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CHAPTER 1:
MOLECULES OF LIFE
(7 HRS)

1.0 Molecules Of Life (7 hrs)
1.1 Water

(1)

1.2 Carbohydrates

(1½)

1.3 Lipids

(1)

1.4 Proteins

(2)

1.5 Nucleic Acids

(1½)

Learning outcomes
a) Explain the structure of water molecule
b) Describe the properties of water and its
importance

Learning Outcomes : 1.1 (a) Explain the structure of water molecule O H H Structure: • 1 oxygen atom & 2 hydrogen atoms (H2O) • Joined together by sharing electrons ~ covalent bond • 3 atoms ~ arranged to form a triangle • Angle ~ 104.5° .

Learning Outcomes : 1.1 (a) Explain the structure of water molecule 2O + H H + • The sharing of electrons between O & H atoms are not equal • O atom ~ slightly negative charge (δ-) • H atoms ~ slightly positive charge (δ+) • Unequal charge distribution within a molecule ~ polar molecule .

O atom of nearby water molecules 2+ + Hydrogen bond • Water molecules are held together by hydrogen bonds • H bond is weak.1 (a) Explain the structure of water molecule • δ+ H atom of one water molecule is attracted to the δ. represented by dotted lines + 2+ .Learning Outcomes : 1.

1 (a) Explain the structure of water molecule • 1 water molecule can form maximum of 4 hydrogen bonds with 4 water molecules .Learning Outcomes : 1.

.

4. 2.1 (b) Describe the properties of water and its importance Properties of water 1.Learning Outcomes : 1. 3. 5. 6. Universal solvent High specific heat capacity High latent heat of vaporization High surface tension Maximum density at 4°C Low viscosity .

Universal Solvent • Powerful solvent for ionic & polar substances (eg: NaCl) • NaCl are held together by ionic bonds between Na+ & Cl- .Learning Outcomes : 1.1 (b) Describe the properties of water and its importance 1.

1 (b) Describe the properties of water and its importance 1. Universal Solvent • Water is a polar molecule • The O atoms has a slightly negative charge & H atoms has a slightly positive charge • O atoms are attracted to the positively charged sodium ions • H atoms are attracted to the negatively charged chloride ions • Ionic bonds between NaCl molecules become weaker .Learning Outcomes : 1.

Universal Solvent • Water molecules gather around the Na+ & Cl. separating them from one another • Pulling these ions away from the salt crystal • Causes these ions to separate & dissolve .Learning Outcomes : 1.1 (b) Describe the properties of water and its importance 1.to form a hydration shell.

Learning Outcomes : 1.1 (b) Describe the properties of water and its importance 1. Universal Solvent Importance: • Act as transport medium for solutes (eg: dissolved nutrients are carried throughout the body in blood plasma) • Water facilitates chemical reaction (solutes are more reactive when dissolved) .

1 (b) Describe the properties of water and its importance 2. High specific heat capacity • Definition : amount of energy needed to increase the temperature of 1 g of a substance by 1C • Large amount of energy is needed to increase the temperature of 1 g of water by 1oC • Heat is absorbed to break the H bonds between water molecules • Value = 1 cal/g (most substances have lower value) • A large body of water (ocean/lakes) has a relatively constant temperature although its surrounding temperature changes (temperature rises & falls slowly) .Learning Outcomes : 1.

High specific heat capacity Importance: • Organisms can maintain their normal body temperature • Aquatic organisms can live in a relatively stable temperature (protected from rapid temperature changes) .1 (b) Describe the properties of water and its importance 2.Learning Outcomes : 1.

Learning Outcomes : 1. High latent heat of vaporization • Definition : Amount of energy needed to change 1 g of a substance from liquid phase to vapor • A lot of energy is needed to change 1 g of water from liquid state to vapor • Heat is absorbed to break the H bonds between water molecules before they can move faster & vaporized • Value = 540 cal/g .1 (b) Describe the properties of water and its importance 3.

its energy increases • When water evaporates.1 (b) Describe the properties of water and its importance 3. it takes a lot of heat energy away  lowering the temperature of the organism . High latent heat of vaporization Importance: • Cooling effect in organisms due to sweating (animals) or transpiration (plants) Explanation: • As water absorbs heat.Learning Outcomes : 1.

Learning Outcomes : 1.1 (b) Describe the properties of water and its importance 4. water has greater attraction for each other than for molecules in the air . High surface tension • H bonds make water molecules stick to each other  cohesion • On the surface.

hard to break the water surface  create high surface tension • Water molecules can also stick to other substances  adhesion .Learning Outcomes : 1. High surface tension • Water are also pulled downward by other water molecules beneath them • Produce a strong layer on the surface.1 (b) Describe the properties of water and its importance 4.

High surface tension Importance: • Allow some organisms to move on water (eg: water strider) .1 (b) Describe the properties of water and its importance 4.Learning Outcomes : 1.

water molecules expand until it freezes/solidifies (at 0°C) .1 (b) Describe the properties of water and its importance 5.Learning Outcomes : 1. the molecules get closer together • Reach maximum density at 4ºC • At temperature below 4ºC. Maximum density at 4C • As water cools.

Learning Outcomes : 1. Maximum density at 4C • H bonds in ice space the water molecules far apart & become stable • Ice is less dense than cold water  floats .1 (b) Describe the properties of water and its importance 5.

Learning Outcomes : 1.1 (b) Describe the properties of water and its importance 5. Maximum density at 4C Importance: • Allow aquatic life to live under the frozen surface of water in cold climate region Explanation: • The floating layer of ice insulates the water below. prevent them from losing heat & from freezing .

Learning Outcomes : 1. Importance: • Act as medium of transportation in living organisms (eg: blood easily flow in the circulatory system) • Act as a good lubricant to reduce friction within body (eg: mucus facilitates movement of feces through the bowel) . • Water molecules can slide easily over each other • It flows with less friction through narrow vessels. Low viscosity • Weak H bonds between water molecules are constantly breaking & reforming.1 (b) Describe the properties of water and its importance 6.

4 Proteins (2) 1.5 Nucleic Acids (1½) .1.2 Carbohydrates (1½) 1.3 Lipids (1) 1.0 Molecules Of Life (7 hrs) 1.1 Water (1) 1.

glycogen and cellulose .Learning outcomes a) Describe various forms & classes of carbohydrates b) Describe the formation & breakdown of maltose c) Describe the structures & functions of starch.

2 (a) Describe various forms and classes of carbohydrates Introduction  Composed of carbon. H & O ~ approximately 1:2:1 (CH2O)n  n = number of C atoms .Learning Outcomes : 1. hydrogen & oxygen atoms  Ratio of C.

Learning Outcomes : 1.2 (a) Describe various forms and classes of carbohydrates Classes of carbohydrates: Classification Monosaccharide 1 sugar unit Disaccharide Polysaccharide 2 sugar units Many sugar units .

Learning Outcomes : 1.2 (a) Describe various forms and classes of carbohydrates MONOSACCHARIDES  1 sugar molecule. 5. 4. 3. simple sugar (3-7 carbon atoms)  Characteristics: 1. 2. 6. Small Sweet Soluble in water Can crystallized White / colourless Reducing sugar .

Learning Outcomes : 1. of C atom Triose 3C Pentose 5C Hexose 6C .2 (a) Describe various forms and classes of carbohydrates Classes of monosaccharide: Classification Based on the position of functional group Aldose Ketose Based on no.

2 Describe (a) Describe various forms classes of carbohydrates (a) various forms andand classes of carbohydrates Classes of monosaccharide: based on the position of functional group  Functional group ~ carbonyl group (C=O) 1. Aldose sugar  Carbonyl group is located at the end of carbon chain  Eg: glucose 2.Learning Outcomes Outcomes :: Learning 1. Ketose sugar  Carbonyl group is located in the middle of carbon chain  Eg: fructose  Numbering of carbon chain begins with the carbon nearest to carbonyl group .

2 (a) Describe various forms and classes of carbohydrates .Learning Outcomes : 1.

fructose. C6H12O6  When dissolved in water. C5H10O4 3. C3H6O3 2.2 (a) Describe various forms and classes of carbohydrates Classes of monosaccharide: based on the number of carbon atom  3 classes: 1. Triose sugar (3 C atoms)  Eg: glyceraldehyde & dihidroxyacetone. galactose. which is more stable . pentose & hexose form ring structure.Learning Outcomes : 1. Hexose sugar (6 C atoms)  Eg: glucose. Pentose sugar (5 C atoms) – will be discussed in nucleic acid  Eg: ribose. ribulose. & deoxyribose. C5H10O5.

found in fruits & vegetables  Galactose ~ less sweet. moderate sweetness. found in milk & yoghurt  Fructose ~ fruit sugar.Learning Outcomes : 1. sweetest.2 (a) Describe various forms and classes of carbohydrates Hexose sugar (6 C atoms)  Same molecular formulas but different arrangements of atoms ~ isomers  Glucose ~ blood sugar. found in fruits & honey .

. carbon 1 bonds to the oxygen attached to carbon 5. To form the glucose ring.Linear and ring forms of glucose.

Learning Outcomes : 1. All carbon atoms are clearly shown b.2 (a) Describe various forms and classes of carbohydrates Glucose Each of these structure is glucose (C6H12O6) a. The carbon atoms are omitted c. The hydrogen atoms are omitted .

Learning Outcomes : 1.2 (a) Describe various forms and classes of carbohydrates Glucose  2 isomeric forms. according to the position of OH group at C1  above the ring plane = -glucose  below the ring plane = -glucose .

primary energy source  Basic building units or monomers for disaccharide & polysaccharide .Learning Outcomes : 1.2 (a) Describe various forms and classes of carbohydrates Function of Monosaccharides  Energy source  Glucose ~ major respiratory substrate.

2 (b) Describe the formation and breakdown of maltose DISACCHARIDES  2 sugar molecules or two monosaccharides  Joined together by a condensation process (removal of a water molecule)  Form covalent bond  glycosidic bond  Can be broken down into monomers by hydrolysis process (addition of water molecule)  Characteristics: Disaccharide 1.Learning Outcomes : 1. Can crystallized Maltose Sucrose Lactose 4. Sweet 2. White / colourless . Soluble in water 3.

2 (b) Describe the formation and breakdown of maltose CONDENSATION PROCESS Condensation HYDROLYSIS PROCESS Hydrolysis .Learning Outcomes : 1.

4 glycosidic bond (between C1 of one glucose molecule and C4 of another molecule) + condensation condensation hydrolysis hydrolysis -1.4 glycosidic bond -glucose (C6H12O6) -glucose (C6H12O6) Maltose (C12H22O11) .2 (b) Describe the formation and breakdown of maltose MALTOSE  Malt sugar  Monomers : -glucose + -glucose  Joined together by -1.Learning Outcomes : 1.

Learning Outcomes :
1.2 (c) Describe the structures and functions of starch, glycogen and cellulose

POLYSACCHARIDES
 Many sugar molecules; polymer (vary in length)

 Joined together by condensation process (removal of a water


molecules)
Form covalent bond  glycosidic bond
Formation of polymer (large molecules made up of repeating
units of monomers)  polymerization
Can be broken down into monomers by hydrolysis process
(addition of water molecules)
Polysaccharide
Characteristics:
1. Large molecule
Starch Glycogen Cellulose
2. Not sweet
3. Insoluble in water (form colloid)
Amylose

Amylopectin

Learning Outcomes :
1.2 (c) Describe the structures and functions of starch, glycogen and cellulose

STARCH
 Energy storage in plants
 Plants convert excess glucose into starch for storage in chloroplast

 Monomers: -glucose molecules
 Broken down by hydrolysis process with the help of amylase enzyme
 Starch is a mixture of:

 Amylose
 Amylopectin

Learning Outcomes :
1.2 (c) Describe the structures and functions of starch, glycogen and cellulose

AMYLOSE
 Monomers: -glucose molecules

 Joined together by -1,4 glycosidic bond
 Helical, due to the formation of H bonds
 Unbranched chain (variable length of monomers)

 Folded ~ very compact (ideal for storage)
6
CH2OH

6
CH2OH
5

5
4 OH
O

3

6
CH2OH

2
OH

-glucose

O

3

5

5

4 OH

1

6
CH2OH

4 OH

1
2
OH

-glucose

O

3

2
OH

-glucose

-1,4 glycosidic bond

4 OH

1
O

3

1
2
OH

-glucose

O

.

6 glycosidic bond  Helical.Learning Outcomes : 1.2 (c) Describe the structures and functions of starch. branched chain (variable length of monomers)  Branches occur within 30 units  Folded & branched ~ very compact (ideal for storage) . glycogen and cellulose AMYLOPECTIN  Monomers: -glucose molecules  Joined together by -1.4 glycosidic bond & -1.

2 (c) Describe the structures and functions of starch.6 glycosidic bond OH OH 6 CH2OH H 4 OH 3 6 C 6 CH2OH H 5 5 O O 2 OH -glucose O 3 5 5 4 OH 1 6 CH2OH 4 OH 1 2 OH -glucose O 3 2 OH -glucose -1.Learning Outcomes : 1. glycogen and cellulose AMYLOPECTIN 6 CH2OH 6 CH2OH 5 5 4 OH O 4 OH 1 3 2 1 3 O 2 -1.4 glycosidic bond 4 OH 1 O 3 1 2 OH -glucose O .

unbranched Helical. branched (within 30 units) Function Ideal for energy storage (insoluble.6 glycosidic bond Shape Helical.Learning Outcomes : 1.4 glycosidic bond -1. glycogen and cellulose DIFFERENCES BETWEEN AMYLOSE & AMYLOPECTIN Features Amylose Amylopectin Monomers -glucose -glucose Bond -1. coiled. compact) .2 (c) Describe the structures and functions of starch.4 glycosidic bond -1.

Learning Outcomes : 1.2 (c) Describe the structures and functions of starch. glycogen and cellulose GLYCOGEN  Energy storage in animals (in liver & muscle)  Structure ~ similar to amylopectin  More branched than amylopectin .

2 (c) Describe the structures and functions of starch.4 glycosidic bond  Broken down by hydrolysis with the help of cellulase enzyme  Unbranched. long straight chain 6 CH2OH 6 CH2OH 5 5 4 OH 3 6 CH2OH 1 2 OH -glucose O 5 5 4 OH 3 6 CH2OH 1 2 OH -glucose O 4 OH 3 1 2 OH -glucose -1.4 glycosidic bond O 4 OH 3 1 2 OH -glucose .Learning Outcomes : 1. glycogen and cellulose CELLULOSE  Major component of plant cell wall  Monomers: -glucose  Bond: -1.

glycogen and cellulose CELLULOSE -1.Learning Outcomes : 1.2 (c) Describe the structures and functions of starch.4 glycosidic bond .

glycogen and cellulose CELLULOSE  Straight chains are arranged parallel to one another  Linked together by hydrogen bonds (form microfibril)  Very stable & tough structure ~ provide support to plant cell .Learning Outcomes : 1.2 (c) Describe the structures and functions of starch.

glycogen and cellulose Functions of Polysaccharides  Energy Storage ~ eg: starch (in plant) & glycogen (in animals)  Major component of cell walls ~ provide structural support to plant cell ~ eg: cellulose .2 (c) Describe the structures and functions of starch.Learning Outcomes : 1.

5 Nucleic Acids (1½) .1 Water (1) 1.0 Molecules Of Life (7 hrs) 1.1.2 Carbohydrates (1½) 1.3 Lipids (1) 1.4 Proteins (2) 1.

Learning outcomes a) State the types of lipid b) Describe the structure of glycerol & fatty acids c) Describe the formation & breakdown of triglycerides .

few oxygen atom  Group of hydrophobic molecules ~ insoluble in water  3 major types: LIPIDS Fats Phospholipids Steroids Eg: oil.Learning Outcomes : 1. phospholipids and steroids LIPIDS  Consist of mainly carbon & hydrogen atoms.3 (a) State the types of lipid: fats. butter Eg: lecithin Eg: cholesterol .

k.3 (a) State the types of lipid: fats.Learning Outcomes : 1. phospholipids and steroids FATS  Most abundant  Also known as (a.a) : Triglyceride / Triacylglycerol Building block 1 Glycerol 3 Fatty acids Saturated Unsaturated .

a) Structure of glycerol and b) general structure of fatty acids .

3 (b) Describe the structure of glycerols and fatty acids Glycerol .Learning Outcomes : 1.a : glycerine  3C alcohol with 3 OH groups (soluble in water) H H C OH H C OH H C OH H .k.  A.

3 (b) Describe the structure of glycerols and fatty acids Fatty Acids . R) O HO H H H H H H H H H H H H H C1 C R2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 H H Carboxyl group H H H H H H H H Hydrocarbon chain H H H H . COOH at 1 end ) ~ acid  Hydrophobic tail ~ long unbranched hydrocarbon chain (known as side chain.Learning Outcomes : 1.  Has 2 regions:  Hydrophilic head (a carboxyl group.

3 (b) Describe the structure of glycerols and fatty acids Fatty Acids .  Hydrophobic tail vary in length  Different fatty acids has different number of C atoms (usually 16 or 18) O HO H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16 C17 C18 H H H H H H H H H H H Eg: Stearic acid (stearate) C18H36O2 H H H H H H H .Learning Outcomes : 1.

3 (b) Describe the structure of glycerols and fatty acids Classification of Fatty Acids  Based on the presence of double bonds within hydrocarbon . eg: oleic acid O HO H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16 C17 C18 H H H H H H H H H H H Eg: Stearic acid (stearate) C18H36O2 H H H H H H H . eg: stearic acid  Unsaturated fatty acids ~ has double bonds between C atoms. chain:  Saturated fatty acids ~ no double bond between C atoms.Learning Outcomes : 1.

fatty acids can be closely packed  Solid at room temperature . of H atoms  Straight chain.3 (b) Describe the structure of glycerols and fatty acids SATURATED FATTY ACID  Has maximum number .Learning Outcomes : 1.

3 (b) Describe the structure of glycerols and fatty acids SATURATED FATTY ACID  Fats that consist of saturated fatty acids ~ saturated fat . Mostly animal fats (eg: butter. lard) .Learning Outcomes : 1.

Learning Outcomes : 1.3 (b) Describe the structure of glycerols and fatty acids SATURATED FATTY ACID .

Learning Outcomes : 1.3 (b) Describe the structure of glycerols and fatty acids UNSATURATED FATTY ACID  Double bond causes bending in unsaturated fatty acids  Fatty acids cannot be closely packed  Liquid at room temperature .

Learning Outcomes : 1.3 (b) Describe the structure of glycerols and fatty acids UNSATURATED FATTY ACID  Fats that consist of unsaturated fatty acids ~ unsaturated fat  Mostly plant & fishes fats (eg: oil) .

.Fatty acids – stearic acid (saturated fat) and oleic acid (unsaturated fat).

Learning Outcomes : 1.3 (b) Describe the structure of glycerols and fatty acids Classification of Fatty Acids  Based on the ability to be synthesized in the body: . linolenic and arachidonic acids  Non-essential fatty acids ~ can be synthesized in the body ~ eg: stearic acid & others .  Essential fatty acids ~ cannot be synthesized in the body ~ must be present in the diet ~ eg: linoleic.

e one end hydrophilic polar.Learning Outcomes : 1. another end hydrophobic non-polar Building block 1 Glycerol 2 Fatty acids Phosphate group . eg: lecithin  Amphipathic molecule  i.3 (a) State the types of lipid: fats. phospholipids and steroids PHOSPHOLIPIDS  Major component of cell membrane.

Learning Outcomes : 1.3 (a) State the types of lipid: fats. phospholipids and steroids PHOSPHOLIPIDS .

3 (c) Describe the formation & breakdown of triglycerides TRIGLYCERIDE  Composed of 3 fatty acids & 1 glycerol backbone  Fats are formed when 3 condensation reaction occurs ~ also known as esterification  Water is removed by extracting the OH from the carboxyl group (of fatty acid) and H from the glycerol’s hydroxyl group  Triglyceride can be broken down by hydrolysis .Learning Outcomes : 1.

Learning Outcomes : 1.3 (c) Describe the formation & breakdown of triglycerides Formation of Triglycerides H H C H O OH HO C H R C O O O O H C OH HO C R’ C OH HO C R’’ H C O C O H C O C H H 1 glycerol Condensation Hydrolysis O H C 3 fatty acids Triglyceride Ester bond R Ester bond R’ Ester bond R’’ + 3H2O .

.

doesn’t associates with water  Improve buoyancy in aquatic animals  Provide better thermal insulation of mammals  Act as padding for internal organs  Phospholipid ~ major component of plasma membrane  Steroid ~ some are hormones that regulates metabolism .3 (c) Describe the formation & breakdown of triglycerides Importance of Lipids  Main energy storage in animals (due to higher number of hydrogen atom)  1 g of fat has > twice energy than same weight of starch  Lighter ~ hydrophobic nature.Learning Outcomes : 1.

4 Proteins (2) 1.0 Molecules Of Life (7 hrs) 1.1.1 Water (1) 1.3 Lipids (1) 1.2 Carbohydrates (1½) 1.5 Nucleic Acids (1½) .

Learning outcomes a) Describe the basic structure of amino acids b) Explain how amino acids are grouped c) Describe the formation and breakdown of dipeptide d) Explain primary. tertiary & quaternary levels of proteins & the types of bonds involved e) Classify proteins according to their structure f) Explain the effect of pH & temperature on the structure of protein . secondary.

N & sometimes S . O. H.4 (a) Describe the basic structure of amino acids PROTEIN Polymer Building blocks ~ amino acids Joined together to form a long chain ~ polypeptide Protein consist of 1 or more polypeptide chains which folded & coiled into specific conformation Mostly composed of C.Learning Outcomes : 1.

a carboxyl group c. an amino group d. a hydrogen atom b. a variable R group (or side chain).4 (a) Describe the basic structure of amino acids BASIC STRUCTURE OF AMINO ACIDS Amino acids consist of 4 components attached to a central carbon These components include: a. R amino group H2N C H COOH carboxyl group .Learning Outcomes : 1.

Learning Outcomes : 1. COOH (carboxyl group) ii. NH2 (amino group) : acidic : basic Amino acids are amphoteric.4 (a) Describe the basic structure of amino acids BASIC STRUCTURE OF AMINO ACIDS 2 functional groups: i. have both acidic & basic properties R amino group H2N C H COOH carboxyl group .

Learning Outcomes : 1.4 (b) Explain how amino acids are grouped GROUP OF AMINO ACIDS 20 types of amino acids commonly found in proteins All have the same basic structure but differ in the side chain. R Amino acids are grouped based on the properties of R group R amino group H2N C H COOH carboxyl group .

4 (b) Explain how amino acids are grouped 4 groups Non-polar • Hydrophobic Glycine (gly) Polar • Hydrophilic Acidic Basic • Has COOH group • Has NH2 group Serine (ser) Aspartic acid (asp) Lysine (Lys) .Learning Outcomes : 1.

.

Essential amino acids (for human) Cannot be synthesized in sufficient amount. tryptophan. glycine.4 (b) Explain how amino acids are grouped GROUP OF AMINO ACIDS i. glutamine . cysteine. serine. proline. arginine. aspartic acid.Learning Outcomes : 1. must be obtained through food or supplement intake 8 amino acids. eg: isoleucine. Non-essential amino acids Can be synthesized in the body Eg: alanine. valine For infants : histidine ii. asparagine. lysine. tyrosine. phenylalanine. methionine. threonine. leucine. glutamic acid.

4 (c) Describe the formation and breakdown of dipeptide Formation of the dipeptide 2 amino acids are joined by condensation process to form a dipeptide By removal of a hydroxyl group from the carboxyl end of one amino acid and a hydrogen from the amino group of another amino acid. Form a covalent bond ~ peptide bond .Learning Outcomes : 1.

4 (c) Describe the formation and breakdown of dipeptide Formation & breakdown of the dipeptide H R1 O N C C H H H OH Condensation N-terminal H O N C C H H O N C C H H OH Hydrolysis H 2O R1 R2 H2O R2 O N C C H H Peptide bond OH C-terminal .Learning Outcomes : (c) describe the formation and breakdown of dipeptide Learning Outcomes : 1.

. Peptide bond is broken down and produces 2 amino acids.Learning Outcomes : 1.4 (c) Describe the formation and breakdown of dipeptide Breakdown of dipeptide Dipeptide is hydrolysed into 2 amino acids by hydrolysis process (addition of water).

4 (c) Describe the formation and breakdown of dipeptide Formation of polypeptide Many amino acids are joined by condensation process to form a polypeptide Bond ~ peptide bonds Polypeptide backbone ~ repeated sequence of (-N-C-C-) H R1 O N C C H H OH H R2 O N C C H H Peptide bond OH Peptide bond H R3 O N C C H H OH .Learning Outcomes : 1.

4 (c) Describe the formation and breakdown of dipeptide Formation of tripeptide .Learning Outcomes : 1.

Conjugated . Quaternary Structure i. Primary ii. Fibrous ii. Globular iii. secondary.4 (d) Explain primary. Tertiary iv. Secondary iii. tertiary & quaternary levels of proteins & the types of bonds involved Classification of Protein Two ways based on:Level of protein structure i.Learning Outcomes : 1.

Learning Outcomes : (d) explain primary. secondary. tertiary & quaternary levels of proteins & the types of bonds involved . tertiary and quaternary levels of proteins and the types of bonds Learning Outcomes : involved 1.4 (d) Explain primary. secondary.

4 (d) Explain primary. tertiary & quaternary levels of proteins & the types of bonds involved Primary structure Refers to the linear sequence of amino acids joined by peptide bonds within a polypeptide chain Each protein has a unique sequence of amino acids.Learning Outcomes : 1. secondary. determined by specific DNA code Different sequence results in the formation of different bonds between amino acids Causes a polypeptide chain to fold & coil into a unique 3 dimensional shape of protein Eg : lysozyme & all protein that has been sequenced .

tertiary & quaternary levels of proteins & the types of bonds involved Primary structure .4 (d) Explain primary.Learning Outcomes : 1. secondary.

secondary.4 (d) Explain primary.Learning Outcomes : 1. tertiary & quaternary levels of proteins & the types of bonds involved Secondary structure Linear chain of amino acids will coil or fold spontaneously Due to the formation of H bonds between the backbones (between H of the NH groups & O of the C=O groups of amino acids in the primary chain) 2 types  -helix  -pleated sheet .

tertiary & quaternary levels of proteins & the types of bonds involved Secondary structure .4 (d) Explain primary.Learning Outcomes : 1. secondary.

Learning Outcomes : 1. nails & wool | S | S S | S | | | . secondary.4 (d) Explain primary. tertiary & quaternary levels of proteins & the types of bonds involved -helix Helical coil H bonds is formed between 1 amino acid & the 4th amino acid away from it Can stretch under tension ~ provide elasticity Because the hydrogen bonds can be reformed Eg: keratin in hair.

Learning Outcomes : 1. secondary. spider web . tertiary & quaternary levels of proteins & the types of bonds involved -pleated sheet Zig-zag pattern ~ provide strength & flexibility Eg: silk.4 (d) Explain primary.

charged R groups  Hydrophobic / Van der Waals interaction between nonpolar R groups . secondary.Learning Outcomes : 1. tertiary & quaternary levels of proteins & the types of bonds involved Tertiary structure 1 polypeptide chain in secondary structure may further coiled into a globular shape which is maintained by bonds and interactions among R groups Globular shape unique to each polypeptide chain Mantained by 4 interactions between R groups: Disulfide bonds (covalent bonds) between R groups with sulfhydryl groups  Ionic bonds between +ve & -ve charged R groups  Hydrogen bonds between + & .4 (d) Explain primary.

4 (d) Explain primary.Learning Outcomes : 1. tertiary & quaternary levels of proteins & the types of bonds involved Tertiary structure . secondary.

Learning Outcomes : 1. H bond (between C=O & NH group of backbone) iii. Hydrophobic (van der Waals) interaction . H bond (between R groups) vi. secondary. Peptide bond ii. Peptide bond ii. hormones. H bond (between C=O & NH group of backbone) i. Disulfide bond iv. Peptide bond i. Ionic bond v.4 (d) Explain primary. tertiary & quaternary levels of proteins & the types of bonds involved Tertiary structure Eg: enzymes. antibodies Type of bonds exist in different levels of protein: Features Primary Secondary Tertiary Type of bond exist i.

tertiary & quaternary levels of proteins & the types of bonds involved Quaternary structure Refers to a single protein that is formed when two or more polypeptide chain joins Bonds exist ~ same as tertiary structure Eg: hemoglobin (consist of 4 polypeptide chains.4 (d) Explain primary. two α chains and two β chains) . secondary.Learning Outcomes : 1.

4 (d) Explain primary. tertiary & quaternary levels of proteins & the types of bonds involved 4 Levels of Protein . secondary.Learning Outcomes : 1.

Learning Outcomes :
1.4 (e) Classify proteins according to their structure

Classification of Protein
Based on Structure

Fibrous

Globular

Conjugated

FIBROUS
Mostly secondary structure
Form long parallel filaments or strands
Insoluble & stable
Function : mechanical & structural support
Eg:
Keratin, actin, myosin, collagen, silk

Learning Outcomes :
1.4 (e) Classify proteins according to their structure

Globular Protein
Mostly tertiary/quaternary structure
Folded to form compact spherical shaped
Relatively unstable
Relatively soluble ~ colloid
Function : metabolic & chemical process
Eg:
Enzyme

Hormone

Antibodies

Hemoglobin

Learning Outcomes :
1.4 (e) Classify proteins according to their structure

Conjugated Proteins
Protein that can function well if it joins with other compound
Non-protein compound ~ prosthetic group
Conjugated Protein

Prosthetic group

Location

Glycoprotein

Polysaccharide

Component of cell membrane
Mucin (in saliva)

Lipoprotein

Lipid

Component of cell membrane
Lipid transported in blood
plasma

Chromoprotein

Pigment

Myoglobin, hemoglobin

Nucleoprotein

Nucleic acid

Chromosome, ribosome

4 (f) Explain the effect of pH and temperature on the structure of protein Effect of pH and Temperature Structure of protein is affected by:1. renaturation may occur) . temperature Globular protein is relatively unstable because it is maintained by weak ionic bonds. pH 2. those bonds are broken Causes it to uncoiled & change its conformation Lose its biological function ~ denatured  protein coagulate Usually irreversible (sometimes. hydrogen bonds & hydrophobic interactions When protein is heated or exposed to an extreme pH changes.Learning Outcomes : 1.

van der Waals interaction break Strong acids & alkali  H & ionic bonds.4 (f) Explain the effect of pH and temperature on the structure of protein Effect of pH and Temperature Factor Effect to the protein structure Heat or radiation  Increased kinetic energy  Protein atoms vibrate  H & ionic bonds. van der Waals interaction break  Breakdown of peptide bonds occur if exposed very long .Learning Outcomes : 1.

5 Nucleic Acids (1½) .3 Lipids (1) 1.4 Proteins (2) 1.0 Molecules Of Life (7 hrs) 1.1 Water (1) 1.2 Carbohydrates (1½) 1.1.

Learning outcomes a) Describe the structure of nucleotide as the monomer of nucleic acid (DNA & RNA) b) Describe the structure of DNA based on the Watson & Crick Model c) State the types & function of RNA d) State the differences of DNA & RNA .

H. O.Learning Outcomes : 1.5 (a) Describe the structure of nucleotide as the monomer of nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) Introduction Nucleic acid is polynucleotide ~ polymer of nucleotides Building blocks ~ nucleotide Mostly composed of C. P & N .

Learning Outcomes : 1.5 (a) Describe the structure of nucleotide as the monomer of nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) NUCLEIC ACIDS 2 types Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) .

Learning Outcomes : 1.5 (a) Describe the structure of nucleotide as the monomer of nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) Structure of nucleotides Each nucleotide has 3 components:Nucleotide Pentose sugar Ribose (in RNA) Deoxyribose (in DNA) Nitrogenous base Phosphate group .

one H atom ~ in ribose.Learning Outcomes : 1.5 (a) Describe the structure of nucleotide as the monomer of nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) Pentose Sugar (5 C sugars) C5H10O4 C5H10O5  Ribose ~ component of RNA nucleotide  Deoxyribose ~ component of DNA nucleotide  At 2nd carbon atom ~ in deoxyribose. one OH group .

Learning Outcomes : 1.5 (a) Describe the structure of nucleotide as the monomer of nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) Nitrogenous base Based on the number of C ring 2 groups Double rings Single ring Pyrimidine Cytosine (C) Purine Uracil (U) Thymine (T) In RNA In DNA Guanine (G) Adenine (A) .

Thymine iv. Guanine ii. Cytosine Nitrogenous base in RNA: i. Cytosine . Adenine iii. Adenine iii.Learning Outcomes : Learning Outcomes : (a) Describe the structure of nucleotide as the basic composition of nucleic acid (DNA and 1. Guanine ii. Uracil iv.5 (a) Describe the structure of nucleotide as the monomer of nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) RNA) Nitrogenous base Nitrogenous base in DNA: i.

5 (a) Describe the structure of nucleotide as the monomer of nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) RNA) DNA nucleotide RNA nucleotide Nitrogenous Base Phosphate Group OH HO P O Nitrogenous Base Phosphate Group OH O 5 CH2 HO O deoxyribose 4 H 1 H H H 3 OH 2 H Pentose Sugar ~ deoxyribose P O O 5 CH2 O ribose 4 H 1 H H H 3 OH 2 OH Pentose Sugar ~ ribose In a nucleotide :  nitrogenous base is joined to the 1st carbon of the pentose  phosphate group is joined to the 5th carbon of the pentose .Learning Outcomes : Learning Outcomes : (a) Describe the structure of nucleotide as the basic composition of nucleic acid (DNA and 1.

5 (a) Describe the structure of nucleotide as the monomer of nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) FORMATION OF DINUCLEOTIDE 2 nucleotides are combined by condensation process ~ dinucleotide Between OH group in phosphate group (of 1 nucleotide) and the OH group at the 3rd carbon in pentose sugar (of the other nucleotide) Joined together by phosphodiester bond .Learning Outcomes : 1.

5 (a) Describe the structure of nucleotide as the monomer of nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) FORMATION OF DINUCLEOTIDE OH HO P O O OH 5 CH2 HO O deoxyribose 4 H O 1 H H H P O 5 OH P O O H H 2 3 H H O 5 CH2 4 HO O deoxyribose H H 1 H H 2 3 OH H 1 H H condensation OH HO O deoxyribose 4 2 3 CH2 P O O 5 phosphodiester bond CH2 4 O deoxyribose H H 1 H H 2 3 OH H .Learning Outcomes : 1.

5 (a) Describe the structure of nucleotide as the monomer of nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) 5’ FORMATION OF POLYNUCLEOTIDE Many nucleotides joined together ~ polynucleotide Elongation ~ from 5’ to 3’ Forming a backbone with repeating sugarphosphate units Breakdown by hydrolysis process 3’ .Learning Outcomes : 1.

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Learning Outcomes : 1.5 (b) Describe the structure of DNA based on the Watson & Crick Model DNA Structure Based on Watson & Crick Model .

Learning Outcomes : 1.5 (b) Describe the structure of DNA based on the Watson & Crick Model DNA Structure Consist of 2 polynucleotide chains Both polynucleotide chains are twisted to form a double helix Each polynucleotide chain is made up of nucleotide Nucleotides are joined together by phosphodiester bond Each full turn of a double helix has 10 base pairs .

Learning Outcomes : 1.5 (b) Describe the structure of DNA based on the Watson & Crick Model DNA Structure 5' 2 polynucleotide chains are arranged in opposite direction (antiparallel) One strand ends with a 3’ hydroxyl group while the other strand ends with a 5’ phosphate group 3' 3' 5' .

Learning Outcomes :
1.5 (b) Describe the structure of DNA based on the Watson & Crick Model

DNA Structure
Sugar-phosphate forms the backbone

The 2 backbones are on the outside,
the nitrogenous bases are paired
inside the helix

Learning Outcomes :
1.5 (b) Describe the structure of DNA based on the Watson & Crick Model

DNA Structure
5'

Both chains are held together
by hydrogen bonds between
complementary base pair;
Adenine with Thymine,
Cytosine with Guanine
Between Adenine & Thymine
~ 2 hydrogen bonds
Between Cytosine & Guanine
~ 3 hydrogen bonds
Specific base-pairing rule
~ the numbers of A=T, G=C

3'

3'
5'

Learning Outcomes : 1.5 (b) Describe the structure of DNA based on the Watson & Crick Model DNA Importance: As genetic material which carries genetic information that control all activities of a cell .

Uracil 3 types: RNA Messenger RNA (mRNA) Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Transfer RNA (tRNA) . Adenine. Cytosine.5 (c) State the types & function of RNA RNA Single stranded polynucleotide Pentose sugar ~ ribose Nitrogenous bases ~ Guanine.Learning Outcomes : 1.

5 (c) State the types & function of RNA mRNA Function : Carries genetic information copied from DNA which act as a template for protein synthesis .Learning Outcomes : 1.

5 (c) State the types & function of RNA rRNA Function : Forms ribosomal subunits (together with proteins) .Learning Outcomes : 1.

Learning Outcomes : 1.5 (c) State the types & function of RNA tRNA Function : Transfer specific amino acids to ribosome during protein synthesis .

Learning Outcomes : 1.5 (c) State the types & function of RNA RNA .

U  shape ~ double helix  shape ~ linear (mRNA)  longer chain / larger molecular mass  shorter chain / smaller molecular mass  Only 1 type  Has 3 types : mRNA. rRNA & tRNA .5 (d) State the differences of DNA & RNA Differences between DNA & RNA DNA RNA  2 polynucleotide chains  1 polynucleotide chain  pentose sugar ~ deoxyribose  pentose sugar ~ ribose  nitrogenous base ~ G. A. C. A. C  nitrogenous base ~ G.Learning Outcomes : 1. T.

J. (2004) McGraw-Hill Companies. Biology. • Mader. 6th ed. S.B.R. Inc. 7th ed. (2002).P & Berg.. Inc. L.S Biology. Biology. 8th ed. . Pearson Education. (2005) Thomson Learning. • Solomon E. Inc.A & Reece.Reference • Campbell N.