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CHAPTER 20 THREE PHASE SYSTEMS

Exercise 112, Page 327
1. Three loads, each of resistance 50  are connected in star to a 400 V, 3-phase supply. Determine
(a) the phase voltage, (b) the phase current and (c) the line current.
400 V, 3-phase supply means that 400 V is the line voltage.
(a) For a star connection,

VL  3 VP

Hence, phase voltage,

(b) Phase current,

V
400
VP  L 
3
3

= 4.62 A

V
231
IP  P 
R P 50

(c) For a star connection,
Hence, line current,

= 231 V

IP  IL

IL

= 4.62 A

2. A star-connected load consists of three identical coils, each of inductance 159.2 mH and resistance
50 . If the supply frequency is 50 Hz and the line current is 3 A determine (a) the phase voltage
and (b) the line voltage.
Inductive reactance, XL = 2πfL = 2π(50)(159.2 × 10- 3) = 50 
Impedance of each phase, Zp =

R X
For a star connection, IL = Ip =

= 70.71 

=
2

2
L

50  50
2

2

Vp
Zp

Hence, phase voltage, Vp = Ip Zp = (3)(70.71) = 212 V

© John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis

251

VL = Vp = (212) = 367 V 3 3 3.25  4. For a star connection. C = thus. 3-phase. 1  19.Line voltage. 50 Hz.987  R  7. A 400 V. IL  12A  I P = 231 V V 400 VP  L  3 3 V 231 XC  P   19. 20 kW © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 252 . = 5. R 2  X L 2  7. If the line current is 30 A. 50 Hz.4 F 1 2  50   19. 3-phase supply. I L  30A  I P V 415 VP  L  3 3 V 239. VL  3 VP hence.987 from which. star-connected system supplies three resistive loads of 15 kW.25  IP 12 and capacitance. L = 5.6 V thus. Three identical capacitors are connected in star to a 400 V.6 ZL  P   7. For a star connection. find the value of L.272 Ω X L  7. 3-phase supply.987  IP 30 = 239.78 mH 5. If the line current is 12 A determine the capacitance of each of the capacitors. VL  3 VP hence. 4 wire.272 = 2π f L inductance.272 2  50  = 16.987  6 2 Hence.25 2 f C = 165. and 2 2 2 5. Three coils each having resistance 6  and inductance L H are connected in star to a 415 V.

94 = 86. Adding phasorially gives diagram (ii) below. yellow and blue phases respectively. VL  3 VP Power.25 cos 210 + 86.32.475 2 2 © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 253 .94 P 25000 IB  B  VB 230.95 A.25 sin 210 + 86. For a star connected system. Determine the current flowing in each of the four conductors. magnitude of neutral current. where IN is the neutral current. and P 15000 IR  R  VR 230.75  32.50 A 18. IN = = 37.95 sin 90 + 108.60 A = 108.94 V 400 VP  L  3 3 = 230.75 Total vertical component = 64.18. hence I Thus.94 V P V = 64. P 20000 IY  Y  VY 230.25 A The phasor diagram of the three currents is shown in (i) below.475 Hence.and 25 kW in the red. from which.60 sin 330 = . P = VI for a resistive load. (i) (ii) Total horizontal component = 64.60 cos 330 = .95 cos 90 + 108.

3-phase supply. Determine (a) the phase voltage. (b) Phase current. line current. I L  3 IP  3  8 = 13. each of resistance 50  are connected in delta to a 400 V.86 A 2. Since VL VL  VP = 400 V. (b) the phase current and (c) the line current. 3-phase supply. Page 329 1. Three loads. Determine (a) the phase voltage.4 mH are connected in delta to a 415 V.Exercise 113. and (c) the line current. (a) For a delta connection. V 400 IP  P  RP 50 VP = 400 V =8A (c) For a delta connection. Three inductive loads each of resistance 75  and inductance 318. then phase voltage. © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 254 . 50 Hz. (b) the phase current.

find the value of L.74  I P 6.13 F 2  50   57. V 415 IP  P  ZP 125 = 3.74 2 f C = 55.4 10 3  2 = 752  100 2  125  Phase current.75 A 3. V 400 XC  P   57.  75 ZP  R 2  X L 2  2   2 50  318. 50 Hz. © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 255 . VL  VP IL  3 I P hence IP  I L 12   6. to a 415 V.74  4. 50 Hz.(a) For a delta connection. C = 1 1  57. If the line current is 30 A. Three identical capacitors are connected in delta to a 400 V. 3-phase supply. Since VL VL  VP = 410 V.93 and capacitance.32 A (c) For a delta connection. Three coils each having resistance 6  and inductance L H are connected in delta. I L  3 IP  3  3. 3-phase supply.93 A 3 3 = 400 V thus.32  = 5. VP = 415 V (b) Phase impedance. For a delta connection. If the line current is 12 A determine the capacitance of each of the capacitors. then phase voltage. line current.

VL  VP hence IL  3 I P IP  IL 30   17. 23. (a) In star. 3-phase supply. A 3-phase. L = 23. V 380 VP  L  3 3 = 219. (b) the alternator phase current and (c) the load phase current. 2π f L = 23. (b) In star.For a delta connection. i. inductance.32 R 2  X L 2  62  X L 2 from which. from which.197 2  50  2 = 73.197  2 Hence.53 A 6. load phase angle. What value of capacitance must be connected in delta in order to take the same line current? © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 256 .32 A 3 3 = 415 V thus.96 = V 415 ZP  P   23.96  6  23. star-connected alternator delivers a line current of 65 A to a balanced delta-connected load at a line voltage of 380 V.e. phase voltage of alternator.96  I P 17.4 V hence. 50 Hz. VL  3 VP IP  IL (c) In delta. Three 24 F capacitors are connected in star across a 400 V. Calculate (a) the phase voltage of the alternator.84 mH 5. I 65 IP  L  3 3 = 37.197 Ω X L  23. alternator phase current = 65 A IL  3 IP from which.

= 132. I L  1.00517 = 230.94  = 8 F Exercise 114.741 A = line current for star connection.741 IP  3 i. V 400 VP  L  3 3 1 1 XC   2 f C 2  50   24 106  Hence.63  = 1. if from which.741  3 I P V V 400 XC  P  L  IP I P 1.In star.e.94  1. Page 331 © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 257 . C = = 1.94 V hence. capacitance in delta. VL  3 VP hence.00517 A 397.94 = 1 2 f C 1 2  50   397. = 397.63 In delta.94 IP  P  X C 132. V 230.

1.70  cos 0 3I P 2 R P  3  12.04 kW 2.04 kW = 1350 W = 29.35 kW = 1.11 A 3 VL I L cos   3  440   38. P = or P= 2  20  = 9. Exercise 112. Determine the power dissipated in the circuit of Problem 2. power.35 kW © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 258 .11 cos 0 3I P R P  3  22  2 2  20  = 29.70 A  I L RP 20 Hence in star. P = or 3 VL IL cos   3  367   3 cos 45 P= 3I P R P  3  3 2 2  50  = 1348 W = 1.70  and VL  VP  440 V IP  I L  3 I P  3  22  Hence in delta. ϕ =  X L 1  50 1   tan    tan 1  45  R  50 tan 1  Power. (a) In star. page 327. P = or (b) In delta.68 kW = 9. Determine the total power dissipated by three 20  resistors when connected (a) in star and (b) in delta to a 440 V. hence. power. VP  P= 3 VL I L cos   3  440   12. VL  440 V  3 VP and IP  440  254 V 3 VP 254   12. Circuit phase angle.68 kW VP 440   22 A RP 20 = 38. 3-phase supply.

Draw a complete phasor diagram of the load. A balanced delta-connected load has a line voltage of 400 V.94.94. with the line current lagging the line voltage by 19.95º © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 259 . then 0. What is the total power dissipated by the load ? If the power factor is 0. a line current of 8 A and a lagging power factor of 0.95º Line voltage = phase voltage = 400 V Line current = 8 A Phase current = From the diagram above.94 = cos ϕ from which. 8 3 I R  I RY  I BR .94 = 19.3. ϕ = 1 cos 0.62 A I Y  I YB  I RY and I B  IBR  IYB The complete phasor diagram is shown below. = 4.

21 kW 4.  X L 1    tan  R      tan 1  9   66.04 4 Hence. When connected to a 3-phase supply the loads consume 1. each of resistance 4  and reactance 9  are connected in delta.94  since power factor = cos ϕ = 5210 W = 5. ZP  42  9 2  9.2 kW.849  and phase angle. Three inductive loads. (a) Phase impedance. (c) the line current and (d) the supply voltage. P = 3 VL I L cos   3  400   8   0. Calculate (a) the power factor of the load.406 © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 260 . power factor of load = cos  = cos 66.Power. (b) the phase current.04 = 0.

6000 = 3 (415) (16.32)(0. 16. I L  3 (10) 3 VL I L cos  i.e.4 A and 6 kW respectively.406) = 98.32 A 1200 = 3 VL (17.53 V 5. (a) Efficiency = from which. P = from which.4) = 0. = 17. 2 3I P R P 1. A 440 V.e.406) supply voltage.4) cos  cos  = power factor of system = 6000 3 (415)(16.25 kW and operates at a power facror of 0. current and power to a motor is measured as 415 V. = 10 A 1200 IP  3(4) (c) In delta.32)(0. line current. P = i.39 kW © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 261 . (d) Power. phase current.e. If the motor is delta connected determine (a) the power input. The input voltage.84 11250 power input = 13393 W or 13. Power.8 lagging and with an efficiency of 84%. P = 3 VL I L cos  from which.2 103  3I P 2  4  from which. power input = 0.(b) Power.84 = 11250 0. i. (b) the line current and (c) the phase current. power output power input i. 1200 VL  3 (17.509 6.c. Determine the power factor of the system.e. 3-phase a. motor has a power output of 11.

Two wattmeters are connected to measure the input power to a balanced three-phase load. Page 336 1.68 A Exercise 115.97 A = 12.80  from which.(b) Power. If the © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 262 . 3 VL I L cos  IL  3 IP hence. P = (c) In delta. I 21. P 13393 IL   3 VL cos  3  440   0. phase current.97 IP  L  3 3 = 21. line current.

P = P1 + P2 = 9.4 kW determine (a) the total output power.wattmeter readings are 9.4 3   9. 8= (1) If power factor = 0. and from equation (1). then cos  = 0.862 P1  2 P2  8  5.68o = 0.862 3 2 P1  10.85 = 31.6197 = and phase angle.4 = 14.  = tan =  9.79  P1  P2  P1  P2   3  8    P1  P2 3 from which.6197 Hence. and (b) the load power factor (a)Total input power.909 2.3  5.85 P1  P2 and tan  = tan 31. tan  = 0.7 = 0.459524 = 24.862 10.431 kW = 2.  = cos 1 0.459524) =  3.4 1 (0.68o Power factor = cos  = cos 24.3 kW and 5. Determine the reading of each wattmeter if the power factor of the system is 0. = 2.6197   8  Adding equations (1) and (2) gives: from which.79 = 0. P1  P2  0.7 kW (b) tan  =  P  P 3  1 2  P1  P2 Hence.9 3   14.85. 8 kW is found by the two-wattmeter method to be the power input to a 3-phase motor.431 (2) = 5.85 Working in kilowatts.569 kW © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 263 .3  5.3 + 5.

569 kW 3.289  Phase impedance.90o 3 Power factor = cos  = cos 73.0  3. each having a resistance of 4.5 + (.90o = 0. When the two-wattmeter method is used to measure the input power of a balanced load.5  (2.5  (2. the readings on the wattmeters are 7. 3-phase supply.5 kW and 2.5) 3   7. the connections to one of the coils on the meter reading 2.5 kW reading is taken as – 2. VL  3 VP V 400 VP  L  3 3 and IL  I P = 230.46  are connected (a) in star and (b) in delta across a 400 V.431 kW and 2.5 kW having to be reversed. and (b) the load power factor Since the reversing switch on the wattmeter had to be operated the 2.5) = 5 kW (b) tan  =  P  P 3  1 2  P1  P2 Angle  = tan (2 1 =  7.0  and an inductive reactance of 3.5 kW (a) Total input power. Calculate for each connection the readings on each of two wattmeters connected to measure the power by the twowattmeter method.5) =  10  2 3  5 3 ) = 73.46 2 2 © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 264 .Thus the readings of the two wattmeters are: 5.5 kW. Determine (a) the total input power.277 4. Three similar coils. ZP  4. (a) Star connection: Hence.2.94 V = 5. P = P1 + P2 = 7.

 = 2  4.15 = 5.15 kW = 22. P1 - P2 P2 Adding equations (1) and (2) gives: and = 22.15 kW and 5.664  2 If the wattmeter readings are and P1 + P1 Phase angle.879 (1)  X L 1  3.Phase current.305 2 = 17.86   tan   R  4 tan 1  and tan 40 86 =  P  P  P P 3  1 2  3  1 2  22.0  P2 P2 = 22.305 = 34.e.879  P1  P2 from which.46   40.879 tan 40.73 kW (b) Delta connection: Phase current.879 – 17.426 = 34.289 and IL  3 IP = 75. - P1 i. in star.94 IP  P  ZP 5.289 Total power. P = = 43. the wattmeter readings are 17.879 kW then: = 22. V 230.86 3 = 11.879 + 11.629 A © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 265 .664 A 3I P R P  3  43. VL  VP V 400 IP  P  ZP 5.73 kW Hence.426 2 P1 P1 Substituting in (1) gives: from (1) P2 (2) = 22.

A circuit diagram of the alternator and load is shown below. neglecting any losses in the line between the alternator and the load.0  P1 tan 40 86 = = 68.Total power.915 2 = 51.278 = 102.637 – 51. calculate (a) the current supplied by the alternator and (b) the output power and kVA rating of the alternator.637  P1  P2 (3) from (3) 3 from which.637 tan 40. P = 3I P R P  3  75. star-connected alternator supplies a delta connected load.46 kW = 68.46 kW and 17.e.18 kW Hence. in delta. A 3-phase.18 kW 5. © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 266 .637  P1  P2  P1  P2   3   68. If the line voltage is 400 V.637 kW + P2 = 68.46 = 17.86 3 = 34.629  2 Hence 2  4.278 2 P1 P1 Substituting in (3) gives: P2 (4) = 68.637 + 34. each phase of which has a resistance of 15  and inductive reactance 20 . the wattmeter readings are 51.915 = 102. P1 i. P1 - - P2 P2 Adding equations (3) and (4) gives: and = 68.

20 kVA 3 6. hence. 3-phase supply (a) the phase current. 27. Vp = 400 V Phase impedance. © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 267 . P = 3 VL IL cos . Each phase of a delta-connected load comprises a resistance of 40  and a 40 F capacitor in series. S = VL IL = 3 (400)(27.71 A is the current supplied by the alternator (b) Alternator output power is equal to the power dissipated by the load i.8 W = 11.71) = 19198 VA = 19. Ip = Vp Zp Vp = VL for a delta connection.e. where cos  = Rp Zp Hence.6 (400)(27.71)(0. line current. Ip = Vp Zp = 400 25 = 25  = 2 p 2 L 15  20 2 2 = 16 A For a delta-connection. IL = Ip = 3 (16) = 27. Zp = R X Hence.52 kW 3 Alternator output kVA. P = = 15 25 = 0.(a) Considering the load: Phase current.71 A 3 Hence. Determine. when connected to a 415 V. 50 Hz.6) = 11518.

cos  = Hence.605 kW = 5.067  Phase current.582  89.067 I L  3 I P  3 (4.449  3 VL I L  3  415   8. XC  1 1   79. (c) the total power dissipated.80 kVA © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 268 . (b) Line current.07  = 2.07 A RP 40  ZP 89. P = (d) The kVA rating of the load. and (d) the kVA rating of the load. S = = 4. ZP  R P 2  X C 2  402  79.067 = 0.449 3 VL I L cos   3  415   8.58  2 f C 2  50   40 106  Phase impedance. (a) Capacitive reactance.07   0.66) (c) From the impedance triangle. total power dissipated.66 A (since VP  VL in delta) = 8. V V 415 IP  P  L  ZP ZP 89.(b) the line current.