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Design and Manufacturing - Study Notes

Chapter 1
DEFINITION OF ENGINEERING DESIGN
1.1 Introduction:
The economic future of India depends on our ability to design, make and sell competitive products.
Excellent design and effective manufacture are the pre-requisites of a successive industry. There is a
general impression that the quality of Indian products can still be improved. The fact that consumers
have lost their confidence on Indian-made products cannot be denied. This problem can be solved only
by designing and manufacturing better products through improved methodology. Keeping this in view,
the subject “Design and manufacturing” purpose to present the methods and procedures of design and
manufacture.
Although engineers are not the only people who design things, the professional practice of engineering
is largely concerned with design. It is usually said that design is the essence of engineering.
The ability to design is both a science and an art. The science can be learned through procedures
developed by eminent scholars. But the art can be learned only by doing design.
• Types of Products
A product is the tangible end result of a manufacturing process and is meant for satisfying human needs.
The product can be classified as follows: • Convenience goods
These are less expensive and are clustered around shops and restaurants. These can be purchased at
consumer's convenience.
E.g. Cigarette, Candy, Magazines etc.
2. Shopping goods
These are expensive and people buy it less frequently.
E.g. Jewelry garments etc.
3. Specialty goods
These are purchased, taking extra pain.
E.g. Rare objects like stamps.
4. Industrial goods.

These are items used in the production of other items.
Eg: Raw materials.
Another way of classifying products is into,
(a) Continuous Products, and
(b) Discrete products
The continuous products are those which are produced in a continuous fashion. For example, plates,
sheets, tubes and bars etc are produced in very long lengths, and then these are cut into desired
lengths.
On the other hand, discrete products are produced one after another, each in separate units.
On the basis of the output product, the Industry is usually named as continuous industry and discrete
industry.
1.3 Requirements in a good product
• Customer Satisfaction
• Profit
How to achieve customer satisfaction?
-The product should function properly.
-It must have desired accuracy
-It must have desired reliability
-It must be easy to operate
-It must be serviceable
-It must make minimum space utilization
-It must withstand rough handling
-Pleasant appearances.
-Reasonable price.
How can it be profitable?
-It must be easy to manufacture
-The raw material must be cheap and easily available

-The manufacturing process has to the decided on the basis of quantity to be produced
-It must use standard parts
-It must be easy to pack and distribute.
1.4 Definition of Design: (S ‘94)
Designing is such a vast field that it is defined in several ways. Various definitions of designing as
pronounced by well-known designers are
“Design is that which defines solutions to problem which have previously been solved in a different way”
“Design is the conscious human process of planning physical things that display a new form in response
to some pre-determined need”.
“Design is an act of collecting all pertinent information for the production of goods and services to meet
some human need”.
The design of any component includes two things,
• Product design
• Process design
The product design involves the development of specification for a product that will be functionally
sound, good in appearance, and will give satisfactory performance for an adequate life.
The process design involves developing methods of manufacture of the products so that the component
can be produced at a reasonably low cost.
1.5 History of Design Process
• Design by Single Person
• Over-the-wall design
• Simultaneous Engineering
• Concurrent Engineering
• Integrated design and Manufacture.
In olden times one person could design and manufacture an entire product. Even for a large project such
as the design of a ship or a bridge, one person had sufficient knowledge of the Physics, Materials and
manufacturing processes to manage all aspects of the design and construction of the project. This
period is referred to as the period of design by single person in the history of design.

There was only one-way communications between Customer. This situation led to over-the-wall design process. A short definition of concurrent engineering is the simultaneous progression of all aspects. Tools and techniques connect the teams with the information. This system makes a good use of technologies such as CAD/CAM. The marketing department may throw the customer needs to the design department. process and equipment etc. In this method each functional departments were separated from others. one person could not handle all aspects of design and manufacturing. and techniques and information about the product and the processes used to develop and manufacture it. The manufacturing department interprets that design and makes the product according to what they think suitable. This is due to lack of interaction between the different departments. Unfortunately. Marketing. Although many of the tools are computer-based. design tools. In concurrent engineering the primary focus is on the integration of teams of people having a stake in the product. design. product specification. orally. Design department may conceive a design and hands it over to the manufacturing sections. In the 1980's the simultaneous design philosophy was broadened and called concurrent engineering. in many instances.the goal was the simultaneous development of the product and the manufacturing process. concurrent engineering is 80% company culture and 20% computer support. so that they could interact with the design engineers throughout the designs process. at all stages of product development. FMS etc. drastic changes have taken place in the field of design and manufacturing. much design work is still done with pencil and paper. With the advent of computer technology. Thus. This philosophy emphasized simultaneous development of the manufacturing process. This was accomplished by assigning manufacturing representatives to be members of design team. By the early 1980's the concept of simultaneous engineering emerged. The customers ‘throw' their needs to marketing department. often what is manufactured by a company using over-the-wall process is not what the customers had in mind. The computer integrated manufacturing . as shown by wall. Engineering Design and production department. this single direction over-the-wall approach is inefficient and costly and may result in poor quality products. The result was a completely integrated design and manufacturing system. The Engg.By the middle of the 20th century products and manufacturing processes became so complex that. In fact.

S'94) • .…………get first preference in design Ans.. QUESTIONS • How can you explain the term design? Explain the process of mechanical design. Discuss the role of creativity in the design process (S'94. (S'99.. 8M) • The design of product is …. Functional requirements (S'93) • Explain the meaning of • Conceptual design • Functional design (iii) Production design.. efficiency and productivity. (S'03) .. Give suitable examples for each.. CIMS is necessary for better quality.customer expectations....systems (CIMS) moves towards the ‘Factory of the future'..

it is also called new design or innovative design. skill and creativity required in the designing process.2 TYPES OF DESIGNS 2. 98 ‘00) • Variant Design (S 97. in order to modify the existing designs into a new idea. In this case. the designs are broadly classified into three types • Adaptive Design (W 95. 99) • Original Design • Adaptive Design In most design situations the designer's job is to make a slight modification of the existing design. design may be classified as • Selection design • Configuration design • Parametric design • Original design • Re-design . 2. For making original designs. E. though the designer starts from the existing designs. Here a new technology is adopted. E. these are also called creative designs. • Variant Design This type of design demands considerable scientific training and design ability. A company thinks of new design when there is a new technology available or when there is enough market push. On the basis of knowledge. These are called adaptive designs . the final product may be entirely different from the original product.2 On the basis of the nature of design problem. knowledge and creativity are essential. This type of design needs no special knowledge or skill.g.1 The design can be classified in many ways. Thus. 97. by adopting a new material or a different method of manufacture. • Original Design Here the designer designs something that did not exist previously. converting mechanical watches into a new shape. Since this type of design demands maximum creativity from the part of the designer.g. a lot of research work.CHAPTER . converting mechanical watches into quartz watches.

a floppy disk drive and room for two extension boards. power supply. This type of design is similar to arranging furniture in a living room. Keyboard Main Circuit board Extension slots . the extension slots must be adjacent to the main circuit board and the keyboard must be in front of the machine. It involves choosing one or more items from a list of similar items. Consider the packing of electronic components in a laptop computer. S'02) In this type of problem. Each component is of known design and has certain constraints on its position.• Selection Design. We do this by using catalogues. A laptop computer has a keyboard. -Selection of a bearing from a bearing catalogue -Selection of a fan for cooling equipment -Selecting a shaft. Eg. • Configuration / Layout / Packaging Design (W 97. all the components have been designed and the problem is how to assemble them into the completed product. For example. a hard disk drive. a main circuit board.

Let's take keyboard first. If a conflict arises. Then we select and place a second component. • Parametric Design Parametric design involves finding values for the features that characterize the object being studied. we back up and try again. It is placed in the front. or all the components are in the case. Consider a simple example – We want to design a cylindrical storage tank that must hold 4 m 3 of liquid. The designer's aim is to find. how to fit all the components in a case? Where do we put what? One method for solving such problems is to – select a component randomly from the list and position it in the case so that all the constraints on that component are met. Two potential configurations are shown above.Floppy drive Power supply The different components are shown above. This procedure is continued until we reach a conflict. .

a production designer is concerned with the ease with which something can be produced. Hence. • Production Design • Functional Design • Optimum Design • Production Design In production design . Suppose a manufacturer of hydraulic cylinders makes a product that is 0. radius 'r'. an original design in the development of an assembly or component that did not exist before. the first responsibility of the designer is reduction of production cost. That is. and that at a minimum cost. the designer designs something in such a way that the cost of producing the product is minimum. • Original Design As described in an earlier section. On the basis of the objective or strategy the designs are of following main types. the manufacturer might lengthen the outer cylinder and the piston rod to meet this special need. 2. • Functional Design W93 In functional design .25m long.3. • Redesign The redesign is a modification of an existing product to meet new requirements. that will satisfy this equation. and length l . the aim is at designing a part or member so as to meet the expected performance level. Given V = 4 m 3 = r2l r 2 l = 1. Most design problems solved in industry are for the redesign of an existing product. Each combination-values of r and l gives a possible solution for the design problem.273 We can see a number of values for the radius and length. It is same as adaptive design. If the customer needs a cylinder 0. .3m long.The volume is given by V= r2l The tank is described by the parameters.

to solve problems and needs of society. 2. • System Design System Design is an iterative decision making process to conceive and implement optimum systems. A good designer. . • Optimum Design [W 95] It is the best design for given objective function. money and efforts. then. the following types are important. under the specified constraints.or machine to perform prescribed functions with maximum economy and efficiency. • Standard parts may be used. technical information and imagination in the design of a structure. • Sub-assemblies should be capable of being built separately in order to give maximum manufacturing flexibility. The characteristic features are: • The total number of parts used in the design must be minimum.but the same may the unproducible or costly to produce.Functional design is a way of achieving given requirements.. has to consider the production aspects also. A product designed without keeping all these aspects into account. • Assembly/sub-assembly design [S 93] In the design of Assembly/sub-assembly the major criterion is the fulfillment of functional requirements. • Mechanical Design • Machine Design • System Design • Assembly/sub-assembly design • Computer aided design • Mechanical Design It means use of scientific principles. wastes time. The assembly has to be designed to meet broad technical parameters and purpose for which it was meant. • Machine Design It is the process of achieving a plan for the construction of a machine.4 On the basis of the field/ area or the domain of design.

• Flexible parts should be avoided.. Eng. [S0'3] 10. the external load acting on a body. ergonomics and production aspects. Ans. Distinguish between functional design and industrial design. [W'93] 3. Industrial Design [W 93] It is the design made by considering aesthetes. (ii) Functional design and (iii) production design. creative design. Sciences [W '94] 8. [S'97] 4. adoptive design and variant design. In modern design. computers have become an indispensable tool. Discuss the meanings of conceptual design. the properties of materials etc are liable to vary. W '97] • Explain the difference between creative design. analyze and evaluate data etc. Computers are largely used in a design office for simulation and prototype study. Other types of designs are Probabilistic Design Industrial Design Probabilistic Design [S 96] It is a design approach in which design decisions are made using statistical tools. [W'00. Questions 1. Explain the meaning of • Conceptual design. as they are easily damaged during handling and assembly. Explain layout design. the designer takes into account the variations of such parameters. • Computer aided design [CAD] It is a design methodology in which the designs take the advantages of digital computer to draw concepts. Give suitable example of each. 5M] 2. [S0'2] . In probabilistic design. What are the three main types of design? Give a comparative analysis. [S'93. Generally. [S'02 W'98] • Designing for function involves the use and knowledge of ……………. assembly/sub-assembly design and component design? Explain briefly with the help of examples. adoptive design and variant design. What are the characteristics features of system design.

1.2. A designer often comes across several equally acceptable alternatives to meet some end. only an overview of designing process is attempted here. A satisfactory conclusion can be reached on. money. 3. there is conversion of resources such as time. All designs are aimed at satisfying some human need.Chapter 3 DESIGN PROCESS AND ITS STRUCTURES 3. How a design is born? In a broad sense there are two methods by which a design comes into existence. designer has to make the best decision. 3. • Iteration • Decision-making • Conversion of resources • Satisfaction of need Design is completed in many phases. Decision-making is essential for a designer to select one out of several. Introduction Developing a manufacturable product is not an easy job. talent. In such conflicting situations. only after a number of trials. In any design process. In each phase. whether important or unimportant is the starting point of design. Rather than making a detailed study. • Design by evolution (Traditional Design) • Design by innovation (Modern Design) • Design by evolution .3. This chapter presents some methods that help achieve quality products. Needs. Features of design process The following features can be observed in a design process. repeated attempts are required to accomplish the aim. materials and other natural resources.

However.e. all went through a process of evolution in which designers tried one concept after another. Here the designer's task is greatly magnified. However. Due to the above reasons modern design problem cannot be handled by traditional methods. i. 1. Requirements of the customers of today's world changes so frequently. As a result. an innovative designer faces the following difficulties. 5. which is non-existing yet. The traditional designing did not consider the interdependence of products. This approach is similar to analytical problem solving. But. in the present time. any penalty of a wrong design will cost great loss. The innovative design is entirely different from the past practice of evolutionary design. But in the modern world. 2.e.. 3. The main reason for this slow evolutionary process of design was the absence of proper information and design data records. Bicycles. nowadays almost all designs are made by innovation. Here he tries to solve the design problem in a systematic and orderly manner. which did not exist yet. In modern design situations the evolutionary methods are not adequate because of the following reasons. In the past. computers. Things changed gradually with the passage of time. the existence of one product is dependent on another in some way or other. steam locomotives etc. calculators. • Design by Innovation Since the traditional design method failed to cope with modern design requirements. Thus the penalty of a wrong design was tolerable. production is on large-scale basis. Each change was made to rectify some defects or difficulties faced by the users. He has to collect and evaluate information on a product. Traditional design methods cannot cope with competitive requirements of the modern world. He has to make predictions regarding its performance. If one looks at history it can be seen that most of the tools. 1. They were concerned about only one component /product. i. implements. took a long time to acquire their present form. developments of a product by following scientific and purposeful effort. 2.. it took a very long period of time to occur even a slight modification. this evolutionary process is very slow. . He has to design and create something. Necessity of analyzing complicated interaction of components. production was on small scale. 3. equipments.This implies the traditional method of design in which the objects and articles that we see around has taken its present form by gradual change of time. Traditional design lags behind the advanced product & process technologies available today. Even today this process is being used to some extent.

This systematized steps in design process is called Morphology of Design . Shigly. 3. According to him the entire design process in its basic forms consists of five basic elements as given below.E.Simplified Approach A simplified approach to designing as outlined by Morris Asimow is given below. Morphology means ‘a study of form or structure'. Notwithstanding the above difficulties.4. there are eminent experts like Morris Asimow. J. 1. He has to ensure the technical and economical feasibility of the product. 4. Design Process. 2. Generate alternative solutions. Evaluate the alternatives. 3. Plan how to solve this problem 3. Present the acceptable solution. Problem-solving Methodology Knowingly or unknowingly we follow six basic actions when we try to find solution of any problem. Dieter etc have attempted to systematize the design process. This approach of problem solving is also adopted in the Morphology of design.5. By analyzing the problem we decide what is actually required from the problem-solver. 6. Or we decide the requirements. Morphology of design refers to the time based sequencing of design operations. Morphology of Design. . Establish or convince ourselves that there ‘is' a problem. Or we understand that a solution is needed. It is a methodology of design by which ideas about things are converted into physical objects. 5. The best way in which any problem can be solved is to break up the problem and to try for a solution in an analytical method. The logical order of different activities or phases in a design project is called the morphology of design. 3.6.4.

1. design operations) a lot of information is required. The outcome may be in the form of Computer print outs. or drawings. General Information E.Design operations imply the various processes done during designing. etc. . But in order to carryout the above processes (i. The design operations give outcome s. • Materials selection. • Formulating a model for analysis purpose. Specific information . Once the designer has obtained the necessary information he can start design operations. Scientific Laws Information on market trends etc. 2 .e. E.g. The required informations may be broadly classified into two. These include • Searching for possible alternatives systems to satisfy a need.g.. Information on manufacturer's catalogue Materials science handbook etc.

The important activities done at this stage are: • Model building & testing • Study the advantages and disadvantages of different solutions. otherwise the design operation is repeated 3. Feasibility Study. • Check for performance. quality strength. is it physically realisable? Is it economically worthwhile? Is it within our financial capacity? Phase 2 Preliminary (Embodiment) Design. This stage is also called conceptual design. Phase 1. A design project always begins with a feasibility study.Next stage is the evaluation of this outcome. Morphology of design refers to the collection of these time phases. The purpose and activities during feasibility study are • To ascertain there really exists a need [ie the existence of need must be supported by necessary evidences. The morphology of design as put forward by Morris Asimow can be elaborated as given below. It consists of seven phases. . The purpose of evaluation is to decide whether this outcome is able to meet the need. Here a comparison between the capabilities of the outcome and the need is carried out. the designer goes on to next step.e.7 Detailed Morphology of Design A design project goes through a number of time phases. If the outcome is sufficient to meet the need. rather than the outcome of one's fancy] • Search for a number of possible solutions • Evaluate the solutions i. This is the stage art which the concept generated in the feasibility study is carefully developed. aesthetics etc.

the document containing a sequential list of manufacturing processes. the materials to be used and the manufacturing process to be adopted etc. i. are decided. dimensions. tolerances and surface properties of all individual parts are determined. Also. from. The main tasks at this phase are • Preparation of process sheet.Phase III: Detail Design Its purpose is to furnish the complete engineering description of the tested product. • Estimation of production cost. The arrangement. Finally. • Specify the condition of row materials. . • Specify tools & machine requirements. Phase IV: Planning for manufacture This phase includes all the production planning and control activities necessary for the manufacture of the product. complete prototype is tested.e.

Phase VII: Planning for Retirement. Hence. Phase VI Planning for Consumption/use The purpose of this phase is to incorporate in the design all necessary user. • Planning QC systems. Different activities of this phase are • Designing the packing of the product. • Planning for production control. • Planning advertisement techniques • Designing the product for effective distribution in the prevailing conditions.• Specify the requirement in the plant.oriented features. • Planning for information flow system etc. this phase aims at planning an effective distribution system. The various steps are • Design for maintenance • Design for reliability • Design for convenience in use • Design for aesthetic features • Design for prolonged life • Design for product improvement on the basis of service data. A product may retire when • It does not function properly • Another competitive design emerges • Changes of taste or fashion The various steps in this phase are . Phase V: Planning for Distribution The economic success of a design depends on the skill exercised in marketing. • Planning effective and economic warehousing systems. This is the phase that takes into account when the product has reached the end of useful life.

Hence. W98. Design is commonly thought of as a creative process involving the use of imagination and lateral thinking to create new and different products. Hence this method is also called creative design. where the designer simply modifies an existing system. • Visualization ability. A creative designer is distinguished by his ability to synthesize new combinations of ideas and concepts into meaningful and useful forms. innovative design is an organized. During designing. a creative designer has the following qualities. • Ability to manipulate knowledge . Methods of Innovative Design As we know. Creativity [S94. S03] Majority of designs belong to variant design. S03] The creative designer is generally a person of average intelligence. they must have knowledge of past designs. • Examine service-terminated products to obtain useful information. But the success of engineering design depends on the modes of thinking and acting distinctively different from others. they make minor modifications of what they already know –or. • Design by creative design route • Engineering Design • Design by creative routs [Creative Design] This is a design method that demands maximum ‘creativity' from the part of the designer. Qualities of a creative designer [S96. Here the designer finds solutions to problems by allowing his creativity aspects grow in a particular manner. • Knowledge All designers start their job with what they know.8. a hard worker and a constructive non-conformist with average knowledge about the problem at hand. 3. a visualiser. S00. W95. creative designers create new ideas out of bits of old designs they had seen in the past. to generate and manipulate visual images in their heads.• Design for several levels of use • Design to reduce the rate of obsolescence. Generally. systematized and logical approach for solving a design problem. There are two design methods for innovative design. Creative designers have good ability to visualize.

• Risk taking A person who does not take the risk of making mistakes cannot become a good designer. They are prepared to try alternative techniques. In such a favourable environment creativity is further enhanced. The constructive non-conformists might generate a good idea. Creative designers are ready to practice for a long enough period. But the obstructive non-conformists will only slow down the design process. Obstructive non-conformists are those who take a stand just to have an opposing view. • Technique Creative designers have more than one approach to problem solving. Creative designers are constructive non-conformists. Edison tried hundreds of different light bulb designs before he found the carbon filament. • Unwillingness to try new approaches • Fear of criticism • Lack of knowledge • Overconfidence due to past experience • Unwillingness to reject old solutions • Fear of authority .The ability to use the same knowledge in a different way is also an important quality of a designer. For example. because they think they are right. till they reach a satisfactory solution. and they want to do things in their own way. • Willingness to practice Creativity comes with practice. Constructive non-conformists are those who take a firm stand. • Non-conformist There are two types of non-conformists:-constructive and obstructive. • Desire to conform to standard solutions. Roadblocks to Creativity • Fear of making a mistake • Unwillingness to think and act in a way other than the accepted norm. • Motivation They always motivate others in the design team.

Intuitive ideas lead to a large number of good and even excellent solutions. etc.• Difficulty in visualization • Inability to distinguish between cause and effect • Inability to collect complete information • Unwillingness to be different Methods to enhance Creativity • Use of analogy • Asking question from different view points • Memories of past designs • Competitive products • Deliberate day-dreaming • Reading science fictions. The success of this design lies with the creativity of the designer. . the designer analyses the need and collect all the necessary information required at various stages. During preparation period. elaborated in subconscious mind. Creative Design Route [W95. 9'00] Creative design route is the procedure through which a creative design is born. Creative design route can be practiced by following the sequences shown in figure. Intuition [S'01] Intuition means sudden ideas or flashes of inspiration and involves complex associations of ideas. 94. 98.

(ii) ENGINEERING DESIGN (W 96) Another procedure for obtaining innovative design is Engg. Now. It largely depends on discoveries and laws of science. design process is given below: - Recognition of need Definition of the problem . The designer relaxes away from the problem for some time. Design. Illumination is the sudden insight and throwing up with a solution. Apart from creativity-approach. For a designer using creative methods for design.Concentration is the period when the designer digests all the aspects of the problem situation and tries various possible combinations. testing and inspection of the design is done and the details are completed. habitual or familiar methods must be avoided. The different steps in Engg. this is a logical and intellectual attempt to solve design problems. The final step is the verification. The next step is the incubation period.

or other agencies (See Art. what the design is intended to accomplish. the best design is emerged.Gathering of Information Conceptualization Evaluation of concepts Communication of the design Since all design projects are meant for satisfying some need.4) The conceptualization step involves. any design work starts withRecognition of the need . The advantages and disadvantages of each idea against its performance. 6. The definition of the problem expresses as specifically as possible. This final design with every detail is furnished in last stepie communicating the design. In many phases of deign process a large quantity of information may be required. Once the need has identified. After evaluation. journals. The success of a design project depends on the clarity in the definition of the problem. This is the most critical step in the design process. . The need for a design is initiated by either a market requirement. Need Analysis is the technique used to define the problem(Chapter 6). finding several design ideas to meet the given need. The different ideas conceived are weighted and judged in the evaluation step. The required information can be obtained from textbooks. The next step is collecting information. definitions of any special technical terms. the next step is to define the design problem . the development of a new technology or the desire to improve an existing product. cost aesthetics etc is valued. It should include objectives and goals. Inventiveness and creating is very important in this step. the constraints on the design and the criteria that will be used to evaluate the designs.

That activity wherein the concept is converted into physical object is termed as transformation phase. . Design (W. Transformation & Convergence (S'97 5M) The entire design process can be said to have composed of three distinct phases Viz. 3. It aids only in the final drafting of the specifications.9.94) • The preparation phase in creative design and need analysis in Engg. Design is more or less common. • Reviewing is applicable in both design methods. habits and traditions are enemies of creativity – but the same are required in engineering design. illumination – but no such philosophy is followed in engineering designs. Design. Both steps deal with analyzing the need. such as drafting and analyzing. Transformation and Convergence phases. aims at generating as many ideas as possible to solve a given design problem. The convergence is a narrowing process. Current computer tools such as ‘computer-aided drafting' are restricted to the end of the design process and play no fundamental role in aiding design. Divergence. Divergence. need analysis and conceptualization etc. Design Process Using Advanced Technology (W”00) Although Engineering is a major sector of the economy in a developing country. • Creative person is highly intuitive and independent in thinking and usually resists working in group – but engineering designers like teamwork. • Testing and inspection is applicable for both designs. Engineers still use computers only in peripheral tasks. • Customs. the success depends on the clarity with which the need statement is prepared. • In both design methods brainstorming and Synetics can be applied. 3. Thus. Difference between Creative Designs & Engg. by eliminating unwanted ideas.Common features between Creative Design & Engg. Designs (W 94) • Intelligence is not a must for creative design-but the same is desirable in Engg. The problem definition. • For both deigns. but not in making fundamental design decisions. • Creative design involves phases like incubation. It has not been benefited greatly from advances in computer technology. where the best optimal solution is tried for. • Creative design is based on use of analogy and synthesis of alternatives – but engineering design is based on proven laws and past experience.10. these activities belong to the Divergence phase.

(W 95) • What do you understand by intuition (S 01) • Draw a flow-chart showing different stages of engineering design. The design process in CAD system consists of the following stages. Explain why some stages are repeated several times. 1 M) • What is morphology of design? Explain the various steps with the help of block diagram (W. QUESTIONS • How can you explain the term design? Explain the process of mechanical design.----.93. Discuss the role of creativity in the designs process. Use examples to explain.Computer-aided Design.96) • Briefly discuss the concept of creativity as applicable for solving design problems (W 98.5M) . (S94. or the physical description of the object. • Geometric modeling • Analysis and optimization • Evaluation • Documentation and drafting. CAD systems have been sophisticated and 2D and 3D models are available. 6M) • The creative design process can be considered to be ……… (S93) • Discuss creativity and creative design. (CAD) means a class of tools for crating drawing.95) • The three stages of design are………… (W 96) • State the different phases that are involved in morphology of design (S.------. S94. (S. 6M) • What makes the design process tortuous? Explain (W 99. 8M) • The mechanical design process normally has six stages and amongst them the three stage are ----. The CAD allows the designer to conceptualize objects more easily.(S99.

Write down the different statements about creativity and creative designers. Explain these in brief. (S'02) . (S'93) • Define creative design routes. What are the stages of these routes. (S'01) • Explain Engg. Slow process of design development (W'94) • With suitable examples. Ans. (S '02). Explain these in brief.. • What are the common features and differences between creative design activities and Engg? Design activities. Analysis and Synthesis. Design process and explain (W'96) • Justify the statement with reasons ‘Modern design problems cannot be handled by traditional methods'. (S'97. W'98) • Good design requires both-----.• What feedback loops provide information for the redesign of products and the productive systems. (W'99) • What are the most important steps involved in the design process? Explain? (W'00) • What are the methods currently being adopted for design process using advanced technology? (W'00) • Name various phases in design morphology. and convergence phases in the design of a new product. (S'01) • Compare the design synthesis and design analysis. (S 96) • Enumerate the steps in Engg. (W'93) • The process of design by evolution adopted by craftsman is a …………. Explain the basics procedure of design synthesis giving suitable examples. (S'97) • What are the three different stages in the design process? Explain with example. Ans. compare ‘Design by evolution' and ‘Design by innovation'.--------. Design (S'01) • What major steps are involved in design process? Briefly explain each one (W'01). transformation. What are the various qualities of creative designer? Give the brief description of these. (W'94) • Discuss the divergence. • What do you mean by creative design routes. • What do you understand by the design process? List out the various phases involved and explain them briefly. (S'00) • Explain the process involved in creativity. Explain briefly with the help of examples. (S'00).

• Give the checklist for an engg. Design problem. (W'98)
• ___ is one of the most powerful aids to creativity in design.
(Use of analogy) (W '94).
• What do you understand by the term “creativity”? What are its requirements? ('03).
• Discuss the stages in engineering design process with the help of example. (S 05)
• Explain ‘Design processes. Illustrate the steps followed with the help of a figure. Also explain the flow
of work during the design process. (W 05, 8M)
• What do you understand by ‘morphology of design'? Discuss the phases of feasibility study,
preliminary design and detailed design. (W '05. 8M)

CHAPTER 4
IDENTIFICATION OF NEED
4.1. What is a need?
A need can be defined as a personnel unfulfilled vacancy which determines and organizes all
psychological and behavioral activities in the direction of fulfilling the vacancy
A product can be product and marketed only if it is ‘needed' by the customer. A person buys a pen
because he ‘needs' to write. A patient ‘needs' something that can cure his illness. These examples show
that needs are nothing but a scarcity or problem or wants felt by a person, device or a system. In fact a
designer's goal is to find solutions to such problems
4.2. Hierarchy of Human needs (W' 96)
Maslow developed a hierarchy of human needs as given below
1. Physiological needs
- These are the basic needs of the body- For example, thirst, hunger, sex, sleep etc.
2. Safety and security needs
For a person whose physiological needs are met, the new emerging needs are safety needs. These
include, protection against danger, threat etc.
3. Social needs
Once the physiological and safety needs are met, the next dominant need is social need. For example
he/she want to love and be loved, he want to be “in group”, etc.
4. Psychological needs
These are the needs for self-respect and self- esteem, and for recognition.
5. Self-fulfillment needs
These are the needs for the realisation of one's full potential through self-development, creativity, and
self-expression.
4.3. Identification/Recognition of Needs (W 96)
The beginning of any design process is the recognition of need or problem. When a turner hears an
awkward noise from some part of the lathe he identifies/ recognises a need. i.e. the lathe requires
repair. When the sales personnel observes that their customers are always complaining of poor

performance of the products, a need to develop a better product is identified. Similarly, when the
customers are unsatisfied with the present ‘model', a new need is recognised.
Needs can be identified from,
• Careful market analysis
• Statements made by politicians from their observations
• Interpretations of a community's requirements
• Trends in other parts of the world
4.4. Variety of Needs [S'00]
Following are the needs, which can generate ideas for the development of new products.
(i). Variation of an existing product.
This could be a change in a single or a few parameters of an existing product.
Eg - Changing the length of a cylinder.
-Changing the power of a motor, etc.
• Improvements in the existing product.
This implies the need to redesign some of the features of an existing product. Such needs can arise,
when
-Customers want a new feature or better performance than existing features
-A vendor can no longer supply components or materials that had been used so far
-Manufacturing or assembly departments identifies a quality improvement
-Invention of a new technology that can be incorporated in the existing design.
(iii) A change in production model
Whenever the production model changes from job-shop to mass, a corresponding change in product
design may be demanded. For example, there is more tendency to buy off-the shelf components for
short-run products.
Whatever may be the situation, a company has to identify or locate a need before the production of any
device. This crucial step is called Recognition/ Identification of need.
Examples:

have adequate life. Explain the steps involved in identification of a problem by a designer [S'96] . the next step is to prepare the need statement. manufacturers in India recognize a need to sell their products at a lower price. Voltage stabilizer “A solid state noiseless electrical device of adequate power rating to provide continuously an output at constant voltage. The indications for input and output voltage levels may be provided. List hierarchy of human needs that motivate individuals. iii). expressed in the form of a statement. the company recognizes a need to re-design it. Personnel Computer “A computing device to accept input data. In other words-It is the objective of design. When a company observes that their products do not perform well. 2. [W'96] 2. It is a general statement specifying the problem for which a solution is required. With the free-entry of Chinese products to Indian market. Need Statement – Examples [S ‘93] Give one need statement for each of the following Bicycle Voltage stabilizers Personnel Computer i). manipulate it according to a set of instructions and provide the desired output on CRT and printer” Questions 1. 4.and be as light as possible. accepting the input power at varying voltage between the limits__and__volts “. Give one need statement for each of the following Bicycle (ii) Voltage stabilizer (iii) Personnel Computer [S'93] 3.1. Bicycle: The need statement for a bicycle could be “A device for a common person to travel reasonable distance comfortably with least effort” –“The initial cost should be low.5 Need Statement Once the need has recognized. be easy to maintain etc “ (ii).

[S'00] . Ans.4. needs [S'97] 5.of individual or society. Enumerate and explain variety of needs which can generate ideas for the Development of new product. Every product is made in response to……….

say P 1 . the production volume. After the product plan in made. P 2 . A product plan is a decision-making as regards to the design and manufacture of a product.1 Introduction Once the top management of an organisation recognized a need to develop a product. Thousands of designers worked over a three-year period on the project.CHAPTER 5 PRODUCT PLANNING 5. 5. Feasibility study is a preliminary analysis for making a decision regarding the design project. For example Boeing 747 aircraft (which has over 50. only if. it will go for product design.the purposed design is worthwhile.2 Feasibility Study. More over it will result in optimum and efficient use of resources. A design team may include thousands of design and manufacturing .4. A plan shows how a project will be initiated.the market conditions are favorable in respect of competition. . Owing to the design and manufacture of the new product. Organisation Of Design Group The complexity of mechanical devices has grown rapidly over the last 200 years. These show that. co-coordinated and monitored. design work is generally done by a team or group. and hence revenue from products P 1 . organized. 5. In this situation.3 . by considering the revenues from different products. P 2 and P 3 identifies a need to design a new product ‘N'. the project is dropped.000 components) required over 10 thousand persons' years of design time. money and people.and P 3 may be affected (due to re-allocation of company resources such as raw materials. Such plan made by the management is called the product plan. or the design demands huge investments beyond the capacity of the organisation.the purposed product will guarantee a handsome profit . the management begins a project for a new product design. . The starting point of a design project is a need. the company has to decide a time-schedule for the design and manufacture of the new product. It must contain the time-as well as resource allocation for each of the products. For example assume that a company already manufacturing 3 products. to be forwarded or not. 5. the company has to ensure the worth of the project. machineries). If the feasibility study reveals that the proposed design project does not bring comfortable revenue.Product Planning [S 01] Planning is the process used to develop a scheme for scheduling and committing the resources of time. Once the need has been identified.the necessary resources are available .

2. Needs may be identified by market survey. performing experiments etc. conceptual design and the early stages of product design. he must posses both creative and analytical skills. and quality control specialists. the desire to improve an existing product or even by the development of a technology. material scientists. –the planning of these resources is the next phase after need. drafters. . Their titles may vary from company to company. people and equipments etc. Planning means allocation of resources such as money.5. Members of Design Team Following is a list of individuals needed in a design team. He must be an engineering graduate having vast experience in the particular product area. Marketing Manager. purchasing agents. The technicians aid the design engineer in developing test-apparatus. The first phase in any design process is identification of needs. 6. 4. Drafter A drafter aids the design engineer and detailer by making drawing of the product.identification. Manufacturing Engineer. Materials Specialist. technicians. The project is then turned over to detailers who finishes the details. This person is responsible for suggesting ideas for the proposed product. planning. people etc. He is a link between the product and the customer. For that. He knows the best manufacturing process suitable for the production of the particular product. develops manufacturing and assembly documents. Since any design activity consumes company resources like money. The first step in planning is to form a design team. Technician. 1. Hence. He always sees “whether the customer like this product? 3. all working over many years. In many companies the detailer and the drafter are the same individual. Detailer In many companies the design engineer is responsible for specification development. he must clearly understand needs for the product as well as its engineering requirements. Design Engineer. 5. 7.engineers. He can give advice on the various manufacturing processes available in the industry. He is responsible for success of the product in the market. 5.

Assembly Manager. 1. 10. Note that assembly process is an important aspect of product design.In some products. 3. The assembly manager is responsible for putting the product together. A project manager is assigned to oversee the project. 4. 11. and the responsibility and authority for completing the project rests with functional managers. This inspection is done on finished products as well as raw materials purchased from vendors. the representative of the supplier of the specified component must be included in the design team 5. Listed below are the five organisational structures. The number in the bracket shows the percentage of design projects that use that particular organisation structure. they can be organised into different structures. In some other cases. They generally have background in fine arts and in human factor analysis. 9. 8. Material specialist can give advice on properties of different materials. As part of product development. the company may purchase components or sub-assemblies from outsources. Balanced Matrix (16%) Here the project manager and functional manager work together. Suppliers' Representative. 2. A quality control specialist observes how well the product meets specifications. Project Team (16%) . Quality Control Specialist. (28%) It is an organisation structure having the features of project and matrix organisations. Industrial Engineer. the choice of the material is based on availability. Project matrix.6 Organisational Structure of Design Teams Since a design project requires individuals with different fields of expertise. a certain material is to be chosen according to some features of the product. Industrial designers are responsible for how a product looks and how well it interacts with customers. In that case. Functional matrix (26%) It is another organisational structure obtained by combining functional as well as matrix organisations.

7. A functional area focuses on a single discipline. f. • Develop a sequence for these tasks. g. c. They are. There are five steps to establish a plan. Collect and evaluate customer requirements and competition scenario. Given below is a list of tasks drafted by a design team. Complete production documentation. Establish two concepts for product development. resources required. a. d. Redesign and produce proto type No2. It helps the design team and management to know how the project is actually progressing. for the development of a certain product. Test prototype No1 and select one design for finalisation. Develop final prototype. time. . Functional Organisation (13%) Each project is assigned to a relevant functional area or group within a functional area. Step 1 Identify the tasks In the first step of the planning of the design project. Field test prototype No2. Task Clarification [S 01] A project plan is a document that defines the tasks necessary to be completed during a design process.A project manager is put in charge of a project team composed of a core group of personnels from several functional areas or groups assigned on a full time basis. • Identify the task • State the objective of each task • Estimate Personnel's. The tasks are the activities to be performed during the design process. • Estimate product development cost. A project plan is used to keep the project under control. 5. b. 5. e. the different tasks needed to bring the problem from its initial state to the final products are identified.

they need to be refined to ensure that the results of the activities are the stated objectives. (a) above. two week. CPM is the best method to accomplish this. For example. Market research is necessary before starting the production of any product. Develop marketing plan. Develop packaging. Completion of each of the tasks listed above will consume resources such as personnel. State the objective for each task. the costs for developing the product can be estimated. Questions 1. time etc. Step .h. Step 3: Estimate the Personnel. for the task No. Write a short note on – Product planning and task classification. i. The above plan developed in the early stage of the design has to be refined as the project progresses. An estimate of the requirement of resources may look like: Task Personnel/time Collecting data Two market surveyors. Step 4 Develop a Sequence for the tasks The next step is scheduling of tasks-the purpose is to ensure that each task is completed. two months Concept generation Two designers.2. k. Prepare patent applications. before its result is needed. Time & other Resources Required. j. Step 5 Estimate Product Development Cost On the basis of the above steps. l. the objective is to collect information required for developing specification. Establish product appearance. Normally design cost is only about 5% of manufacturing cost. (True) [S '97] 2. Develop quality control procedures. Even though the tasks are initially identified. [S '01] .

it's a fun way to get lots of fresh ideas out on the table and get everyone thinking and pulling together. Perhaps the most important benefit of "Brainstorming" in complex problems is the identification of the categories of solution concepts. and as you continue to brainstorm together over time. Brainstorming is by far the most widely used tool to stimulate creative thinking.8 ). Begin by choosing a facilitator to record the ideas on large.Idea Hunting by a Group of Persons. keep the group on the small side( 4 . no matter how crazy they may seem. The participants should be relatively at ease with one another. It was developed in the 1940s by the American advertising executive Alex Osborn who believed that anyone could learn to generate creative solutions for a wide variety of problems. And follow these important ground rules: • Suspend criticism. should be encouraged and recorded without comment or criticism from the group.Brainstorming Brainstorming . All ideas. Generally performed in groups. =========================================== brainstorming process brainstorming technique for problem-solving. but not knock out them down. Brainstorming is a group method of ideation in which stress is laid on the quantity of ideas generated. Members are asked to generate a large number of ideas while criticism is kept under check. The general goal of brainstorming is . To start out. This will keep all the ideas clearly visible. they'll become more comfortable throwing out off-the-wall ideas--which often generate the best results. team-building and creative process Brainstorming is a great technique for generating creative ideas. Participants are encopuraged to build upon the lideas of others. poster-size sheets of paper that can be stuck to a bulletin board or along the walls of the room.

) contribute to a list of problems to be solved or solutions to a problem. Prioritise options/rank list as appropriate. brainstorming sessions are fast-paced and fun. classroom. making quantity much more important than quality at this initial stage. Participants should try to build each consecutive idea on the previous ones. . 4. Postpone evaluation. Categorise/condense/combine/refine. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- .Set a time limit on the brainstorming session. . It is an activity in which all members of a group (whether it be a work team. but to be effective. The concept was first introduced by Alex Osborne in the 1940s. Brainstorm ideas and suggestions having agreed a time limit.Be sure that everyone speaks freely. 7.Be sure everyone contributes. Now is not the time to critique ideas that are being suggested. Brainstorming is a tool for generating ideas. At their best. Agree action and timescale. Brainstorming helps to get a lot of ideas into discussion in a short amount of time.Don't let participants get sidetracked. etc.Let the participants. there should be some ground rules. 3. These can include: . brainstorming process 1. Brainstorming may look unstructured. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Brainstorming Brainstorming is a powerful tool used by teams and businesses around the world. . 5. This can sometimes result in surprising twists and turns. do the talking. Define and agree the objective. not the leader. .• • to collect as many ideas as possible. Control and monitor follow-up. Assess/analyse effects or results. So don't suspend the process to evaluate the projected results of any single idea. Brainstorming sessions are not the time or place to evaluate the merits of the ideas suggested. 2. 6. Build on others' ideas. committee.

1 Introduction: The economic future of India depends on our ability to design. Convenience goods These are less expensive and are clustered around shops and restaurants. the subject “Design and manufacturing” purpose to present the methods and procedures of design and manufacture. Jewellary garments etc. The science can be learned through procedures developed by eminent scholars.g. Although engineers are not the only people who design things. This problem can be solved only by designing and manufacturing better products through improved methodology. There is a general impression that the quality of Indian products can still be improved. The fact that consumers have lost their confidence on Indian-made products cannot be denied. But the art can be learned only by doing design. Excellent design and effective manufacture are the pre-requisites of a successive industry. Keeping this in view. make and sell competitive products. Shopping goods These are expensive and people buy it less frequently. 1. Candy. Cigarette.g. Magazines etc. the professional practice of engineering is largely concerned with design.Design and Manufacturing Notes Chapter 1 DEFINITION OF ENGINEERING DESIGN 1. 2. The ability to design is both a science and an art. E.2 Types of Products A product is the tangible end result of a manufacturing process and is meant for satisfying human needs. E. These can be purchased at consumer’s convenience. . The product can be classified as follows: 1. It is usually said that design is the essence of engineering.

Profit How to achieve customer satisfaction? The product should function properly. Industrial goods. These are items used in the production of other items. How can it be profitable? -It must be easy to manufacture -The raw material must be cheap and easily available -The manufacturing process has to the decided on the basis of quantity to be produced -It must use standard parts -It must be easy to pack and distribute. For example. E. Another way of classifying products is into. 1. taking extra pain. 4. and (b) Discrete products The continuous products are those which are produced in a continuous fashion.g. Rare objects like stamps.3 Requirements in a good product 1. Raw materials. . On the other hand. -It must have desired accuracy -It must have desired reliability -It must be easy to operate -It must be serviceable -It must make minimum space utilization -It must withstand rough handling -Pleasant appearances. (a) Continuous Products. and then these are cut into desired lengths. each in separate units.3. discrete products are produced one after another. Eg. sheets. Customer Satisfaction 2. Specialty goods These are purchased. On the basis of the output product. tubes and bars etc are produced in very long lengths. the Industry is usually named as continuous industry and discrete industry. -Reasonable price. plates.

5 History of Design Process (i) Design by Single Person (ii) Over-the-wall design (iii) Simultaneous Engineering (iv) Concurrent Engineering (v) Integrated design and Manufacture. (i) Product design (ii) Process design The product design involves the development of specification for a product that will be functionally sound. Materials and manufacturing processes to manage all aspects of the design and construction of the project. In olden times one person could design and manufacture an entire product. 1.4 Definition of Design: (S ‘94) Designing is such a vast field that it is defined in several ways. “Design is an act of collecting all pertinent information for the production of goods and services to meet some human need”. and will give satisfactory performance for an adequate life. good in appearance. The process design involves developing methods of manufacture of the products so that the component can be produced at a reasonably low cost. Various definitions of designing as pronounced by well-known designers are --: “Design is that which defines solutions to problem which have previously been solved in a different way” “Design is the conscious human process of planning physical things that display a new form in response to some pre-determined need”. Even for a large project such as the design of a ship or a bridge. Cus to me . one person had sufficient knowledge of the Physics.1. This period is referred to as the period of design by single person in the history of design. The design of any component includes two things.

Marketing. often what is manufactured by a company using over-the-wall process is not what the customers had in mind. as shown by wall. orally. Design and production department. one person could not handle all aspects of design and manufacturing. The Engg. Design department may conceive a design and hands it over to the manufacturing sections. This situation led to over-the-wall design process. . The customers ‘throw’ their needs to marketing department. Unfortunately. Des ign Pro duc tion By the middle of the 20th century products and manufacturing processes became so complex that. The manufacturing department interprets that design and makes the product according to what they think suitable. Ma rket ing Eng g. There was only one-way communications between Customer.rs. The marketing department may throw the customer needs to the design department. in many instances. Engg. In this method each functional departments were separated from others.

How can you explain the term design? Explain the process of mechanical design. On the basis of knowledge. product specification.. S’94) 3. Thus. concurrent engineering is 80% company culture and 20% computer support. (S’99. By the early 1980’s the concept of simultaneous engineering emerged. and techniques and information about the product and the processes used to develop and manufacture it. Tools and techniques connect the teams with the information. design tools. The result was a completely integrated design and manufacturing system.. (S’03) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- CHAPTER 2 TYPES OF DESIGNS 2.customer expectations. This system makes a good use of technologies such as CAD/CAM. Functional requirements (S’93) 4.... With the advent of computer technology. this single direction over-thewall approach is inefficient and costly and may result in poor quality products.1 The design can be classified in many ways. skill and creativity required in the designing process. . FMS etc. A short definition of concurrent engineering is the simultaneous progression of all aspects. In fact.. drastic changes have taken place in the field of design and manufacturing. QUESTIONS 1.…………get first preference in design Answer---. In concurrent engineering the primary focus is on the integration of teams of people having a stake in the product. In the 1980’s the simultaneous design philosophy was broadened and called concurrent engineering. This philosophy emphasized simultaneous development of the manufacturing process. design. The computer integrated manufacturing systems (CIMS) moves towards the ‘Factory of the future’. CIMS is necessary for better quality. Although many of the tools are computer-based.. Discuss the role of creativity in the design process (S’94.the goal was the simultaneous development of the product and the manufacturing process. . Give suitable examples for each. at all stages of product development. much design work is still done with pencil and paper.. efficiency and productivity.. so that they could interact with the design engineers throughout the designs process. Explain the meaning of (i) Conceptual design (ii) Functional design (iii) Production design. This was accomplished by assigning manufacturing representatives to be members of design team. 8M) 2.his is due to lack of interaction between the different departments. process and equipment etc. The design of product is ….

(b) Configuration / Layout / Packaging Design (W 97. knowledge and creativity are essential. This type of design is similar to arranging furniture in a living room. In this case. design may be classified as: (a) Selection design (b) Configuration design (c) Parametric design (d) Original design (e) Re-design (a) Selection Design.2 On the basis of the nature of design problem. E. 98 ‘00) (ii) Variant Design (S 97. Consider the packing of electronic components in a laptop computer. It involves choosing one or more items from a list of similar items. Here a new technology is adopted. This type of design needs no special knowledge or skill. Since this type of design demands maximum creativity from the part of the designer. 2.g.g. it is also called new design or innovative design. converting mechanical watches into quartz watches. the final product may be entirely different from the original product. A laptop computer has a . a lot of research work. these are also called creative designs.The designs are broadly classified into three types (i) Adaptive Design (W 95. in order to modify the existing designs into a new idea. (iii) Original Design Here the designer designs something that did not exist previously. A company thinks of new design when there is a new technology available or when there is enough market push. Thus. converting mechanical watches into a new shape. S'02) In this type of problem. These are called adaptive designs. by adopting a new material or a different method of manufacture. though the designer starts from the existing designs. all the components have been designed and the problem is how to assemble them into the completed product. -Selection of a bearing from a bearing catalogue -Selection of a fan for cooling equipment -Selecting a shaft. (ii) Variant Design This type of design demands considerable scientific training and design ability. E. We do this by using catalogues. For making original designs. 99) (iii) Original Design (i) Adaptive Design In most design situations the designer’s job is to make a slight modification of the existing design. 97. Eg.

power supply. a main circuit board.keyboard. For example. how to fit all the components . The designer’s aim is to find. a floppy disk drive and room for two extension boards. Each component is of known design and has certain constraints on its position. the extension slots must be adjacent to the main circuit board and the keyboard must be in front of the machine. a hard disk drive. Key boa rd Mai n Circ uit boa rd Ext ens ion slot s Flo ppy driv e Po wer sup ply The different components are shown above.

the aim is at designing a part or member so as to meet the expected performance level. If the customer needs a cylinder 0.in a case? Where do we put what? One method for solving such problems is to – select a component randomly from the list and position it in the case so that all the constraints on that component are met.273 We can see a number of values for the radius and length. the first responsibility of the designer is reduction of production cost. Production Design In production design.3m long. the designer designs something in such a way that the cost of producing the product is minimum. or all the components are in the case. Suppose a manufacturer of hydraulic cylinders makes a product that is 0.25m long. Production Design B. Hence. and that at a minimum cost. wastes time. A product designed without keeping all these aspects into account.. Most design problems solved in industry are for the redesign of an existing product. (d) Original Design As described in an earlier section. That is. If a conflict arises. 2. Given V = 4 m3 = r2 l r2 l = 1. A good designer. Functional Design W93 In functional design. under the specified constraints. The volume is given by V = r2 l The tank is described by the parameters. . (c) Parametric Design Parametric design involves finding values for the features that characterize the object being studied. that will satisfy this equation. a production designer is concerned with the ease with which something can be produced. This procedure is continued until we reach a conflict. Let's take keyboard first. It is placed in the front. Consider a simple example – We want to design a cylindrical storage tank that must hold 4 m3 of liquid. then. radius 'r'.3. an original design in the development of an assembly or component that did not exist before. money and efforts. It is same as adaptive design. Functional Design C. Two potential configurations are shown above. Functional design is a way of achieving given requirements. we back up and try again. Then we select and place a second component.but the same may the unproducible or costly to produce. C. has to consider the production aspects also. Each combination-values of r and l gives a possible solution for the design problem. B. and length l. A. Optimum Design [W 95] It is the best design for given objective function. On the basis of the objective or strategy the designs are of following main types. Optimum Design A. (e) Redesign The redesign is a modification of an existing product to meet new requirements. the manufacturer might lengthen the outer cylinder and the piston rod to meet this special need.

¬ Flexible parts should be avoided. Computers are largely used in a design office for simulation and prototype study. the external load acting on a body. System Design System Design is an iterative decision making process to conceive and implement optimum systems.4 On the basis of the field/ area or the domain of design. 5. the properties of materials etc are liable to vary. Mechanical Design 2. analyze and evaluate data etc. Mechanical Design It means use of scientific principles. Assembly/sub-assembly design [S 93] In the design of Assembly/sub-assembly the major criterion is the fulfillment of functional requirements. 4. technical information and imagination in the design of a structure. to solve problems and needs of society. the following types are important.2. ¬ Standard parts may be used. Other types of designs are Probabilistic Design Industrial Design Probabilistic Design [S 96] It is a design approach in which design decisions are made using statistical tools. In . Assembly/sub-assembly design 5. In modern design. Generally. ¬ Subassemblies should be capable of being built separately in order to give maximum manufacturing flexibility. Computer aided design [CAD] It is a design methodology in which the designs take the advantages of digital computer to draw concepts.or machine to perform prescribed functions with maximum economy and efficiency. Machine Design It is the process of achieving a plan for the construction of a machine. 3. 1. computers have become an indispensable tool. The assembly has to be designed to meet broad technical parameters and purpose for which it was meant. 2. System Design 4. Computer aided design 1. as they are easily damaged during handling and assembly. Machine Design 3. The characteristic features are: ¬ The total number of parts used in the design must be minimum.

(ii) Functional design and (iii) production design. Discuss the meanings of conceptual design. Sciences [W '94] 7. the designer takes into account the variations of such parameters. [S0'3] 8. Introduction Developing a manufacturable product is not an easy job. Give suitable example of each. Explain the meaning of (i) Conceptual design. creative design. Questions 1. [S'97] 4. What are the three main types of design? Give a comparative analysis. adoptive design and variant design. only an overview of designing process is attempted here. This chapter presents some methods that help achieve quality products. * Iteration * Decision-making * Conversion of resources * Satisfaction of need Design is completed in many phases. Industrial Design [W 93] It is the design made by considering aesthetes. [S'93. [W'00. Explain the difference between creative design. repeated attempts are required to accomplish the .1.probabilistic design. adoptive design and variant design. Features of design process The following features can be observed in a design process. [S'02 W'98] 6. What are the characteristics features of system design. 5M] 2. Distinguish between functional design and industrial design. Explain layout design. [S0'2] ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chapter 3 DESIGN PROCESS AND ITS STRUCTURES 3. In each phase. W '97] 5. Ans. assembly/sub-assembly design and component design? Explain briefly with the help of examples.. Rather than making a detailed study. Eng.2. [W'93] 3. 3. ergonomics and production aspects. Designing for function involves the use and knowledge of …………….

But. computers. equipments. In any design process. In such conflicting situations. Design by evolution This implies the traditional method of design in which the objects and articles that we see around has taken its present form by gradual change of time. Things changed gradually with the passage of time. 1. Needs. production was on small scale. Even today this process is being used to some extent. production is on large-scale basis. steam locomotives etc. Decision-making is essential for a designer to select one out of several. In modern design situations the evolutionary methods are not adequate because of the following reasons. A designer often comes across several equally acceptable alternatives to meet some end. it took a very long period of time to occur even a slight modification. only after a number of trials.3. Thus the penalty of a wrong design was tolerable. he main reason for this slow evolutionary process of design was the absence of proper information and design data records.. took a long time to acquire their present form. Design by evolution (Traditional Design) b. 2. Each change was made to rectify some defects or difficulties faced by the users. . any penalty of a wrong design will cost great loss. As a result. talent. They were concerned about only one component /product. there is conversion of resources such as time. How a design is born? In a broad sense there are two methods by which a design comes into existence. whether important or unimportant is the starting point of design.e. all went through a process of evolution in which designers tried one concept after another.aim. designer has to make the best decision. Bicycles. However. All designs are aimed at satisfying some human need. money. this evolutionary process is very slow. a. If one looks at history it can be seen that most of the tools. But in the modern world. 3. implements. A satisfactory conclusion can be reached on. Design by innovation (Modern Design) a. i. materials and other natural resources. in the present time. calculators. In the past. The traditional designing did not consider the interdependence of products. the existence of one product is dependent on another in some way or other.

The best way in which any problem can be solved is to break up the problem and to try for a solution in an analytical method. Here he tries to solve the design problem in a systematic and orderly manner. . 1. Dieter etc have attempted to systematize the design process. He has to ensure the technical and economical feasibility of the product. Traditional design lags behind the advanced product & process technologies available today. The innovative design is entirely different from the past practice of evolutionary design. which is non-existing yet. which did not exist yet. developments of a product by following scientific and purposeful effort. Problem-solving Methodology Knowingly or unknowingly we follow six basic actions when we try to find solution of any problem. He has to make predictions regarding its performance. there are eminent experts like Morris Asimow.3. Shigly. This systematized steps in design process is called Morphology of Design. He has to collect and evaluate information on a product. 4. 1. i. 3. Establish or convince ourselves that there ‘is’ a problem. nowadays almost all designs are made by innovation. This approach is similar to analytical problem solving. Due to the above reasons modern design problem cannot be handled by traditional methods. 4.. However. Design by Innovation Since the traditional design method failed to cope with modern design requirements. 3. b. Traditional design methods cannot cope with competitive requirements of the modern world. Or we understand that a solution is needed.e. Notwithstanding the above difficulties. Requirements of the customers of today’s world changes so frequently. an innovative designer faces the following difficulties. This approach of problem solving is also adopted in the Morphology of design. J.4. 2. Necessity of analyzing complicated interaction of components. Here the designer’s task is greatly magnified.E. He has to design and create something.

Design Process. Generate alternative solutions. 5. It is a methodology of design by which ideas about things are converted into physical objects. 3. 6. Morphology means ‘a study of form or structure’. The logical order of different activities or phases in a design project is called the morphology of design. 3.5.2. Plan how to solve this problem 3. Morphology of Design. By analyzing the problem we decide what is actually required from the problem-solver. Or we decide the requirements. Evaluate the alternatives.Simplified Approach A simplified approach to designing as outlined by Morris Asimow is given below. According to him the entire design process in its basic forms consists of five basic elements as given below. Ge ner al Info rma tion Spe cific Info rma tion . 4. Morphology of design refers to the time based sequencing of design operations.6. Present the acceptable solution.

¬ Materials selection. etc.. . These include ¬ Searching for possible alternatives systems to satisfy a need. design operations) a lot of information is required.e. ¬ Formulating a model for analysis purpose.Des ign Op era tion s Out co me Eva luat ion No Yes GO TO NE XT STE P Design operations imply the various processes done during designing. But in order to carryout the above processes (i.

Information on manufacturer’s catalogue Materials science handbook etc. is it physically realisable? Is it . Planning for use VII. The outcome may be in the form of Computer print outs. Feasibility Study. Once the designer has obtained the necessary information he can start design operations. Here a comparison between the capabilities of the outcome and the need is carried out. The morphology of design as put forward by Morris Asimow can be elaborated as given below. Planning for manufacture V.7 Detailed Morphology of Design A design project goes through a number of time phases. The design operations give outcomes.g. If the outcome is sufficient to meet the need. rather than the outcome of one’s fancy] ¬ Search for a number of possible solutions ¬ Evaluate the solutions i. The purpose of evaluation is to decide whether this outcome is able to meet the need. This stage is also called conceptual design.e. General Information E. the designer goes on to next step. or drawings. Feasibility study II. A design project always begins with a feasibility study. Specific information. Detail design IV. Planning for retirement Phase 1. otherwise the design operation is repeated. Scientific Laws Information on market trends etc. Morphology of design refers to the collection of these time phases. 3. 2. Planning for distribution VI. The purpose and activities during feasibility study are ¬ To ascertain there really exists a need [ie the existence of need must be supported by necessary evidences.The required informations may be broadly classified into two.: I. It consists of seven phases. E. Preliminary Design III.g. 1. Next stage is the evaluation of this outcome.

* Specify tools & machine requirements. This is the stage art which the concept generated in the feasibility study is carefully developed. * Specify the requirement in the plant. dimensions. * Estimation of production cost. Phase V: Planning for Distribution The economic success of a design depends on the skill exercised in marketing. tolerances and surface properties of all individual parts are determined.economically worthwhile? Is it within our financial capacity? Phase 2 Preliminary (Embodiment) Design. quality strength. this phase aims at planning an effective distribution system. * Specify the condition of row materials. * Check for performance. Finally. the materials to be used and the manufacturing process to be adopted etc. Phase IV: Planning for manufacture This phase includes all the production planning and control activities necessary for the manufacture of the product. the document containing a sequential list of manufacturing processes. Hence. The arrangement. The important activities done at this stage are: * Model building & testing * Study the advantages and disadvantages of different solutions. i. Phase III: Detail Design Its purpose is to furnish the complete engineering description of the tested product. are decided. * Planning effective and economic warehousing systems. * Planning QC systems. complete prototype is tested. Also.e. * Planning for production control. * Planning for information flow system etc. aesthetics etc. Different activities of this phase are * Designing the packing of the product. The main tasks at this phase are * Preparation of process sheet. from. * Planning advertisement techniques .

Methods of Innovative Design As we know. innovative design is an organized. A product may retire when * It does not function properly * Another competitive design emerges * Changes of taste or fashion The various steps in this phase are * Design for several levels of use * Design to reduce the rate of obsolescence.oriented features. There are two design methods for innovative design. systematized and logical approach for solving a design problem. The various steps are * Design for maintenance * Design for reliability * Design for convenience in use * Design for aesthetic features * Design for prolonged life * Design for product improvement on the basis of service data. (i) Design by creative design route (ii) Engineering Design .8. 3. Phase VII: Planning for Retirement. Phase VI Planning for Consumption/use The purpose of this phase is to incorporate in the design all necessary user. This is the phase that takes into account when the product has reached the end of useful life. * Examine service-terminated products to obtain useful information.* Designing the product for effective distribution in the prevailing conditions.

(i) Design by creative routs [Creative Design] This is a design method that demands maximum ‘creativity’ from the part of the designer. S03] Majority of designs belong to variant design. The constructive non-conformists might generate a good idea. Here the designer finds solutions to problems by allowing his creativity aspects grow in a particular manner. Qualities of a creative designer [S96. W98. Edison tried hundreds of different light bulb designs before he found the carbon filament. they make minor modifications of what they already know –or. S00. W95. A creative designer is distinguished by his ability to synthesize new combinations of ideas and concepts into meaningful and useful forms. * Knowledge All designers start their job with what they know. S03] The creative designer is generally a person of average intelligence. a creative designer has the following qualities. Creative designers have good ability to visualize. Hence this method is also called creative design. a visualiser. * Visualization ability. Design is commonly thought of as a creative process involving the use of imagination and lateral thinking to create new and different products. But the success of engineering design depends on the modes of thinking and acting distinctively different from others. For example. They are prepared to try alternative techniques. Obstructive nonconformists are those who take a stand just to have an opposing view. During designing. creative designers create new ideas out of bits of old designs they had seen in the past. Hence. Creative designers are constructive non-conformists. Constructive non-conformists are those who take a firm stand. * Ability to manipulate knowledge The ability to use the same knowledge in a different way is also an important quality of a designer. * Technique Creative designers have more than one approach to problem solving. * Non-conformist There are two types of non-conformists:-constructive and obstructive. a hard worker and a constructive non-conformist with average knowledge about the problem at hand. . till they reach a satisfactory solution. But the obstructive non-conformists will only slow down the design process. they must have knowledge of past designs. * Risk taking A person who does not take the risk of making mistakes cannot become a good designer. because they think they are right. Creativity [S94. Generally. to generate and manipulate visual images in their heads. where the designer simply modifies an existing system. and they want to do things in their own way.

* Unwillingness to try new approaches * Fear of criticism * Lack of knowledge * Overconfidence due to past experience * Unwillingness to reject old solutions * Fear of authority * Difficulty in visualization * Inability to distinguish between cause and effect * Inability to collect complete information * Unwillingness to be different Methods to enhance Creativity * Use of analogy .* Motivation They always motivate others in the design team. * Desire to conform to standard solutions. In such a favourable environment creativity is further enhanced. Roadblocks to Creativity * Fear of making a mistake * Unwillingness to think and act in a way other than the accepted norm. * Willingness to practice Creativity comes with practice. Creative designers are ready to practice for a long enough period.

Intuitive ideas lead to a large number of good and even excellent solutions. Intuition [S’01] Intuition means sudden ideas or flashes of inspiration and involves complex associations of ideas. During preparation period. 9’00] Creative design route is the procedure through which a creative design is born. etc. elaborated in subconscious mind. 94. The success of this design lies with the creativity of the designer. 98. Creative design route can be practiced by following the sequences shown in figure. the designer analyses the need and collect all the necessary information required at various stages. Pre par atio n Con cen trat ion . Creative Design Route [W95.* Asking question from different view points * Memories of past designs * Competitive products * Deliberate day-dreaming * Reading science fictions.

testing and inspection of the design is done and the details are completed. (ii) ENGINEERING DESIGN (W 96) Another procedure for obtaining innovative design is Engg. Design. Illumination is the sudden insight and throwing up with a solution.Inc uba tion Illu min atio n Ver ific atio n Concentration is the period when the designer digests all the aspects of the problem situation and tries various possible combinations. Apart from creativity-approach. The different steps in Engg. It largely depends on discoveries and laws of science. design process is given below: . For a designer using creative methods for design. The next step is the incubation period. The final step is the verification. Now. this is a logical and intellectual attempt to solve design problems. habitual or familiar methods must be avoided. The designer relaxes away from the problem for some time.

The success of a design project depends on the clarity in the definition of the problem. Inventiveness and creating is very important in this step. The next step is collecting information. This is the most critical step in the design process.Recognition of need -Definition of the problem -Gathering of Information -Conceptualization Eva luat ion of con cep ts Communication of the design Since all design projects are meant for satisfying some need. the development of a new technology or the desire to improve an existing product. The advantages and disadvantages of each idea against its performance. definitions of any special technical terms. what the design is intended to accomplish. or other agencies (See Art. Need Analysis is the technique used to define the problem(Chapter 6). The different ideas conceived are weighted and judged in the evaluation step. The need for a design is initiated by either a market requirement. The required information can be obtained from textbooks.4) The conceptualization step involves. cost aesthetics etc is valued. . any design work starts with Recognition of the need. 6.. Once the need has identified. It should include objectives and goals. In many phases of deign process a large quantity of information may be required. journals. the constraints on the design and the criteria that will be used to evaluate the designs. finding several design ideas to meet the given need. the next step is to define the design problem. The definition of the problem expresses as specifically as possible.

After evaluation. Creative design is based on use of analogy and synthesis of alternatives – but engineering design is based on proven laws and past experience. Divergence. 5. (4) For both deigns. Common features between Creative Design & Engg. Design (W. Both steps deal with analyzing the need. habits and traditions are enemies of creativity – but the same are required in engineering design. the best design is emerged. Divergence. illumination – but no such philosophy is followed in engineering designs.9. Intelligence is not a must for creative design-but the same is desirable in Engg. Creative person is highly intuitive and independent in thinking and usually resists working in group – but engineering designers like teamwork. Design is more or less common. Difference between Creative Designs & Engg. 4. Transformation & Convergence (S’97 5M) The entire design process can be said to have composed of three distinct phases Viz. (5) Testing and inspection is applicable for both designs.94) (1) The preparation phase in creative design and need analysis in Engg. This final design with every detail is furnished in last stepie communicating the design. 3. (2) In both design methods brainstorming and Synetics can be applied. 2. the success depends on the clarity with which the need statement is prepared. . Customs. 3. Design. (3) Reviewing is applicable in both design methods. Creative design involves phases like incubation. Designs (W 94) 1.

The problem definition. 8M) 2. Engineers still use computers only in peripheral tasks. by eliminating unwanted ideas. That activity wherein the concept is converted into physical object is termed as transformation phase. CAD systems have been sophisticated and 2D and 3D models are available. (S94. Design Process Using Advanced Technology (W”00) Although Engineering is a major sector of the economy in a developing country. The three stages of design are………… (W 96) .Transformation and Convergence phases. where the best optimal solution is tried for. Computer-aided Design.------.10. Thus. but not in making fundamental design decisions.(S99. QUESTIONS 1. The convergence is a narrowing process.----. or the physical description of the object. 1) Geometric modeling 2) Analysis and optimization 3) Evaluation 4) Documentation and drafting. The mechanical design process normally has six stages and amongst them the three stage are ----. What is morphology of design? Explain the various steps with the help of block diagram (W. The CAD allows the designer to conceptualize objects more easily. Discuss the role of creativity in the designs process. (CAD) means a class of tools for crating drawing. aims at generating as many ideas as possible to solve a given design problem. need analysis and conceptualization etc.95) 4. such as drafting and analyzing. these activities belong to the Divergence phase. S94. Current computer tools such as ‘computer-aided drafting’ are restricted to the end of the design process and play no fundamental role in aiding design. How can you explain the term design? Explain the process of mechanical design. It has not been benefited greatly from advances in computer technology. It aids only in the final drafting of the specifications. 1 M) 3. The design process in CAD system consists of the following stages. 3.

Explain why some stages are repeated several times. Justify the statement with reasons ‘Modern design problems cannot be handled by traditional methods’. Draw a flow-chart showing different stages of engineering design. Use examples to explain. Good design requires both-----. Explain the process involved in creativity. The process of design by evolution adopted by craftsman is a …………. Write down the different statements about creativity and creative designers. (S’93) 18.96) 6. Ans. What are the various qualities of creative designer? Give the brief description of these. (S’97.. Briefly discuss the concept of creativity as applicable for solving design problems (W 98. What are the stages of these routes. (S’01) 21. W’98) 17. Slow process of design development (W’94) 14. Explain the basics procedure of design synthesis giving suitable examples. (S ’02). Enumerate the steps in Engg. State the different phases that are involved in morphology of design (S. 6M) 7. Analysis and Synthesis. Ans. compare ‘Design by evolution’ and ‘Design by innovation’. What makes the design process tortuous? Explain (W 99. (S 96) 5. (S’00). 6M) 8. Compare the design synthesis and design analysis. Discuss creativity and creative design. What feedback loops provide information for the redesign of products and the productive systems.93. (S’00) 19. Explain these in brief. (W 95) 10.--------. With suitable examples. (S. What do you understand by intuition (S 01) 11. The creative design process can be considered to be ……… (S93) 9. . Define creative design routes. (W’93) 13. 20. What do you mean by creative design routes. Design process and explain (W’96) 16.5M) 12.5.

(W ’05. (W’98) 32. Explain these in brief. Design problem. (S’01) 28. 34. (S’97) 24. What are the three different stages in the design process? Explain with example. What are the most important steps involved in the design process? Explain? (W’00) 26. (Use of analogy) (W ’94). ___ is one of the most powerful aids to creativity in design. 8M) 36. Give the checklist for an engg. Explain ‘Design processes. transformation. What do you understand by ‘morphology of design’? Discuss the phases of feasibility study. 33. Discuss the stages in engineering design process with the help of example. Design (S’01) 29. preliminary design and detailed design. Discuss the divergence. Also explain the flow of work during the design process. What are the methods currently being adopted for design process using advanced technology? (W’00) 27. What are the common features and differences between creative design activities and Engg? Design activities. (S 05) 35. What major steps are involved in design process? Briefly explain each one (W’01). (W 05. 30. (W’99) 25. (S’02) 31. (W’94) 23. What do you understand by the design process? List out the various phases involved and explain them briefly. and convergence phases in the design of a new product.22. 8M) ---------------------------------------------------------------------- . Illustrate the steps followed with the help of a figure. Explain Engg. Explain briefly with the help of examples. What do you understand by the term “creativity”? What are its requirements? (’03). Name various phases in design morphology.

In fact a designer’s goal is to find solutions to such problems 4. a need to develop a better product is identified. 4. etc. the lathe requires repair. he want to be “in group”. Hierarchy of Human needs (W’ 96) Maslow developed a hierarchy of human needs as given below 1.CHAPTER 4 IDENTIFICATION OF NEED 4. when the customers are unsatisfied with the present ‘model’. Self-fulfillment needs These are the needs for the realisation of one’s full potential through selfdevelopment. thirst. A patient ‘needs’ something that can cure his illness. Identification/Recognition of Needs (W 96) The beginning of any design process is the recognition of need or problem. Social needs Once the physiological and safety needs are met. and for recognition. 2. sleep etc. Similarly. threat etc.3.e. What is a need? A need can be defined as a personnel unfulfilled vacancy which determines and organizes all psychological and behavioral activities in the direction of fulfilling the vacancy A product can be product and marketed only if it is ‘needed’ by the customer. For example he/she want to love and be loved. Physiological needs . the new emerging needs are safety needs. a new need is recognised.2. the next dominant need is social need.For example. 5. hunger. 4. device or a system. i. Psychological needs These are the needs for self-respect and self.These are the basic needs of the body. . 3. When the sales personnel observes that their customers are always complaining of poor performance of the products. Safety and security needs For a person whose physiological needs are met.1. creativity. sex. These examples show that needs are nothing but a scarcity or problem or wants felt by a person. These include. A person buys a pen because he ‘needs’ to write. and self-expression.esteem. When a turner hears an awkward noise from some part of the lathe he identifies/ recognises a need. protection against danger.

the next step is to prepare the need statement. This could be a change in a single or a few parameters of an existing product. Examples: 1.4.5 Need Statement Once the need has recognized. Eg . With the free-entry of Chinese products to Indian market. expressed in the form of a statement.Needs can be identified from. when -Customers want a new feature or better performance than existing features -A vendor can no longer supply components or materials that had been used so far -Manufacturing or assembly departments identifies a quality improvement -Invention of a new technology that can be incorporated in the existing design. It is a general statement specifying the problem for which a solution is required. 2. a corresponding change in product design may be demanded. * Careful market analysis * Statements made by politicians from their observations * Interpretations of a community’s requirements * Trends in other parts of the world 4. When a company observes that their products do not perform well. Such needs can arise. Variety of Needs [S’00] Following are the needs. which can generate ideas for the development of new products. 4. This implies the need to redesign some of the features of an existing product. Variation of an existing product. there is more tendency to buy off-the shelf components for short-run products. In other words-It is the objective of design. etc. (ii) Improvements in the existing product. -Changing the power of a motor. Whatever may be the situation. (iii) A change in production model Whenever the production model changes from job-shop to mass. For example. (i).Changing the length of a cylinder. the company recognizes a need to re-design it. This crucial step is called Recognition/ Identification of need. a company has to identify or locate a need before the production of any device. manufacturers in India recognize a need to sell their products at a lower price. Need Statement – Examples [S ‘93] Give one need statement for each of the following .

Explain the steps involved in identification of a problem by a designer [S’96] 4.and be as light as possible. accepting the input power at varying voltage between the limits__and__volts “. [W’96] 2. Every product is made in response to………. Voltage stabilizer “A solid state noiseless electrical device of adequate power rating to provide continuously an output at constant voltage.1 Introduction Once the top management of an organisation recognized a need to develop a product.The need statement for a bicycle could be “A device for a common person to travel reasonable distance comfortably with least effort” –“The initial cost should be low. The indications for input and output voltage levels may be provided.of individual or society. have adequate life. be easy to maintain etc “ (ii). List hierarchy of human needs that motivate individuals. Bicycle: . Give one need statement for each of the following Bicycle (ii) Voltage stabilizer (iii) Personnel Computer [S’93] 3. Personnel Computer “A computing device to accept input data. iii). Enumerate and explain variety of needs which can generate ideas for the Development of new product. needs [S’97] 5. [S’00] -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- CHAPTER 5 PRODUCT PLANNING 5. it will go for .Bicycle Voltage stabilizers Personnel Computer i). manipulate it according to a set of instructions and provide the desired output on CRT and printer” Questions 1. Ans.

drafters. Needs may be identified by market survey. For example Boeing 747 aircraft (which has over 50. technicians. the desire to improve an existing product or even by the development of a technology. the company has to decide a time-schedule for the design and manufacture of the new product. design work is generally done by a team or group. P2. co-coordinated and monitored. say P1. In this situation.4. It must contain the time-as well as resource allocation for each of the products. A design team may include thousands of design and manufacturing engineers. More over it will result in optimum and efficient use of resources. purchasing agents. 5. the management begins a project for a new product design. The first phase in any design process is identification of needs. and quality control specialists. the company has to ensure the worth of the project. Once the need has been identified.the purposed design is worthwhile. 5. by considering the revenues from different products. Owing to the design and manufacture of the new product. Thousands of designers worked over a three-year period on the project. A product plan is a decision-making as regards to the design and manufacture of a product. For example assume that a company already manufacturing 3 products. Since any design activity consumes company resources like money. P2 and P3 identifies a need to design a new product ‘N’. organized.and P3 may be affected (due to reallocation of company resources such as raw materials. material scientists. only if. or the design demands huge investments beyond the capacity of the organisation. Organisation Of Design Group The complexity of mechanical devices has grown rapidly over the last 200 years. the production volume. the project is dropped. Feasibility study is a preliminary analysis for making a decision regarding the design project. If the feasibility study reveals that the proposed design project does not bring comfortable revenue.the purposed product will guarantee a handsome profit . .product design. A plan shows how a project will be initiated. .Product Planning [S 01] Planning is the process used to develop a scheme for scheduling and committing the resources of time. and hence revenue from products P1.the necessary resources are available .2 Feasibility Study. all working over many years.000 components) required over 10 thousand persons’ years of design time. machineries). Such plan made by the management is called the product plan. The starting point of a design project is a need. to be forwarded or not. people and equipments .3 .the market conditions are favorable in respect of competition. After the product plan in made. money and people. These show that. 5.

a certain material is to be chosen according to some features of the product. For that. Manufacturing Engineer. 5. Members of Design Team Following is a list of individuals needed in a design team. Planning means allocation of resources such as money. 8. Industrial designers are responsible for how a product looks and how well it interacts with customers. 1. 4. Detailer In many companies the design engineer is responsible for specification development.identification. he must posses both creative and analytical skills. Quality Control Specialist. develops manufacturing and assembly documents. 5. This inspection is done on finished products as well as raw materials purchased from vendors. conceptual design and the early stages of product design. Industrial Engineer. He must be an engineering graduate having vast experience in the particular product area. He is responsible for success of the product in the market. He can give advice on the various manufacturing processes available in the industry. They generally have background in fine arts and in human factor analysis. In some other cases. 9. 7. He knows the best manufacturing process suitable for the production of the particular product. In many companies the detailer and the drafter are the same individual. The project is then turned over to detailers who finishes the details. Drafter A drafter aids the design engineer and detailer by making drawing of the product. Marketing Manager. Materials Specialist. Their titles may vary from company to company. the choice of the material is based on availability. Hence. The first step in planning is to form a design team.5. 2. Technician. In some products. This person is responsible for suggesting ideas for the proposed product. . The technicians aid the design engineer in developing test-apparatus. people etc. he must clearly understand needs for the product as well as its engineering requirements. Design Engineer. Material specialist can give advice on properties of different materials. 6. planning. performing experiments etc.etc. He always sees “whether the customer like this product? 3. –the planning of these resources is the next phase after need. He is a link between the product and the customer. A quality control specialist observes how well the product meets specifications.

Project Team (16%) A project manager is put in charge of a project team composed of a core group of personnels from several functional areas or groups assigned on a full time basis. The number in the bracket shows the percentage of design projects that use that particular organisation structure. There are five steps to establish a plan. the representative of the supplier of the specified component must be included in the design team. 3. Functional Organisation (13%) Each project is assigned to a relevant functional area or group within a functional area. Project matrix. 1. As part of product development. Suppliers’ Representative. 4. the company may purchase components or sub-assemblies from out-sources. 5. The assembly manager is responsible for putting the product together. Note that assembly process is an important aspect of product design. Functional matrix (26%) It is another organisational structure obtained by combining functional as well as matrix organisations. Balanced Matrix (16%) Here the project manager and functional manager work together. Listed below are the five organisational structures. 5. A project plan is used to keep the project under control. Assembly Manager. and the responsibility and authority for completing the project rests with functional managers. A functional area focuses on a single discipline. A project manager is assigned to oversee the project. 5. . (28%) It is an organisation structure having the features of project and matrix organisations.10. In that case. they can be organised into different structures. 11. Task Clarification [S 01] A project plan is a document that defines the tasks necessary to be completed during a design process. It helps the design team and management to know how the project is actually progressing. 2.6 Organisational Structure of Design Teams Since a design project requires individuals with different fields of expertise.7.

e. Develop quality control procedures. g. Develop packaging. Complete production documentation. Step . Redesign and produce proto type No2. time. the objective is to collect information required for developing specification. Estimate Personnel’s. they need to be refined to ensure that the results of the activities are the stated objectives. for the task No. Develop a sequence for these tasks. Step 1 Identify the tasks In the first step of the planning of the design project. State the objective for each task. . d. Even though the tasks are initially identified. Establish product appearance. Prepare patent applications. Given below is a list of tasks drafted by a design team. f. b. Test prototype No1 and select one design for finalisation. (a) above. i. the different tasks needed to bring the problem from its initial state to the final products are identified. Collect and evaluate customer requirements and competition scenario. l. 4. Establish two concepts for product development. c. Field test prototype No2. For example. 1. resources required. h. k. Identify the task 2. State the objective of each task 3. a. Step 3: Estimate the Personnel. The tasks are the activities to be performed during the design process. Develop marketing plan. 5.2. j. Estimate product development cost.They are. Time & other Resources Required. Develop final prototype. for the development of a certain product.

(True) [S '97] 2. CPM is the best method to accomplish this. before its result is needed. two months Concept generation Two designers. time etc. [S '01] ---------------------------------------------------------------------- . Step 4 Develop a Sequence for the tasks The next step is scheduling of tasks-the purpose is to ensure that each task is completed. Questions 1. the costs for developing the product can be estimated. Market research is necessary before starting the production of any product.Completion of each of the tasks listed above will consume resources such as personnel. Step 5 Estimate Product Development Cost On the basis of the above steps. Write a short note on – Product planning and task classification. Normally design cost is only about 5% of manufacturing cost. An estimate of the requirement of resources may look like: Task Personnel/time Collecting data Two market surveyors. The above plan developed in the early stage of the design has to be refined as the project progresses. two week.

Morphology of Design Specification-standardization Morphology of Design Morphology Morphology7phases What is Design? Engineering design is not an art or skill : it is a cognitive or intellectual process based on knowledge---. sequential process intended to solve problems or “initiate . time available. machines and wquipments involved. laboratory or computational facilities. “Design is that area of human experience.by John R. cost of the product. In case of machine design. or a way proposed. The activity is subjected to certain constraints. Plan is a method. or scheme of actions . availability of raw materials . and (2) the problem-solution constrains. Those are (1) Problem-solving constraints. the resources are material . equipments or manufacturing facilities. logical. designer's problem-solving capabilities. Dixon. skill and knowledge which is concerned with man’s ability to mould his environment to suit his material and spiritual needs. and labour put into. Engineering design is an iterative decision-making and problem solving activity to produce the plan to convert resoures optimally into systems or devices to fulfill a specified task. and system is the machine product.” Design is essentially a rational.

with one or another participant. is crucial to design because it constitutes an essential part of its corpus of coherent knowledge. imposing constraints upon all others. Design was not a total process. the study of pattern and form. The process begins with the identification and analysis of a problem or need and proceeds through a structured sequence in which information is researched and ideas explored and evaluated until the optimum solution to the problem or need is devised. Thus.change in man-made things” For the term “design process. . which in all but its abstract forms works by consultation and consensus. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Morphology of Design: Morphology7phases Morphology. participants explored their ideas unilaterally. The work of participants in the process was often compartmentalised. through virtue of their “expertise”. each having little if any input in matters which fell outside the boundaries of their specific expertise.” we can also read “problem-solving process”. The collection of time phases of the followiing steps is usually called the "Morphology of Design" The phases are: (1) Feasability study (evaluation of alternatives): The aim is to produce a number of feasible and useful solutions.

Overview of the Design Process The Design process varies from product to product and industry to indistry. we will have to look at techniques or best practices. there is no way to recover the costes of design and manufacture. Even if market-driven. Thus. establishing what the custumer wants in the product. that help the egineer design quality products. the market or the development of a new product idea without market demand. the most important part inlunderstanding tyhe design problem lies in assessing the market . There are two sources for design projects. Nonethless. The emphasis is on the importence of design documentaion. A design problem is introduced and is used as acase study. To understand how to make the best use of the techniques. Thus. Before the design of a product can begin.The Design Process Intoduction In Design Process. that is . the need for that prodict must be established. we can construct a generic diagram of the activities that must be accomplished for all projects. it is omportant to look at them in the context of the overall design process. the progress of a product from need to production is explored by means of examples that demonstrate the flexibility of the process. About 80 percent of new product development is market-driven. Without a custumer for the product. new products must contain the latest technology if they are to be perceived as being of high quality for what consumers means by "high quality" -------------- .

Product Design Specifications 1. PDSs are essential. They may take an interest in design or engineering for its own sake. and the relevant literature including patents. A PDS does not pre-empt the design process by predicting its outcome. efficiently and reliably. into market conditions. what they expect it to. Rather. it defines the task by listing all the conditions the product will have to meet. This can involve a good deal of research. What is a PDS and why write one? A product design specification (PDS) is a document which sets out fully and in detail exactly what will be required of a product. A PDS does not just help the people who design and make the product. but people think critically about the products they buy. Many companies do not work to such formal specifications . competing products. Before you write a PDS A PDS specifies a problem. but as a result they are not fully in control of what they produce. . They certainly will not hesitate to criticise a product if it does not do. 2. Those who eventually use it also benefit. Consumers' judgements are all too often overlooked by engineers. before it is designed. A PDS is therefore also an analysis of what the market will demand of the product. not a solution.

but the product itself.When you write a PDS. As a rule. it can help to look at an existing product and work out what its PDS was 3. . But for practice at thinking this way. but it does not need to be engraved in stone. In this way. 4. A PDS must not become the exclusive property of one group. the PDS ends up specifying not just the design. The important thing is to keep the PDS and the design in correspondence throughout the design process. the design follows the PDS. A PDS can change A PDS has to be a written document. the PDS can be revised to accommodate the change. it becomes the principal reference for all those working on the design. It can be changed. The PDS must therefore be written in language that all parties can understand. Everybody is involved Once a PDS has been written. Everybody concerned with the project must endorse the PDS and share responsibility for observing it. But if the emerging design departs from the PDS for some good reason. you are defining something that does not yet exist.

Points to cover in a PDS This section give detailed advice on writing a PDS under the 29 headings listed below. It is therefore a good idea to write your PDS under these headings.5. 1 Performance 11 Size 21 Shipping 2 Economy 12 Weight 22 Industry standards 3 Target production cost 13 Maintenance 23 Shelf life / storage life 4 Quantity 14 Materials 24 Testing 5 Manufacturing facilities 15 Special processes 25 Safety 6 Product life span 16 Ergonomics 26 Personnel 7 Customers 17 Appearance 27 Market constraints 8 Competition 18 Finish 28 Political and social factors 9 Service life 19 Quality and reliability 29 Design time 10 Environment 20 Packing . leaving out only those that clearly do not apply.

Preliminary design 3. we will use the traditional phases of 1. System design 2. So. Below we identify a “top five” list of approaches to design . Detail design when we discuss the classical approaches to design for reliability (DFR). Reliability is generally not a consideration in conceptual design.Reliability and robust design Reliability Engineering and Robust Design Reliability Engineering means considering tolerances in design parameters. which seeks to combine technologies in new ways to determine if it is even feasible to meet the specified mission.S. uncertainties in environments. Tolerance design. and variations in manufacturing as the stochastic phenomena that they are. Such an approach eliminates a deterministic stack-up of tolerances. these terms are somewhat foreign to most mechanical and electrical design engineers in the U. Conceptual design 2. uncertainties in application (e. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The reliability constraints deal with the probability of failures.g. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- CLASSICAL APPROACH TO DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY Although Taguchi sees product design as consisting of three phases [7]: 1. while the robustness minimizes the product quality loss. Parameter design 3. safety factors. worstcase scenarios. Robust Design means factoring reliability into the development of the design itself: designing for a target reliability and thereby avoiding either costly over-design or dangerous under-design in the first place. usage scenarios). and margins that have been the traditional approaches for treating uncertainties.

Reduce the sensitivity of the product’s function to the variation in the product parameters 2. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. a Robust Designbased system accepts input signals and produces an appropriate response. Reduce the rate of change of the product parameters 3. The principles of Robust Design allow design teams to handle complex system integration issues with repeatable processes.for reliability in preliminary and detail design. Design teams must implement control techniques to compensate for the design variations. As shown below. however. Include redundancy. who states “There are three fundamental ways of improving the reliability of a product during the design stage: 1. variations in the design can influence the performance of the system. The first is from Phadke [11]. In a typical environment. and the most cost-effective approach for reliability improvement is to find appropriate continuous quality characteristics and reduce their sensitivity to all noise factors. ." ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- A Robust Design methodology is an organized and proven development philosophy designed to improve system reliability.EXPERIMENT-BASED APPROACHES TO DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY This section has four examples illustrating robust design for reliability.

These variations can come from sources internal or external to the design and include changes in component tolerances. Simulation and modeling. therefore. While these are broad categories. manufacturing processes. which means a new prototype has to be built and tested for each variation. use patterns. are critical requirements to implementing a Robust Design flow. This means that once a system has been designed. A Robust Design flow is focused on reducing the effect of variations on system performance and reliability.The general Robust Design system diagram is based on Taguchi methods. The key objective of a Robust Design process is to optimize the system design for performance. The solution is to move the design-prototype-test operations into the virtual world of simulation and analysis. accounting for multiple variations requires extensive testing. reliability. the environment. A Robust Design process requires that multiple variations be tested. In a typical design flow. and those due to system aging. it must be prototyped and tested. design teams can design and build virtual prototypes of their systems and run many tests within the time and budget allotted for the traditional design-prototype-test flow. It is obvious that implementing Robust Design methodologies using this design-prototype-test flow would soon become too time consuming and expensive to be practical. each factor can have a major effect on the reliability of a system. Design flow . This is often referred to as virtual prototyping. With modern design tools like the Saber simulator. and cost while accounting for these variations.

• • • An effective Robust Design process depends on a systematic development flow and requires advanced simulation capabilities. The key to this process is determining: • The critical performance metrics of the system • Modeling the system in a way that highlights these metrics • Then verifying the metrics at each stage of the system development process A Robust Design flow has the fundamental development stages and requires the simulation capabilities shown here. This Robust Design flow can be easily illustrated using the development process of a hybrid vehicle system. .A Robust Design flow based on modeling and simulation must follow a systematic process.

purse or glove compartment or in the garbage can. This is called the zero based approach. removing unwanted pieces would take much effort. . starts at zero and adds only what is needed. Where the "clutter" ends up is the difference in the approaches: in the drawer. and still not be very effective. Just image a competitor simultaneously designed the entire product line around common parts. a purse.STANDARDIZATION standardization. Standardization means: "the development and implementation of concepts doctrines. literally. Now image doing the same thing internally. The clutter is the unnecessary parts that would have not been needed if products were designed around common parts. they also lower plant efficiency and machine utilization because of the setup caused by product that are designed to have more parts than can be distributed at every point of use. An analogous situation would be cleaning out the most cluttered drawer in a desk. technical and administrative fields to attain interoperability. or a glove compartment. This usually applies to purchased parts but it could also apply to manufactured parts. parts reduction efforts have to work hard to remove the clutter (excess part variety) in the system. Not only do these excess parts incur overhead costs to administer them. as opposed to reducing parts from a overwhelming list. Standardization techniques: The Zero-Based Approach This is a very effective technique to reduce the number of different parts (part types) by standardizing on certain preferred parts. products and designs to achieve and maintain the required levels of compatibility intechangeability or commonality in the operational. The zero based approach. The methodology is based on a zero-based principle that asks the simple question: "What is the minimum list of part types we need to design new products?" Answering this question can be made easier by assuming that the company (or a new competitor) has just entered this product line and is deciding which parts will be needed for a whole new product line. One of the advantages of new competitors the ability to "start fresh" without the old "baggage:" too many parts. whereas zero-based approaches exclude the clutter from the beginning.procedural material. and add back only the items that are essential." where it generally used? Common use of the word standard implies that it is a universally agreed upon set of guidelines for interoperability. The more effective zero-based approach would be to empty everything. Similarly.

and programmable chips. Prioritize usage histories to determine the most "common" of existing tools." Processes must be coordinated and common enough to ensure that all parts and products in the mass customization platform can be built without the setup changes that would undermine flexible manufacturing. alignment. C free valuable resources to improve operations and quality. Standardization of processes results from the concurrent engineering of products and processes to ensure that the processes are actually specified by the design team. which allows them to be more cost competitive C improve their operational flexibility. ream. C simplify their supply chain management.This approach determines the minimum list of parts needed for new designs and is not intended to eliminate parts used on existing products. and cutting tool bit for machine tools. Company-wide tool standardization can be determined as follows: Analyze tools used for existing products. except. Tool Standardization. when the common parts are functionally equivalent in all respects. protective coatings. In this case the new common part may be substituted as an equivalent part or a "betterthan" substitution. Even if part Standardization efforts only apply to new products. then the processes can be flexible enough to make different products without any setup to change materials. all older products may be phased out in a few years. sheet-metal. "Features" are any geometry that requires a separate tool like a drill. Raw material Standardization can apply to bar stock/tubing. These tools need to be standardized using the same procedures as parts. rather than being left to chance or "to be determined later. repair. Coordinate common tool selection with common part selection. hole punch. Feature Standardization. EFFECT ON SUPPLIERS Standardization of parts helps part suppliers rationalize their product lines and allow them to: C reduce their overhead costs and subsidies. where a common part with a better tolerance can replace its lesser counterpart in existing products. resulting in better delivery. and service. Example: auto-feed screwdrivers. calibration. and introduce new capabilities like build-to-order & mass customization. A subject related to part Standardization is tool Standardization. or cutting tools. Issue common tool lists with common parts lists. . implement better product development practices. testing. If raw materials can be standardized. molding/casting. Process Standardization. remember that in these days of rapid product obsolescence and short product life cycles. which determines how many different tools are required for assembly. Work with people in manufacturing/service to determine tool preferences. bend radii. fixturing mechanisms. Raw Materials Standardization.

. •Removal of technical barriers to trade. •Facilitation of international exchange of goods and services.STANDARDIZATION BENEFITS C Cost Reduction • • • • • Purchasing costs reduced through purchasing leverage Inventory cost reduction Floor space reduction BOM/MRP/ordering expense avoided when common parts are simply drawn as needed from kanban resupply systems Overhead cost reduction C Quality: • • • Product quality Continuous Improvement Vendor reduction C Flexibility: • • • • • • Eliminating setup Inventory reduction Simplify supply chain management Internal material logistics Breadtruck deliveries Flexible manufacturing C Responsiveness: • • • Build-to-Order Parts availability Quicker deliveries from vendors ------------------------------------------------------------------ Benefits of Standardization The main criteria for international standardization are: •Improvement in universal technical communication and mutual understanding.

maintenance. taking due account of the additional cost reduction effects on associated parts and operations. This means shorter lead times and less capital tied up on the user side. installation. 2. and repairs 3. Interchangeability: Interchangeability as a result of standardization leads to higher productivity and lower manufacturing costs. lnterchangeability is also very important to erection. For product standardsthe benefits may be broadly summarized under the headings: 1.Availability: easy availabilityimplies that an adequate number of varieties are always in stock.•Transfer of technology. These benefits are relayed to the users as a result of increased competition.Variety reduction. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Benefits of Standardization To consumers: •A source of information •The application of the performance approach •Comparative analysis . the effects of variety reductionare well known and can mostly be assessed in terms of hard cash.

•Source for complaints •More balanced technical regulations .

the design of all the parts if a machine should be such that they can be produced by some manufacturing methods and then assembled at competitive cost. The designer should have a thorough knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of the manufacturing methods.. provides the following benefits. specify the reliability of the machine and incorporate human aspects in the design. Such a complex system can have many sources of errors. computers and communication subsystems are found interconnected in a complex system. controls.Standardization in Design Introduction The development of a Machine one the drawing board is part of the overall task of design. . In order to minimise predictable errors. specify toelerences. While some errors may be predictable. it must be manufacturable. consider assembly procedures. If the designer's creation is to leave the drawing board and become a physical peice of hardware. select the materials and manufacturing methods. In other words. The main purpose of standardization is to establish mandatory or obligatory norms for the design and production of machines so as to reduce variations in their types and grades and to achieve quality characteristics in raw materials. semi-finished and finished products. others are not due to their randam nature. Standardization . Predictable errors are those which can be foreseen based on the mathemetucal description of the system's dynamics. Only then can be properly design parts. the use of standards is advocated. STANDARDIZATION: Modern systems are increasingly becoming more and more complex. therefore. A large number of mechanical components .

The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has standardized a number of items for the benefit of designers and users. namely rivets. (c) Easy avalability of parts for replacement and maintenance. (e) reduction in variations in size and grades of an article. In the area of machine design.(a). ball and roller bearings and so on. (4) Dimentions and preffered sizes for various machine components. nuts. items of the following categories are standardized and this process is on going one. (d) Less time and effort required to manufacture. Better product quality . (2) Rules of preparing drawings and use of symbols. bolts. properties and method of testing. keys. the concept of preffered numbers helps to reduce unnecessary variations in sizes and grades of an article. couplings. (3) Fits and tolerences for various parts frowm assembly considerations. (1) Engineering materials. reliability. their compositions. and longer life service. (b) Mass production of components at low cost. In standardization. Experience has shown that the general .

Examples of product standards include fuel economy standards and airbag requirements both effecting the design of automobiles. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- What is met by "engineering standards" in this criterion? Why do we have standards and how did they come about? Who enforces standards? How are standards established? What general and field-specific guidance is there for engineering educators wanting to include engineering standards in their courses? Discussion of engineering standards is going to colored by the different meaning standards will have to individual faculty.requirements of such a grading are mostly satisfied when it follows a geometrical series.and the rapid growth in telecommunications and other high-tech areas. The product design specification (PDS) . The interest in standards has been fueled by the “globalization” of the world economy – the need for companies to compete internationally . Examples of process standards include standards for electronic data exchange. Standards are as important to doing business internationally as any treaty might have been in the past. Telecommunications companies are basically trying to take the politics from issues such as privacy in the electronic area and emphasize getting the benefits of the new economy into your community—and the only way to do that is if you agree upon a standard in the truest sense of the word.

This is essential if your product is to succeed.Specifications: Speciuficaations involve the formal statement of the required functions. features and performance of the product or process to be designed. It acts as the control for the total design activity because it sets the boundaries for the subsequent design. The product design specification (PDS) is a very important document in the design process as it contains all the information necessary for a design team to successfully produce a solution to the design problem. The final document should fully document as unambiguously as possible all the requirements that a product must fulfil together with any constraints that may affect the product. The product design specification is the formal specification of the product to be designed. A PDS splits the problem up into smaller categories to make it easier to consider the problem. The purpose of the PDS is to ensure that your design actually addresses your customer needs. The actual or intended customer should be consulted as fully as possible while the PDS is being drawn up as their requirements are of paramount importance. ----------------------------------- . Any numeric properties in the PDS should be specified as exactly as possible together with any tolerances allowed on their value.

Your customer needs should be stated so that they are independent of the way that the final design is actually implemented. the marginal and ideal values are merged into a single . for low importance. units. mm for length or degrees C for temperature. for essential. for example. Strive to make your PDS independent of implementation. a weighting of importance. or an explosive power source. for the metric that you feel the customer would be able to tolerate. The ideal value states the target for the metric that you hope your team can meet. a pneumatic. The purpose of the PDS is to ensure that your design actually addresses your customer needs. The weighting of importance is scaled from 1. to 5. In other words. a marginal value. also. Most ME 4054W projects will have between 20 and 50 specifications. As you approach the end of the design process. The marginal value state the value. and an ideal value. The metric is something that you can measure. Each specification consists of a metric.Product Design Specification The Product Design Specification (PDS) comprises your quantitative statement of what you want to design prior to starting to design it. the specifications of the PDS should be largely independent of any specific embodiment of your product. if your product were a roofing nailer. This is essential if your product is to succeed. the needs should not constrain your nailer to be implemented with an electric. wherever possible. or range of values. so multiple solution concepts are possible. Units correspond to your measurement. For example.

or PDS. Materials Are special materials needed? Do we have experience of working with the likely candidate materials? 7. This list is one attempt to cover the principal questions that need to be answered in formulating a PDS. should contain all the facts relating to the product. in batches. Competition What is the nature and extent of existing or likely competition? Does our specification differ from the competition? If so. Packaging and shipping How will the product be packaged? How will the product be distributed? 11. Aesthetics and ergonomics Is the product easy and fun to use? Is it attractive to the right customer? 12. but it must contain the realistic constraints on the design. The PDS provides the specifications for ranking different ways of implementing your design in the selection chart. Quality and consistency What levels of quality and consistency does the market expect for this product? Does every product have to be tested? 8. Inevitably. vibration. or as individual items made to order? Does it have to be a particular shape? Can we make all the parts or must we buy some in? 6. humidity. Target product cost This is strongly affected by the intended market. international or customer standards? Is the product safe? 9. it isn’t comprehensive. why? 5. Market constraints Does a market already exist or must it be created? What is the likely product lifetime? How long do we have to get the product to market? What are the customers’ likes and . 1. specific products will require their own additional items. 3. Standards Does the product need to conform to any local. It should not lead the design by presupposing the outcome. Environment (during manufacture. 4. storage and use) All aspects of the product’s likely environment should be considered: for example temperature. Performance At what speed must it operate? How often will it be used (continuous or discontinuous use)? How long must it last? 2.column of known values. risk of corrosion. Quantity and manufacture Should it be made in bulk. Patents Are there any patents we may either infringe or register? 10. ------------------------------------------------------------------------- A PDS checklist The product design specification.

Company constraints Does the product fit in with company image? Are we constrained in material or process choice? Are there any political considerations? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ .dislikes? 13.

Casting can be used to make a vast array of products. by freezing or chemical reaction for instance. Generally. often a ‘pattern’ made in the shape of the final component is used. Provided the liquid is capable of undergoing a liquid-to-solid transition. for example. Cast parts can range in size from fractions of centimetres and grams (such as the individual teeth on a zipper). Using one of the available casting processes almost anything can be manufactured. In making the mould. but sometimes the fluid may need some extra force to push it into the cavity. the mould material and the pouring method (see Properties for processing – casting). It is a matter of optimising materials to be cast. The casting. the fluid flows into the mould under gravity. This might be a wooden mock-up. Casting is not restricted to metals (or jellies). to over 10 metres in length and many tonnes (such as the propellers of ocean liners). Complex 3D shapes can be made using casting processes. from gas-turbine blades to cheap plastic toys. Making ice cubes and jellies are useful analogies here. then casting can be used. must be of the right shape for the final product.Casting Casting Introduction Casting is one of the easiest classes of process to understand. Casting is simply a process where a mould is filled with a fluid. which then solidifies in the shape of the mould cavity. The production of the mould is one of the most important stages in making a casting. . during casting. when solidified.

thermosetting plastics) decompose rather than melt on heating. . but you can have shrinkage problems as the solvent is removed. Once you have the liquid. especially if repeated copies are required. so you must allow for this in the design of the process. or dissolve it in a solvent which is subsequently evaporated off (the ‘solution route’). Others react with oxygen when heated. and the manner by which it can be made to flow when it is in its liquid state. The solution route needs a suitable solvent. so need to be melted in inert atmospheres (which may prove expensive). can you pour it? The physical property that determines the ‘runniness’ of liquid is called viscosity. each being dependent on the raw starting material. Properties for processing – casting The casting (or pouring) group of processes is one of the most convenient for making three-dimensional shapes. you have to either melt the material. Yet others have such high melting points (see the database) that the energy costs of heating them is only justified in special cases. What do these conditions require? To get a liquid. Some materials (e.Glass and plastics can also be cast using a variety of processes. However. but chemical reactions can produce considerable quantities of heat. or pour liquid precursors into a mould where they react chemically to form a solid (the ‘reaction route’). Casting processes can be classified into three types depending on the nature of the mould used. The reaction route is used for both thermosets and thermoplastics and for concrete. which you then have to be able to evaporate safely (many coatings such as paints are applied this way).g. you do have to be able to get your material into liquid form. and it has then to be ‘runny’ enough to be poured.

which is why injectionmoulding machines for plastics are much ‘beefier’ than their pressure die-casting machine counterparts for metals. freshly-mixed concrete and clays have much higher viscosities. which takes into account not only the viscosity changes but also the effects of cooling rate. so can be poured easily. A good example of a product made with methods such of this is the ubiquitous ‘die-cast’ child’s toy (‘die’ is another word for ‘mould’). Permanent moulds need to be made of a material which can withstand the temperature fluctuations and wear associated with repeated casting. surface tension of oxide films and the temperature range over which the alloy filling the mould actually freezes. Although concrete can be poured. as can thermoset precursors.This varies with temperature and is not all that useful for describing how well a mould will be filled if the temperature of the liquid is falling as it runs into the cold mould. Permanent mould In this method the same mould is used for large numbers of castings. Molten thermoplastics. Types of casting Permanent pattern This type of casting uses a model. In the casting of metals a more useful property is fluidity. where a pattern is placed into a special casting sand to form the right shape of cavity. Each casting is released by opening the mould rather than by destroying it. Permanent pattern processes are usually cheaper than other methods. of the final product to make an impression which forms the mould cavity. Water and most liquids at room temperature have low viscosities. Sand casting is a typical example of a permanent pattern process. . Many of the alloys used for casting products are based on eutectic alloys. Each mould is destroyed after use but the same pattern is used over and over again. or pattern. especially for small quantity production or ‘one-offs’. Eutectic alloys have a high fluidity as they melt at a single temperature. the others generally need to be pushed into their moulds. and are suitable for a wide range of sizes of product.

Figure 18: Die-cast toy .

and is then fired in an oven: this hardens the ceramic (like firing a pot) and melts out the wax. The pattern is then melted or burnt out as the metal is poured in.Expendable mould and pattern With this type of casting. The metal is then poured in to the mould. The slurry dries. which is broken away after the metal has solidified and cooled. Figure 19: A turbine blade ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . A model (the pattern) of the blade is made in wax. The mould has to be destroyed to retrieve the casting. This method is used to make moulds for casting high melting-point alloys like those used for jet engine turbine blades (Figure 19). The pattern is then coated in a thick slurry containing ceramic particles. leaving a hollow ceramic mould. a pattern is made from a low melting point material and the mould is built around it.

075-0. The sand is bonded together using clays (as in green sand) or chemical binders. liquid metals or meltable plastics (called thermoplastics). items that can be manufactured by extrusion or by cold-bending. and then ejected or broken out to make a fabricated part. . water setting materials such as concrete or plaster.Casting Casting is a manufacturing process by which a molten material such as metal or plastic is introduced into a mold. Sand in most operations can be recycled many times and requires little additional input. Minimum part weight ranges from 0. or various materials that cold set after mixing of components such as certain plastic resins such as epoxy. forged.1 kg. The casting process is subdivided into two distinct subgroups: expendable and nonexpendable mold casting: Expendable mold casting : Expendable mold casting is a generic classification that includes sand. and parts that can be made from highly active metals. and is unsurpassed for large-part production. Alternatives include parts that can be stamped out on a punch press or deep-drawn. and materials that become liquid or paste when moist such as clay. Casting is used for making parts of complex shape that would be difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods. This method of mold casting involves the use of temporary. plastic. which when dry enough to be rigid is removed from the mold. Casting may be used to form hot. shell. nonreusable molds. allowed to solidify within the mold. Green (moist) sand has almost no part weight limit. such as cutting from solid material. Sand casting : Sand casting requires a lead time of days for production at high output rates (1-20 pieces/hrmold). and investment (lost-wax technique) moldings. Substitution is always a factor in deciding whether other techniques should be used instead of casting. whereas dry sand has a practical part mass limit of 2300-2700 kg. further dried. and fired in a kiln. or polymerized oils.

after which a production rate of 1-10 units/hr-mold is achieved with items as massive as 45 kg and as small as 30 g with very high surface resolution and fine tolerances. Generally. When casting plaster or concrete the finished product is. The later is a common means of making attractive washstands. or copper-based alloys. It cannot be used to cast ferrous material because sulfur in gypsum slowly reacts with iron. zinc-. Plaster casting represents a step up in sophistication and requires skill. The form is removed after the plaster sets. Consequently. and nickel alloys. sand casting is used for processing low-temperature metals.creating the most obvious necessity for human control. Casting of plaster. It is by far the oldest and best understood of all techniques. Prior to mold preparation the pattern is sprayed with a thin film of parting compound to prevent the mold from sticking to the pattern. Plaster casting is normally used for nonferrous metals such as aluminium-. The automatic functions easily are handed over to robots. Alternatively. or seating for outdoor use. often with multiple colors worked in. . washstand tops and shower stalls. normal plaster cannot easily be recast. These forms must satisfy exacting standards as they are the heart of the sand casting process . somewhat less easily to the design and preparation of forms. Plaster casting (of metals) : Plaster casting is similar to sand molding except that plaster is substituted for sand. magnesium. and so is usually painted. Typically. concrete. or molds made of flexible material such as latex rubber (which is in turn supported by an exterior mold). unlike marble. yet the higher-precision pattern designs required demand even higher levels of direct human assistance. Once used and cracked away. often in ways that give the appearance of metal or stone. as can other chemical setting materials such as concrete or plastic resin either using single use waste molds. Sand casting can also be used for high temp metals where other means would be unpractical. fountains. Plaster compound is actually composed of 70-80% gypsum and 20-30% strengthener and water. aluminium. or plastic resin : Plaster itself may be cast. relatively unattractive. By casting concrete. the form takes less than a week to prepare. the first layers cast may contain colored sand so as to give an appearance of stone. A simulation of high quality marble may be made using certain chemically set plastic resins (for example epoxy or polyester) with powdered stone added for coloration. multiple use piece molds. automation may easily be adapted to the production process. rather than plaster.Preparation of the sand mold is fast and requires a pattern which can "stamp" out the casting template. it is possible to create sculptures. such as iron. copper. The unit is shaken so plaster fills the small cavities around the pattern. lacking in transparency. with the skilled working of multiple colors resulting in simulated staining patterns as is often found in natural marble or travertine.

Shell mold walling varies from 3-10 mm thick. inserting cores. assembling mold.5 kg as a normal limit. after which an output of 5-50 pieces/hr-mold is attainable. Aluminium and magnesium products average about 13. repeating for other half. The sand-resin mix can be recycled by burning off the resin at high temperatures. cleaning and trimming. Investment casting : . depending on the forming time of the resin. removing investment. but it is possible to cast items in the 45-90 kg range. and the box is inverted for a time determined by the desired thickness of the mill) curing shell and baking it. pouring mold.Shell molding : Shell molding is also similar to sand molding except that a mixture of sand and 3-6% resin holds the grains together. removing casting. There are a dozen different stages in shell mold processing that include: initially preparing a metal-matched plate mixing resin and sand heating pattern. Set-up and production of shell mold patterns takes weeks. usually to between 505-550 K inverting the pattern (the sand is at one end of a box and the pattern at the other.

Investment casting (lost-wax process) yields a finely detailed and accurate product, but mechanical
properties are not good since the process involves slow cooling.
Polystyrene foam is also used in investment casting—see lost-foam casting.
After a variable lead time, usually weeks, 1–1000 pieces/hour-mold can be produced in the mass
range 2.3–2.7 kg. Items up to 45 kg and as light as 30 g are possible for unit production.
The process starts by creating an injection die to the desired specifications. This die will be used to
inject wax to create the patterns needed for investment casting. The patterns are attached to a
central wax sprue, creating an assembly, or mold. The sprue contains the fill cup where the molten
metal will be poured into the assembly.
The wax assembly is now dipped multiple times in a ceramic slurry, depending on the shell
thickness desired. A layer of fine sand (usually zircon) is added on top of each ceramic layer. This
process will be repeated until the desired shell is created.
After the shell is created to the specifications desired, the wax must be removed; this is normally
achieved using an autoclave. This is where the name "lost-wax process" comes from. This leaves an
impression of the desired castings, which will be filled with metal. Before being cast, however, the
shells must be heated in a furnace so they do not break during the casting process.
Next, the desired metal is poured into the hot ceramic shell. The metal fills each part on the
assembly, and the central sprue cavity and fill cup. The individual parts will be removed after the
mold cools and the shell is removed. The shell is generally removed with water-blasting, although
alternate methods can be used. What remains are the cast metal parts, but they are still attached
to the sprue assembly. The individual parts are removed by cold-break (dipping in liquid nitrogen
and breaking the parts off with hammer and chisel) or with large cutoff saws.
Most investment castings need some degree of post casting machining to remove the sprue and
runners, and improve surface finish. Grinding operations are perfomed to remove the gate. Parts
are also inspected to make sure they were cast properly, and if not are either fixed or scrapped.
Depending on the investment casting facility and specifications, more finishing work can be done
on-site, sub-contracted, or not done at all.
Investment casting yields exceedingly fine quality products made of all types of metals. It has
special applications in fabricating very high-temperature metals such as alloy steels or stainless
steels, especially those which cannot be cast in metal or plaster molds and those which are difficult
to machine or work.
Investment casting is often used in the aerospace and power generation industries to produce
single crystal turbine blade, which exhibit superior creep resistance to equiaxed castings. A

combination of slow cooling rates, seed crystals, and an elaborate sprue and runner system
referred to as a "pigtail" are used to produce single crystal castings.

Nonexpendable mold casting :
Nonexpendable mold casting differs from expendable processes in that the mold need not be
reformed after each production cycle. This technique includes at least four different methods:
permanent, die, centrifugal, and continuous casting.
Permanent mold casting :
Permanent mold casting (typically for non-ferrous metals) requires a set-up time on the order of
weeks to prepare a steel tool, after which production rates of 5-50 pieces/hr-mold are achieved
with an upper mass limit of 9 kg per iron alloy item (cf., up to 135 kg for many nonferrous metal
parts) and a lower limit of about 0.1 kg. Steel cavities are coated with refractory wash of acetylene
soot before processing to allow easy removal of the workpiece and promote longer tool life.
Permanent molds have a life which varies depending on maintenance of after which they require
refinishing or replacement. Cast parts from a permanent mold generally show 20% increase in
tensile strength and 30% increase in elongation as compared to the products of sand casting.
The only necessary input is the coating applied regularly. Typically, permanent mold casting is used
in forming iron-, aluminium-, magnesium-, and copper-based alloys. The process is highly
automated.
Die casting :
Die casting is the process of forcing molten metal under high pressure into the cavities of steel
moulds. The moulds are called dies. Dies range in complexity to produce any non-ferrous metal
parts (that need not be as strong, hard or heat-resistant as steel) from sink faucets to engine blocks
(including hardware, component parts of machinery, toy cars, etc). In fact, the process lends itself
to making any metal part that:
must be precise (dimensions plus or minus as little as 50 µm--over short distances),
must have a very smooth surface that can be bright plated without prior polishing and buffing,
has very thin sections (like sheet metal--as little as 1.2 mm),
must be produced much more economically than parts primarily machined (multicavity die casting
moulds operating at high speed are much more productive than machine tools or even stamping
presses),
must be very flexible in design; a single die casting may have all the features of a complex
assembly.

If several machining operations would be required or assembly of several parts would be required
(to make a finished part), die casting is probably far more economical. This level of versatility has
placed die castings among the highest volume products made in the metalworking industry.
Common metals used in die casting include zinc and aluminum. These are usually not pure metals;
rather are alloys which have better physical characteristics.
In recent years, injection-molded plastic parts have replaced some die castings because they are
usually cheaper (and lighter--important especially for automotive parts since the fuel-economy
standards). Plastic parts are practical (particularly now that plating of plastics has become possible)
if hardness is not required and if parts can be redesigned to have the necessary strength.
Process :
There are four major steps in the die casting process. First, the mould is sprayed with lubricant and
closed. The lubricant both helps control the temperature of the die and it also assists in the
removal of the casting. Molten metal is then injected into the die under high pressure. The high
pressure assures a casting as precise and as smooth as the mold. Typically it is around 100 MPa
(1000 bar). Once the cavity is filled then the pressure is maintained until the casting has become
solid (though this period is usually made short as possible by water cooling the mold). Finally, the
die is opened and the casting is ejected.
Equally important as high-pressure injection is high-speed injection--required so the entire cavity
fills before any part of the casting solidifies. In this way, discontinuities (spoiling the finish and even
weakening the casting) are avoided even if the design requires difficult-to-fill very thin sections.
Before the cycle can be started the die must be installed in the die casting machine (set up) and
brought to operating temperature. This set-up requires 1-2 hours after which a cycle can take
anywhere between a few seconds to a few minutes depending on the size of the casting. Maximum
mass limits for magnesium, zinc, and aluminium parts are roughly 4.5 kg, 18 kg, and 45 kg,
respectively. A typical die set will last 500,000 shots during its lifetime with lifetime being heavily
influenced by the melting temperature of the metal or alloy being used. Aluminum and its alloys
typically shorten die life due to the high temperature of the liquid metal resulting in deterioration
of the steel mold cavities. Molds for die casting zinc last almost indefinitely due to the lower
temperature of the zinc. Molds for die casting brass are the shortest-lived of all. This is despite, in
all cases, making the mold cavities out of the finest "hot work" alloy steel available.
A shot occurs every time the die is filled with metal. Shots are different from castings because there
can be multiple cavities in a die, yielding multiple castings per shot. Also the shot consists not only
of the individual castings but also the "scrap" (which, unlike in the case of scrap from machining, is
not sold cheaply; it is remelted) that consists of the metal that has hardened in the channels

glass. the result of molds not fitting together tightly. A release agent is typically used to make removal of the hardened/set substance from the mould easier. The liquid hardens or sets inside the mold. runners and overflows. or ceramic raw materials. the sprue. Also there is usually some unplanned-for thin scrap called flash. This includes.leading into and out of the cavities. Types of molding include: Powder metallurgy and ceramics Compaction plus sintering Plastics Injection molding Compression molding Transfer molding Extrusion molding Blow molding Rotational molding Thermoforming Vacuum forming. Molding (process) : Molding is the process of manufacturing by shaping pliable raw material using a rigid frame or model called a mold. for example. The manufacturer who makes the molds is called moldmaker or mouldmaker. A mold is the opposite of a cast (see casting). adopting its shape. A mold or mould is a hollowed-out block that is filled with a liquid like plastic. a simplified version of thermoforming Reaction Injection Molding Laminating Expandable bead molding Foam molding Rotomolding . metal.

Vacuum plug assist molding Matched mold Pressure plug assist molding .