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CHAPTER 2:
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTIONS
(8 HRS)

2.0 Cell Structure & Functions (8 hrs)

2.1 Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells
2.2 Structure and functions: cell membrane and
organelles
2.3 Cells are grouped into tissues
2.4 Cell Transport

(½)

(2½)
(3)
(2)

Learning outcomes
2.1 Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells
a) State cell theory.
b) Describe the structures of prokaryotic & eukaryotic
cells.
c) Compare the structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic
cells.

Learning Outcomes :
2.1 (a) State cell theory

What Is Cell?
• Robert Hooke observed cork
sample
• Composed of a lot of tiny,
empty box structures ~ “cell”
• Cell ~ basic unit of living
things

Cork tissue

4

New cells come from preexisting cells – Cells can divide to form new cells 5 . Schwann (1839) & Rudolf Virchow (1855) • Their work ~ cell theory 1. Cell is the building block of structure in living things – All living things are made of 1 or more cells 2.1 (a) State cell theory Cell Theory • Introduced by Schleiden (1838).Learning Outcomes : 2.

1 (a) State cell theory Cell Theory 3. Cells contain hereditary information (DNA) which is passed from cell to cell during cell division 4.Learning Outcomes : 2. Cell is the functioning unit of life – Cell is the smallest unit that can conduct all activities of life (metabolism) 6 .

1 (b) Describe the structures of prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells Types of Cell • Based on structural organisation Types of Cell Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell .Learning Outcomes : 2.

1 (b) Describe the structures of prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic Cell • Eg: bacteria. cyanobacteria (blue green algae) Main Features • Lack a membrane-bounded nucleus • Genetic material is not enclosed by a nuclear membrane • Lies freely in cytoplasm.Learning Outcomes : 2. in a region called nucleoid 8 .

1 (b) Describe & compare the structures of prokaryotic & eukaryotic cell Structures of Prokaryotic Cell Chromosomal DNA Plasmid DNA Ribosome Flagellum Cytoplasm Capsule Pili Plasma membrane Cell Wall 9 .Learning Outcomes : 2.

double stranded DNA Plasmid DNA (if present) Small. circular. circular.Learning Outcomes : 2. double stranded extra DNA Flagella (if present) Long threadlike structure for locomotion Pili Shorter & straighter than flagella (numerous) Usually gives resistance to antibiotics in some bacteria Adhesion to surface or to each other Capsule (if present) Gel-like layer outside cell wall Adhesion to surface or to each other. provide protection 10 .1 (b) Describe the structures of prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells Structures of Prokaryotic Cell Structure Explanation Chromosomal DNA Single.

plants & animals Main Features • Has membrane-bounded nucleus • Genetic material is enclosed by a nuclear membrane • Has many membrane bounded organelles • Organelle is a small structure suspended in cytoplasm that conduct certain function 11 .1 (b) Describe the structures of prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells Eukaryotic Cell • Eg: protists. fungi.Learning Outcomes : 2.

Learning Outcomes : 2.1 (b) Describe the structures of prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells Structures of Eukaryotic Cell 12 .

1 (c) Compare the structures of prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells Differences Between Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cell Feature Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells Cell Size Smaller. diameter 1-10 μm Larger. diameter 10-100 μm Nucleus No membrane-bounded nucleus Genetic material lies freely in cytoplasm (nucleoid) Has membrane-bounded nucleus Genetic material is enclosed by nuclear membrane Genetic material Circular DNA Linear DNA DNA does not associate with histone protein DNA associates with histone protein 13 .Learning Outcomes : 2.

1 (c) Compare the structures of prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells Circular DNA Linear DNA .Learning Outcomes : 2.

Learning Outcomes : 2.1 (c) Compare the structures of prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells DNA associates with histone protein .

has 9+2 microtubules arrangement 16 . subunit 70S Larger.Learning Outcomes : 2.1 (c) Compare the structures of prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells Differences Between Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cell Feature Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells Organelle No membrane bounded organelle Has many membranebounded organelles Ribosome Smaller. subunit 80S Cell wall Composed mainly of peptidoglycan & murein / amino acids Composed mainly of cellulose (plant) & chitin (fungi) Structure of Simple. lack of 9+2 flagella microtubules arrangement Complex.

Learning Outcomes : 2.1 (c) Compare the structures of prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells Structure of Flagella Flagella ‘9+2’ microtubules arrangement .

Spindle is formed Type of organism Unicellular or filamentous organisms Unicellular. filamentous or multicellular organism 18 .1 (c) Compare the structures of prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells Differences Between Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cell Feature Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells Cell division Mitosis & meiosis does not occur. meiosis or both. Mostly by binary fission without spindle formation By mitosis.Learning Outcomes : 2.

1 (c) Compare the structures of prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells Similarities Between Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cell  Both cells are bounded by a plasma membrane  Both cells contain genetic material  Both cells have cytoplasm  Both cells have ribosomes 19 .Learning Outcomes : 2.

2.0 Cell Structure & Functions (8 hrs)

2.1 Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells
2.2 Structure and functions: cell membrane and
organelles
2.3 Cells are grouped into tissues
2.4 Cell Transport

(½)

(2½)
(3)
(2)

Learning outcomes
2.2 Cell Membrane & Organelles
a) Illustrate the detailed structures of typical plant and animal
cells.
b) Describe the structure of the plasma membrane and the
functions of each of its components.
c) Describe the structure and functions of the following
organelles:
 nucleus
 rough endoplasmic reticulum
 smooth endoplasmic reticulum
 Golgi body

 lysosome
 ribosome
 mitochondria
 chloroplast
 centriole

Learning Outcomes :
2.2 (a) Illustrate the detailed structures of typical plant & animal cells

Eukaryotic Cell
• Based on structure, 2 types:Eukaryotic Cell

Animal cell

Plant cell

Learning Outcomes :
2.2 (a) Illustrate the detailed structures of typical plant & animal cells

Structure of Animal Cell (Electron Microscope)

Learning Outcomes : 2.2 (a) Illustrate the detailed structures of typical plant & animal cells Structure of Plant Cell (Electron Microscope) .

Learning Outcomes : 2.2 (a) Illustrate the detailed structures of typical plant & animal cells Plant Cell (Light Microscope) .

Learning Outcomes : 2.2 (a) Illustrate the detailed structures of typical plant & animal cells Animal Cell (Light Microscope) .

Learning Outcomes : 2.2 (a) Illustrate the detailed structures of typical plant & animal cells Structures Seen Under Light Microscope Plant Cell Animal Cell Cell wall Plasma membrane Plasma membrane Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Nucleus Nucleus Vacuole Chloroplast .

Learning Outcomes :
2.2 (b) Describe the structure of the plasma membrane & the functions of each of its component

Plasma Membrane
• Plasma membrane separates the living cell from its
nonliving surroundings
• Size ~ 7.5-8 nm thick
• Plasma membrane that surround the cell & membrane
that surround the organelles has the same structure
• Structure of plasma membrane is proposed by Singer
& Nicolson (1972) ~ Fluid-Mosaic model

Learning Outcomes :
2.2 (b) Describe the structure of the plasma membrane & the functions of each of its component

Fluid Mosaic Model ~ Structure
Components

Major

Phospholipids

Globular protein

Others

Carbohydrate

Cholesterol

Learning Outcomes :
2.2 (b) Describe the structure of the plasma membrane & the functions of each of its component

Phospholipids

hydrophobic
tails

hydrophilic heads

Learning Outcomes :
2.2 (b) Describe the structure of the plasma membrane & the functions of each of its component

Phospholipids

Phospholipid bilayer (2 layers of phospholipids)
Phospholipid has 2 parts:
 head
~ polar, hydrophilic region
 tail
~ non-polar, hydrophobic region
Phospholipids have both hydrophobic & hydrophilic regions 
Amphipathic molecules
The polar, hydrophilic heads points outward into cytoplasm &
extracellular fluid (outside the cell)
The non-polar, hydrophobic tails face inwards (away from
water)
Creating a hydrophobic region in the middle

Learning Outcomes : 2.2 (b) Describe the structure of the plasma membrane & the functions of each of its component Globular Protein Types of Protein Integral / Intrinsic Peripheral / Extrinsic Phospholipid bilayer Intrinsic protein Extrinsic protein .

2 (b) Describe the structure of the plasma membrane & the functions of each of its component Globular Protein .Learning Outcomes : 2.

Learning Outcomes : 2.2 (b) Describe the structure of the plasma membrane & the functions of each of its component Globular Protein • Intrinsic protein ~ partially / fully embedded within the phospholipid bilayer (firmly bound) • Extrinsic proteins ~ attached loosely to the surface of phospholipids or protein • Fully embedded protein that penetrates the entire phospholipid bilayer  transmembrane protein • Intrinsic protein  amphipathic .

2 (b) Describe the structure of the plasma membrane & the functions of each of its component Why Mosaic Pattern?  Embedded proteins within phospholipid bilayer  creates a mosaic pattern (when viewed from the above) .Learning Outcomes : 2.

2 (b) Describe the structure of the plasma membrane & the functions of each of its component Why Fluid?   Fluid ~ mosaic pattern is dynamic Phospholipid & extrinsic proteins can move laterally along the membrane Time Lateral movement .Learning Outcomes : 2.

Learning Outcomes : 2.2 (b) Describe the structure of the plasma membrane & the functions of each of its component Why Fluid? .

Learning Outcomes : 2. Carbohydrate chain may combine with: Protein  Phospholipid   form glycoprotein  form glycolipids Function: act as identification tag (described later) .2 (b) Describe the structure of the plasma membrane & the functions of each of its component Other Components ~ Carbohydrate Carbohydrate   Location: on the outer surface of the membrane.

Learning Outcomes : 2.2 (b) Describe the structure of the plasma membrane & the functions of each of its component Other Components ~ Carbohydrate .

Learning Outcomes : 2.2 (b) Describe the structure of the plasma membrane & the functions of each of its component Other Components ~ Cholesterol Cholesterol • Found between phospholipids molecules • Function: to regulate membrane fluidity by restricting the movement of phospholipids (stabilize membrane structure) .

Act as Transport Protein 2. Attachment site of cytoskeleton & extracellular matrix .2 (b) Describe the structure of the plasma membrane & the functions of each of its component Roles of Cell Membrane Components 1.Learning Outcomes : 2. Act as Receptor Protein 4. Cell-cell Recognition 6. Intercellular Joining 5. Act as Enzyme 3.

Act as Transport Protein Selective permeable    Transmembrane protein transport molecules across membrane Transport protein has hydrophilic channels that allow polar molecules / ion to pass through Eg: channel protein. carrier protein Hydrophilic channel .2 (b) Describe the structure of the plasma membrane & the functions of each of its component 1.Learning Outcomes : 2.

2 (b) Describe the structure of the plasma membrane & the functions of each of its component 2.Learning Outcomes : 2. Act as Enzyme   A B C Globular protein has active site which can bind to a specific substrate Catalyze specific chemical reaction .

2 (b) Describe the structure of the plasma membrane & the functions of each of its component 3.Learning Outcomes : 2. Act as Receptor Protein    Has a binding site with a specific shape for chemical messenger Eg: hormone / neurotransmitter Send information into the cell .

Learning Outcomes : 2.2 (b) Describe the structure of the plasma membrane & the functions of each of its component 4. Intercellular Joining   Membrane proteins of adjacent cell may join together Eg: gap junction .

Learning Outcomes : 2. Cell-cell Recognition GLYCOPROTEIN    Act as identification tag Specifically recognized by other cells Eg: antigen is recognized by human cells as foreign .2 (b) Describe the structure of the plasma membrane & the functions of each of its component 5.

Learning Outcomes : 2. Attachment site of cytoskeleton & extracellular matrix  Outer surface ~ attach to extracellular matrix  Inner surface ~ attach to cytoskeleton  Maintain cell shape .2 (b) Describe the structure of the plasma membrane & the functions of each of its component 6.

Learning outcomes 2. b) Describe the structure of the plasma membrane and the functions of each of its components.2 Cell Membrane & Organelles a) Illustrate the detailed structures of typical plant and animal cells. c) Describe the structure and functions of the following organelles:  nucleus  rough endoplasmic reticulum  smooth endoplasmic reticulum  Golgi body  lysosome  ribosome  mitochondria  chloroplast  centriole .

Learning Outcomes : 2.2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of nucleus Nucleus Structure • Largest organelle • Spherical-shaped • Inner parts of nucleus contain nucleoplasm .

Learning Outcomes : 2.2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of nucleus Nucleus Structure • Enclosed by 2 layers of nuclear membrane • Which fused at intervals to form nuclear pores • Nuclear pore  regulate movement of molecules across nuclear membrane .

Learning Outcomes : 2. RNA & proteins .2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of nucleus Nucleus Structure • Outer membrane is continuous with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Nucleolus • Spherical-shaped • Non-membranous • Dense mass structures • Contain DNA.

2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of nucleus Nucleus Nucleoplasm • A jellylike fluid contain nucleolus & chromatin Chromatin • Long thin strands of DNA & histone protein Function (nucleolus) • Site of rRNA synthesis • Combine protein with rRNA to form ribosome (ribosome subunit assembly) .Learning Outcomes : 2.

2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of nucleus Nucleus Function    Control cell activities & cell division Store genetic material Site of RNAs synthesis & ribosomes subunit assembly .Learning Outcomes : 2.

2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of endoplasmic reticulum Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Structure • Extensive network of membranous tubules ~ cisternae (interconnected) • Continuous with the outer nuclear membrane • Enclosed by a single membrane • Space within ER ~ cisternal space / lumen .Learning Outcomes : 2.

attached on the outer surface ~ appear granular Smooth ER   Consist of more tubular sacs Lack of ribosomes on outer surface ~ appear smooth .2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of endoplasmic reticulum Endoplasmic Reticulum Types of ER Rough ER   Consist of flattened sacs Has ribosomes.Learning Outcomes : 2.

2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of endoplasmic reticulum Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Function  Intracellular transport of protein (package & transport protein to Golgi body within transport vesicle) .Learning Outcomes : 2.

2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of endoplasmic reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Function    Site of lipid synthesis Detoxification of toxic waste (drugs & poison) Storage of calcium ions in skeletal muscle cells .Learning Outcomes : 2.

2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of Golgi body Golgi Body Structure • Enclosed by a single membrane • Consist of stacked flattened membranous sacs ~ cisternae • The sacs are not physically connected • Space within Golgi body ~ cisternal space / lumen .Learning Outcomes : 2.

2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of Golgi body Golgi Body Structure • Each Golgi stack has cis face & trans face • Cis face is facing towards the ER / nucleus • Trans face is facing towards the plasma membrane Rough ER Nucleus Golgi body cis face trans face Secretory vesicle Plasma membrane Glycoprotein .Learning Outcomes : 2.

2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of Golgi body Golgi Body • ER pinches off to form transport vesicles • Which move towards Golgi body • It fuses with the cis-face • Contents (eg: protein/ carbohydrate/lipid) is released into lumen • Golgi body modifies the substances as it moves from cis-face to the trans-face Secretory vesicles Transport vesicles .Learning Outcomes : 2.

2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of Golgi body Golgi Body   The tips of trans-face cisternae pinches off to form secretory vesicles Secretory vesicles may: Move towards plasma membrane & fuse with it to release substances by exocytosis  Remain in the cell ~ become lysosome Secretory vesicle Transport vesicle .Learning Outcomes : 2.

modify.Learning Outcomes : 2. package & transport protein  Form lysosomes .2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of Golgi body Golgi Body Function  Process. sorting.

2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of lysosome Lysosome Structure • Small. spherical-shaped • Enclosed by a special single membrane • Contain many hydrolytic/digestive enzymes .Learning Outcomes : 2.

2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of lysosome Lysosome Function  Intracellular digestion  Digest macromolecules which enter the cell by phagocytosis process  Recycle cell’s own organic material  Digest old / damaged organelles to recycle organic material by autophagy process  Programmed cell destruction  Digest the whole cell by autolysis process .Learning Outcomes : 2.

Intracellular Digestion  Plasma membrane engulfs large molecules & pinches off to form food vacuole / phagosome by phagocytosis process  Primary lysosome fuses with food vacuole  secondary lysosome  Hydrolytic enzymes digest large molecules  Useful substances are absorbed into cytosol .Learning Outcomes : 2.2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of lysosome 1.

Intracellular Digestion  Eg: Amoeba & macrophage (engulf bacteria & digest them for defense or protection) Amoeba engulf red yeast for food Macrophage engulf bacteria for protection .2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of lysosome 1.Learning Outcomes : 2.

Recycle cell’s own organic material   Old or damaged organelle is enclosed by a single membrane to form autophagic vacuole / autophagosome Lysosome fuse with autophagic vacuole & digest the organelle with hydrolytic enzymes by autophagy process .Learning Outcomes : 2.2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of lysosome 2.

Learning Outcomes : 2. lysosome membrane ruptures Hydrolytic enzymes are released into the cytoplasm Digest the whole cell by autolysis process Eg : destroy old / damaged cell : destroy leukocyte that phagocytize pathogen : during metamorphosis & development Autolysis during human embryo development Autolysis in tadpole tails . Programmed Cell Destruction     In old / damaged cell.2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of lysosome 3.

Learning Outcomes : 2.2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of lysosome Endomembrane System  The membrane of the organelles are related through direct physical continuity or by transfer of membrane segments as vesicles  Endomembrane system include: nuclear membrane  endoplasmic reticulum  Golgi body  lysosome  vesicle / vacuole  plasma membrane .

Learning Outcomes : 2.2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of ribosome Ribosome Structure • • • • • Small granule Spherical-shaped Non-membranous Made of rRNA & protein Consist of 2 subunits (large & small) .

Learning Outcomes : 2.2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of ribosome Types of ribosome Free ribosome   lies freely in cytoplasm synthesize proteins that function in cytosol Bound ribosome   attached to nuclear membrane or RER synthesize proteins for export / cell membrane / lysosome .

Learning Outcomes : 2.2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of ribosome Ribosome Function   Site of protein synthesis Act as enzyme (ribozyme) to catalyze the formation of peptide bond .

2(c) Describe the structures & functions of mitochondria Mitochondria Structure     Shape ~ oblong / biconvex / cylindrical Enclosed by 2 layers of membrane Space between outer & inner membrane ~ intermembrane space Outer membrane is smooth & point towards cytoplasm .Learning Outcomes : 2.

2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of mitochondria Mitochondria Structure   Inner membrane is folded inwards to form cristae Cristae increase the surface area for attachment of enzymes involved in Electron Transport Chain (ETC) .Learning Outcomes : 2.

Learning Outcomes : 2.2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of mitochondria Mitochondria Structure  Inner membrane enclosed a fluid-filled space ~ matrix  Matrix contains : bacterial-like DNA & ribosome to synthesize own protein & enzymes  enzymes involved in Krebs cycle .

2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of mitochondria Mitochondria Function  Site of ATP synthesis / cellular respiration  Krebs cycle occur in matrix  ETC occurs in cristae .Learning Outcomes : 2.

2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of chloroplast Chloroplast Structure      Shape ~ oblong / biconvex Enclosed by 2 layers of membrane Space between outer & inner membrane ~ intermembrane space Outer membrane points towards cytoplasm Inner membrane enclosed a fluid-filled space ~ stroma .Learning Outcomes : 2.

2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of chloroplast Chloroplast Structure  Stroma contains : bacterial-like DNA & ribosome to synthesise own protein & enzymes  enzymes involved in Calvin cycle .Learning Outcomes : 2.

2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of chloroplast Chloroplast Structure     Embedded within stroma.Learning Outcomes : 2. are membranous system called thylakoids Thylakoids ~ flat discs which are stacked to form grana Grana are interconnected by intergrana membrane / lamella Chlorophyll & photosynthetic pigments are embedded within thylakoid membrane .

2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of chloroplast Chloroplast Function  Site of photosynthesis  Light dependent reaction occurs in grana / thylakoid  Light independent reaction occurs in stroma  Store starch (in stroma) .Learning Outcomes : 2.

Learning Outcomes : 2.2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of organelle Semiautonomous Organelle  Both mitochondria & chloroplast can duplicate & reproduce independently within the cell  semiautonomous organelle .

2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of centriole Centriole Structure    Exist in pair. arranged in a circle (“9x3”) . orientated at 90 angle to another Located in a region called centrosome ~ near nucleus of animal cell Each centriole composed of 9 sets of triplet microtubules.Learning Outcomes : 2.

2 (c) Describe the structures & functions of centriole Centriole Function   Organize microtubules assembly during cell division (microtubules organizing center ~ MTOC) Form the bases of cilia & flagella .Learning Outcomes : 2.

0 Cell Structure & Functions (8 hrs) 2.3 Cells are grouped into tissues 2.2 Structure and functions: cell membrane and organelles 2.1 Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells 2.4 Cell Transport (½) (2½) (3) (2) .2.

2 Structure and functions: cell membrane and organelles 2.0 Cell Structure & Functions (8 hrs) 2.1 Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells 2.2.4 Cell Transport (½) (2½) (3) Plant cells & tissues Meristem Parenchyma Collenchyma Sclerenchyma Xylem & Phloem (2) .3 Cells are grouped into tissues Animal cells & tissues Epithelial cells Nerve cells Muscle cells Connective tissues 2.

3 Cells are grouped into tissues Describe the following types of cells and tissues: Animal cells & tissues  epithelial  nerve  muscle  connective Plant cells & tissues  meristem  parenchyma  collenchyma  sclerenchyma  xylem  phloem .Learning outcomes 2.

function and distribution of muscle cells Muscle Tissue    Most abundant tissue Cytoplasm contain many :  mitochondria  glycogen  myoglobin  myofilament (actin & myosin) ~ specialised for contraction Main function ~ movement .3 Describe the structures.Learning Outcomes : 2.

3 Describe the structures. function and distribution of muscle cells Muscle Tissue Modified Terms    Plasma membrane ~ sarcolemma Cytoplasm ~ sarcoplasm Endoplasmic reticulum ~ sarcoplasmic reticulum Types of Muscle Tissue Smooth Skeletal / Striated Cardiac .Learning Outcomes : 2.

Learning Outcomes : 2.3 Describe the structures. function and distribution of muscle cells Muscle Tissue (a) Skeletal muscle .

3 Describe the structures.Learning Outcomes : 2. function and distribution of muscle cells ~ smooth muscle Smooth Muscle Structure     Spindle-shaped. centrally located No striations (no sarcomere) . pointed ends Unbranched fibre. elongated. cells are arranged in parallel Uninucleated.

Learning Outcomes : 2. function and distribution of muscle cells ~ smooth muscle Smooth Muscle Action  Type of control  Speed of contraction  Resistance to fatigue : involuntary / autonomic : slowest : greatest (do not tired easily) .3 Describe the structures.

function and distribution of muscle cells ~ smooth muscle Smooth Muscle Location  Walls of digestive tract (alimentary canal) / urinary bladder / uterus / urinogenital tract / respiratory tract / blood vessel (endothelium) .3 Describe the structures.Learning Outcomes : 2.

peripherally located (beneath sarcolemma) Obvious striations (has sarcomere) Extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum .Learning Outcomes : 2. blunt ends Unbranched fibre Multinucleated. function and distribution of muscle cells ~ skeletal muscle Skeletal Muscle Structure      Cylindrical-shaped.3 Describe the structures. very long.

3 Describe the structures. function and distribution of muscle cells ~ skeletal muscle Skeletal Muscle .Learning Outcomes : 2.

Learning Outcomes : 2.3 Describe the structures. function and distribution of muscle cells ~ skeletal muscle Skeletal Muscle  Striations ~ repeating series of light bands (I band) & dark bands (A band)  Due to arrangement of myofilaments  Thin filament (mainly actin)  Thick filament (mainly myosin) .

function and distribution of muscle cells ~ skeletal muscle Skeletal Muscle Action  Type of control  Speed of contraction  Resistant to fatigue : voluntary / somatic : fastest : least (easily tired) Location  Attached to the skeleton / bones by tendon .3 Describe the structures.Learning Outcomes : 2.

elongated. function and distribution of muscle cells ~ cardiac muscle Cardiac Muscle Structure      Cylindrical-shaped.Learning Outcomes : 2.3 Describe the structures. blunt ends Branched fibre Joined together from end to end at intercalated disc Uni / binucleated. centrally located Striated .

Learning Outcomes : 2.3 Describe the structures. function and distribution of muscle cells ~ cardiac muscle Cardiac Muscle Action  Type of control  Speed of contraction  Resistant to fatigue : involuntary / autonomic : intermediate : intermediate Location  Walls of heart (for contraction of heart) .

function and distribution of muscle cells ~ cardiac muscle Cardiac Muscle     Intercalated disc has gap junction Speed up impulse transmission throughout heart muscle Contract as a single unit Heart muscle is myogenic (can initiate own impulse for contraction without the help of Central Nervous System) .3 Describe the structures.Learning Outcomes : 2.

elongated. elongated. elongated. fused together Number of nucleus per cell One (Uninucleated) Many nucleus (multinucleated) One or two Location of nucleus Central Peripheral Central Striations Absent Present Present . blunt ends Cylindricalshaped. function and distribution of muscle cells Differences of Muscle Cells Features Smooth muscle Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle Shape Spindle-shaped.3 Describe the structures. pointed ends Cylindricalshaped.Learning Outcomes : 2. blunt ends Branching Unbranched fibre Unbranched fibre Branched fibre.

function and distribution of muscle cells Differences of Muscle Cells Features Smooth muscle Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle Type of control Involuntary Voluntary Involuntary Speed of contraction Slowest Most rapid Intermediate (varies) Resistance to fatigue Greatest Least Intermediate Location Wall of digestive Attached to the tract bone / skeletal Wall of heart .Learning Outcomes : 2.3 Describe the structures.

function and distribution of connective tissues Connective Tissue • Three types of connective tissues are: Compact Bone Hyaline Cartilage Blood .Learning Outcomes : 2.3 Describe the structures.

function and distribution of connective tissues Connective Tissue • All connective tissue has 3 features in common:Composition Cell Matrix Non-living substance around cells Fiber Provide support (eg: collagen.3 Describe the structures.Learning Outcomes : 2. elastin) .

Learning Outcomes : 2.3 Describe the structures. function and distribution of connective tissues -compact bone Compact Bone Composition Cell Matrix Fiber Osteocyte Hard calcified matrix Collagen .

function and distribution of connective tissues-compact bone Compact Bone ~ Structure canaliculi lacuna osteocyte       Bone cell ~ osteocyte Has many tiny cytoplasmic extension ~ canaliculi Osteocytes are found in a cavity ~ lacunae Osteocytes are arranged in circles They are interconnected by canaliculi which enable the transfer of nutrients & wastes from one osteocytes to another They secrete hard matrix composed of collagen fiber & inorganic mineral salts (mainly calcium) / hydroxyapatites 105 .3 Describe the structures.Learning Outcomes : 2.

function and distribution of connective tissues-compact bone Compact Bone ~ Structure    Matrix are arranged in a circular tube ~ lamella Several layers of lamella are found around the same central Haversian canal These structure is called osteon / Haversian system ~ structural unit of bone osteon Haversian canal lamella lamella 106 .Learning Outcomes : 2.3 Describe the structures.

function and distribution of connective tissues-compact bone Compact Bone ~ Structure Blood vessel Periosteum membrane Volkmann’s canal    Haversian canal contains nerve.3 Describe the structures. blood & lymph vessel Haversian canals are interconnected by Volkmann’s canal A unit of bone is covered by periosteum membrane .Learning Outcomes : 2.

3 Describe the structures.Learning Outcomes : 2. function and distribution of connective tissues-compact bone Compact Bone ~ Function  Cellular level (osteocyte) ~ secrete hard matrix & maintain the bone matrix  Tissue level  Hard bone matrix gives basic shape to the body  Provide a hard framework that support the body  Protect soft internal organs in vertebrates  Storage of calcium / mineral salt  Site of blood cell synthesis within the bone marrow 108 .

function and distribution of connective tissues-hyaline cartilage Hyaline Cartilage Composition Cell Matrix Fiber Chondrocyte Soft & elastic matrix (chondrin) Collagen .Learning Outcomes : 2.3 Describe the structures.

function and distribution of connective tissues-hyaline cartilage Hyaline Cartilage ~ Structure     Protected by an outer perichondrium layer Which produces chondrocyte Chondrocyte near the outer layer are flattened in shape but the inner region are angular Chondrocyte are found in lacunae 110 .3 Describe the structures.Learning Outcomes : 2.

3 Describe the structures. 2 or 4 chondrocytes Chondrocyte secretes soft & elastic matrix ~ chondrin Composed of chondroitin sulphate & collagen No blood vessel within matrix (O2 & nutrients diffuse from perichondrium through the matrix) 111 .Learning Outcomes : 2. function and distribution of connective tissues-hyaline cartilage Hyaline Cartilage ~ Structure     Each lacuna contain 1.

trachea.3 Describe the structures. larynx  End of long bones  Connect the ribs to sternum  Inter-vertebral disc 112 .Learning Outcomes : 2. function and distribution of connective tissues-hyaline cartilage Hyaline Cartilage ~ Function Function Cellular level (chondrocyte)  Secrete chondrin Tissue level  Tough & flexible support  Cushioning properties Location  Tip of nose.

Learning Outcomes : 2.3 Describe the structures. function and distribution of connective tissues .blood Blood  The only fluid tissue containing blood cells suspended in plasma Composition Cell Erythrocyte Leukocyte Platelet Matrix Fiber Plasma Collagen ~55% ~45% <1% .

function and distribution of connective tissues -blood Blood .Learning Outcomes : 2.3 Describe the structures.

Learning Outcomes : 2.3 Describe the structures.blood Erythrocyte Structure     Biconcave shaped ~ increase surface area Thin at the center. thicker at the edge No nucleus & organelles at maturity Contain hemoglobin (respiratory pigment) Function  Transport O2 & CO2 (respiratory gases) . function and distribution of connective tissues .

function and distribution of connective tissues -blood Leukocyte Structure    Have nucleus & organelles (the only true cell) Spherical or irregular shaped Larger than erythrocyte Function  Defense against disease .Learning Outcomes : 2.3 Describe the structures.

3 Describe the structures.Learning Outcomes : 2. function and distribution of connective tissues -blood Types of Leukocyte Blood Cell Erythrocyte Many granules Nucleus multi-lobed Granulocyte Neutrophil most abundant Eosinophil Platelet Leukocyte Lack granule Nucleus round Basophil Agranulocyte Lymphocyte Monocyte .

function and distribution of connective tissues -blood Neutrophil    Nucleus Granule Function : multi-lobed (3-6 lobes) : very small : phagocytize microorganisms / dead cells 118 .3 Describe the structures.Learning Outcomes : 2.

function and distribution of connective tissues -blood Eosinophil    Nucleus Granule Function : bi-lobed (2 lobes) : large size : reduce the effect of allergy reactions : attack parasitic worms 119 .Learning Outcomes : 2.3 Describe the structures.

3 Describe the structures. function and distribution of connective tissues -blood Basophil    Nucleus Granule Function : U or S-shaped lobed (2 or 3-lobed) : many large granule : release histamine (inflammatory substance) : contain heparin (anticoagulant ~ prevent blood clotting) 120 .Learning Outcomes : 2.

Learning Outcomes : 2. spherical-shaped : mostly in lymphoid tissue : 2 (B & T-lymphocyte) : specific defense mechanism / immune response 121 .3 Describe the structures. function and distribution of connective tissues -blood Lymphocyte     Nucleus Location Types Function : large.

function and distribution of connective tissues -blood Monocyte     Largest leukocyte Nucleus : U or kidney-shaped It can differentiates into active macrophage Function : phagocytize microorganisms / pathogen 122 .3 Describe the structures.Learning Outcomes : 2.

function and distribution of connective tissues -blood Platelets    Cytoplasmic fragments of a large cell.3 Describe the structures. megakaryocyte No nucleus & organelle Function : promotes blood clotting 123 .Learning Outcomes : 2.

function and distribution of connective tissues-blood Matrix ~ Plasma   Consist mainly of water.3 Describe the structures. inorganic mineral salts & dissolved protein & small amount of collagen .Learning Outcomes : 2.

Learning outcomes 2.3 Cells are grouped into tissues Describe the following types of cells and tissues: Animal cells & tissues  epithelial  nerve  muscle  connective Plant cells & tissues  meristem  parenchyma  collenchyma  sclerenchyma  xylem  phloem .

Learning Outcomes : 2. function & distribution of animal tissues ~ epithelial Epithelial Tissue Classification Number of cell layers Simple Stratified Cell shape Squamous Cuboidal Columnar .3 Describe the structure.

function & distribution of animal tissues ~ epithelial Epithelial Tissue Simple epithelium  1 layer of cells Stratified epithelium  More than 1 layer of cells 127 .3 Describe the structure.Learning Outcomes : 2.

function & distribution of animal tissues ~ epithelial Epithelial Tissue   Lower layer of cells  attached to the basement membrane Uppermost layer  free surface (face lumen/cavity) Free surface Basement membrane 128 .3 Describe the structure.Learning Outcomes : 2.

central Cuboidal   Cells Nucleus : cube-shaped : spherical-shaped. close to the cell base Large cytoplasm 129 .3 Describe the structure. function & distribution of animal tissues ~ epithelial Cell Shape Squamous   Cells Nucleus : thin. flat : disc-shaped. central Columnar    Cells : elongated. column-shaped Nucleus : oval-shaped.Learning Outcomes : 2.

Simple Squamous Epithelium Structure   Single layer of flat cells With disc-shaped central nuclei Function  Facilitate diffusion & filtration of substances (very thin & permeable) Location    Alveoli of lungs Lining of blood vessel (endothelium) Glomerulus & Bowman capsule (in kidney) 130 . function & distribution of animal tissues ~ epithelial 1.3 Describe the structure.Learning Outcomes : 2.

Learning Outcomes : 2. function & distribution of animal tissues ~ epithelial 1. Simple Squamous Epithelium .3 Describe the structure.

3 Describe the structure. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium Structure   Single layer of cube cells With spherical-shaped central nuclei Function  Facilitate absorption & secretion Location    Lining of kidney tubules Small glands Ovary surface 132 .Learning Outcomes : 2. function & distribution of animal tissues ~ epithelial 2.

gallbladder & some glands 133 .3 Describe the structure.Learning Outcomes : 2. function & distribution of animal tissues ~ epithelial 3. Simple Columnar Epithelium Structure   Single layer of columnar cells With oval-nuclei located near to the base Function  Facilitate absorption & secretion Location  Lining of digestive tract.

function & distribution of animal tissues ~ epithelial Special Structures of Epithelium ~ Microvilli    Microvilli ~ small finger-like projections due to the folding of plasma membrane Function: Increase surface area for absorption May present in: Simple cuboidal epithelial Location: kidney tubules Function: to absorb useful substances before excreted out in urine  Simple columnar epithelial Location: digestive tract lining Function: to absorb nutrients before excreted out in feces 134 .3 Describe the structure.Learning Outcomes : 2.

function & distribution of animal tissues ~ epithelial Special Structures of Epithelium ~ Cilia  Cilia ~ small & short hairlike structure Beating of cilia create motion to move materials  Eg: Simple ciliated columnar epithelial  Location: lining of bronchi Function: to remove mucus dust trapped within mucus in respiratory tract     Location: fallopian tubes or oviduct. uterine tubes Function: to move fertilized egg from oviduct to the uterus .3 Describe the structure.Learning Outcomes : 2.

function & distribution of animal tissues ~ epithelial Goblet Cells    Goblet cells is cup-shaped cells Location: digestive tract & respiratory tract Function: secrete mucus to lubricate movement of digested material & to trap dust & particles which enter respiratory tract .Learning Outcomes : 2.3 Describe the structure.

3 Describe the structure.Learning Outcomes : 2. function & distribution of animal tissues ~ epithelial Stratified Epithelium        Only lower layer is metabolically active Divide & push older cells upward Replace uppermost older cells More durable Common in high abrasion areas Function ~ protection Eg: skin surface 137 .

prevent excessive water loss (keratinized) Location  Skin (keratinized).Learning Outcomes : 2. Stratified Squamous Epithelium Structure  Thick ~ composed of many layers of cells & uppermost layer is flat squamous cells Function  Protection from mechanical injury or invading microorganisms.3 Describe the structure. function & distribution of animal tissues ~ epithelial 4. mouth. esophagus & vaginal lining 138 .

3 Describe the structure.Learning Outcomes : 2. function & distribution of animal tissues ~ nerve cell Nerve Cell (Neuron) ~ Structure Neuron is the nerve cell that generate & conduct nerve impulses Enable communications between the body & brain to response to stimulus All neurons have 3 things in common:Cell body Dendrites Axon 139 .

function & distribution of animal tissues ~ nerve cell Motor Neuron ~ Structure Cell body    Large nucleus Have organelles (except centriole).3 Describe the structure. numerous mitochondria Extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum (Nissl granules) Dendrites   Dendrites ~ short highly-branched cytoplasm arise from the cell body Function ~ receive message from other cells & carry the message to the cell body 140 .Learning Outcomes : 2.

function & distribution of animal tissues ~ nerve cell Motor Neuron ~ Structure Axon      Long cytoplasmic branch arising from the cell body Site where axon joins the cell body ~ axon hillock Axon endings (synaptic knob) send signals from the neuron to other cells by releasing neurotransmitters Function ~ carry impulse away from cell body At certain parts of the axon.Learning Outcomes : 2.3 Describe the structure. some neurons are enclosed in a myelin sheath  myelinated neuron 141 .

function & distribution of animal tissues ~ nerve cell Motor Neuron ~ Structure       Myelin sheath is formed by Schwann cell Roll around axon Form overlapping layers of membranes (myelin sheath) Outermost membrane of Schwann cell ~ neurilemma Composed of lipid & protein Myelin sheath act as electrical insulator to speed up impulse transmission 142 .3 Describe the structure.Learning Outcomes : 2.

function & distribution of animal tissues ~ nerve cell Motor Neuron ~ Structure     Adjacent Schwann cells do not touch one another  create gaps (axon is not completely covered by myelin sheath) Small.Learning Outcomes : 2. uncovered part of axon between the Schwann cells ~ nodes of Ranvier Nerve impulse jump from node to node along the axon Speed up impulse transmission along the axon .3 Describe the structure.

function & distribution of animal tissues ~ nerve cell Motor Neuron Function  Transmit impulse from central nervous system to effector or motor organs.Learning Outcomes : 2.3 Describe the structure. eg: muscle & glands Location  Most cell bodies of motor neuron is found within CNS & few in ganglion & its axon is found throughout the motor organs 144 .

3 Cells are grouped into tissues Describe the following types of cells and tissues: Animal cells & tissues  epithelial  nerve  muscle  connective Plant cells & tissues  meristem  parenchyma  collenchyma  sclerenchyma  xylem  phloem .Learning outcomes 2.

Learning Outcomes : 2. function & distribution of plant tissues ~ meristem What is Tissue ? • In multicellular organisms. most cells differentiates in structure  specialised cells • New structure is suitable to carry out specific function • A group of cells which are similar in structure & conduct specific function  tissue .3 Describe the structure.

3 Describe the structure. Periderm Ground i. Parenchyma ii. Phloem . sclerenchyma Vascular i.Learning Outcomes : 2. Lateral Dermal i. function & distribution of plant tissues ~ meristem Types of Plant Tissue PLANT TISSUE Meristem Permanent i. Xylem ii. Epidermis ii. Collenchyma iii. Apical ii.

3 Describe the structure. function & distribution of plant tissues ~ meristem Meristem Tissue • Young cells • Actively dividing cells • Unspecialized • Types: – Apical meristem – Lateral meristem .Learning Outcomes : 2.

central nucleus Dense cytoplasm Small vacuoles Closely packed / no intercellular air spaces .3 Describe the structure.Learning Outcomes : 2. function & distribution of plant tissues ~ meristem Meristem ~ Structure • • • • • • • Small Isodiametric / cube Thin primary cell wall Large.

Learning Outcomes : 2. damaged cells . function & distribution of plant tissues ~ meristem Meristem ~ Distribution & Function Types of meristem Location Function Apical Shoot tips & root tips Increase the length of stems & roots (primary growth) Lateral Cylinders around the stem & root (cambium) Increase the diameter of stems & roots (secondary growth) Functions : • Retain the ability to divide continuously by mitosis to produce new cells • For growth.3 Describe the structure. reproduction & replacement of old.

Learning Outcomes : 2. function & distribution of plant tissues ~ dermal Permanent Plant Tissue • Mature & specialised cells .3 Describe the structure.

function & distribution of plant tissues ~ dermal Dermal Tissue Distribution • Outermost layer of cells @ surface of plant body Structure • Tightly packed  forming a protective layer on the surface Function • Defense against :– mechanical damaged.Learning Outcomes : 2.3 Describe the structure. pathogenic organisms / disease & water loss .

function & distribution of plant tissues ~ parenchyma Parenchyma Tissue • Least specialised cells • Living cells at maturity (maintain cytoplasm) • Carry out most of the metabolic functions of plant .3 Describe the structure.Learning Outcomes : 2.

consist of cellulose.3 Describe the structure.Learning Outcomes : 2. hemicellulose & pectin • Large central vacuole • Cells are loosely packed/ large intercellular air spaces . function & distribution of plant tissues ~ parenchyma Parenchyma Tissue ~ Structure • Has nucleus (living cells) • Isodiametric/spherical-shaped • Thin & flexible primary cell wall.

function & distribution of plant tissues ~ parenchyma Parenchyma Tissue ~ Function • Store food / organic substances (large vacuole) • Carry out photosynthesis for cells containing chloroplast (eg: mesophyll cells) • Allow gaseous exchange as there are large intercellular spaces • In flowers & fruits.3 Describe the structure. cell contain chromoplast to attract pollinating agents & help in dispersal of fruits & seeds .Learning Outcomes : 2.

3 Describe the structure. function & distribution of plant tissues ~ parenchyma Parenchyma Tissue ~ Distribution In dicot stem :• Cortex • Pith • Scattered within vascular bundle Dicotyledon stem .Learning Outcomes : 2.

function & distribution of plant tissues ~ parenchyma Modified Parenchyma Tissue Cell shape Modified Parenchyma Mesophyll Endodermis Pericycle Palisade mesophyll ~ column-shaped Flat & elongated (deposited with suberin) As parenchyma Around vascular tissue of root (innermost layer of root cortex) Between vascular tissue & endodermis of root Spongy mesophyll ~ spherical / irregular-shaped Distribution Between upper & lower epidermis of leaves .Learning Outcomes : 2.3 Describe the structure.

Learning Outcomes : 2. function & distribution of plant tissues ~ parenchyma Modified Parenchyma Mesophyll Endodermis & pericycle .3 Describe the structure.

Learning Outcomes : 2. function & distribution of plant tissues ~ collenchyma Collenchyma ~ Structure • Has nucleus (living cells) • Polygonal-shaped. elongated with tapered ends • Cell walls are unevenly thickened at their corners with deposits of cellulose.3 Describe the structure. hemicellulose & pectin • Pits are present in the cell walls • Cells are closely packed / less intercellular space .

function & distribution of plant tissues ~ collenchyma Collenchyma ~ Function • As supporting tissue to herbaceous plants / young parts of the plant • Gives flexible mechanical support (allow cells to expand & stretched as young stems grow) .3 Describe the structure.Learning Outcomes : 2.

function & distribution of plant tissues ~ collenchyma Collenchyma ~ Distribution 1. Below the epidermis of herbaceous plants 2. Leaf petioles / stalk of leaves (eg: celery) . Midrib of leaves 3.3 Describe the structure.Learning Outcomes : 2.

3 Describe the structure. function & distribution of plant tissues ~ sclerenchyma Sclerenchyma ~ Structure • • • • • • No nucleus at maturity (dead cells) Has primary & secondary cell walls Secondary cell wall is evenly thickened with lignin Small lumen Pits are present in cell walls Cells are tightly packed / no intercellular space .Learning Outcomes : 2.

inner bark .Learning Outcomes : 2. function & distribution of plant tissues ~ sclerenchyma Sclerenchyma ~ Function & Distribution Function: • Gives support to the tissue • Gives mechanical strength & rigidity to the plant • Protect from mechanical damage Distribution: • Leaf veins / vascular bundle • Wood.3 Describe the structure.

Learning Outcomes : 2.3 Describe the structure. function & distribution of plant tissues ~ sclerenchyma Sclerenchyma ~ Fibers Structure: • Polygonal-shaped • Elongated with tapered ends • Which overlap & interlock with one another (increase strength) • Fewer pits than sclereids • Eg: jute fibers for making rope .

function & distribution of plant tissues ~ sclerenchyma Sclerenchyma ~ Sclereids Structure: • Irregular-shaped • Shorter than fibers • Unevenly thickened with lignin • Pits maybe branched or not • Cells with unbranched pits ~ stone cells • Eg: in pears (cause gritty texture) Cherry pit Distribution: • Hard shells of seeds & nuts in fruits Pear stone cells .3 Describe the structure.Learning Outcomes : 2.

Learning Outcomes : 2. function & distribution of plant tissues ~ xylem Xylem • Complex tissue • Consist of 4 tissues ~ tracheid. fiber & parenchyma • Dead at functional maturity Structure: • No nucleus (dead cells) at maturity • Elongated.3 Describe the structure. thin • Tapered ends which overlap & interlock with one another • Small empty lumen • Thick lignified secondary wall • Have pits in cell walls • Which allow water to flow from 1 tracheid to the other . vessel.

3 Describe the structure.Learning Outcomes : 2. function & distribution of plant tissues ~ xylem Vessels ~ Structure • No nucleus (dead cells) at maturity • Shorter & wider than tracheid • Tubular / less tapered than tracheid • Wide empty lumen • Thick lignified secondary wall • Both ends are highly perforated / open • Cells are stacked from end to end to form a continuous hollow tube • Pits are present to allow lateral movements of water .

ii. iv.3 Describe the structure. Young  mature vessel Annular / ring Spiral / helix Scalariform Reticulate Pitted . v.Learning Outcomes : 2. iii. function & distribution of plant tissues ~ xylem Xylem ~ Vessels Uneven deposition of lignin creates different pattern in vessel:- i.

function & distribution of plant tissues ~ xylem Xylem ~ Function & Distribution Function • Transport water & minerals from root to other parts of plant • Give mechanical support (lignified vessels & tracheid can resist compression & tension) Distribution • Vascular bundle .3 Describe the structure.Learning Outcomes : 2.

3 Describe the structure. function & distribution of plant tissues ~ phloem Phloem • Complex tissue • Consist of 4 tissues ~ sieve tube cell.Learning Outcomes : 2. companion cell. fiber & parenchyma .

Learning Outcomes : 2.3 Describe the structure. function & distribution of plant tissues ~ phloem Phloem ~ Sieve tube cells structure • Living cells at maturity • But nucleus & most organelles degenerate • Thin layer of cytoplasm remains at the periphery of the cell • Has only primary cell wall (no lignin) • Long cylindrical structure • End walls are perforated forming sieve plate • Sieve plate has pores which allows cytoplasm to extend between sieve tube cells • Sieve tube cell are stacked end to end to form a long sieve tube .

3 Describe the structure. function & distribution of plant tissues ~ phloem Phloem ~ Companion cell structure • A modified parenchyma which is found next to sieve tube cell • Metabolically active Structure: • Have nucleus (living cells) at maturity • Dense cytoplasm • Small vacuoles • Many mitochondria & ribosomes • Thin primary cell wall • Interconnected to sieve tube cell by numerous plasmodesmata .Learning Outcomes : 2.

function & distribution of plant tissues ~ phloem Phloem ~ Function & Distribution Function • Transport organic substance from leaves to other parts of plant • Companion cell helps sieve tube elements to transport organic substances Distribution • Vascular bundle .Learning Outcomes : 2.3 Describe the structure.

4 Cell Transport (2) .0 Cell Structure & Functions (8 hrs) 2.3 Cells are grouped into tissues (3) 2.1 Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells (½) 2.2 Structure and functions: cell membrane and organelles (2½) 2.2.

Simple diffusion .Sodium potassium pump .Bulk Transport (endocytosis & exocytosis) .Learning outcomes 2.Facilitated diffusion .Osmosis  Active transport .4 Cell Transport Explain the various transport mechanisms across the membrane  Passive transport .

4 Explain the various transport mechanisms across the membrane Types of Transport Across Membrane Passive Transport Simple Facilitated Osmosis Diffusion Diffusion Active Transport Bulk Transport Na-K Pump Endocytosis Phagocytosis Exocytosis Pinocytosis .Learning Outcomes : 2.

Learning Outcomes : 2.4 Explain passive transport across membrane Characteristic of Cell Membrane       Cell membrane is selectively permeable Allow some substances to pass through But does not allow other substances to pass through Cell membrane is permeable to lipid soluble molecule & small non-polar substance due to its hydrophobic region of phospholipid bilayer Impermeable to polar molecules & ions Enable cell to retain polar molecules & ions within the cell (mostly are important for the cell) .

Learning Outcomes : 2.4 Explain passive transport across membrane Passive Transport     Movement of a substance from higher concentration to lower concentration gradient Or movement of a substance down a concentration gradient Across a selective permeable membrane Without using energy .

4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ simple diffusion Simple Diffusion (extracellular fluid) Some molecules diffuse freely across phospholipid bilayer (cytoplasm)    Movement of a substance from higher concentration to lower concentration gradient across phospholipid bilayer Without using energy Without the help of transport protein .Learning Outcomes : 2.

non-polar/uncharged molecules (O2.Learning Outcomes : 2. steroid)  Small. polar molecules (eg: H2O. CO2)  Small. glycerol) .4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ simple diffusion Simple Diffusion  Molecules that can diffuse easily across phospholipid bilayer: Lipid soluble molecules (eg: cholesterol.

they are small enough to pass through the space between the fluid fatty acids as they move Rate of diffusion increase when: Temperature increase  Molecules involved is in gas state rather than liquid  Size of molecules reduce (faster for smaller molecules)  Large differences in concentration gradient between inside & outside the cell .Learning Outcomes : 2.4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ simple diffusion Simple Diffusion   Although water are polar.

Learning Outcomes : 2.4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ simple diffusion Simple Diffusion ~ Importance   Enable atoms & small molecules diffuse faster across membrane  Eg: O2. important to facilitate chemical reaction Enable lipid soluble molecules to diffuse freely  Eg: steroid hormone (testosterone) for homeostatic regulation . CO2 as respiratory gases. important in ATP synthesis  Eg: H2O.

Learning Outcomes : 2. amino acids) .4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ facilitated diffusion Facilitated Diffusion     Movement of a substance from higher concentration to lower concentration gradient across plasma membrane With the help of transport protein Without using energy Involve ions & polar molecules (eg: Na+. glucose. Cl-.

Learning Outcomes : 2. Carrier protein .4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ facilitated diffusion Facilitated Diffusion Transport protein:.2 main types 1. Channel protein 2.

Cl-). ions (Na+.4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ facilitated diffusion Facilitated Diffusion ~ Importance   Transport ions & polar molecules or water soluble molecules across membrane Eg: water. sugars (glucose) & amino acids .Learning Outcomes : 2.

Learning Outcomes : 2.4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ osmosis Osmosis     Movement of water molecules From higher water potential to lower water potential region Across a selective permeable membrane Without using energy .

 = 0 kPa .4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ osmosis Water Potential Definition:  Tendency of water molecules to move from 1 area to another area   Symbol ~  Pure water has the highest water potential.Learning Outcomes : 2.

Learning Outcomes : 2. s (always has –ve value) A solution with less solute than the other has higher water potential .4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ osmosis Solute Potential     A measure of the change in water potential of a solution due to the presence of solute molecules When solute molecules is dissolved in pure water. it reduces its water potential. becoming negative (-ve) Symbol.

Learning Outcomes : 2.4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ osmosis Types of Solution Hypotonic  Low concentration of solute relative to another solution Hypertonic  High concentration of solute relative to another solution Isotonic  Same concentration of solute relative to another solution 189 .

4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ osmosis Osmosis Less solute More solute .Learning Outcomes : 2.

it enters vacuole Vacuole enlarge & creates a pressure towards cytoplasm & cell wall  turgor pressure Also called as pressure potential.  = 0 .4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ osmosis Pressure applied to piston to resist upward movement  Water plus solute Pure water Selectively  permeable membrane Molecule of solute Water molecule   Net movement of water molecules  When water diffuse into the plant cell. p p always has +ve value The point at which plasmolysis is just about to happen  incipient plasmolysis.Learning Outcomes : 2.

4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ osmosis When a cell is put into an isotonic solution     Water potential inside & outside the cell is equal Water moves into & out of the cell at the same rate by osmosis No net movement of water into or out of the cell Animal / plant cell does not change its shape 192 .Learning Outcomes : 2.

4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ osmosis When a cell is put into a hypertonic solution    The cell has higher water potential than outside the cell Water moves out from the cell by osmosis Animal cell becomes crenated / shrink 193 .Learning Outcomes : 2.

water moves out from vacuole  vacuole shrinks Plasma membrane detached & pulled away from the cell wall Plant cell becomes plasmolysed / flaccid The starting point of plasmolysis ~ incipient plasmolysis 194 .4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ osmosis When a cell is put into a hypertonic solution     In plant cell.Learning Outcomes : 2.

Learning Outcomes : 2.4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ osmosis (a) Plasma membrane (b) (c) Vacuole Nucleus Vacuole Vacuolar membran e (tonoplas t) Cytoplasm Turgid Plasma membrane Plasmolyzed Plasmolyzed .

Learning Outcomes : 2. it may lysed / burst) If erythrocyte burst ~ haemolysis  Plant cell becomes turgid   196 .4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ osmosis When a cell is put in a hypotonic solution  Water potential outside the cell is higher than in the cell  Water from outside moves into the cell by osmosis Animal cell swell (if too much water moves in.

Learning Outcomes : 2.4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ osmosis Outside cell Inside cell No net water movement Outside cell Inside cell Net water movement out of the cell Outside cell Inside cell (a) Net water movement into the cell (b) (c) Isotonic solution Hypertonic solution Hypotonic solution .

4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ osmosis Calculation of Water Potential in Plant Cell Water potential = solute potential + pressure potential  = s + p  Which cell has higher water potential?  A ~  = -200 kPa  B ~  = -400 kPa  C ~  = -500 kPa  D ~  = -600 kPa 198 .Learning Outcomes : 2.

Learning Outcomes : 2.4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ osmosis Example 1 Cell A s = -8 MPa p = 3 MPa  = ?-5 MPa Cell B  = -10 Mpa s = -10 Mpa p = ?0 MPa .

Learning Outcomes : 2. State whether water will move in or out of the cell.4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ osmosis Example 2 Cell A  s = -500 kPa p = 200 kPa        Sucrose solution. s = -1000 kPa  = s + p  = -500 + 200 kPa = -300 kPa Calculate the water potential of this cell. What happen to the volume of the cell? Water moves out from the cell by osmosis Because cell A has higher water potential than surrounding solution Decrease . Explain.

 kPa = s + s = -2200 + 1000 = -1200 kPa Cell B.4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ osmosis Example 3 (a) s = -2200 kPa p = 1000 kPa Cell A Cell B  s = -1600 kPa p = 800 kPa Calculate the water potential of cell A & cell B Cell A.Learning Outcomes : 2.  = s + s = -1600 + 800 kPa = -800 kPa .

Learning Outcomes :
2.4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ osmosis

Exercise 3 (b)
Cell A

s = -2200 kPa
p = 1000 kPa

Cell A,  = -1200
kPa

Cell B s = -1600 kPaCell B,  = -800 kPa
p = 800 kPa

State the direction of water flow between the 2 cells. Give
reason.
Water flows from cell B to cell A
Because cell B has higher water potential than cell
A

Learning Outcomes :
2.4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ osmosis

Exercise 3 (c)
Cell A

s = -2200 kPa
p = 1000 kPa
Cell B

Cell A,  = -1200
kPa

s = -1600 kPaCell B,  = -800 kPa
p = 800 kPa

Calculate the final values of water potential & pressure
potential after equilibrium is reached. Assume that no
changes occurs to s
At equilibrium, A = B
For cell A, at equilibrium,

= s + p
=  cell A +  cell B
2
P =  - s
= -1200 + (-800) kPa
= -1000 – (-2200) kPa
2
= -1000 + 2200 kPa
= -1000 kPa
= 1200 kPa

Learning Outcomes :
2.4 Explain passive transport across membrane ~ osmosis

Exercise 3 (c)
Cell A

s = -2200 kPa
p = 1000 kPa
Cell B

Cell A,  = -1200
kPa

s = -1600 kPaCell B,  = -800 kPa
p = 800 kPa

Calculate the final values of water potential & pressure
potential after equilibrium is reached. Assume that no
changes occurs to s
At equilibrium, A = B
For cell B, at equilibrium,
=  cell A +  cell B

= s + p
2
P =  - s
= -1200 + (-800) kPa
= -1000 – (-1600) kPa
2
= -1000 + 1600 kPa
= -1000 kPa
= 600 kPa

Learning Outcomes :
2.4 Explain active transport across membrane ~ Na-K Pump

Active Transport
Movement of a
substances against
concentration
gradient or from
lower concentration to
higher concentration
gradient
 Across a selective
permeable membrane
 Which needs energy
 Involve transport
protein
Allow cell to maintain useful

Active Transport

Na-K Pump Endocytosis Exocytosis

nutrients in the cell against
concentration gradient

[K+]  3 Na+ in the cell binds to a specific site of transport protein The binding of Na+ stimulates the hydrolysis of ATP (in the cell) into ADP (adenosine diphosphate) + Pi (inorganic phosphate) Pi binds to transport protein (phosphorylation) & change its conformation Causes it to pump 3 Na+ to the outside Increasing its concentration outside the cell .Learning Outcomes : 2.4 Explain active transport across membrane ~ Na-K Pump Na-K Pump        Outside the cell : [Na+] . [K+]  Inside the cell : [Na+] .

4 Explain active transport across membrane ~ Na-K Pump Na-K Pump .Learning Outcomes : 2.

Learning Outcomes :
2.4 Explain active transport across membrane ~ Na-K Pump

Na-K Pump


2 K+ outside the cell binds to a specific site of
transport protein
Stimulates the release of phosphate group from the
transport protein (dephosphorylation)
Causes transport protein to restore its original
conformation
2 K+ is pumped into the cell
Increasing its concentration inside the cell
Na-K pump is important for transmission of nerve
impulses

Learning Outcomes :
2.4 Explain active transport across membrane ~ bulk transport
(endocytosis)

Endocytosis


A process in which bulk substances are taken into
the cell
Requires energy
Involves invagination (folding) of cell membrane
(cannot occur in plant cell due to the presence of
cell wall)
2 types of endocytosis:
Endocytosis

Phagocytosis Pinocytosis

Learning Outcomes :
2.4 Explain active transport across membrane ~ endocytosis
(phagocytosis)

Phagocytosis

A process in which large, solid particles is taken into the
cell
Presence of large particles causes the cell membrane to
invaginate
Forming cytoplasmic extension ~ pseudopodia which
surround the large particle & trapped them
Pseudopodia fuse together to form food vacuole /
phagocytic vacuole / phagosome

1. Folds of the plasma membrane
2. The vacuole then pinches
surround
off
the particle to be ingested, forming
inside the cell.
a small

Learning Outcomes :
2.4 Explain active transport across membrane ~ endocytosis
(phagocytosis)

Phagocytosis


Primary lysosome will fuse with phagocytic vacuole &
activates the enzyme inside lysosome
Secondary lysosome releases its enzyme to digest the
particles
Useful substance is absorbed into cytoplasm
Waste substance is released by exocytosis outside the
cell

Eg: macrophage engulf bacteria
Eg: Amoeba engulf Paramecium /
food
3. Lysosomes may fuse with the vacuole and digest the
substance

4 Explain active transport across membrane ~ endocytosis (pinocytosis) Pinocytosis     A process in which dissolved solutes are taken into the cell Presence of dissolved solutes causes the cell membrane to invaginate To form a tiny canals of cytoplasmic extension Dissolved solutes are trapped within tiny canals / microvilli .Learning Outcomes : 2.

4 Explain active transport across membrane ~ endocytosis (pinocytosis) Pinocytosis Microvilli Pinocytic vesicle Cytosol    At the end of tiny canals / cytoplasmic extensions. it pinches off to form pinocytic vesicles / pinosome The dissolved solutes is directly absorbed into cytoplasm Eg: uptake of dissolved solutes in kidney tubules & .Learning Outcomes : 2.

4 Explain active transport across membrane ~ endocytosis Phagocytosis & Pinocytosis .Learning Outcomes : 2.

fuses with it outside the cell.Learning Outcomes : 2. release its contents 2.4 Explain active transport across membrane ~bulk transport (exocytosis) Exocytosis    A process in which cells release substance out of the cell Vesicle move towards cell membrane & fuse with it Substance within vesicles are released outside the cell (during secretion) 3. 1. A vesicle move towards the plasma membrane .

. Inc.B. Biology. • Solomon E.Reference • Campbell N. (2004) McGraw-Hill Companies. 7th ed. S.A & Reece.. Pearson Education. L. (2005) Thomson Learning. Biology. Inc. Inc. J. • Mader.P & Berg. (2002). 6th ed.R.S Biology. 8th ed.