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# CHAPTER 20 THREE PHASE SYSTEMS

Exercise 112, Page 327
1. Three loads, each of resistance 50  are connected in star to a 400 V, 3-phase supply. Determine
(a) the phase voltage, (b) the phase current and (c) the line current.
400 V, 3-phase supply means that 400 V is the line voltage.
(a) For a star connection,

VL  3 VP

Hence, phase voltage,

(b) Phase current,

V
400
VP  L 
3
3

= 4.62 A

V
231
IP  P 
R P 50

(c) For a star connection,
Hence, line current,

= 231 V

IP  IL

IL

= 4.62 A

2. A star-connected load consists of three identical coils, each of inductance 159.2 mH and resistance
50 . If the supply frequency is 50 Hz and the line current is 3 A determine (a) the phase voltage
and (b) the line voltage.
Inductive reactance, XL = 2πfL = 2π(50)(159.2 × 10- 3) = 50 
Impedance of each phase, Zp =

R X
For a star connection, IL = Ip =

= 70.71 

=
2

2
L

50  50
2

2

Vp
Zp

Hence, phase voltage, Vp = Ip Zp = (3)(70.71) = 212 V

251

VL = Vp = (212) = 367 V 3 3 3.25  4. For a star connection. C = thus. 3-phase. 1  19.Line voltage. 50 Hz.987  R  7. A 400 V. IL  12A  I P = 231 V V 400 VP  L  3 3 V 231 XC  P   19. 20 kW © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 252 . = 5. R 2  X L 2  7. If the line current is 30 A. 50 Hz.4 F 1 2  50   19. 3-phase supply. I L  30A  I P V 415 VP  L  3 3 V 239. VL  3 VP hence.987 from which. star-connected system supplies three resistive loads of 15 kW.25  IP 12 and capacitance. L = 5.6 V thus. Three identical capacitors are connected in star to a 400 V.6 ZL  P   7. For a star connection. find the value of L.272 Ω X L  7. 3-phase supply.987  IP 30 = 239.78 mH 5. If the line current is 12 A determine the capacitance of each of the capacitors. VL  3 VP hence. 4 wire.272 = 2π f L inductance.272 2  50  = 16.987  6 2 Hence.25 2 f C = 165. and 2 2 2 5. Three coils each having resistance 6  and inductance L H are connected in star to a 415 V.

94 = 86. Adding phasorially gives diagram (ii) below. yellow and blue phases respectively. VL  3 VP Power.25 cos 210 + 86.32.475 2 2 © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 253 .94 P 25000 IB  B  VB 230.95 A.25 sin 210 + 86. For a star connected system. Determine the current flowing in each of the four conductors. magnitude of neutral current. where IN is the neutral current. and P 15000 IR  R  VR 230.75  32.50 A 18. IN = = 37.95 sin 90 + 108.60 A = 108.94 V 400 VP  L  3 3 = 230.75 Total vertical component = 64.18. hence I Thus.94 V P V = 64. P 20000 IY  Y  VY 230.25 A The phasor diagram of the three currents is shown in (i) below.475 Hence.and 25 kW in the red. from which.60 sin 330 = . P = VI for a resistive load. (i) (ii) Total horizontal component = 64.60 cos 330 = .95 cos 90 + 108.

3-phase supply. Determine (a) the phase voltage. (b) Phase current. line current. I L  3 IP  3  8 = 13. each of resistance 50  are connected in delta to a 400 V.86 A 2. Since VL VL  VP = 400 V. (b) the phase current and (c) the line current. 3-phase supply. Page 329 1. Three loads. Determine (a) the phase voltage.4 mH are connected in delta to a 415 V.Exercise 113. and (c) the line current. (a) For a delta connection. V 400 IP  P  RP 50 VP = 400 V =8A (c) For a delta connection. Three inductive loads each of resistance 75  and inductance 318. then phase voltage. © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 254 . 50 Hz. (b) the phase current.

find the value of L.74  I P 6.13 F 2  50   57. V 415 IP  P  ZP 125 = 3.74 2 f C = 55.4 10 3  2 = 752  100 2  125  Phase current.75 A 3. V 400 XC  P   57.  75 ZP  R 2  X L 2  2   2 50  318. 50 Hz. © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 255 . VL  VP IL  3 I P hence IP  I L 12   6. to a 415 V.74  4. 50 Hz.(a) For a delta connection. C = 1 1  57. If the line current is 30 A. Three identical capacitors are connected in delta to a 400 V. 3-phase supply. Since VL VL  VP = 410 V.93 and capacitance.32 A (c) For a delta connection. Three coils each having resistance 6  and inductance L H are connected in delta. I L  3 IP  3  3. 3-phase supply.93 A 3 3 = 400 V thus.32  = 5. VP = 415 V (b) Phase impedance. For a delta connection. If the line current is 12 A determine the capacitance of each of the capacitors. then phase voltage. line current.

VL  VP hence IL  3 I P IP  IL 30   17. 23. (a) In star. 3-phase supply. A 3-phase. L = 23. V 380 VP  L  3 3 = 219. (b) the alternator phase current and (c) the load phase current. 2π f L = 23. (b) In star.For a delta connection. i. inductance.32 R 2  X L 2  62  X L 2 from which. from which.197 2  50  2 = 73.197  2 Hence.53 A 6. load phase angle. What value of capacitance must be connected in delta in order to take the same line current? © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 256 .32 A 3 3 = 415 V thus.96 = V 415 ZP  P   23.96  6  23. star-connected alternator delivers a line current of 65 A to a balanced delta-connected load at a line voltage of 380 V.e. phase voltage of alternator.96  I P 17.4 V hence. 50 Hz. VL  3 VP IP  IL (c) In delta. Three 24 F capacitors are connected in star across a 400 V. Calculate (a) the phase voltage of the alternator.84 mH 5. I 65 IP  L  3 3 = 37.197 Ω X L  23. alternator phase current = 65 A IL  3 IP from which.

= 132. I L  1.00517 = 230.94  = 8 F Exercise 114.741 A = line current for star connection.741 IP  3 i. V 400 VP  L  3 3 1 1 XC   2 f C 2  50   24 106  Hence.63  = 1. if from which.741  3 I P V V 400 XC  P  L  IP I P 1.In star.e.94  1. Page 331 © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 257 . C = = 1.94 V hence. capacitance in delta. VL  3 VP hence.00517 A 397.94 = 1 2 f C 1 2  50   397. = 397.63 In delta.94 IP  P  X C 132. V 230.

1.70  cos 0 3I P 2 R P  3  12.04 kW 2.04 kW = 1350 W = 29.35 kW = 1.11 A 3 VL I L cos   3  440   38. P = or P= 2  20  = 9. Exercise 112. Determine the power dissipated in the circuit of Problem 2. power.35 kW © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 258 .11 cos 0 3I P R P  3  22  2 2  20  = 29.70 A  I L RP 20 Hence in star. P = or 3 VL IL cos   3  367   3 cos 45 P= 3I P R P  3  3 2 2  50  = 1348 W = 1.70  and VL  VP  440 V IP  I L  3 I P  3  22  Hence in delta. ϕ =  X L 1  50 1   tan    tan 1  45  R  50 tan 1  Power. (a) In star. page 327. P = or (b) In delta.68 kW = 9. Determine the total power dissipated by three 20  resistors when connected (a) in star and (b) in delta to a 440 V. hence. power. VP  P= 3 VL I L cos   3  440   12. VL  440 V  3 VP and IP  440  254 V 3 VP 254   12. Circuit phase angle.68 kW VP 440   22 A RP 20 = 38. 3-phase supply.

Draw a complete phasor diagram of the load. A balanced delta-connected load has a line voltage of 400 V.94.94. with the line current lagging the line voltage by 19.95º © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 259 . then 0. What is the total power dissipated by the load ? If the power factor is 0. a line current of 8 A and a lagging power factor of 0.95º Line voltage = phase voltage = 400 V Line current = 8 A Phase current = From the diagram above.94 = cos ϕ from which. 8 3 I R  I RY  I BR .94 = 19.3. ϕ = 1 cos 0.62 A I Y  I YB  I RY and I B  IBR  IYB The complete phasor diagram is shown below. = 4.

21 kW 4.  X L 1    tan  R      tan 1  9   66.04 4 Hence. When connected to a 3-phase supply the loads consume 1. each of resistance 4  and reactance 9  are connected in delta.94  since power factor = cos ϕ = 5210 W = 5. ZP  42  9 2  9.2 kW.849  and phase angle. Three inductive loads. (a) Phase impedance. (c) the line current and (d) the supply voltage. P = 3 VL I L cos   3  400   8   0. Calculate (a) the power factor of the load.406 © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 260 . power factor of load = cos  = cos 66.Power. (b) the phase current.04 = 0.

6000 = 3 (415) (16.32)(0. 16. I L  3 (10) 3 VL I L cos  i.e.4 A and 6 kW respectively.406) = 98.32 A 1200 = 3 VL (17.53 V 5. (a) Efficiency = from which. P = from which.4) = 0. = 17. 2 3I P R P 1. A 440 V.e.406) supply voltage.4) cos  cos  = power factor of system = 6000 3 (415)(16.25 kW and operates at a power facror of 0. current and power to a motor is measured as 415 V. = 10 A 1200 IP  3(4) (c) In delta.32)(0. line current. P = i.39 kW © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 261 . (d) Power. phase current.e. If the motor is delta connected determine (a) the power input. The input voltage.84 11250 power input = 13393 W or 13. Power.8 lagging and with an efficiency of 84%. P = 3 VL I L cos  from which.2 103  3I P 2  4  from which. power input = 0.(b) Power.84 = 11250 0. i. (b) the line current and (c) the phase current. power output power input i. 1200 VL  3 (17.509 6.c. Determine the power factor of the system.e. 3-phase a. motor has a power output of 11.

Two wattmeters are connected to measure the input power to a balanced three-phase load. Page 336 1.68 A Exercise 115.97 A = 12.80  from which.(b) Power. If the © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 262 . 3 VL I L cos  IL  3 IP hence. P = (c) In delta. I 21. P 13393 IL   3 VL cos  3  440   0. phase current.97 IP  L  3 3 = 21. line current.

P = P1 + P2 = 9.4 kW determine (a) the total output power.wattmeter readings are 9.4 3   9. 8= (1) If power factor = 0. and from equation (1). then cos  = 0.862 P1  2 P2  8  5.68o = 0.862 3 2 P1  10.85 = 31.6197 = and phase angle.4 = 14.  = tan =  9.79  P1  P2  P1  P2   3  8    P1  P2 3 from which.6197 Hence. and (b) the load power factor (a)Total input power.909 2.3  5.85 P1  P2 and tan  = tan 31. tan  = 0.7 = 0.459524 = 24.862 10.431 kW = 2.  = cos 1 0.459524) =  3.4 1 (0.68o Power factor = cos  = cos 24.3 kW and 5. Determine the reading of each wattmeter if the power factor of the system is 0. = 2.6197   8  Adding equations (1) and (2) gives: from which.79 = 0. P1  P2  0.7 kW (b) tan  =  P  P 3  1 2  P1  P2 Hence.9 3   14.85. 8 kW is found by the two-wattmeter method to be the power input to a 3-phase motor.431 (2) = 5.85 Working in kilowatts.569 kW © John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 263 .3  5.3 + 5.