.4 Beam 22 0. of Elements Cracked Size of Column Beam Slab Column Beam Slab Column Beam Slab Column Beam Slab Column Beam Slab Column Beam Slab Column Beams 06 05 21 08 07 13 10 12 11 08 10 05 10 13 11 10 16 04 09 19 (mm) 0.2 to 0.6 Column 04 0.1 to 0.8 Beam 11 0.8 0.6 Column 10 0.8 Slab 10 0.2 Slabs 05 0.5 0.14 to 0.4 to 0.8 0.1 to 0.4 0.2 to 0.2 0.1 to 0.2 to 0.8 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.2 Column 08 0.12 to 0.6 0.8 Table 3.4 0.1: Summary of distressed members.1 to0. 19 Remarks Concrete cover of 1 x slab spalled Concrete cover of 1 x slab spalled Concrete cover of 1x column spalled Concrete cover of 1 x beam spalled.2 to 0.3 to 0. Concrete cover of 10 x slabs spalled .4 Beam 04 0.

Fig. 20 . 3.11: Slab top surface cracks in panels 9S5H and 10S4F.

Fig. 21 . 3.12: Molten glass.

13: Disfigured steel ware. 3.Fig. 22 .

23 .14: Charring of wood.Fig. 3.

Fig.15: Molten Aluminum lock. 3. 24 .

Fig. 25 . 3.16: Molten lead.

During measurement of the cracks.2: Summary of beam cracks showing continuity in crack initiation and propagation.8 Propagation/Initiation of Cracks. it was observed that new cracks had appeared in addition to recorded cracks on the already marked beams or even on the new members. The variation of cracking extent between the initial structural survey phase and final phase is given in Table 3. 26 . Floor No of cracked beams on 30 April Additional cracking after 30 April 2/5 3/5 4/5 10/5 Total 14/5 5 02 6 04 01 7 09 02 8 06 03 9 11 01 10 07 08 11 10 12 11 13 15 04 14 10 01 15 20 01 02 23 16 19 01 02 22 Roof 02 01 06 11 01 10 12 01 06 16 02 18 11 04 01 01 20 12 04 Table 3.2.3.

Sixth Floor Slab Cracks 4/35 5. Twelfth Floor Slab Cracks 18/35 19. Fifth Floor Beam Cracks 3/35 4. Seventh Floor Beam Cracks 7/35 8. Typical Building Plan Showing Orientation. Tenth Floor Beam Cracks 13/35 14. Eighth Floor Slab Cracks 8/35 9. Eleventh Floor Beam Cracks 17/35 18. Ninth Floor Beam Cracks 11/35 12. Fifth Floor Slab Cracks 2/35 3. Eleventh Floor Slab Cracks 15/35 16. 1. Ninth Floor Slab Cracks 10/35 11. Twelfth Floor Beam Cracks 19/35 20. Tenth Floor Beam Cracks 14/35 15.List of Drawings S/No Title of Drawings Sheet No. Eighth Floor Beam Cracks 9/35 10. Seventh Floor Slab Cracks 6/35 7. Eleventh Floor Beam Cracks 16/35 17. Thirteenth Floor Slab Cracks 20/35 21. Grid Lines and Floor Levels 1/35 2. Tenth Floor Slab Cracks 12/35 13. Sixth Floor Beam Cracks 5/35 6. Thirteenth Floor Beam Cracks 21/35 27 .

Thirteenth Floor Beam Cracks 22/35 23.22. Roof Beam Cracks 32/35 33. Sixteenth Floor Beam Cracks 30/35 31. Fourteenth Floor Beam Cracks 24/35 25. Roof Slab Cracks 31/35 32. Sixteenth Floor Slab Cracks 28/35 29. Sixteenth Floor Beam Cracks 29/35 30. Fifteenth Floor Slab Cracks 25/35 26. Variation of Crack Width in Beams 34/35 35. Fourteenth Floor Slab Cracks 23/35 24. Fifteenth Floor Beam Cracks 26/35 27. Variation of Crack Width in Beams 35/35 28 . Fifteenth Floor Beam Cracks 27/35 28. Variation of Crack Width in Beams 33/35 34.