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Flatpicking Essentials

Volume 6:

Improvisation (Part II) &
Advanced Technique Studies
Written by
Dan Miller & Tim May
Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking

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Flatpicking Essentials, Volume 6
Improvisation, Part II and Advanced Technique
by Dan Miller & Tim May
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Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking

Table of Contents

Introduction

v

Improvisation, Part II

1

Diatonic Chords and Chord Progressions
Creating Diatonic Triads

‘Temperance Reel” Exercise
Chord Movement and Chord Progressions
I, IV, V Progression: Why It Works
The Relative Minor

I - vi - IV - V Progression
The ii Chord

I - vi - ii - V Progression

I - ii - V - I Progression

“St. Anne’s Reel” Exercise
Note Choices For Diatonic Chords

Stable Melody Notes

Chord Tones

Major Pentatonic Scales

Modes

Minor Pentatonic Scales

Remaining Notes

“Nine Pound Hammer” Exercise
The iii Chord

I - vi - iii - V Progression

I - iii - IV - V Progression

The Chord Stream
Diatonic Triad Summary

Seventh Chords
The Dominant 7th Chord

I - IV - V7 - I Progression
Non-Diatonic Chords
The Flat Seven Chord

I - bVII - V - I Progression

“Salt Creek” Exercise
The Seventh Chord in Blues
12-Bar Blues Using Seventh Chords
Secondary Dominant Chords

V of the V

V of the IV

“Alabama Jubilee” Exercise

VI7 - II7 - V7 - I Progression
Conclusion

3
4
9
10
10
14
16
16
17
18
19
18
18
18
20
20
22
22
23
24
24
25
25
26
27
28
30
31
31
31
32
33
35
36
36
36
37
38
39

Advanced Flatpicking Technique
Introduction
Tension & Release

41
41
41

Alabama Jubilee

43

Skipping Strings and Advanced Crosspicking

47

Angeline the Baker

50

Hybrid Picking - Part 1

54

Beaumont Rag

56

Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking

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Harmony (Parallel 3rds) Harmonized Scale “Whisky Before Breakfast” — Double Stops Harmony Variation “Whisky Before Breakfast” Harmony Variation Two-Part Harmony Rules of Thumb “Whisky Before Breakfast” High Baritone Harmony Adding a Third Part “Whisky Before Breakfast” Three Part Harmony 90 90 91 92 93 95 96 97 99 100 101 102 Leather Britches Lonesome Reuben Lonesome Road Blues 103 106 110 Hybrid Picking — Part II Hybrid Picking Example “Lonesome Road Blues” Example 113 114 115 Midnight On The Water 118 Triplets 122 Nine Pound Hammer Red Haired Boy Red Wing Temperance Reel Wayfaring Stranger Whiskey Before Breakfast 124 127 131 135 139 143 Conclusion and The Road Ahead 147 Appendix — Chord Progression Summary 148 iv Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .Table of Contents (con’t) Billy In The Lowground 60 Using Harmonics — Natural and Artificial “Mary Had A Little Lamb” Example 64 65 Bury Me Beneath The Willow 66 Playing in Minor Keys 70 Cold Frosty Morning Devil’s Dream East Tennessee Blues Forked Deer 72 76 81 86 Twin and Triple Guitars — Playing Harmony Parts Basic Two-Part Harmony “Whisky Before Breakfast” Melody “Whisky Before Breakfast” .

medium. after I spent time working on projects with guys like John Carlini and John Jorgenson I realized. 11th. maj7th. If you are looking for interesting ways to spice up your bluegrass songs and fiddle tunes. However. tremolo (repeated notes). however. an added benefit of working with all of these new chord progressions is that you will also be developing your ear through this method. you will continue with the same course of study. harmonic scales. As you will discover when you read our synopsis of each tune in the Advance Technique section. such as: hammer-ons. In this book. In addition to introducing new techniques in this volume. floating. but before he went into the studio I gave him a list of techniques—like the use of triplets. I hope you will take the time to expand your knowledge of music theory by reading the theory sections of this book and by exploring other music theory books and resources. just by hanging around these guys and listening to them talk about music. I think that you will find it very helpful to your ability to arrange. pull-offs. minor key tunes. Advanced Technique The second section of this book is focused on advanced flatpicking technique. folded scales. In addition to the “advanced” techniques discussed above. you will definitely find them here in this volume. and 13th chords and arpeggios. IV.flatpick. In the improvisation section of Volume 5 you studied how to improvise over various I. bends. For me. V chord progressions using chord tones and scale notes. We are also providing slow. chromatic runs. etc. Although we have really been studying elements of improvisation since Volume 1 of this course. Tim also did a great job introducing you to advanced ways of employing many of the techniques that you have learned previously in this course. Tim did a wonderful job incorporating all of these techniques into his improvisations and we discuss all of these techniques in detail in the pages that come before the first occurrence of a given technique. hybrid picking. the section on improvisation that was presented in Volume 5 introduced you to a free-form improv study method that we will continue here in this volume. note bending. 9th. neighboring notes (toggling). advanced crosspicking. note bending. twin guitar. slides. having a knowledge of music theory really helps me better understand everything that I’m doing when I’m playing music. Tim also adds more complex timing and dynamic elements to his arrangements. the chord progressions will get more complicated. Working with the various chord progressions that we provide in this book will certainly help you develop an ability to improvise over these chords. that my music theory knowledge was severely lacking. Volume 6. Having a better understanding of what I’m doing helps expand my choices and opens my mind up to new ideas. Tim makes good use of diminished. string skipping. arpeggios. and improvise. So. compose. In studying the material in the improvisation section of this book you will be presented with a bunch of music theory. He pulls it all together here and really takes out all the stops. and fast back up tracks for all of these progressions on our Flatpicking Essentials website (go to http://www. I know that some of you will skim over this material and not really dig into it. Tim selected the tunes. drones. alternate tuning. as well as more complex note choices. I know this because I’ve been playing music for 30 years and for the first 25 of them I never paid any attention to music theory because I thought it was boring and not really necessary. you will greatly improve your ability to improvise. runs that move up-the-neck. An added feature of this Volume of the course is the inclusion of an appendix that will serve as an easy reference for all of the chord progressions that you were given in Volumes 5 and 6. If you download all of these tracks and work with these chord progressions using the steps that were outlined on pages 55 to 76 of Volume 5.Introduction Welcome to Volume 6 of the Flatpicking Essentials series! This book is divided into two main sections. So. I made a decision to focus on learning as much as I could about music theory and now that I know a little bit I am constantly regretting the fact that I did not take it seriously early in my music career.com/essentialsaudio. In addition. So. it should also help you develop your ability to hear these chords and chord progressions when you run across them at a jam session. syncopation. quoting. crosspicking. etc. We approached this topic by first having Tim May record “advanced level” improvisations for nineteen different flatpicking tunes. We will not really get into a discussion of these chords and Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking v . natural and false harmonics. The first section is the second part of our study of improvisation.

and the other is slowed down. you will find that the audio CDs that are in the book only have the medium tempo backup tracks for the chord progressions. The first 5 tracks are progressions that you worked with in Volume 5. Robert Bowlin. Finally. St. However. Next I want to thank Tim May.net/ Have fun and keep pickin’! Dan Miller Acknowledgements: There are many people that helped make this book possible. hard work. One is at a moderately fast tempo. Charlie also engineered all of the rhythm tracks and all of Tim’s solo tracks. we felt like introducing you to these chords and arpeggios here in this volume would give you a good sense of how these note choices can be useful to you. The second disc that comes with this book includes all of the audio that corresponds with the material in the “Advanced Technique” section of the book. if you’d like to contact Tim. For the tunes that we have asked you to improvise over in the improvisation section (Temperance Reel. in terms of practical usage in standard flatpicking tunes. All of the tunes that we’ve asked you to work with in this book are on Brad’s Flatpick Jam. First and foremost I’d like to thank my co-author Tim May. If you have any questions or comments.com. This includes all of Tim May’s improvisations (at two speeds) and all of the other examples and exercises that appear in that section. we have provided you with two tempos of each tune.com. and Adam Granger for helping me put together the guitar harmony section this course. A Word About the Audio Files This volume has a lot of audio files. Blackberry Blossom. The first sixteen tracks are those that are the medium tempo tracks of all of the chord progressions as presented in the appendix. This book would not have been possible without his expertise. These tracks are taken from Brad Davis’ Flatpick Jam series. Also. Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . We do the same thing here. talent. vi The way we organized the two audio CDs that come with this book is as follows: The first CD contains all of the tracks that are associated with the improvisation section of this book. The remaining tracks are progressions that you are presented with in Volume 6. If you want to play along with slower or faster tempos of these songs. the slow and fast tracks can be downloaded for free from our website at the URL mentioned on the previous page. After those generic chord progressions. We also need to thank Brad Davis for the material in the hybrid picking section. Tim did not record the tunes at the slower tempo. we have gone a bit farther this time.com or download them at www. However. For the tunes in the Advanced Technique section of this book (those that were improvised by Tim May). In previous volumes we always provided an audio reference for every exercise and every tune. we then give you the progressions to the fiddle tunes that we have given you in the improvisation section of the book. The remaining tracks on this disc present the exercises and examples that are given in the improvisation section of the book. We put all of these back up tracks together so that you would be able to find them easily when you are practicing your improvisation exercises. and Salt Creek) we have provided a medium tempo version of these songs that you can jam along with on the CD.flatpickingmercantile.timmaymusic. The problem we ran into there was that in providing you with three tracks for each of 16 different progressions—each three minutes long—that resulted in two hours and fifteen minutes worth of audio just for the backup rhythm tracks. Dillon played rhythm guitar for all of Tim’s solo improvisations and Charlie played bass on all of the back up tracks.flatpickdigital. however. but then you could hear a slower version to help you pick out the details of what he is doing. In order to save having to put out four or five audio CDs with this book. We also made each track 3 minutes long so that you could have plenty of time to work with each progression. For each of the chord progressions we have provided you with three different tempos so that you can find a tempo that is comfortable for you to work with. Volume One. Tim and I would both like to thank Charlie Chadwick and Dillon Hodges for their help in the studio. and patience. please feel free to contact me: dan@flatpick. Each exercise and example has the Disc and track printed next to it for easy reference.arpeggios until Volume 7 of this course. We wanted to provide you with two speeds of these tunes so that Tim could go ahead and play the tunes at a comfortable pace when he was recording. you can reach him through his website: http://www. they were slowed down electronically in the studio. Wil Maring. I hope you enjoy working with all of the material in this book. you can purchase Brad’s Flatpick Jam tracks at www. Anne’s Reel. Their ideas and suggestions were very helpful.

pull-offs. By the end of Volumes 2 and 3 you should have been able to find a simple song or fiddle tune melody by ear and then improvise. V progression. neighboring notes. let’s first look back at what we have already learned in the previous volumes. As you move around to different areas of the neck in order to find melodies and embellish those melodies you are naturally going to find new ways of expressing those melodies. and harmonic scales in a effort to connect various scale positions or “boxes. IV. scale runs. you should have developed a degree of comfort with: 1) Improvising bass runs that connect chords in a I. and crosspicking. on that melody by employing one or more of the above mentioned techniques. In Volume 5 we asked you to do a 180 degree turn and forget about the melody so that you could Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 1 . Volume 4: Volume 4 was all about exploring the fingerboard and moving up the neck. progress will come. Learning how to play licks over chord progressions is much easier than learning how to play a tasteful melody-based solo. a variety of strum patterns. Volume 1: In volume one you learned how to design your own bass runs—including the use of leading tones—to move from one chord to another.” Expanding your note choices on the neck also expanded your ability to improvise. tremolo. in building your arranging and composition skills in Volumes 2 and 3 you were also working on your ability to improvise by learning to come up with your own arrangements and variations.” So. and techniques that will ornament the melody in interesting and exciting ways. You found the melody. Volume 5: In Volumes 2. but also fill in around the melody with interesting fills. IV. runs. all of your study of arrangement and improvisation focused on working with the song melody. Whether you were aware of it or not. and then you worked to embellish the melody. By the end of Volume 1 you should have been able to improvise bass lines that serve to smoothly connect one chord to the next in a I. so keep working on them! Volumes 2 and 3: In Volumes 2 and 3 you learned how to find song melodies by ear and then embellish those melodies with a variety of techniques. As you learn how to do that in “real time” you are greatly improving your ability to improvise in ways that add interest to your solos. which included: hammer-ons. floating phrases. drones. If you take small steps and are consistent with your practice. your ability to improvise on that melody will also improve. while much of the work that you did while learning the steps outlined in Volumes 2 and 3 dealt more with arranging than improvisation (since you probably were not coming up with your arrangements spontaneously in real time). V chord progression. In the section on using chord shapes you also learned something about arrangement and improvisation based on chord shapes and chord tones. 3) Ornamenting your rhythm accompaniment with embellishments such as strums. to some degree. Granted. and slides. Part II: Before we move on to the next phase of our improvisation study. As your ability to come up with variation after variation on a song’s melody improves. slides. and 4. Once you can do that with the simple melody. so that is why we started learning melody-based soloing before we discussed a more freeform approach—one that doesn’t necessarily stick as close to the melody—in Volumes 5 and 6. 2) Improvising fill licks to fill in between vocal pauses while playing rhythm. you simplified the melody. Through your work with Volumes 2 and 3 you should have the tools available to you to be able to hear a song melody in your head and find it on your guitar. hammer-ons. Learning how to take a simple. pull-offs. remember that earlier in this course we defined improvisation as “instantaneous arrangement. developing these skills in Volume 1 formed the first small step in your learning how to improvise! All of these skills will come in handy in this volume and in Volume 7. stripped down melody and embellish it to come up with a melodybased arrangement is an important skill. 3. you will then later be able to not only find the melody on your guitar in real time. licks. folding scales.Improvisation. You also studied the use of scale runs and arpeggios at various locations on the neck and practiced moving up and down the neck using open notes. After sufficient practice with the bass runs and fill lick examples that were provided in Volume 1.

the relative minor.” without straying so far away that the song becomes unrecognizable. as you know. however. Depending on your background and experience one approach is going to seem easier than the other. This is why we have worked to present both approaches. and the scale of the key while working with simple I. After Volume 5 was published we received emails from a lot of people telling us how much fun they were having with this section of the course because they didn’t have to worry about making “mistakes. or the band. As I’ve stated before. however. Even on my very busy days at work I manage to get in at least 30 minutes of practicing with Vol 5 and I can tell that it is already helping—a lot of the improvement has come in the form of “confidence”—just being able to play with the pentatonic minor. If you have spent a lot of time playing riff blues and rock. and V it is going to behoove us to first study a little theory relating to how those chord progressions are formed and what scales are best used over those chords. that was a major step and I think it will carry over when I play with other people. It is our belief that in order to learn how to develop tasteful improvisations the rudiments of music must be firmly ingrained into the musicians mind and muscle memory. chord tones.. If you have spent the majority of your time in the past working with tab and memorizing someone else’s arrangement. or interesting “sub-melodies. it is time that we add in some minor chords and some seventh chords. or others in the band. here in Volume 6 we are going to continue with the ideas and practice stages that you were presented in Volume 5.theory is not always fun.basically learn how to play scale and chord tones over chord changes. Eventually. However. hopefully you have discovered from the theory that I’ve presented thus far in the course that knowing theory does help guide you when you are arranging and improvising. then you should now spend time with the improvisation exercises in Volume 5. blues and pentatonic major scales —and not worrying about ‘mistakes’ or if it sounds ‘good’ or not. I promise that understanding these things will help you in the long run. Sticking with the stages—in order—has been very helpful to me. have stated the melody clearly several times. we have also received feedback from players who grew up playing blues and rock that have no problem at all with playing scales and patterns over chord progressions. Our logic in asking you to do this was to allow you to feel a little bit of freedom from having to play specific notes. V progressions. improvisational players who are the most tasteful can weave their solos around a melody in ways that still state the melody. If you’ll bear with me. I’ve tried to not lay out too much theory all at once in any given section of this course. the two approaches will meet somewhere in the middle and you will be able to stick close to the melody when the melodic approach is called for and then you will be able to stray farther away from it when a more non-melodic approach is appropriate. A Little Theory In order to better understand common chord progressions that include chords other than the standard I. Later in the presentation of a song if you. you are going to want to stray away from it so that the overall presentation of the song doesn’t become monotonous to the listeners. On the flip side of that. 2 Typically you are going to want to stay close to the melody at the beginning of a song. In Volume 5 we worked with ingraining a solid sense of the chord changes.. IV. For me. In practicing those exercises you hopefully gained some confidence in being able to play without looking at a piece of paper or taxing your brain to remember a pre-set sequence of notes. we are now getting into deeper water in terms of theory with the study of diatonic chords. but are having a lot of difficulty learning and sticking to a melody. seventh chords.” We loved receiving that kind of feedback because it is exactly the kind of feeling of freedom and confidence that we wanted the students working with Volume 5 to experience. and modes. IV and V chords. but we will be adding new chords and more complex chord progressions. It is really a lot of fun to just sit and play over the G chord and the progressions—even with just 3 notes I feel like I was able to come up with some pretty good ‘stuff’. IV. however. I promise! Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . In Volumes 2 and 3 we worked with learning how to ingrain the melody. There is a real art to this kind of soloing.” This is a typical letter: “I just LOVE Volume 5—for my particular learning style. it is spot on. and then embellish that melody. I know. If you’ve never experienced this sort of improvisation before. V progression and their melodies involve notes that may not lie in the scale of the key. it can be very liberating. IV. Now that you have built a solid foundation working with the I. So. then you should spend more focused time on the steps that are outlined in Volumes 2 and 3. a lot of songs that you will encounter stray away from the I.

or by “scale degree.” Thus. Although not as widely used.Diatonic Chords and Chord Progressions In previous volumes of this course you learned that the word “diatonic” means “of the key.” Scale degrees name each pitch in a major scale using a sequence of numbers. scale degrees and intervals are named in music theory. you simply lay out each degree of the scale in sequence along a horizontal line and then stack thirds on top of each of those notes (as shown at the top of the next page). these patterns are referred to as scales. using scale degrees provides a universal system for naming these scales. so let’s explore it a little further. the notes of the musical alphabet can be altered by using a “sharp” or a “flat” symbol. Each pitch in every scale can be defined by a note name from the musical alphabet. chords can also be diatonic. A sharp symbol (#) used after a note letter name raises the pitch of that note one half step. pentatonic. Most simple song melodies are diatonic. this will be a review. A flat symbol (b) used after a note name lowers that pitch one half step. Since all major scales are made up of the same pattern. whole tone. etc) that each have their own unique wholestep/half-step formula. the C note is the first scale degree because it is the first note of the scale. depending on the notes that are diatonic to the G scale. thus naming the twelve pitches of the chromatic scale. This concept can be confusing. If the song is in the key of G. Using scale degrees makes things a little easier. D is the second. Western music is tonal music. As you learned in Volume 4. If you’ve gotten this far in the course. E the third. You’ll notice that some of these notes are going to be major thirds while others are going to be minor thirds. The major scale is the pattern that forms the basis for most popular melodies. In order to build diatonic triads on the G scale. we can name every pitch that is common to Western music. let’s clarify how notes. there are a number of other scales in music (minor. In the harmonized scale section of Volume 4. Musical pitches are represented using the letters of the alphabet—A through G. For most of you. diminished. These letters are referred to as “the musical alphabet. In a C scale. This pitch is referred to as the “tonic. a diatonic melody will consist of only notes that are found in the G scale. you learned that diatonic triads are triads that are built on each scale degree of a given scale. Major scales can be built from any pitch in the chromatic scale by using the major scale formula. etc. What is in a Name? Before moving on. Diatonic Triads in the Key of G Major   ž žž G T A B 0 2 3 Am D B G žž ž 2 3 5 E C A Bm žž ž 4 5 7 F# D B C žž ž D G E C 0 2 3 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking žž ž 2 4 5 žž ž Em A F# D 0 0 2 B G E žž ž F#dim 1 2 4 C A F# žž ž G D B G 3 4 5 3 . there are seven letters in the musical alphabet. By using these sharp and/or flat symbols in combination with the first seven letters of the alphabet. Since there are more than seven tones in Western music.” If a melody is “diatonic” that means that all of the notes in that melody are notes that appear in the scale of the key. which means that both melodies and harmonies are typically centered upon one musical pitch.” When groups of pitches are arranged around the tonic in half-step and whole-step patterns. this is not new information. Previously in this course you studied the whole-step/ half-step formula for the major scale and a few minor scales.

i. Thus you have found the root. However. As stated above.. all of the chords are diatonic to the key of G. An easy way to count half steps is to use the “chromatic clock” as shown at the top of the next page. third.. as shown on the bottom line of the diagram shown in the box above. let’s now look at how we might figure out the diatonic triads in the key of G. These notes are a third above the second line and a perfect fifth above the notes of the first line. diminished.e. To build the triads. unison. The note that is a third above any given note in a scale is the note that is two scale degrees away in that scale. or octave. Therefore. Since we have only used notes of the G scale to build these chords. To find the note that is a third above A. you will execute the same procedure. we are just going to find the notes. Moving on to the triad root of A we count the clicks around the clock from A to C and find that it is only three half steps. Does this mean that we can call the first triad G major and the second triad A minor? Well. counting two scale degrees up 4 from each note on the middle line of the diagram above. You will remember from earlier volumes of this course that an interval defines the distance between two notes. thus the interval between G and B is major. minor. i. major. Creating Diatonic Triads Given the naming conventions listed above. therefore this interval is minor. For the time being we are not going to worry about whether the interval is major or minor. we still have to take a look at the interval between the Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . you look at the G scale and count up two scale degrees to B. sixth. or augmented. The first thing to know is that whenever you are naming intervals there are two parts to the name. count two scale degrees up the G scale from A and you find C. The second part of the name is its “quality”. if you want to find the note that is a third above G on the G scale.yes and no. perfect. and fifth triads using each note of the G scale as your root. As we discussed previously in this course. To find the third note of the triad. we are going to first stack above each note of the G scale the note that is a third above that note. Now we are going to take a look at each of these chord triads one-by-one to determine if they are major or minor. Continue on for each note in the G scale and you will find the notes that are indicated on the second line in the diagram shown above. second.e. third.Notes in the G Scale and Diatonic Chord Tones Whole Step Half Step Whole Step Whole Step Whole Step Whole Step Half Step         G G#/AA A A#/BA B C C#/DA D D#/EA E F F#/GA G Up Another Third: D E F# G A B C Fifth Up a Third: B C D E F# G A Third G Scale: G A B C D E F# Root Lastly. If you continue with this procedure along the middle line of the diagram you will find the notes that are shown on the top line. One part of the name refers to its “quantity”. a major chord has an interval of a major third between the root and third note (four half steps) and a minor chord has an interval of a minor third (three half steps) between the root and third. For instance if you start at G and count around the clock to B. fourth. seventh. the first thing to do is lay out the G scale horizontally. fifth. Starting with the B note and counting up two scale degrees on the G scale we arrive at D. you will find that B is four half steps away from G. The major third does indicate that the chord is major and the minor third does tell us that it is minor. Start with the root note and count the “clicks” around the chromatic clock. lets look at how intervals are named.

F# B B C# D# E F# G# A# F# F# G# A# B C# D# E# C# C# D# E# F# G# A# B# Em = E. E A A B C# D E F# G# E E F# G# A B C# D# Bm = B. D. F#. B F F G A C D E F#dim = F#. C. D D D E F# G A B C# Am = A. G D = D. B. C C D F G A F G C D F G BA BA AA AA EA EA BA C DA DA EA F CA GA AA BA GA GA AA BA BA EA AA DA GA CA CA 6 BA EA AA DA DA Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 7 Chord Tones: 1 BA C EA FA EA C = C. A F 5 . E. A.Major Third = Four Half Steps Minor Third = Three Half Steps G F#/GA G#/AA F A The Chromatic Clock E A#/BA D#/EA B D KEY C C#/DA 2 3 4 5 C C D E F G A B G G A B C D E F# G = G. G.

and augmented G chords. and D). 6 If you look at the chart above you can see that I’ve constructed all of the possible triads that start with the root note of G. Looking at the notes above the G on the bottom line we see a B and a D. The minor chord has just the opposite. A minor chord has an interval of a minor third between the root and third scale degrees and an interval of a major third between the third and fifth scale degrees. Since the interval between G and B is major and the interval between B and D is minor. The distance between the B note and the D note on our chromatic clock is three half steps—an interval of a minor third. These triads are defined in the chart shown above. When you are constructing triads there are four possible triad types that you might encounter: major. By counting the half steps on the chromatic scale shown at the top of the page I’ve determined what notes make up the major. An augmented chord has an interval of a major third between the root and third scale degrees and a major third between the third and fifth scale degrees. however. sharp. and Augmented Half Step G Half Step Half Step G#/AA A Half Step Half Step A#/BA B Major Third = 4 Half Steps Minor Third = 3 Half Steps Half Step C Half Half Step Step C#/DA D Half Step Half Half Step Step D#/EA E F Half Step F#/GA G Major Chord = Major Third + Minor Third Minor Chord = Minor Third + Major Third Diminished Chord = Minor Third + Minor Third Augmented Chord = Major Third + Major Third The G Triads G Major Chord: G G#/AA A G Minor Chord: G G#/AA A G Diminished Chord: G G#/AA A G Augmented Chord: G G#/AA A A#/BA B C C#/DA D D#/EA E F F#/GA G A#/BA B C C#/DA D D#/EA E F F#/GA G A#/BA B C C#/DA D D#/EA E F F#/GA G A#/BA B C C#/DA D D#/EA E F F#/GA G third and fifth scale degrees to determine if the triad is diminished or augmented. and augmented. In order to determine what kind of triads we have constructed on page 4. minor. the B and D notes are either natural. Diminished. minor. You’ll notice that in each case the scale degrees are the same (G. we know that this is a G major chord. Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . diminished. A diminished chord has an interval of a minor third between the root and third scale degrees and a minor third between the third and fifth scale degrees. B.Triads: Major. A major triad has an interval of a major third between the root and third scale degrees and an interval of a minor third between the third and fifth scale degrees. diminished. or flat. Minor. we must examine the intervals between the third and fifth scale degrees.

and D and thus the triad is major. between the C and the E notes. Analyzing all of the triads that are formed from each note of the G scale. we find that in the F# major scale the notes of the 1. IV chord. You will remember that one of the primary goals of that section of the course was to learn how to play the root note and/or other chord tones of each chord as the chords changed. and V chords in the key of G. V. The next interval. B.Diatonic Chords in the Key of G G Am Bm I ii 3 0 0 0 2 3 0 1 2 2 0 0   ž   žžž žž 1 T A B žž žž žž C D iii IV žž ž žž ž Em V 2 3 4 4 2 2 0 1 0 2 3 3 2 3 2 0 0 2 žž žž žž žž žž žž Taking a look at the next triad. The method we have used to determine each triad type was based on counting half steps. we can see that both the third scale degree and the 5th scale degree are a half step flat. or play G scale patterns that incorporated the melody notes. Now that you know that the chords Am. Bm. If you were able to keep the melody in your head and hit melody notes. Em. 5 triad are F#. C#. you will see that the root. The triad built on the seventh scale degree is diminished. For instance. C. The only difference here is that the third degree of our triad (C) is a half degree flat from the C# note of the A major scale. “How is this information useful?” Good Question! Practical Application of the Theory In the improvisation section of Volume 5 you practiced a number of exercises where you played the notes of the G major scale against the I. ii. then your improvisations fit the chord progression. A. and C). thus we know that our A chord is minor. and fifth scale degrees are major triads. A#. is four half steps and thus a major third interval. 3. Since the first interval is minor and the second is major. OK. If you were successful at matching up chord tones with chord changes. fourth. we already determined that the interval between the A note and the C note was a minor third. you were able to come up with a pretty good solo. Whether you count half steps or derive results from the major scales you will find that for every major scale the diatonic chords built from each scale degree are universally the same: I. and V chord were all in the G scale. This tells us that our F# traid that was built from notes of the G scale is a diminished chord. and sixth scale degrees are minor. viidim (or vii°). third. you can apply everything you learned in Volume 5 to these chords as well! You certainly know by now that Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 7 . you know that this is an A minor chord. IV. E) and compare that to the A major scale you will see that the first. and C#. you will discover the chords that are shown in the chart above. Since the chord tones of the I chord. Comparing that to the triad we built on žž žž G vi viidim I 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 1 2 4 2 0 0 0 2 3 žž žž ž ž F#dim ž žž žž ž the F# note using the notes of the G scale (F#. all you had to know in order to improvise solos in the key of G were the notes of the G scale. third and fifth notes of the A major scale are A. When you look at the notes of the triad that starts with the A note as the root (A. and F#dim all consist of notes that are found in the G scale. if you compare the notes of the triad built on the root of G with the G major scale. as shown in the chart at the bottom of page 5. then you can simply compare the notes of each triad with the notes of each major scale. iii. IV. The triads built on the first. vi. and E. and fifth notes of the G major scale are G. You could have also used a derivative method to find these triad types. The triads built on the second. If we jump forward and look at the F# scale. If you are familiar with the notes of each major scale. so the big question in everyone’s mind now is. third.

old-time. If you worked with the 12-bar blues in E as I recommended in Volume 5 (Stage 16: Exploring Other Keys). and V chords. The six minor is also referred to as the “relative minor” and/or the Aeolian mode. because the B part of this song really lends itself to improvisation we are going to leave most of the B part open to full improvisation over the Em and D chords.most common chord progressions in folk. IV. There are a lot of songs in bluegrass that are played in the key of G and include the Em chord. including “Temperance Reel.” “Big Sciota. for now we will simply accept that as fact and move forward. it is very close in tonality to the tonic of the key.” “Cherokee Shuffle. let’s get away from the theoretical and practice an example in the key of G that uses a six minor (vi). Before you give this tune a try.” “Blackberry Blossom. freely improvise during that section using the chord tone technique that you learned in Volume 5.” and others. and rock music consist of the I. Also. blues. We will study seventh chords a little later. improvise over the Em and D chords. If you’ll look at the chord tone chart on page 5 you’ll notice that the Em chord shares two chord tones with the G chord. But before we talk about any more theory. you should freely improvise over the Em chord. one interesting thing to recognize is that the notes of the G major pentatonic scale and the notes of the E minor pentatonic scale are exactly the same (see diagram above). After the I. Let’s first look at the vi chord. or key center.” This is a good song to work with for our purpose because there are plenty of E minor Pentatonic Scale     1 T A B 8 G Major Pentatonic Scale: G A B D E G E Minor Pentatonic Scale: E G A B D E chances to play over the Em chord.” “New Camptown Races. Since it shares two of the three chord tones with the G chord. Other than hitting those notes. We will also talk about those two concepts later. In the A part of the tab you will see that I’ve kept the B note followed by the E note under the Em chord because those two notes are “stable” melody notes. The six minor chord (vi) is very common for a couple of reasons. In Volume 3 you learned how to play a melody-based version of this tune. but did work with the G major LŒ Œ Œ Œ Œ Œ L Œ « Œ Œ LŒ Œ Œ L Œ Œ Œ LŒ Œ Œ Œ LŒ Œ L Œ LŒ · Œ 0 3 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 3 0 3 5 3 0 3 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 3 0 « Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . If you examine the Em scale. Tunes such as “Billy in the Lowground. In our first example we are going to take a look at “Temperance Reel. so we’ll set that dominant seventh aside for now. respectively. you will also notice that it shares all of the exact same notes as the G scale. however. The only difference is that they start on the G note and the E note. bluegrass. IV. you will be able to improvise over the Em chord in this song using the E minor pentatonic scale. Here I want you to try and mix the melody-based approach with a freely improvised approach (a la Volume 5) by playing the melody over the G chord parts and then improvising over the Em chord in the A part. It just starts on the E note instead of the G note. Even if you did not work with the E minor pentatonic scale in Volume 5. In the B section you’ll see that I left the tab under the Em and D chords totally blank.” and “Colored Aristocracy” also include the six minor (vi) chord. So. and V chords. Just in this course alone we have run across a number of them. Then in the B part. the two chord types that you will most likely find in the songs that you will encounter playing bluegrass and folk music are the six minor (vi) and the dominant seventh (V7). A little later in this course we will examine why those chords are the most common chords in roots and rock music.

In tunes like “Temperance Reel.” “Lonesome Fiddle Blues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . you can stay close to the melody in the A section.” There are many songs in the flatpicker’s fiddle tune repertoire that have a B section that lends itself 2 0 2 0 ž 2 G É 0    to improvisation. . . . . .” just think G major pentatonic. . . . . . . . . . . . Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 9 . . . . . . . 14   Em  3 Em  Em ˆ ˆ improvise . . . but start on the E note and you’ll be fine. . . . . . . respectively. .” and “Salt Creek. . . . taken from Brad Davis’ Flatpick Jam series. . . . . . then run through the E minor pentatonic scale as shown at the bottom of the previous page before working with “Temperance Reel. . . . . . 0 2 ž 0 2 D ˆ ˆ ž É Em ž Audio Track 1-17 ž 2 2 ˆ G É 0    ˆ improvise . . . . . can be found on audio Disc 1. . . . . . ž D ž ž ž ž ž 0 2 pentatonic scale (stage 8 on page 70 of Volume 5). . . . . . . . . then you will still be familiar with the notes of this scale. . . . . . . Tracks 17 and 18. . . . . .“Temperance Reel” Basic Melody Outline with “holes” for Improvisation Play Along with ž ž ž  ž  žž  žž žž ž ž ž     ½ G 1 ½ T A B  6  G ž 0 10  ž 0 0 2 0  0 ž ž ž ž ž 0 ˆ 2 0 1 3 0 2 ž 3 0 1 3 ž ž ž 3 0 3 0 ž improvise . . and then stretch out and improvise more freely in the B section.” try this same exercise with “Blackberry Blossom. . 0 2 2 2 D ž É improvise .” “Blackberry Blossom. . . . . . . . . . If you did not familiarize yourself with either of these scales in Volume 5. . . . . . When you hit the Em chord in “Temperance Reel. . After practicing with “Temperance Reel. . . . .” to name a few. .” Practice tracks for both of these tunes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

blues. there are thousands that can be supported by two or three chords. it helps if you understand something about chords and chord movement. IV.     1 T A B ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 3 0 2 3 0 2 4 When you play this scale aren’t you just aching to hear that F# note resolve to the G? Similarly. note. We will dive deeper into this subject in Volume 7: Advanced Rhythm. folk. If you don’t believe me. if you are playing a song that is tonally centered upon G. it makes sense that the majority of the chords that are used to support those melodies will come from the diatonic chords. blues. Not every song begins on the I chord. At the root of the scale is the tonic. 10 If you know that your primary chord choices for a given song are going to come from the list of diatonic chords and you are presented with a song melody that sounds happy and upbeat throughout. major chords and scales sound happy and bright while minor chords and scales sound sad and dark. when you play a D chord and your ear hears the F# note in that D chord. “Skip To My Lou. So. IV. or song section. I want to first talk a little bit about chord movement and chord progressions. The simplest songs are those whose melody can be supported harmonically by just one chord. Why is that usually the case? Remember back in Volume 1. If you take a look at the song’s melody. Almost all two Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . When we studied song melodies in Volume 3 you learned that in the resolving phrase of every song. in order to understand improvisation using the chord tone technique. We have learned that the majority of song melodies that we will encounter in bluegrass. Chord progressions are tonal and they revolve around the tonic chord.Chord Movement & Chord Progressions Before we move on to work with more song examples. or root. Notice that in measures 1 and 2 the melody consists of all G chord tones. when we worked with leading tones? You discovered that leading tones beg to resolve to the root of the scale. however. The relationship between the root (tonic) and the V chord (dominant) is a strong one and thus most all two or three chords songs include the V chord. In the first section of this book—when we presented diatonic chords—you learned how to harmonize the major scale. you may recognize that there are only three major chords available—the I. play the G scale that is written below. the chord progression was most likely going to move from the V chord to the I chord. If you can grasp some of the underlying theory of chord progressions. this melody can be completely supported harmonically by the G chord. Since most songs melodies come from the notes of the major scale. and again in Volume 5. or rock music are based on the major scale. then you know that the chords that support that melody are probably going to be major chords. however. and V chords. it is significant enough that simple song melodies take advantage of it. Any G scale notes that are not part of the G chord in this song simply serve as connecting notes. Take a look at the French nursery rhyme “Frere Jacuqes” shown at the top of the next page.” that demonstrates the I and the V chord relationship. Even if you don’t know the key of a song the tone center will always reveal itself as the song resolves because it settles on the tonic chord. As we will study later in this book. it calls for the harmony to move to the D chord. but almost every song ends on the root chord. you can better understand how to solo over various chord changes. or rock music the melody and harmony of the song revolves around the notes of a major or minor scale. The tension and resolution between the V chord and the I chord is not great. Remember. On the next page you will find a simple two chord song. Some nursery rhymes and a handful of pop songs are one chord songs. folk. While there are not too many song melodies that can be supported by just one chord. the concept of tension and resolution is something that helps add interest and helps propel music. it naturally wants to hear resolution to the G chord. V Progression Works You know from the material that we’ve presented in the previous volumes of this course that in any simple song that you will run across in bluegrass. Why The I. you will notice that the first and last notes of every measure are notes that belong to the G chord. but in measure 3 when the melody moves to the A note as a strong stable note. Looking at the diatonic chord list.

ding. 0 0 0 0 0 Two Chord Song — “Skip To My Lou”     É G 1 É Skip. 0 0 G É ž D É Skip. ding. T A B 5  Skip. 0 Are you 0 2 0  ž ž ž ž ž ž  Morn-ing bells are ring . 0 0 0 É 3 ž ž ž É Skip To My Lou Skip 0 0 0 3 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking Skip. 3 É ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž G 5 ž ž Ding. 0 É ž ž ž ž É Morn-ing bells are ring .ing. 2 D ž 2 ž É Skip 2 4 ž ž ž To My Lou. dong.ing.One Chord Song — “Brother John” (Frere Jacques)     ž G 1 ž ž Are you 0 2 T A B ž ž sleep . dong. 0 Brot . 1 1 0 ž ž ž É To My Lou 2 1 2 G É My Dar 2 0 - É ling 0 11 .ther 3 0 0 0 0 John? 1 3 ž ž É Ding. 0  Skip.ing. 0 ž ž É Skip To My Lou Skip.ing. 0 3 3 1 0 sleep .her 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 John? 1 Bro .

chord songs are going to consist of the I chord and the
V chord. Since the I chord and the V chord share a
note in common, there is a smooth transition between
the I and the V. Chords that share a common tone are
called “common tone” chords. The transition between
common tone chords is relatively smooth due to the
shared tone.
If the tonality of a song melody remains happy and
bright throughout and the 4th or 6th notes of the scale
show up as stable melody notes (in the key of G, that
would be the C note or the E note), then those notes are
going to call for a IV chord to provide the harmony.
In the key of G, it is the C chord. [You may note that
diatonically the E note also appears in the Em and Am
chords and the C note in the Am chord, however, those
chords give a darker tonality to the progression.] While
the relationship between the I and the V chord (tonic
and dominant) is the strongest, the relationship between
the I and the IV chord (tonic and subdominant) is the
next strongest in line.
In a two chord I-V-I progression there is a slight
tension set up when the I chord moves to the V and then
a resolution when the V moves back to the I. Many
three chord songs follow the I-IV-V-I or the I-IV-I-V-I
progression because:
1) Shared Major Tonality: These are the only three
diatonic chords that have a major tonality.
2) Smooth Transition: The IV chord is a nice transition
chord between the I and the V because it shares a note
in common with the I chord.
3) Step Transiton: The movement from the IV chord
to the V chord works well because the root of the IV
chord steps up to the next note in the scale (V).
4) Resolution: The V chord wants to naturally resolve
to the I chord.
Therefore, in I-VI, I-IV-V-I, or I-IV-I-V-I progressions
in the key of G you have movement in the song’s
harmony as shown graphically in the next column on
this page.

Adding to the I, IV, V Progression

While most popular songs are written using the I,
IV, V chord progression, there are times when a song
composer wants to add a bit of flavor to the melody
and harmony of a song he or she is writing. The first
step in adding to the I, IV, V tone pallet is to use the
diatonic minor chords, namely the ii, iii, vi, and vii°.
In the parlance of music theory the I, IV, and V chords
are called “primary” chords and the ii, iii, vi, and vii°
12

I - V - I
G - D - G
A
F#
D

D
B
G

Fifth:
Third:
Root:

Smooth
Transition

D
B
G

Resolution

I - IV - V - I
G - C - D - G
D
B
G

Fifth:
Third:
Root:

A
F#
D

G
E
C

Smooth
Transition

Step
Transition

D
B
G

Resolution

I - IV - I - V - I
G - C - G - D - G
Fifth:
Third:
Root:

D
B
G
Smooth
Transition

G
E
C

D
B
G

A
F#
D

D
B
G

Smooth
Smooth Resolution
Transition Transition

chords are called “secondary” chords. Lets go ahead
and take a look at all of those secondary chords and
how you might improvise over them.
An interesting thing to note is that for every major
diatonic chord there is at least one minor diatonic chord
that shares two of its notes. Chords that share two notes
can be used as substitutes for each other because their
tonal qualities are so similar. The diagram at the top
of the next page shows all of the diatonic chords that
share two notes in common. The information in this
chart can be helpful in two ways. The first is when you
are looking to spice up a given chord progression with
chord substitutions. For instance, if a song melody is
supported by a I-IV-V progression, but you want to
add something different to give some variety to that
progression, you can add a substitute chord in order to
give a different texture to the harmony.

Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking

Substitute Chord Chart
I - vim - IV - iim - vii - V - iiim - I
G - Em - C - Am - F# - D - Bm - G
Fifth: D
Third: B
Root: G

B
G
E

G
E
C

E
C
A

C
A
F#

A
F#
D

F#
D
B

D
B
G

The Diatonic Chord Ladder
iii

Tension

Bm

Em

vi

Em

Am

ii or IV

Am or C

Dm or F

V or vii

D or F#

G or B

I or vi

G or Em

C or Am

Chord Ladder
for Key of G

Chord Ladder
for Key of C

Resolution

Chord Ladder
Tim May executed this type of chord substitution
on the old Flatt & Scruggs tune “Gone Home” that
he recorded for the FGM Records project Flatpicking
Bluegrass. Typically the chorus of that song starts on
the IV chord for two bars. Tim played it that way the
first time through the chorus. However, the second
time he played the chorus he started on the ii chord for
a bar before moving to the IV chord on the second bar.
Since the IV chord and the ii chord share two notes
in common, this was a logical chord substitution. In
Volume 7 of this course we will take a deeper look at the
theory and application of using chord substitutions in
order to add texture to an existing chord progression.
The second way this chart can be useful to you is
when you are trying to figure out chord progressions
that support a given melody line. Remember the chord
ladder from Volume 2? I’ve reproduced it above for
the diatonic chords. If a song is in the key of G and
starts with a G chord, but then the tonality of melody

turns minor, you’ll know from this chart that the minor
is most likely going to be an Em because in sharing two
notes with the G chord the move to an Em tonality is
very smooth. Or, it could be an Am chord that is being
substituted for the C chord.
An interesting thing to note here is that the Em chord
is to the right of the G chord on the chart at the top of
the page and the E note is the sixth degree of the G
scale. The Am note is to the right of the C chord on the
chart and the A note is the sixth degree of the C scale.
And, the Bm chord is the right of the D chord in the
chart and the B note is the sixth degree of the D scale.
The diatonic chord that is built from the sixth degree
of any scale is called the “relative minor” chord and it
is the fourth most common chord you will encounter
in bluegrass, folk, blues, and rock songs (after the I,
IV, and V chords). So, let’s take a closer look at the
relative minor chord.

Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking

13

I - vi - IV - V Progression in the Key of G: The 50’s Cliche 
  
 
1

T
A
B  

G

ž
3

žž
žž ž

žž
žž

3
3
0
0

3
3
0
0

0

Em

ž

žž
žž ž

žž
žž

0
0
0
2

0
0
0
2

2

0

The Relative Minor
When song and tune writers are composing and want
to insert a feeling of sadness to a tune that is in a major
key they will typically first turn to the six minor (vi)
chord. The six minor is referred to as the “relative
minor” because all of the notes in the six minor scale
all “relate” to the notes of the major key. They are, in
fact, the exact same notes. The chart on the top of the
previous page showed us that in the key of G the G
chord and its relative minor, Em, share two notes in
common. So the transition from the G chord to the Em
chord is smooth, but because of the flat third note in
the Em chord the tonality gets dark. In bluegrass this
bright-to-dark movement occurs most famously in the
Earl Scruggs tune “Foggy Mountain Breakdown.”
As we discussed earlier, many bluegrass songs and
fiddle tunes use the six minor chord. Pop tunes of the
1950s and early 1960s also made use of this chord, so
much so that the I-vi-IV-V-I progression is known as the
“50s cliche progression.” Songs like “Earth Angel,” “In
the Still of the Night,” “Please Mr. Postman,” “Stay,”
and many others, used this progression. Play through
the progression shown above and see if it sounds
familiar to you. Other popular bluegrass songs that use
the six minor chord in various combinations with the I,
IV, and V chord are songs like “Rocky Top,” and “Big
Spike Hammer.”
Regarding improvisation and the relative minor,
you discovered in our “Temperance Reel” example
on page 9 that since the notes of the relative minor
scale are exactly the same as the major scale you can
play the notes of the major scale starting on one of the
chord tones of the relative minor and you will be safe.
Furthermore, if you play the minor pentatonic scale of
the relative minor over that chord you will never play
a “wrong” note.
14

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In Volume 5 you learned how to start to improvise
using chord tones and scale notes by following a series
of practice stages and working with a rhythm track. In
this volume we are going to ask that you do that exact
same thing with each of the new chord progressions that
we present. At the top of the page 16 you will find a
simple chord progression in G that includes the Em (vi)
chord. You will also find a rhythm track on the audio
CD that provides a rhythm bed for this progression. In
the tab I’ve simply given an example of how you might
improvise over this progression using quarter notes.
You’ll remember that in the stages that were presented
in Volume 5 you worked with root notes, then leading
tones, then quarter notes, then eighth notes, then a
mixture of quarter notes and eighth notes. Then you
worked with some repeating patterns, then you worked
to include different tones from the chord on the first
beat of each measure. For each new chord progression
that we present in this section of this volume, it would
behoove you to go back through all of the steps that
you practiced in Volume 5 when you worked with the
I, IV, V progression (pages 55-76). Not only will this
exercise help you to learn how to solo over these minor
chords, but it will help solidify the minor tonality in
your ear. So, take the progression shown on page 16
and work through all of the same stages that you work
with in Volume 5.
Once you have worked through all of the stages
with this progression, try to work once again with
“Temperance Reel,” and also play along with the
rhythm track of “Blackberry Blossom” that we have
provided on track 18 of Disc 1. Work to play a melodybased solo for section A of each of these songs, and
then stretch out a bit on the B section and improvise
freely over those Em chords.

Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking

at right. you may notice that in looking at a small slice of the circle of fifths you are presented with every diatonic chord. C#m. However. the circle graphic shows you that it is Em (e). this is not the most useful part of having the relative minor associations on this chart. The circle of fifths is more useful when you want to look at the bigger picture. and D#°! C I Am vi iii C 0 0 V Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking G Em Bm D 15 . At right is a graphic of the circle of fifths as it was presented back in Volume 4. if we add the relative minor chords to the mix (as shown below).Revisiting the Circle of Fifths Circle of Fifths The more you learn about music theory. Let’s briefly revisit the circle of fifths (also sometimes called the “cycle of fourths”) here so that we can point out a couple of other useful references that you can find in this chart. If you want to quickly know the relative minor of G. We’ve studied the diatonic chords in the key of G (as shown below). with the exception of the vii°. it is Am (a). if you want to figure out what the relative minor of the G chord is. but what if you want to quickly find the diatonic chords in the key of E? A quick glance at the circle of fifths will tell you that they are E. the relative minor is shown in the inner most circle. You’ll remember that for any chord that you look at on the circle the chord IV ii (Cycle of Fourths) 4ths Bb F 1b 5ths G 1# D 2# d a e b 2 g b f# 3b c Eb 3# A c# f b b e b ab 4 b a# d# g# 4# b b 5 Ab E 6b 7 5# 7# 6# Db Cb C# G b B F# to its left will be the IV chord and the chord to its right will be its V chord. Well. the more you will learn to refer to the “circle of fifths” to help understand and remember the theory that you have learned. most every graphic presentation of the circle of fifths will also include a presentation the relative minor chord that is associated with each root chord. A. you can simply count six steps up the scale and you have it. for D it is Bm (b). and V chords in any key might be. F#m. In our diagram. In addition to showing the progressive numbers of sharps and flats in any key and depicting intervals of perfect fifths moving in the clockwise direction (and perfect fourths moving in the counter-clockwise direction). really. B. Earlier in this course we talked about how you could glance at the circle of fifths in order to quickly know what the I. IV. G#m. etc. Because. For C.

Remember that previously we talked about how the V chord wants to resolve to the I? The II chord wants to move towards the V chord in the same way. let’s look at a more concrete example. go ahead and play the “50s cliche” progression at the top of page 14 but substitute the ii for the IV chord and you’ll recognize the tonality of this progression right away. However. the next most common diatonic chord that you will encounter is the ii. the V wants to resolve to the I and the ii wants to move towards the V in our ii-V-I progression . but it is still there. The vi chord is the v of the ii chord (in this case the E note being the 5th Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . Play through a I-IV-V-I progression on your guitar and then play a I-ii-V-I progression and see if you can get a sense of the difference between the two. You’ll remember from our chord substitution chart that this chord is a good substitute for the IV chord. which has a v—I relationship. The ii chord often precedes the V chord. Let’s say that we are in the key of G.vi . When the five chord is major (V) it is referred to as the “V of the V” or V/V. Remember at the beginning of this section 16 ž 3 ž ž Audio Track 1-21 ž 0 ž 2 ž 0 ž 2 ž 3 ž 2 ž 0 ž 2    we talked about the strong relationship between the I and the V chord? Well. if we now look at the key of D. If that doesn’t make sense to you. So. giving us the ii-V-I sequence that is prevalent in jazz. The V chord in the key of G is D. then the old ii chord is now the v chord. So. If you look at the progression shown for “Heart and Soul” at the top of the next page and analyze the sequence. In fact. Substituting the IV chord with the ii produces a smoother sound and thus many composers like the tonality. the ii chord is Am. we can take this concept one step farther in this “vi-ii-V-I” progression. (We will revisit that famous chord sequence later in this book. It is not a strong as the V—I relationship. but the pull is still there with the minor chord. the ii chord and the V chord have a very similar relationship because if you convert the V chord and make it the I chord. you’ll recognize this famous backup to the tune “Heart and Soul” (see the tab at the top of the next page). we can say that the A chord is the “V of the V” (D) in the key of G. If you shorten the changes so that you are changing chords every half measure and then play eighth note arpeggios over the chord changes. Many of the songs from the Doo-Wop era of rock and roll use this progression. One of the reasons that the ii-V-I progression flows so well is because of the relationship between the ii and the V chord. and in Volumes 7 and 8).V Progression in the Key of G: Filling in with Quarter Notes       1   T A B 5   G ž 3 Em ž 2 ž 0 C ž 3 ž ž 0 2 2 D ž 2 ž 0 ž 2 ž 0 ž ž 4 ž ž 0 ž 2 0 0 2 2 ž ž 2 ž ž 2 0 ž 2 G ž 4 The Two Minor (ii) Chord After the vi.IV . the D chord is the root chord and the A chord is the V.I . The pull is not quite as strong when II is minor (ii).

in the key of G the ii is the Am chord and the IV is the C chord.I . In Volume 5 you worked with the C major pentatonic scale.” which was popularized by the Country Gentleman in bluegrass. When we study 7th chords in the next section of this book we will revisit the V/V and V/V/V concept and talk about the idea of “subdominant” chords. Therefore. and the V is. obviously.ii . When you worked with the Em scale earlier in this book you learned that the notes of the Em pentatonic scale were exactly the same as the G major pentatonic scale. Additionally. This is the same basic progression that you worked with in Volume 5. If you start the G scale on the A note then you are playing in the Dorian mode. But. The song “Fox on the Run. We briefly touched on modes earlier in this course and we specifically presented the Dorian mode on pages 12 and 13 of Volume 5. we know that the notes of the C scale and the notes of the Am scale are exactly the same. you could play the notes of the C scale over the Am chord in the key of G. By now you may have guessed that the notes of the A minor pentatonic scale and the C major pentatonic scale are exactly the same. The only note that would not be diatonic to the key of G is the F note. The first thing that you could do is simply play the G scale. but starting on the A note. as you saw in Volume 5. The second thing you might think about when improvising over the ii chord is that the ii shares the exact same scale notes as the IV chord. Tim May. In that song the progression toggles back and forth between the ii and IV chord. In terms of soloing over the ii chord there are a number ways that you can approach it.vi . So. uses the ii chord in the chorus.” Although we have yet to present “Devil’s Dream” thus far in this course. The A Dorian mode is defined by playing the notes of the G scale in sequence. so you should be familiar with it. I’ve replaced the IV chord with the ii chord. However. you can play the notes of the C major pentatonic scale starting on the A note (which is exactly the same as playing the A minor pentatonic scale!). enough of that. however. So the E chord is the “V of the V of the V” (or V/V/V)! All of this happens in a much stronger sense when you add dominant 7th chords to the mix. is the V of the V. the ii chord shows up in the fiddle tune “Devil’s Dream.” which you learned in Volume 3 of this course. when you are playing in the key of G and you play over an Am chord. and the D is the V of the G. the A is the V of the D. For instance. but start it on one of the Am chord tones. Since Am is the relative minor in the key of C. the V of the I. especially in swing or jazz.V Progression in the Key of G: Filling in with Eighth Note Arpeggios       1 T A B Audio Track 1-22 žž ž ž  ž ž ž ž žž žžž žž žž žž žžž žž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž 3 3   2 2 2 2 2 2 0 2 2 2 0  2 0 2 2 2 2 0 2 2 0  2 2 2 2 0 G Em 3 0 Am D scale degree of the A scale). produced a recording for CMH Records a few years back titled Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 17 . In the tab shown at the top of the next page we have presented a simple I-ii-V-I progression. like this: I-V-ii-IV-ii-V-IV-I The ii chord also shows up in the B part of the fiddle tune “St. Anne’s Reel. In the key of G.” [Author’s Note: My distinguished co-author. This is a progression that was used by Neil Young for his song “Out On The Weekend. that follow this chord sequence. If you are not already aware of this type of chord progression you may be amazed at how many songs. So here with a vi-ii-V-I progression you can see that the iv is the v of the ii. the ii. Let’s get back to talking about the ii chord. we could solve that problem by G Em 3 0 Am D playing the C major pentatonic scale (which does not include the F note). you will find that an arrangement of “Devil’s Dream” is presented later in this volume. the E is the V of the A.

playing along with the track taken from Brad Davis’ Flatpick Jam (Disc 1. Both consonance and dissonance are used to great effect in soloing. This is basically the version you learned in Volume 3. IV. the most stable melody notes are usually the notes that belong to the chord because the harmony in the chord is there to support the most prominent and stable notes in the melody.I . dissonant note choices when 18 1 2 2 2 0 ž ž 3 0 ž 0 ž ž 0 3 The Bluegrass Tribute to Neil Young. try to play the tune “St. If you are playing a solo to any song. Conversely. dissonant means unresolved and unstable.ii . we are encouraging you to improvise over the B section using notes of the C scale. As you learned in Volumes 2 and 3. Track 19) before moving on. So far we have taken a look at chord progressions that include the I. Track 9). In the tab shown above I have filled in with chord tones. A consonant note choice is one that is resolved and stable. let’s first examine all of the various ways that you might choose to think about making note choices for diatonic chords. Which leads us to our next set of note choices. the prominent melody notes are going to be the most stable notes in the solo because they define the song. are the notes that belong to the chord that you are playing against. To give you a better understanding of consonance and dissonance. and vi chords.I Progression in the Key of G: Filling in with Chord Tones     1 T A B 5  G Am ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 0 0 0 0 3  D ž 0 3 ž ž ž ž 2 0 0 2 3 ž ž ž ž 2 2 0 2 3 ž 2 ž ž ž ž 1 2 G ž 0 ž ž 3 ž Note Choices for Diatonic Chords Before we proceed to look at the last two diatonic chords. playing any chord Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . here is a list of note choices that moves from the most consonant to the most dissonant: 1) Stable Melody Notes: Obviously. lets first analyze the six different ways that you can look at consonant vs. You should play through this progression along with the audio track provided (Disc 1. I highly recommend Tim’s tribute recording]. Before we move on to take a look at the remaining diatonic chords. While the chord tones are not as stable as the exact melody notes. Give it a try.V .” If you like Neil Young’s music. the most consonant note choices. ii. the most stable notes of any solo are going to be those stable melody notes that we worked with in Volume 2. working through all of the steps as outlined on pages 55 through 76 of Volume 5. outside of the melody notes. so one is not necessarily “better” than the other. which includes the tune “Out On The Weekend. ž ž ž ž 2 2 0 Audio Track 1-23 ž 0 žž žž 3 3 0 0 3 you are playing a solo over any diatonic chord changes. It all depends on how you use them. Anne’s Reel” as shown on the next page. After you have worked with the progression provided above. 2) Chord Tones: As we discussed in Volume 5. however. V.

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ C 4 &4 Ó 1 Ó T A B Œ 1 3 ........ 2 3 1 1 19 ................................ .. F 2 G 2 1 0 Dm ˆ 2 0 F 0 3 C 1 C 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 G .- œ œ œ œ œ ........... 0 0 1 0 3 1 œ œœœœœ œ œ œ œ œ & 6 0 & ..... Anne’s Reel” Basic Melody Outline with “holes” for Improvisation œ œœ Œ œ œ ..............“St................. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ .... ........ ..... 1 1 1 1 3 1 C ˆ ˆ ˆ improvise ....- C Dm ˆ G ˆ ˆ improvise ................... . 15 & Play Along with Audio Track 1-19 0 1 0 3 1 2 0 C 2 2 0 2 0 2 C 2 0 2 0 3 3 2 3 3 0 1 3 œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ .. 11 .. œ œ ˙ C 1 1 3 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking C 2 1 1 3 1 ...

for example. We will study tension and release more thoroughly later in this book. 3) Major Pentatonic Notes: The next set of consonant notes are those that are found in the pentatonic scales (either major or minor depending on the chord you are playing over). so you should have some familiarity with them. A study of the various uses of modes. The type of modes that we are dealing with here are called “Greek modes.” or “jazz modes. When you choose to play notes that are in the scale of the key. but each mode starts on a different scale degree. and then you worked with playing the notes of the minor pentatonic scale over a diatonic minor chord earlier in this book. How Modes Are Built: Modes are built using the notes of a major scale. Dissonant notes do serve a very useful function as they can help provide the important quality of tension and release to your solos. the choice involves modes. then Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . Five of these notes (major pentatonic) are going to be fairly consonant. you’ll need to know how they are built and then you’ll need to know what they are in the context of the key and scale of the key. 4) Modes: The fourth set of notes that you can choose from are the seven notes that are found in the major scale of the key. The use of modes can be confusing. The seven “Greek modes” that relate to the key of G are shown in the table on the top of the page. First. but play them over a chord that is not the key center (root chord). You have already worked with one example of using a dissonant tone when you played the leading tone of the major scale (7th scale degree) to help lead the listener’s ear to a chord change in Volume 1. and you start your solo on a D note and use only the notes of the G scale. the tonal emphasis is placed on a different root note. however. but for now we can simplify and just say that if you are in the key of G and the chord progression moves to the D chord. but using the notes of the G scale. For the time being there are only two things that you need to know about modes in order to begin to understand their most basic use. You 20 Mode were briefly introduced to modes in Volume 5 when we took a look at minor scales in the front of that book. You practiced improvising using chord tones in Volume 5. that does not mean the dissonant notes should be avoided at all cost. “church modes. Each of these modes maintains the structure of the G scale. If you are playing over a C chord. One thing to remember when we talk about consonance and dissonance is that while consonant notes are the most stable. as we discussed in Volume 5. but we are not going to need to dive in too deep. especially in jazz. You worked with both the major and minor pentatonic notes in Volume 5. Using the information in this chart you will know that if you are playing over an Am chord and using the notes of the G scale. however. If you look at the chart at the top of this page you can see that the notes of each of the seven modes are the exact notes of the G scale. is a very deep subject. then you are playing in the “A Dorian” mode. the 4th scale degree and the 7th scale degree for the major chords and the 2nd scale degree and the 6th scale degree for the minor chords are going to be a bit dissonant as they are a half step away from one of the chord tones.G Scale Modes Triad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 G G A B C D E F# Ionian Am A B C D E F# G Dorian Bm B C D E F# G A Phrygian C C D E F# G A B Lydian D D E F# G A B C Mixolydian Em E F# G A B C D Aeolian F# F# G A B C D E Locrian tone against a chord will still have a consonant tonality. We will introduce modes here. then you are using the D mixolydian mode.” These type of modes are not the same as the “major modes” or “minor modes” that are used to describe the tonality of a song. but each mode starts on a different degree of the G scale.

It is always good to practice a variety of exercises on the guitar to help your fingers and ears gain familiarity. there are a lot of different uses for modes. In our example we were playing the notes of the G scale over the D chord and thus we were using the D mixolydian mode. etc. but still maintain the song’s overall tonality and structure (G major scale). Really studying and thinking about modes. Do you have to know what mode you are playing? Do you have to know all of your modes? Do you have to practice modes? Not necessarily. the harmony that is built on the D note includes notes that are in the G scale. When this situation occurs. What all this means is that while the notes of the G major scale are still at the tonal center of the melody. In Western music scales and chords are related in two ways. if you are playing a song in the key of G and the stable melody notes of F# or A arise—and the tonality of the song The Diatonic Chords in the Key of G with Corresponding Scales Triad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 G G A B C D E F# G Major Am A B C D E F G A minor Bm B C# D E F# G A B minor C C D E F G A B C Major D D E F# G A B C# D Major Em E F# G A B C D E minor F# F# G A B C D E Locrian Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking Scale 21 . the tonality that receives the most emphasis. remains bright and happy—the harmony that supports those notes are going to be found in the D chord. if the stable notes of the melody move away from the chord tones of the G chord. for the time being.you are playing in the “C Lydian” mode. In much simpler terms. in the “key center” application that is presented here. the tonal center of the harmony is based on the D note. This is just one way to define and use modes. and thus the chord progression changes to a D chord. When you are playing a song in the key of G. So. and then there is the relationship that they have with the key. as long as you know that when you are in the key of G and hit an Am chord (for example)—and you want to play notes that are consonant to the key—you can chose to play the notes of the G major scale. the root of the chord and the tonal center of the key are the same and the tone center remains very clearly defined. then the harmony changes in order to support those melody notes. The usage that is described above is called the “key center” approach. You don’t really need to know that you are playing the A Dorian mode. When we temporarily shift the tonal emphasis of the song. the tonal center of the song’s melody revolves around the G scale. of the song. However. or tonal center. is found in the D chord. There is the relationship that they have with each other. if you are playing the notes of a major scale (the scale notes of the key) over a chord that is not the root chord. As you know from studying diatonic chords. For instance. When stable melody notes appear. is not necessary when you are playing songs that have chords What Are Modes? Now that you have an idea about how modes are constructed. then the harmony is built on the G chord. that are notes from the G chord. Thus the song remains in the key of G. We will dive a little bit deeper into the world of modes later in this course. you have created a “mode” of that major scale. Simply play the G scale notes over the Am chord. let’s define modes a little more clearly. As mentioned previously. In other words. while the melody is still revolving around the tonal center of the key (G). However. that is fine and it might be a good exercise to help you familiarize yourself with the tonal qualities of this mode. so if you want to run through the notes of the Dorian mode in any key. then you are using a mode. especially in jazz music. what happens when the chord changes to D in the key of G is that the tonal center of the melody and harmony is shifted to the D note without the overall tonality of the melody moving away from the structure of the G major scale.

Even though one of the notes in these four scales is going to be outside of the diatonic scale tones. This is the first scale that we’ve encountered that uses notes outside of the scale of the key. the only note that is not in the G scale is the C# note. D. Although we are going to think about adding the F note as a part of the G minor pentatonic scale. A. In Volume 5 we worked with switching our way of thinking away from the scale of the key to the major pentatonic scale of the chord. that would move you one step farther away from consonance (because you’d be adding that flat seven scale degree—the F note in the C scale). D#. E. We are adding the Bb note and the F note to our note choice pallet. D. you could think about the G minor pentatonic scale as the next step in our consonance versus dissonance progression (which add the Bb and F notes as dissonant tones). we like to think about adding it in the context of the minor pentatonic scale instead of the C scale. 6) Remaining Notes: The sixth set of notes you can select from are the remainder of the notes in the chromatic scale that we have yet to use. But you are free to think about it either way. F 6 Remaining Notes C#. A more serious study of modes. G. E. there are only two notes that are not in the G scale: the F note (in the C and Am scales). So in step five of our example. If you were to think about using the whole scale of the chord. there are only those two notes to worry about. The scale that is associated with the F#dim chord—the Locrian mode scale—is also exactly the same as the G scale. B 5 G minor Pentatonic Notes G. These will be the most dissonant notes and will provide the most tension to your solo. 5) Notes From the Minor Pentatonic Scale: The next set of notes to chose from are the five notes of the minor pentatonic scale of the key. G# that change every few measures. you switched your way of thinking about your note choices from the notes of the key to the notes of the scale of the new chord. Let’s move on. G. The concept here could be that when each chord changed. and so we are adding some dissonance here. at most. You can play a “wrong” note Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . You worked with this scale extensively in Volume 5. you’ll see that the only note in that scale that is not in the G scale is the F note. E. So. becomes more important when you are playing songs that stay on a particular chord for a longer period of time. instead of just the major pentatonic scale. D. If you look at the Am scale. you may recognize that this note is also the only note that is part of the C scale that is not in the G scale. and the C# note (in the D and Bm scales). Tension is not a bad thing as long as there is resolution. and if those notes are used as passing tones or neighboring notes they will work out just fine. F#. one note that doesn’t belong to the key. 22 Consonance (Stable) Dissonance (Unstable) You can see by the chart shown at the bottom of the previous page that for every scale that you might play over any given chord that is diatonic to the G scale there is. or you might think about the scale of the chord you are playing as holding this fifth spot (which may add the F and C# notes as described above).Consonant-to-Dissonant Note Choices when Playing Over a C Chord in the Key of G 1 Melody Notes Melody Notes 2 Chord Tones C. When adding that F note over the key of G. the same holds true for the D scale. G 3 C Major Pentatonic Notes C. B. out of all of the scales that are built around diatonic chords in the key of G. For the Bm scale. Bb. A 4 G Scale Notes (C Lydian Mode) C. That could be a viable way of thinking when you are considering adding some dissonance. The Em scale is exactly the same as the G scale. The same is true for the C scale. and the sub-melodies that can be built on modes.

Practice: Before you move forward to study the iii and the iv° chords.and it will not sound wrong if you resolve that note to a “right” note. then all notes from the G scale.V Progression in the Key of G: Filling in with Chord Tones     ‹ G 1 ‹ T A B 5   « « Œ The Œ Œ Nine Pound 0 0 2 G Œ Œ for 2 my 0 U size 0 · Ham 0 - ‹ · mer Œ Œ Œ Œ Œ ‹ 0 D ‹ Œ Œ Œ Œ ‹ bud-dy for 2 2 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 0 is a 0 2 li . even playing all the “wrong” notes against a chord can still sound OK. Dissonance is great tool to use to make a solo interesting. Homework: After you have gained some experience working with all six note choice steps with the song “Nine Pound Hammer” go back to the practice tracks that you worked with earlier in this book for “Temperance Reel. then all chromatic notes.” and “St. then alter and/or add to it using chord tones. Try improvising this song focusing on one step at a time.” “Blackberry Blossom. In his DVD Victor Wooten’s Groove Workshop.IV . in this section of the course we are going to continue studying the consonant notes.ttle to 0 G U my size 2 0 2 0 Audio Track 1-24 C · hea 2 - · vy 0 w 23 . because his tone. Victor Wooten demonstrates how he can hit a “wrong” note over and over and it sounds “wrong. Start with the melody. go back to the basic I. V progression of the song “Nine Pound Hammer” (as shown below) and try to improvise over this melody and chord progression using each of the six note choice steps that have been presented. However. then major pentatonic notes.” but then when he resolves that note to a “right” note the “wrong” magically then sounds “right. He also demonstrates an improvisation whereby he plays all “wrong” notes throughout an entire improvised solo (the notes shown in category 6 in the chart at the top of this page). I . note duration. Track 2.” . however. and groove all come together in a very musical way. timing. then notes from the G minor pentatonic scale. We’ll examine the use of dissonant notes and the concept of tension and release a little later in this book. Anne’s Reel” and do the same. lets move on and take a look at the two remaining diatonic chords. articulation. IV. You can find a rhythm track for this tune on Disc 1. For now.

you’d think that it might be a good transition chord between the I and the V. Try playing through this progression while working with the audio track on Disc 1.iii . When the Beatles released that song in 1964 it probably did give the rock and roll listeners a little excitement because they were so used to listening to the I-vi-IV-V and the I-vi-ii-V changes! The “She Loves You” progression is shown at the top of the next page in the key of G. you really only have to work with the notes of the G and D major pentatonic scales since they share the same notes with the Em and Bm pentatonic scales. “It was a bit of a formula. But perhaps the most famous pop songs to use the iii chord are the Beatles’ tunes “She Loves You” and “I Feel Fine. Since the iii and the vi both share two notes with the I chord. however.V Progression in the Key of G: Filling in with Eighth Note Arpeggios Audio Track 1-25       1 T A B 24 G Em 3 0 Bm D G Em 3 0 Bm D žž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž žž žž žž žž žž žž žž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž 3 3   0 4 2 2 0 4 2 2 0 2 4 4 0  2 0 2 2 2 2 4 4 0  2 2 2 2 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . In “Can’t Help Falling In Love” the I chord moves to the iii chord and then to the vi before it moves to the IV. Work through all of the steps that you practiced with the I-IV-V progressions in Volume 5 and try to use all of the various note choices as shown on the chart on page 22. respectively. Track 26. then moves on to the relative minor of the I chord (one measure)—as did the “50’s cliche” progression—but then it moves onto the iii (for one measure). you could use the iii chord as a substitute for the I chord or the V chord. before it goes to the V (for one measure). Thus. however.” In “Dixie Hoedown” some people play I-iii-ii-I. I . If you take the “Heart and Soul” progression that you looked at a few pages back and substituted the iii chord for the ii chord. while others will play I-iii-IV-I. In the verse of “She Loves You” the chord progression is: I-vi-iii-V. So this looks exactly like the “50s Cliche” progression with the iii substituted for the vi. Regarding this progression Paul McCartney is quoted as saying. you’d have a progression like the one shown below.) Then work with the notes of the G scale. First work with the melody to the verse of “She Loves You. You will not see it quite as much as the vi chord or the ii chord. Since the iii shares two notes in common with both the I chord and the V chord. it starts with the I (one measure).” So there you go. Try to get a feel for the tonality of the Bm chord in the key of G. Strum through this progression a few times and then play the tab. In the flatpicking fiddle tune repertoire the iii chord shows up in the B section of the tune “Dixie Hoedown. The iii also shows up in the folk song “Puff the Magic Dragon” (the first line is: I-iii-IV-I). which is the relative minor of the V. We knew if you went from E (I) to G#m (iii) you could always make a song with those chords…that change pretty much always excited you. The Elvis Presley hit “Can’t Help Falling In Love” uses the iii chord in the verse (I-iii-vi-IV-I-V) and then in that song’s bridge starts on the iii chord.one use for the iii chord is to create an “exciting” transition between the I and the IV chords. In terms of chord substitution. Then it goes back to the I chord.The Three Minor (iii) Chord The iii chord is the third secondary chord that you will run across. the I-iii-vi makes a nice smooth and mellow transition to the IV in that song.” Then work with chord tones. then with major and minor pentatonic scales (as you know now.. but it does pop up now and then. when it is used in that capacity it weakens the relationship between the I and the V. try to examine a different set of note choices.” The iii chord doesn’t have a role that is as clearly defined as the vi or the ii chord.. The chorus to the Beatles song “I Feel Fine” moves like this: I-iii-IV-V. Each time you move through the progression.vi . the I and the V are the most important chords in any chord progression (since they help define the key) and so they are the least likely chords to substitute.

you naturally want to have it resolve to something else. Another place you will find the iii chord in popular music is on songs that use a “chord stream. the Beatles song “Ask Me Why” uses a I-ii-iii-I chord stream. dissonant note choices (1 through 6) as outlined on page 18 to 23).” A chord stream progression exhibits a step-wise motion on the root note of each chord. Strum through the chords and then roll through the arpeggios shown in the tab to get a feel for the tonality of the I-ii-iii-IV chord stream.” or “the devil in music” during the Middle Ages. Part of its chord progression goes like this: I-ii-iii-IV-V. Any chord that contains a diminished The “Chord Stream” Progression: Filling in with Eighth Note Arpeggios       1 T A B   Audio Track 1-27 G Am Bm C G Am Bm C  žž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžž ž ž ž ž ž žžžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 3 2 0 2 0 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 3 2 0 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 2 3 2 0 2 0 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 3 2 0 2   25 . the V7 chord (we’ll take a look at seventh chords starting on page 27). This kind of movement is called a “chord stream” because the root notes of each chord follow the root notes of the scale from the first to the fourth scale degrees.IV . The tritone is the most disharmonic interval. Whenever a diminished chord is played. the vii° can serve the same purpose as the V chord.I . so it wants to resolve to the root chord. the F#° chord is the leading tone chord. See the tab at the bottom of this page. Audio Track 1-26 C D ž ž ž ž É 2 3 0 2  É 0   0 The vii° Chord Of all of the secondary chords the vii° is the least utilized in traditional music. The tritone is such a dissonant interval that it was referred to as “diablo en music. In general. you are going to want to hear that chord resolve to the G chord. Although the iii chord does not show up as often as the other two secondary chords (vi and ii). Two minor third intervals add up to a diminished fifth.V Progression in the Key of G: Filling in with Chord       1 T A B   G Bm ž ž ž ž 2 3 ž ž ž ž 0 0 4 4 2 4 etc. or better yet.iii . Well. or a tritone. The Beatles song “Here There and Everyone” uses a chord movement like this: I-iiiii-IV-I. it does still show up in popular music. Additionally. Follow the consonant vs. Functionally. The vii° is said to be a “restless troublemaker” because it contains an interval of two minor thirds. diminished chords are used as transition chords because they have such a dissonance. Bob Dylan’s tune “Like A Rolling Stone” uses an even long chord stream. If you play the F#° chord in the key of G. In Volume 1 you learned that the leading tone of a scale (seventh scale degree) wants to resolve to the root. The chorus of the Beatles “Sexy Sadie” shows a I-ii-iii-IV-I chord stream as well.

it is time to move forward and take a look at what happens when you stack a fourth note on top of your diatonic triads (forming seventh chords). we’ll not practice any improvisation over this chord at this point in time. Diatonic Triad Summary Volumes 5 and 6. let’s move on to talk about what happens when you stack another third interval on top of the diatonic triads that we have been working with in this section of the book. Having said that. you will be able to not only learn to recognize these chord changes and progressions by ear. We will study more about diminished chords in Volume 7 of this course. Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . diatonic melodies and chord changes are the building blocks for everything that you will do in music. On the audio CD that accompanies this book you will only find the medium tempo version. Instead. You may want to learn more complicated chords and scales and you may be interested in exploring jazz or fusion music. As we’ve stated before. Since you will seldom see a vii° chord in bluegrass. and fast tempo rhythm tracks to each of these progressions on our website. On the web site you can download a slower version and a faster version so that you can suit your needs regarding tempo. Most every simple song melody and chord progression comes from a diatonic melody and diatonic harmony. We will continue to add to your knowledge of chord changes and chord progressions in the next section of this book and in Volumes 7 and 8 of this course. diminished chords want to move. We have also posted slow. however. The goal in providing you with all of these chord progressions and rhythm tracks is that. Then we will start looking at some non-diatonic chord progressions. subtraction. folk. the easier it is going to be for you to work with the non-diatonic material that you will encounter later. To make it a bit easier for you to reference these progressions and work with the audio tracks. In chord triad theory it is said that the root note defines the chord. we have provided an appendix in this volume that presents each of these progressions in a chord chart form. Therefore. but you will also develop the ability to improvise over all of these changes. you have now had the opportunity to work with over a dozen different chord progressions that use chords that are diatonic to the key of G. medium. Using the improvisation techniques that we have outlined in both Volumes 5 and 6 you now have a step-by-step method that you can follow in order to learn how to improvise over a variety of different chord changes and chord progressions.fifth (or augmented fourth) interval is going to be very unstable. blues. The more time that you spend with the diatonic chord progressions. We’ll summarize this diatonic chord section and then move on to take a look at seventh chords. if you have not built a solid foundation working with diatonic scales and chords it would be like trying to learn algebra without first having a solid foundation in basic math­—like addition. When the fifth in any chord is not a “perfect fifth. multiplication and division. the third gives it character. or rock music.” there is instability. through practice 26 with all of the steps outlined in Volume 5. and the fifth gives it stability.

you learned about triads. specifically. Major 7th Augmented Minor 7th = Major Third.” but that term is not used. The interval of a major third consists of four half steps. You learned that chord triads are built by starting with a root note. minor. and again at the beginning of this section of this volume. If stacking three notes is a “triad” then a logical extension of that name convention when stacking four notes would be “quadads. Augmented Fifth. the most useful and common in Western music being the V7. will yield the eight seventh chords shown in the list below. Instead. The interval of a minor third consists of three half steps. Augmented Fifth. At the top of this diagram I’ve written out the chromatic scale. Minor 7th Some of the Common Seventh Chords in the Key of G G Major 7th Chord: Gmaj7 G G#/AA A A#/BA B C C#/DA D D#/EA E F F#/GA G C C#/DA D D#/EA E F F#/GA G C C#/DA D D#/EA E F F#/GA G G 7th Chord (Dominant 7th): G7 G G#/AA A A#/BA B G Minor 7th Chord: Gm7 G G#/AA A A#/BA B Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 27 . diminished. Seventh chords are built by stacking another major or minor interval on top of the triad stack. You are probably already familiar with a few seventh chords. The second most common seventh chord is the minor seventh. The chart below depicts how all eight of the seventh chords are formed. By “stacking thirds” in this manner you were able to build major.Seventh Chords Earlier in this course. and augmented chord triads. Chords like the Major 7th and the Diminished 7ths start to show up when the tunes move more towards jazz. adding a major or minor third. diatonic triads. and then adding another major or minor third. also called the “dominant” seventh. these chords are called “seventh” chords because the interval between the first note (root) and the fourth note in the stack is a seventh. in all possible combinations. Starting at the root and moving up either a major or minor third. For now we are going to Stacking Thirds to Form Seventh Chords Half Step G Half Step Half Step G#/AA A Half Step A#/BA B Major Third = 4 Half Steps 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Half Step Half Step C Half Half Step Step C#/DA D Minor Third = 3 Half Steps Half Step Half Half Step Step D#/EA E F Half Step F#/GA G Major 7th Chord = Major Third + Minor Third + Major Third Dominant 7th Chord = Major Third + Minor Third + Minor Third Minor 7th Chord = Minor Third + Major Third + Minor Third Minor/Major 7th=Minor Third + Major Third + Major Third Half Diminished 7th (or Min7A5) = Minor Third + Minor Third + Major Third Diminished 7th = Minor Third + Minor Third + Minor Third Augmented Major 7th = Major Third.

We will talk more about those two shapes shortly. These are the seventh chords that you will most likely run across in folk. both of which are closed chords. The F# note wants to resolve up to the G note in the G chord and the C note wants to resolve down to the B note in the G chord. In this chart you will see that the seventh chords that are built upon the root and the fourth scale degrees are major seventh (M7) chords. C7. and C notes (as depicted in the diagram below).” Earlier in this book you learned how to build diatonic triads. The seventh chords that are built on the second. D7. In fact. the dominant seventh chord has a very strong pull towards the root chord of the key. the V7 is the perfect chord to use in place of the V chord when the melody and harmony are both moving towards resolving to the root in the last phrase of a song or tune. and C. In the key of G the V7 chord is the D7. that the song is resolving to the root. blues. A. and B7 chords. Using those note choices as your most stable notes to play over the D chord. and B flat. third. G. the two most useful 7th chord shapes to know are the C7 shape and the second F7 shape. [Another name for the half diminished chord—so that it is not confused with the “full diminished”—is “minor seven flat five. you’ll see that the three notes that are stacked on top of the root note of the chord are exactly the same as the three notes in the vii° chord. A7.”] The seventh chord that is built upon the fifth scale degree is simply called the “seventh” (V7). you really can’t go wrong. The Dominant 7th Chord You learned back in Volume 4 (in the Intervals Appendix) that another name for the fifth scale degree is the “dominant. That V7 chord gives a very strong signal to the audience. you have probably run across the V7 chord. and the other musicians. and rock music. E. if you look at the dominant seventh chord. all you have to do is play a V7 chord in place of the V. or the “dominant seventh. In the key of C the V7 chord is the G7 chord. bluegrass. A visual reference for the discussion in this paragraph is shown in the diagram at the top of the next page. A. four of your note choices will be in the D7 chord (D. D. You’ll remember from the last section of this book that playing the notes of the G scale over a D chord means that you are in the mixolydian mode. and sixth scale degrees are minor seventh chords (m7). you can simply use notes from the scale of the key. In the key of G the dominant seventh chord Diatonic Seventh Chords    žž žž GM7 28 F# D B G Am7 žžž ž G E C A Bm7 žž žž A F# D B žž žž CM7 (D7) contains the D. žž žž D7 B G E C C A F# D žž žž Em7 D B G E žž žž F#m7A5 E C A F# žžž ž GM7 F# D B G Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .focus on the “dominant seventh. F#. If you are a flatpicker and are familiar with playing bluegrass songs and fiddle tunes. We can also look at diatonic sevenths as shown in the chart below. The seventh chord that is built upon the seventh scale degree is called a “half diminished” seventh. A. I’ve only shown the open chord shapes for the G7. F#. In the D7 chord the tritone between the F# note and the C note (tritone = three whole steps) makes the chord very unstable. The good news for you as an improvising guitar player is that your note choices over the V7 chord can remain exactly the same as your note choices were over the V chord. Since the dominant seventh chord is diatonic to the key. C). So. E7.” which is the diatonic seventh chord built on the fifth scale degree.” When I talked about the relationship between the I chord and the V chord in the last section of this book I discussed how the leading tone (7th scale degree) that resides in the V chord begs to resolve to the root note (1st scale degree) in the I chord. At the bottom of the next page I’ve presented dominant seven chord diagrams in the keys of C. A. When moving up the neck. The reason that the V7 chord is more dissonant is because it has that very unstable tritone that is also present in the vii° chord. F. In the key of G the F#° chord (vii°) contains the notes F#. Since there is such a strong pull from the dominant 7th chord to the root chord. For the F7 chords I’ve shown two options. If you want to add a little more tension to the V chord and give it an even stronger pull towards the I chord. if you play the notes of the G scale over the D chord. In the key of G.

A. F#. B. C D D#/EA E F#/GA G F D7 Chord Notes Seventh: Fifth: Third: Root: C A F# D C#/DA D D#/EA E F F#/GA G G#/AA A A#/BA B C C#/DA G Chord Notes C reso lves to B F# resolves to G D B G Open Position Dominant Seventh Chord Forms Key of C G7 X Key of D A7 Key of G D7 Key of E X B7 Key of F C7 Key of A E7 Key of BA Key of BA F7 X F7 X OR Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 29 .The Dominant Seventh Chord and its Pull Back Towards the Root G Major Chord: G. D G G#/AA A A#/BA B C D 7th Chord (Dominant 7th): D.

which are those related to songs played in minor keys. This is a good skill to learn. We will look at other types of seventh chords in greater detail in Volume 7.I Progression in the Key of G       1 1   T A B 5  5  G Œ 3 G Œ Œ ŒŒ Œ 3 0 0 0 Œ 0 Œ ŒŒ Œ Œ 3 0 0 0 3 Œ ŒŒ Œ 3 0 0 0 Œ ŒŒ Œ Audio Track 1-13 Œ ŒŒ Œ Œ 3 0 0 0 0 Œ 0 Œ ŒŒ Œ 3 0 0 0 Œ 0 ŒŒ Œ Œ 2 1 2 0 Œ 0 ŒŒ Œ Œ 2 1 2 0 G Œ 3 ŒŒ ŒŒ Œ 0 1 0 2 3 3 D7 ŒŒ ŒŒ Œ 3 0 0 0 The notes shown on these charts in grey are optional. What you play will really be no different here. What you should focus on in this exercise is hearing the tonality of the dominant 7th chord. In the tab shown above I’ve presented a I. All I’ve done here is substitute a V7 chord in the place of the V chord in measure 6. V7.I . It will always be 30 C Œ 0 1 0 2 3 0 0 0 Œ 0 Œ ŒŒ Œ 3 0 0 0 Œ 3 ŒŒ ŒŒ Œ 0 1 0 2 3 3 Œ ŒŒ Œ ŒŒ ŒŒ 0 1 0 2 3 Œ ŒŒ Œ 3 0 0 0 Œ 0 Œ ŒŒ Œ 3 0 0 0    a good “heads up” if you can learn to hear it. If you can learn how to identify the dominant 7th tonality. If you learn to recognize its tonality in simple I. that will help you later on when the progressions get more complicated. For the time being this is far as we are going to go with seventh chords. We are also going to wait until a little later in this book to discuss a third category of diatonic chords. Go ahead and work with this progression while exploring all of the steps that you learned in Volume 5. For the D7 and B7 chords if you don’t play the grey notes you’ll need to mute that string (as indicated by the grey “X. you’ll know that the progression is getting ready to move back to the I chord that is relative to that dominant 7th. Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .IV . then your ear will be able to hear when the chord progression is getting ready to move back to the I chord.” However. Track 13 I’ve provided a rhythm track from the tab above to work with. for the C7 and E7 chords if you don’t play the note that is indicated in grey. pages 55 to 76. You will work a lot with dominant 7th chords as you progress through the remainder of this course. let’s leave the diatonic chord discussion and take a look at some common “non-diatonic” chords. I progression. IV. V7 chord progression in the key of G. We will revisit dominant sevenths again a little later in this volume when we discuss blues progressions and secondary dominant chords. As soon as you hear that dominant 7th chord. IV. This is the “Nine Pound Hammer” progression that you worked with back on page 37 of Volume 5 (Bluegrass Progression 1). especially if you are in a jam session and do not know the song. then you can play the open string since the open string note is still in the chord. For now. On Disc 1.V7 .

” “Big Mon. Irish music. and rock melodies. I-bVII-I-V-I Progression in the Key of G: Filling in with Quarter Notes     1 T A B 5  G F ž ž  ž 0 ž 0 ž 0 2 3 G ž ž 3 0 ž ž 2 ž ž Lž ž 0 0 2 ž ž 3 ž ž 1 2 Audio Track 1-28 1 2 ž Lž ž 2 2 3 3 ž 3 ž 3 ž 0 D ž 0 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking G ž ž ž 0 2 0 ž 2 É 3 ½ ½ 31 . this is a non-diatonic chord. as it was traditionally played.” and “Old Joe Clark. In this section of the book we will begin to look at “non-diatonic. If a piper wanted to write a song in the key of A—which is an easy key for the fiddle to play—but he only had his D pipe.” or “chromatic.” “June Apple. the flat seven chord is the F chord. he could still play.” “Red Haired Boy. The Flat Seven Chord When looking at chord progressions in fiddle tunes. “Salt Creek. started providing rhythm for the Irish tunes those flat 7 chords showed up the chord progressions because those flat seven notes were in the melody. and other chordal instruments. No one in the group was playing the chords. The only difference between the A scale and the D scale is that the seventh degree of the A scale is a G# note. As a result people became accustom to that flat 7 tonality in fiddle music and thus that chord they became a part of the sound of fiddle music in America. one common chord that shows up quite often—even more often than the ii or iii chords—is the flat seven. So. could be called “non-chordal” music—meaning that all of the musicians played lead lines at the same time.” to name a few. When a piper with a D pipe plays a song in the key of A. When pianos and guitars. including.Exceptions to the “Rules”: Non-Diatonic Chords Since the flat 7 note is not in the scale of the key. in the key of G the seventh note of the scale is the F# chord. blues. So. but he only had the notes of the D scale to work with. This chord is not to be confused with the seventh chords as discussed in the last section. there are a lot of other chord choices that are appropriate for songs with more complex melodies and for chord progressions that add texture and interest to the diatonic progressions. A flat seven chord is a triad that is built on the flattened seventh scale degree. For instance. why does this non-diatonic chord show up in so many fiddle tunes? Our guess is that the tradition of the flat seven chord showing up in fiddle tunes goes back to the use of the pipe in Irish music. the tonality of the flat seven note that he plays often called for a flat 7 chord. Seventh chords have the seventh degree of the scale added to the basic triad. In the D scale the G note is natural.” harmony. While diatonic chords are the most common in simple folk. you may ask.” “Paddy on the Turnpike. There are many fiddle tunes that use the flat 7 chord. and therefore is flat compared to the A scale. bluegrass.

- 1 0 œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ & n œj œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ G 5 S J 3 5 # ....... & ........... ........... F ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ improvise .. .... n œj œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ G 1 C .. 13 & # G F ˆ ˆ ˆ improvise ........- ..... 3J 5 T A B 5 0 5 2 0 5 0 2 0 F D ˆ ˙ improvise ....... ................ 9 C 0 5 5 5 0 2 0 2 0 G 1 D 0 1 3 G 0 3 5 3 0 3 1 0 2 0 4 0 ...... S ... Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking ..... ....... ...............................................- œ œ œ ˙ 0 32 G D 2 0 3 ..................Play Along with Audio Track 1-20 “Salt Creek” Basic Melody Outline with “holes” for Improvisation # 4 ..... & 4 ..........

early rock. or passing note. and C notes. Seventh Chords in the Blues In Volume 5 you worked quite a bit with the blues using the minor pentatonic scale and the blues scale over four or five different chord progressions.” In the tab shown here I have filled in with chord tones. A. D. however. In the key of G. and V chords. consider the fact that the only two notes in the F chord that are outside of the G scale are the two notes that are in the Gm pentatonic scale. However. flatten the seventh scale degree to an F note. Track 14). You were introduced to the boogie rhythm back in Volume 2 where you were given a simple boogie example in the key of G. F). you could easily do it by playing the same note sequences over the IV. however. Play through the two tab examples shown at the bottom of this page. V progression using these ornaments. practicing all of the steps as outlined on pages 55 through 76 of Volume 5. The only note from the F scale that might sound a bit dissonant is the B flat note. The rhythm that you learned in Volume 4 was a very straight forward blues shuffle.Given the fact that this non-diatonic chord is showing up in our fiddle tunes the next question is “How do we improvise over this chord?” Your first two choices from the chart shown on page 22 are always going to work for you—either play the melody. or play chord tones from the chord. dissonance is not a bad thing. in Volume 5 the rhythm always consisted of I. Also. Work through this progression along with the audio track provided (Disc 1. dissonance chart. E. Back in Volume 4 you also learned a little bit about the blues shuffle rhythm using two note diads (the first and fifth scale degrees). In this case the chord is the flat seven chord. C. If we were to take that basic shuffle rhythm and turn it up a notch in terms of ornamentation we can move into the realm of boogie blues. Moving down our consonance vs. you are going to be fairly safe playing notes of the F scale over the F chord in the key of G. IV. A. and thus this is another instance where you would utilize the mixolydian mode. that will be your F chord—so you can play the F. B. IV. Give it a try and then move on to the next section where we will look at non-diatonic seventh chords as they are used in the boogie-woogie. If you wanted to play a I. you might recognize it as the G mixolydian scale. and blues. Your next logical choice is to play the notes of the G scale. try to play the tune “Salt Creek” as shown on the previous page. If you take a look at this scale (G. we are encouraging you to improvise over the B section using notes of the G mixolydian mode over the F chord. Adding those C and D notes after the B note (over the E chord) creates the boogie feel. This tab is written in the key of E (playing the ornaments shown in the first example in the key of G would involve quite a stretch). The second example below is a similar boogie line in the key of E. This is basically the version you learned in Volume 3 for the A part. You can use it to your advantage as a neighboring note. After you have worked with the progression provided at the bottom of page 31. But as we have mentioned before. and V chords. F and Bb. You may recognize this progression from Volume 3 as the A part to the fiddle tune “Paddy On The Turnpike. Flat Seven Chord Practice In the progression shown at the bottom of page 31 we present a simple I-bVII-I-V-I progression. as you did when you learned the song “Boogie Woogie Blues” Boogie Shuffle in the E Chord       1 T A B Audio Track 1-29 E7   E7  ž ž ž žLž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž L žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž OR ž ž     00  2 2 4 4 5 5 4 4 2 2 4 4 5 5 4 4   2 2 4 4 4 4 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 0 0 4 4 4 4 33 . You will notice that in both these examples the note sequence walks up to the flatted seventh scale degree (the D note in the key of E).

Otherwise. blues players will typically play I7. over the C7 chord. I’ve been consistent with the mixolydian mode of each chord in this arrangement. Because the flatted seventh note of each chord is played over each chord. I’m not certain whether it was the boogie woogie piano rhythms (introduced around 1919) that were the first catalyst for including all seventh chords in the blues chord progression. and D chords is shown below. meaning every time the chord changes you would think about the mixolydian mode of that chord. IV7. A general rule of thumb when thinking about modes is that whenever you play over dominant 7th chords. or not. Because the minor pentatonic scale includes the flatted 7th scale degree. I’ve also thrown in a flatted third     1 T A B     1 T A B G7 ž Audio Track 1-30 žž žž Lž ž ž * 3 4 3 * 3 3 4 3 3 C7 A žž ž žž ž ž ž * 3 1 3 2 * 3 1 3 2   ž ž   ž žž ž žž 1 T A B D7 * 5 3 5 4 * 5 3 5 4 * = vamp on the off beat Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . alternate between the root and the flatted 7ths scale notes. and over the D7 chord. you slightly loosen the pressure on the fingers of your left hand so that the sound is muted (you learned this technique in Volume 4). today the flatted seventh scale degree tonality shows up in rhythm styles of blues and rock tunes that don’t necessarily always have the distinct boogie rhythm. over the G7 chord. as mentioned previously. fifth. which means that immediately after you strum the chord. and flatted seventh chord tones of each chord. think D mixolydian. This exercise will help your ear get more accustom to this tonality. think C mixolydian. that tonality already existed in the blues and perhaps when the boogie woogie players incorporated it into their groove it introduced the seventh chord into the rhythm. X G7 X C7 X D7 X 3rd fret 34 however. you could think about this being a “mixolydian” song. you use the mixolydian mode. The chord forms that you can use for this progression are shown below.] In order to be consistent with the flatted seventh tonality of the boogie embellishment. Whether it was introduced with the boogie beat or not. The C# in the last measure is a passing note that is part of the walkup. Once you play through a progression using these chords. C. I made heavy use of the flatted seventh note in the lead so that your ear could get accustomed to that tonality. think G mixolydian. instead of alternating between the root and 5th scale notes. You’ll want to vamp the strum here. respectively. it will sound familiar if you have listened to early rock and roll music. [In fact. with the exception of the B flat note over the G chord. You will notice that the note choices that I’ve selected in the 12-bar blues that I’ve outlined on the following page primarily stay on the root. The lead line is more of an early rock boogie style than a traditional blues form. Practice any I7. try to use an alternating bass rhythm. V7 progression of your choice while using this alternating bass note-strum rhythm pattern. however. In other words. When playing rhythm along with this particular tab. everything is mixolydian. and V7 chords in the rhythm. it would be a good exercise to transpose the “Boogie Woogie Blues” that you learned in Volume 2 over to the key of E. IV7. On the next page we’ve included a 12-bar blues progression using the seventh chord rhythm. That is a “flavor” note. The tab for this rhythm for the G.in Volume 2 (page 68).

H ž Lž 5 3 ž 3 Až ž Lž ž ž 3 5 C7 ž Lž ž ž 3 5 9 ž 3 C7 ž Lž ž ž Audio Track 1-31 3 ž Lž ž 5 5 3 ž ž É 3 5 4 While this chord progression will typically be found in blues.12-Bar Blues Using Seventh Chords: Filling In With Chord Tones     1 T A B 5  G7 ž Lž ž ž 5 3 5  ž ž Až ž 3  D7 ž 5 ž 5 3  5 3 5 3 5 G7 ž Až ž ž 3 5 ž 3 ž ž 7 5 7 ž 3 ž Až ž 5 5 3 5 3 5 3 ) 3 ž  5 Až 3 5 3 ž Lž ž ž 5 3 5 3 G7 ž 3 here and there for interest. There are an endless number of variations on this theme. We have provided a rhythm track for you to practice with (Disc 1. and flatted seventh scale notes. So give this exercise a try and have fun with it! Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 35 . and jazz music. fifth. bluegrass. and folk music. Stay mainly on the root. rock. Learning how to hear the dominant seventh chord tonality will greatly assist your ear training progress because the dominant seventh chord does show up in fiddle tunes. even if you only play bluegrass or folk music. I encourage you to explore as many possibilities as you can while jamming on this 12-bar progression. playing along with this progression is still going to be a good exercise for you. Track 15). but vary the timing and note sequence each time you play over this progression.

In the case of “Sweet Georgia Brown. It is the old standard flatpicking tune “Alabama Jubliee. simply follow the string of seventh chords until you run into a chord that is a major chord. to A7. In order to easily find the key. Many flatpicking rhythm players will use the I7 moving to IV chord change to spice up a progression. to I? The entire chord ladder is built from the principle of the V wanting to resolve to the I! The classic example of a chord progression built upon secondary dominant chords is the tune “Sweet Georgia Brown. throwing in the I7 before the change to the IV chord gives the progression that V7 to I resolution. in the key of F the C chord is the V. While the II does want to resolve to the V. D7. C or I.” in front of a dominant chord. then to G. Notice how the ladder flows down from III.” In the key of C the chords in the A part of this song lay out like this: A7. D7. I7.” While we didn’t put the I7 in the changes for that tune in Volumes 3 or 5.” Secondary chords most frequently come in two varieties: dominant and diminished.” In the A part the chord progression looked like this: C. so the II is going to want to resolve to the V. So in any progression the I chord is also really the V of the IV. the II7 wants to resolve to the V to a stronger degree. we have added that chord into the progression for that tune here in Volume 6 (page 57). then that chord is called a “secondary chord. just as the V leads to the I. Secondary chords typically add a degree of texture and richness to the progression and can help propel and drive the music. there are exceptions to the rule. the VI chord is the V of the II. However. Taking this one step further. I Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . like “Sweet Georgia Brown. In fact. Alabama Jubilee Another tune that uses the V/V/V chord progression is one that you will be taking a look at very soon in the second part of this book. V7. F. Earlier we also briefly discussed how you can use a secondary dominant. thus making it the “V of the V of the V. V of the IV While the seventh chord followed by a major chord can be an indication of a V7 to I relationship. Since the II is the “V” of the V you can look at the II as being a temporary dominant that leads to the V. Another typical place where this change is used is on the B part to “Beaumont Rag.Secondary Dominant Chords If you take any diatonic chord and precede it with a non-diatomic chord that is related to it. I In this example the C7 chord acts like. When you hit the G chord. It would be the III. V7. the “V of the IV. II7. The secondary dominant chord is also frequently used in a I-IV-V progression to move from a I chord to a IV chord. Remember that our rule of thumb regarding chords and keys was 36 that while not all songs will start on the I chord. back up one and see if the chord before it is the V chord in the key of G. to D7. Up until this point in the course most of the simple songs and fiddle tunes that we have worked with start their chord progression on the I chord.” I think that every other song in this series to this point has started on the I chord. they will almost always end on the I chord.” you know that the first chord is definitely not the I chord. V of the V In the last section of this book we took a look at dominant seventh chords that led to the I chord.” Think about it. as in the II-V-I progression. The IV chord in the key of C is the F chord. with the exception of “John Hardy” and “Beaumont Rag. I bring this up here just to say that if you run into a song that starts on a seventh chord. If you make the II chord a “secondary dominant” (II7) you then have an even stronger pull towards the I. If that is the case. to VI. A7. I You will recognize that this as a progression built on secondary dominant chords. then you’ve found your key! The V7 to I relationship is usually the best “guide post” indicator of the tune’s key. C7. to V.” follow the line of seventh chords from E7. to II. right? Now look back at the chord ladder on page 13. Want to go farther still? Figure out what the V of the VI chord would be. G7. G or VI7.” Make the VI a VI7 and you’ve got a stronger desire to resolve there as well. You know from our previous discussion that the “V of the V” is going to be the II chord. or “temporary dominant. II7. C or VI7. and is called. In Volume 5 you saw this move in the progression of “More Pretty Girls Than One.” If you look at the progression to the A part. it goes like this: E7. Let’s look at an example. in the key of G. So. IV.

Alabama Jubilee (A Section)     1  T A B 6 ž ž ž 3 2   1 D7  ž ž 2 4 ž 2 G7 10 ž  žž ž  )  1 3 2 4 ) C É 14 1 ž 0 A7 ž Audio Track 1-32 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 2 2 0 2 0 ž ž ž 2 2 4 0 ž 2 0 2 ž ž ž H ž ž ž ž 2 0 2 0 0 ž ž ž ž ž 0 1 3 1 0 ) 2  0 4 ž ž ž ž 2 0 2 0 ÉÉ žž žž žž žž žž   žž L L žž žž žž ž ž ž 3 4 1 2 0 0 1 2 0 0 3 4 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 É É 2 0 É ž 1 2 In the tab shown above we’ve provided you with a very straight-forward version of the A section of this tune. If you analyze this melody. Over the G chord. since G is the V of the key. it will confirm our general rule of playing over dominant 7th chords using the mixolydian mode. and the note that really defines that scale is the flat 7 scale degree (G note). However. in this arrangement. 2 3 1 2 ž ž 2 0 ž 2 ž ž ž ž 3 3 2 1    Likewise. all of the notes over the D chord can be found in the D mixolydian scale. we only find notes of the G scale (the F note. which defines the G mixolydian scale is not there). The reason we wanted to present a tune that uses the V/V/V progression is not only to show you how Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 37 . You can see that the G note is fairly prominent under the A chord (the G note appears in every measure). The note that defines that scale (the C note) is found twice in measure 8. Every note that is played over the A7 chord comes from the A mixolydian scale. it is not so important to use the flatted 7th scale degree to help define this chord.

You should work through this progression along with the audio track provided (Disc 1. this VI7 .I Progression: Filling in With Chord Tones     1  T A B 6 ž ž ž 3 D7  ž ž 0 10  ž 3 C 1 38 ž 2 1 ž ž  ž ž 0 0 2 4 ž ž ž 1 3 1 ž ž ž ž 2 0 2 ž ž 2 ž ž  ž ž 4 0 0 2 4 0 2 4 ž ž ž 4 ž ž  ž ž 2 ž ž ž 1 3 ž 2 ž 0 ž 3 ž 0 É É 2 0 ž ž 3 0 É ž 2 ž 0 2 3 1 2 ž ž ž ž 2 0 ž 2 ž 5 8 ž ž 0 0 3 3 ž ž ž ž ž 0 2 2 G7 É 14 4 2   A7 Audio Track 1-33 1 3 ž ž ž ž 3 3 2 1    Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . like all of the improvisation exercises that we have practiced thus far in this course. However.V7 . and go through all of the steps as outlined on pages 55 through 76 of Volume 5. In the progression shown below we have presented the VI7 . In this case that means working with the chord tones of the seventh chord (arpeggios). If you go through all of the steps. you should think mixolydian mode. start with the chord tones. don’t start with the scale.I progression in the key of C (same progression as the A section of” Alabama Jubilee”). Track 16).V7 .II7 . I have filled in with the chord tones of the seventh chord.II7 . but to also allow you to recognize that whenever you see a seventh chord.common chord progressions develop from the use of these seventh chords.

exercise will give you a great feel for playing in the
mixolydian mode over seventh chords. Over the years
there have been a lot of blues, swing and jazz tunes—
like “Sweet Georgia Brown,” “Alabama Jubilee,”
“Limehouse Blues,” and many others—that have crept
into the standard flatpicking repertoire. They all use the
II7 - V7 - I or VI7 - II7 - V7 - I progression. Practice
soloing over this progression in various keys using the
chord tones of the seventh chord and the mixolydian
scale and you will be able to jam with the best of
them!
By the way, if you want to be able to easily recall
what chords fit the VI - II - V - I progression in any key,
you can call on our old friend the circle of fifths again.
Look at the diagrams at the bottom of this page and you
will see that if you work counter-clockwise—moving
towards any I chord—that you an find the V/V/V, V/V,
etc. chords. Since the chord ladder is built from this
progression, you can also extrapolate the chord ladder
from the circle of fifths as shown at the top of the next
page. You’ll also see from this diagram that if we take
the III, VI, II sequence (moving counter clockwise on
the diagram below), make those chords minor and shift
them under the V, I, and IV chords, respectively, you
have created the chart shown on the top right of the
next page with the relative minor chords lining up with
the major chords. Very interesting! That circle is a very
useful tool.

Conclusion

In this section of this Volume we have learned
that diatonic chords are the most stable chords in a
chord progression because all of the notes that are in
diatonic chords are found in the scale of the key and
thus diatonic chords are closely tied to the tonality of
the key. However, we have also learned that notes and
chords that are non-diatonic, and thus more unstable
and likely to cause a bit of musical tension, can also be
used to great effect.
In the improvisation section of Volume 5 we focused
on major diatonic chords (I, IV, V), diatonic scale tones,
straight timing, and simple chord progressions. These
musical elements are the most rudimentary and thus
without an understanding of these elements it is very
difficult to progress. Without them you’d not have a
strong foundation.
In the improvisation section of this book we
introduced the remainder of the major key diatonic
chords, some non-diatonic chords, and more complex
chord progressions. In your practice with free form
improvisation over the practice tracks that accompany
this book you should have also become familiar with,
and learned how to use, a few of the most common
scales that are based on modes.
Hopefully, you have also had the foresight to
incorporate all of the techniques that you have learned

Secondary Dominant Sequence and the Circle of Fifths
I

G
I

D

I

V
V

V

A

V/V

II

V/V/V

V/V/V
V/V/V/V

V/V

E

B
Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking

V/V/V/V

VI

III
39

The Chord Ladder and the Circle of Fifths
iii

IV

vi

ii

ii or IV

I
vi
iii

V or VII°

V

I
Chord Ladder
previously in this course while you were practicing
your improvisations. If you have only been focusing on
chord and scale tones thus far during your improvisation
practice, then now is the time to go back and also
incorporate all of the techniques that you learned
in Volumes 2, 3, and 4, such as hammer-ons, slides,
pull-offs, bends, drones, neighboring notes (toggling),
tremolo (repeated notes), chromatic runs, harmonic
scales, folded scales, floating, crosspicking, arpeggios,
runs that move up-the-neck, etc. If you can do that,
then your improvisations are going to start sounding
very good!
If you can use all of the road maps and techniques
that we have presented thus far in the course while
improvising, you well on your way to becoming a
talented improvisational player. However, as discussed
back in Volumes 4 and 5, note choices are really just
a small part of playing music. Once you have gained
a certain level of skill in being able to find notes that
fit the song’s melody, and also provide interesting
embellishments and variations to the melody, the next
step is to learn how to take those notes and give them
an expression, groove, and feeling that will express
an emotion and captivate an audience. Your goal is
to have your audience feel your music, not just hear
it. In order to do that you have to learn how to use
those other elements of music that we talked about
in Volumes 4 and 5, such as dynamics, syncopation,
tension and release, fluidity, articulation, groove, feel,
and note clarity.
40

The best way to learn these elements is to listen
very closely to players who know how to employ
those elements and then try to make your solos sound
like theirs. In an effort to help you with that, we have
presented arrangements of common tunes in the next
section of this Volume that we hope will inspire your
playing. Tim May improvised all of these arrangements
and he made great use of dynamics, syncopation, note
articulation, tension and release, etc.
The next section of this book is titled “Advanced
Technique,” and, as the title implies, we will introduce
some advanced technique in that section. However, if
you really want to move your playing up a notch, don’t
just pay attention to the technique, also pay attention to
how the arrangements are executed and then try to add
some of those ideas, elements, and concepts to your own
playing. I encourage you to continually go back to the
improvisation exercises that you have been presented
with in Volume 5 and 6 and work to focus on a new idea
each time. After you know how to find the notes, then
move beyond the notes. Run through the progression
one time focusing on dynamics, one time focusing on
note clarity, one time focusing on timing, etc. With
this kind of focused practice, eventually those elements
will begin to naturally come out whenever you play.
Remember, you are working to become a musician,
not just a technician! There are a lot of guitar players
who can play the notes, but relatively few who can put
feeling and emotion in the notes that they play.

Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking

Advanced Flatpicking Technique
Introduction

In this next section we are going to provide you
with arrangements of standard flatpicking tunes that
were improvised by Tim May for the “advanced”
player. Throughout these arrangements you will find
many of the techniques that you have been exposed to
previously in this course, such as hammer-ons, slides,
pull-offs, bends, neighboring notes (toggling), tremolo
(repeated notes), chromatic runs, drones, floating
phrases, harmonic scales, folded scales, crosspicking,
arpeggios, runs that move up-the-neck, etc. You will
also be exposed to a few new ideas and/or techniques
such as playing in a minor key, playing with an altered
tuning (drop D), playing harmony (twin guitar), using
consecutive triplets, using harmonics, hybrid picking,
quoting, and more.
We are not presenting these arrangements with the
intention of you working to learn them in their entirety,
note-for-note. The main goal of this course is to get
you away from tab and away from relying on someone
else’s arrangements. We present these arrangements
for the purpose of presenting a context for the above
mentioned new techniques, but also as a source of new
ideas. The best way to use this section of the book
is to closely examine what Tim has played, identify
new ways of thinking about these old tunes, and then
integrate those ideas into your own playing. You may
find a phrase or technique that you really like and then
insert that phrase into your version of a tune, however,
beyond that we hope that you will also identify
conceptual ideas and incorporate those as well. Don’t
just copy licks and phrases, try to look behind the licks,
riffs, and phrases, identify what it is about those licks,
riffs, and phrases that makes them sound interesting,
and then explore the concept beyond the lick.
In terms of “advanced flatpicking” a few things that
separate the men from the boys include the employment
of elements that are not so much based on “technique,”
such as: dynamics, syncopation, tension and release,
fluidity, articulation, groove, feel, and note clarity.
When you are working through the arrangements that
we have presented here, don’t try to play the tab without
listening very carefully to the recordings. There is
a lot going on in terms of dynamics and articulation
that you can never get by just looking at the tablature.
Don’t rush through any of these tunes. Listen carefully

and examine closely. If you find a phrase or passage
that you like, work on it one measure at a time so that
you not only get the notes under your fingers, but you
are also able to play it smoothly, create the right feel
and groove, play the notes clearly, and play with good
timing and tone. If you do, you will be able to take
your playing to another level.
In this section we have presented all of the tunes in
alphabetical order. If Tim employs a new technique
or concept in any given song, we first discuss that
technique and/or concept in the pages that come just
before that technique. For every technique and/or
concept we also provide examples that are designed
to help you gain experience with the technique prior
to trying to execute it in a song or tune. You do not
necessarily have to work through this section in order.
You can skip around from song to song out of sequence.
However, when you turn to a new song, please check
the pages that appear before that song to make sure that
you don’t miss the introduction to the new techniques
that you may encounter in that song.

Tension and Release

Before you begin to work through the “Advanced
Flatpicking Technique” section of the book we’d like to
mention something about the use of tension and release
when soloing. An important part of any solo is your
ability to craft a bit of tension and then release that
tension at just the right moment. You want to present
a solo that is exciting and dynamic, not something
that is flat and colorless. On the other hand, you don’t
want to present a solo that is so exciting and dynamic
that it wears out the listener’s ears and brain. If you
think of your solo as a communication device that you
are using to “speak” to your audience, you don’t want
your “speech” to be dull and monotone (too much
consonance), nor do you want it to be too “over the top”
as in preachy, loud, obnoxious, incoherent babble.
The best way to create an interesting solo that is
captivating, tasteful, interesting, and has “something to
say,” is to learn how to add tension, build to a climax,
and then release that tension. Master improvisers know
how to put in just the right amount of tension, and then
provide just the right kind of release. Too much tension
and the audience can get irritated. Too long of a release
will negate the build up of tension.

Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking

41

Smooth Timing If you will keep these concepts in mind when arranging or improvising and remember to provide a bit of tasteful tension in your solos and then follow that tension with a well-time release. Hello Flatpickers. here are some other elements of music that provide tension and release: Tension: 1) Increasing Volume 2) Lines that Ascend 3) Moving Up-the Neck 4) Use of Large Intervals 5) Use of Non Scale Tones 6) Long Repetition of Notes or Phrases 7) Choppy or Staccato Phrasing 8) Dissonant Harmony 9) Eighth Note Triplets. but it really is OK to let time slip by while you linger on a well-placed note.In the last section (pages 18 through 23) we talked about note choices that were the most consonant moving towards note choices that were the most dissonant. no matter how hard it might be to transcribe later. In addition to note choices. or 32nd Note Runs 10) Bends 11) Syncopated Timing Release: 1) Decrease Volume 2) Lines that Descend 3) Moving Down-the Neck 4) Use of Short. Notes of Longer Duration 9) Release After Bend 10) Straight. and I hope you find something you can use! Happy Pickin’ — Tim May Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . completely off-the-cuff . Don’t be afraid to leave some space in your solos: ‘bluegrass hates a vacuum’. I’ve always thought that one of the best reasons to learn how to improvise is that you don’t have to remember as much! Those of us who have recorded and transcribed what we played will sometimes play with the impending transcription job in the back of our minds: we’ll play simpler lines than we normally would. however. 16th. but I’ve never used them in the same context and combined them in exactly the same way that I am right now. I’m way too lazy to have composed and read or memorized solos for these tunes! If I had written arrangements and played them by reading or memorizing them. This is. I tried to avoid that here. Dan gave me the ‘green light’ to play whatever I wanted on any given tune. These solos are certainly not perfect. it would have been much more difficult to play them with the same emotion and feel. and thanks for joining the ride here in Volume 6! Let me say that the solos transcribed here truly are improvised. and I only knew a handful of tunes) and then improvise over small sections when jamming with others until one day I was able to improvise the whole tune. and those bits and pieces will generally be directly related to the melody. then your solos will captivate your listeners and hold their attention. how I prefer to play and how I encourage students to approach improvisation. Flowing Movement 7) Consonant Harmony 8) Rests (Silence). Scale-wise Intervals 5) Use of Scale and Chord Tones 6) Smooth. Do a lot of listening to your guitar heroes: you’d be surprised how much you’ll receive through ‘osmosis’. Remember dissonance provides tension. But I’m not about to point out any imperfections: you’ll have to find them yourself! I’m humbled and flattered that you would take the time to listen to and work through these solos. The way I learned to improvise. but I found that I couldn’t bring myself to stray (in most cases!) too far from the melody: at least at the beginning of the tune. was to write solos (many years ago. I wanted to present what I would play in any concert or jam situation. after all. And ‘improv’ doesn’t mean that I played things I’ve never played before: the words and phrases I’m writing right now are very familiar to me. 42 A Note from Tim May. consonance provides release. I’ll use the same bits and pieces of a tune like “Whiskey Before Breakfast” almost every time I play it. and I didn’t approach this project in the same way I might approach an album.

pay attention to which notes are emphasized in terms of volume and the feel and groove of the song. E. The open G string is a drone. but it is only played on two strings. In measures 45 and 46 Tim combines reverse roll crosspicking with movement up a harmonized scale (this is the harmonized scale shown on page 104 of Volume 4). D. Right off the bat. and G. the first thing that you see is that they are all chord tones of the A7 chord. Then.I progression.remember we are playing over the G7 chord. Also. transpose it to work over a D7 chord or a G7 chord). and 13 chords—in Volume 7). D#. Over the remainder of the D7 chord. etc. Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 43 . 11. which are outside of the scale. You may recognize the last three beats of measure 12 moving through the first beat of measure 13 as a piece of a folded scale. If you take a very close look at the six notes that are repeated in this phrase. On the pages which follow we provide Tim May’s improvised arrangement of this tune. So. When Tim sent me the audio track. Then he makes great use of the neighboring note (toggle) technique in measures 39 and 40. In the next several bars (14-16) notice how Tim provides a bit of tension by moving way up the neck and then he releases that tension in the descending line (measures 18 and 19). He ends this section by hitting the 3rd scale degree as a whole note at the beginning of the next measure.V7 .” At the beginning of the second pass on this tune Tim gives you a very cool repetitive lick over the A7 chord. this was not prearranged! I had written the last section of the book before Tim recorded this tune and we had not spoken about the arrangement. but then starts to “swing” the groove at the beginning of the second pass (measures 33 through 38). you’ll see that it looks like a crosspicking roll. Very cool! Tim uses this technique several times in the songs that follow in this book. which are in the scale. with the root and flat 7 being the most prominent and a D note (4th scale degree) being thrown in for interest. In measure 11 Tim clearly defines the tonality of the G7 chord by playing the F note three times. he plays the same figure as measure 1. Tim provides a unique opening that pretty much outlines the chords. we’ll refer to this as playing a “two string arpeggio. Over the G7 chord Tim plays scale tones that are embellished with a passing tone (A# in measure 10) and a neighboring note (the F# note in measure 11 . C#. E. also look at them for the note choices. The notes of the chord are A. For lack of a better term. in these first four measures he has played every note of the A7 chord. Notice the use of tremolo in measures 26 (over the Em chord) and 28 (over the C chord). You were introduced to reverse roll crosspicking on page 82 of Volume 2. Then in measures 5 and the first three beats of measure 6. Believe it or not. In measure 37 Tim adds a bit of dissonant harmony with a D13 chord (we will talk about chord extensions— 9. the harmony is on the D string. especially since he ascends during the “stop time” section (when the rhythm drops out). Then recognize how the note choices.” Go back to the improvisation exercise on page 38 and see if you can’t fit this same lick over a different seventh chord (in other words. For the remainder of the B section Tim sticks fairly close to the melody.Alabama Jubilee At the end of the last section of the this volume we took a look at a simple arrangement for the A part of the song “Alabama Jubilee. Tim plays the root and seventh notes. So. basically what you have here is a crosspicking-style roll using the chord tones. The scale is the C scale on the B string. but don’t just look at for the technique. Notice how Tim plays the first pass of the song with a pretty straight feel. analyze each measure on your own. so the D# note is used as a passing tone. Analyze which note choices are in the chord. For the remainder of this solo. Tim uses the D mixolydian scale in combination with a chromatic run at the beginning and the use of the G# neighboring note on the fourth beat of measure 7. if you look at the standard notation. This is a great effect. he outlines the D7 chord. Also notice that Tim ends the first pass with a key of C “G-run. Then in measures 43 and 44 he really gives your ear a taste of the G7 tonality by using the F note as a drone.II7 . especially those that are outside of the scale. with an added D note for flavor. then end this passage by playing a C# whole note.” and you worked with playing chord tones over the VI7 . using the D7 chord shape and position that is shown back on page 29 for the C7 chord. The scale movement goes: C. effect the sound. Let’s take a look at what Tim has done with this song. I thought “How synergistic!” In the first measure Tim outlines the A7 chord. In measure 3. so the F# note is not in the chord).

Alabama Jubilee   1 T A B A7 Audio Track 2-01 & 02 U ž žžž žž ž 0 2 0 3 2 2 ž U ž ž ž ž ž ž 0 D7 0 2 0 0 3 2 2 ž ž ž  ž ž ž žž 2 0 4 S 3 5 3 5 5 4 5 G7 ž ž  ž  žžž žžž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž  ž L ž ž ž ž  ž ž žžž žžžžžžžž É 6 5 3 5 4 5 3 5 4 5 0 2 3 0 4 4 0 2 1 0 3 0 3 4 0 0 3 0 3 S 3 5 0 0 3 2 0 ž ž ž ž 0 3 0 1 2 C ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž 11 3 4 0 0 3 0 2 žž 15 ž ž žž žž 0 2 3 0 1 3 1 0 3 S 7 5 7 9 8 10 3 S 8 10 11 12 11 12 12 10 8 10 4 3 5 0 3 1 2 0 1 2 3 3 3 S 5 7 5 ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 3 A7 8 9 10 8 3 3 9 8 7 7 5 7 5 6 7 0 2 4 D7 19  ž ž ž ž 0 44 1 0 ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž 3 3 4 2 0 žžžžžžžž žž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž ž ž ž ž É ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 3 0 3 4 0 0 2 3 4 0 4 0 2 3 2 3 0 2 0 2 0 1 0 2 0 3 2 0 3 2 0 3 2 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

Alabama Jubilee (con’t) 24  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž C Em É ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 3 S 5 0 0 1 2 1 0 1 0 3 3 3 S F 5 5 5 5 5 5 0 5 1 0 3 1 0 0 2 žž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžžžžžž ž  žž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž D7 28 C 1 1 1 1 2 0 0 2 2 3 G7 4 0 2 0 1 0 C 2 0 3 2 0 3 2 0 0 3 0 2 1 2 0 0 1 0 2 1 0 1 0 2 0 3 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž 33 A7 0 5 2 2 0 3 2 0 5 2 0 3 0 2 5 0 2 3 0 2 5 S 7 5 S S 7 3 7 5 3 5 3 3 5 5 3 37  žž  ÉÉ  ž ž Lž É É D7 5 G7 41 ž 2 7 6 7 7 5 žž ž 7 7 5 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž 7 7 5 0 2 3 4 0 1 2 1 0 0 3 4 3 4 H 0 0 3 ž ž ž žžžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 3 0 3 2 3 0 2 3 0 1 2 0 2 3 0 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 3 2 0 3 1 3 3 0 3 3 0 1 0 0 3 45 .

Alabama Jubilee (con’t) ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 45 C 1 0 3 S  É 2 53  3 S 4 S 3 4 0 8 5 0 6 5 0 8 5 3 4 0 1 3 0 3 5 0 2 2 3 2 0 3 2 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 3 0 0 3 2 D ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž S 3 0 5 0 4 0 4 C 1 1 S 1 3 2 3 3 2 0 2 0 Em 3 5 2 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 2 0 3 3 S 5 0 1 2 0 ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  57 0 4 0 5 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž Lž ž ž Lž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž A 49 0 2 3 4 4 F 4 4 3 4 5 4 5 C 3 6 0  H 3 1 0 3 0 1 1 3 0 3 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž É 61 D 2 46 G 2 0 3 0 2 3 1 C 1 0 3 1 0 3 1 2 0 1 2 0 3 2 0 3 2 0 3 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

then so is your timing. The right hand is the most important component in the development of your flatpicking guitar skills. and crosspicking exercises that should help you develop your right hand. note clarity and fluidity. and you execute this routine on a daily basis while using a metronome.com. The “string skipping” exercises that start at the bottom of this page are all based on harmonized scale patterns.” Tim makes use of some “string skipping” and advanced crosspicking. and fluidity is always a good idea. there are a few more advanced right hand picking patterns that you’ll run across—such as string skipping and advanced crosspicking—that you should also practice on a daily basis. they will also open you up to more opportunities and variations when you are creating your solos. Every technique that you can add to your “bag of tricks” will expand your ability to create variations. tone.com and flatpickdigital. In this advanced crosspicking exercise we are skipping strings and adding four. If you have a right hand warm-up routine that includes both basic and more advanced right hand picking patterns. then these note choices will not be new to you. Thus far in this course you have been presented with various scale. fluidity. tone. five. and note clarity will also improve. String Skipping Exercise 1     1 T A B 5  G ž ž ž 2 ž 4 3  ž ž ž ž 5 5 ž ž 7 7 ž ž 9 8 ž ž 10 10 12 Audio Track 2-03 É 12 14 15 G ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 0 3 2 0 3 4 0 5 5 0 7 7 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 0 8 9 0 10 10 0 12 12 0 14 15 47 . What we are doing different here is skipping across strings instead of playing consecutive strings. Working on your right hand speed. At the bottom of page 49 we present an advanced crosspicking exercise. Flatpicking Guitar Magazine columnist Jeff Troxel has released a book full of great right hand exercises titled The Guitar Player’s Right Hand Workout. These exercises will not only improve your right hand control. but your timing. However. You can have great left hand technique. dexterity. The majority of the crosspicking that you have been exposed to thus far in this course was executed on three consecutive strings.String Skipping and Advanced Crosspicking In the next tune that we present. folding scale. If you like practicing these exercises and are looking for more exercises to help you develop your right hand. not only will your right hand technique continue to improve. and six string crosspicking patterns. so before you try to tackle this arrangement you may want to work with the string skipping and advanced crosspicking exercises that we have provided below and on the next couple of pages. If you’ve worked through the harmonized scales that were presented in Volume 4. It is available at flatpickingmercantile. but if your right hand is off. “Angeline the Baker.

String Skipping Exercise 2   1 T A B C ž ž ž ž 2 ž ž 4 3 ž ž 5 5 ž ž 7 7 ž ž 9 8 ž ž 10 10 Audio Track 2-03 É 12 12 14 15 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 5 C 0 2 3 0 4 3 0 5 5 0 7 0 7 9 8    ž  ž T A B 2 A 5   A ž 2 ž 4 2 0 2 ž 4 0 4 ž ž ž 5 0 6 ž ž ž 7 0 7 9 0 9 É 12 13 ž ž 15 ž ž 11 ž 0 14 10 9 ž 12 Audio Track 2-03 ž 9 7 ž 0 12 ž 7 6 ž ž ž ž ž 2 ž 5 4 ž ž 0 48 ž ž ž 10 10 String Skipping Exercise 3 1 0 ž 14 ž ž 10 0 11 ž ž ž ž 12 0 13 14 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

etc). Then try to work them in repeating two measure pairs (one with two. Start very slow. first practice each measure as a repetitive exercise by itself. Then try to repeat each four measure line. Then finally try to put all eight bars together. then gradually build up speed. three with four.     1   T A B C ž ž žž 0 1 0 ž ž ž ž 2 3 0 ž 1 0 1 0 3 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž žž žž žž žž žž ž ž ž žž G7 3 0 2 3 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 1 0 0 2 3   ž ž ž  ž žž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž   žžžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž žž ž 5 C   3 G7 3 2 0 2 0 1 0 3 2 0 1 0 1 0 1 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 3 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 0 1 0   49 .String Skipping Exercise 4     1 T A B 5  G ž ž ž ž 4  0 4 3 ž 0 ž 5 ž 0 3 ž ž 7 ž 0 5 ž 9 ž 0 7 ž 14 ž ž ž 11 0 8 É 14 12 ž ž ž 12 10 ž ž 11 8 ž ž 9 7 ž ž ž ž 7 5 ž ž ž ž 5 3 G ž Audio Track 2-03 ž ž ž 12 10 15 0 ž ž ž 14 0 12 14 15 Audio Track 2-04 Advanced Crosspicking Exercise When practicing these crosspicking exercises.

There is also a bit of tricky string skipping going on in measures 12 and 13. This arrangement uses “Drop D” tuning.” and thus they also need to learn how to play modified A and Em chords. However. you’ll have to modify your chords if you are going to play the 6th string. Tim uses string skipping in combination with crosspicking to keep that low D note ringing in measures 33 through 37 of this “Angeline the Baker” arrangement. low D note. Once you have played through “Angeline the Baker” and have a feel for playing in the Drop D tuning. A part of working your right hand to keep that low D note ringing will involve the string skipping style of picking because you may have to skip over the A string or both the D and the A string at times. for this tune we have not altered standard tuning too much. see if you can use this tuning to work out some of the other songs that you play in the key of D—like “Whiskey Before Breakfast” or “Forked Deer. like a drone. Have fun with “Angeline the Baker”! Drop D Chord Shapes D Chord G Chord 3rd fret D A D A D F# 50 G D D B D G A Chord Em Chord E A E A C# E E B E G B E Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . when you are playing other chords in this key. there is nothing special that you have to do. Drop D tuning is used when you are playing in the key of D and want to have a nice. Some suggested modified chords are shown in the chord charts below. try to work on an arrangement that keeps that note ringing as much as possible. you will have to either not play the 6th string. when you are playing rhythm. or make some modifications. However. It is called “Drop D” because the low E string is dropped down to a D note while all other strings remained tuned to standard pitch. the only chord you are going to have to worry about modifying is the G chord. For the D chord no modification is necessary since the 6th string is now a D note. If you tune to Drop D for “Angeline the Baker” and are playing rhythm during your picking partner’s solo. When you are playing lead.Angeline the Baker This arrangement of “Angeline the Baker” represents the first tune that we have presented in this course that does not use standard tuning.” In order to really use that low D note effectively. other than remember that your 6th string is a D note. Years ago I was working on a Drop D version of “Whiskey Before Breakfast” while I was visiting with Charles Sawtelle. However. If you can keep that note ringing it provides a very nice full sound to your solo. However. fat. Charles recommended that I try and keep that low D note ringing as much as possible. many flatpickers also tune to Drop D when playing a tune like “Whiskey Before Breakfast.

Angeline the Baker Audio Tracks 2-05 & 06 Drop D Tuning     1 E B G D A D D     ž   0 4  2 4 S 0 12 11 11 0 0 11 9 4 0 5 5 G D S S 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 4 S 0 2 4 7 5 D ž 2 7 0 5 4 2 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 4 0 2 4 6 4 0 4 2 žž ž žžžžžžžž žžžžžžžž žžžžžžž ž ž ž ž H P 0 0 0 0 S 0 5 12 G 2 0 2 4 0 2 0 4 0 2 4 0 2 0 4 0 2 0 4 H 0 0 2 ž ž ž ž ž ž É ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 0 5 0 4 2 0 2 0 4 D 2 0 S 0 4 5 žž ž ž žž ž ž žž žžžžžžžž ž ž ž ž ž žž žž žž ž ž 7 ž ž ž ž žžž ž 0 0 S 0 2 5 0 9 7 S 0 2 4 2 0 0 ž ž žž ž ž žž 4 5  S 0 ž S 21 3 ž ž ž ž žž žž ž žž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž ž ž žž ž ž ž ž ž žžžžž žž 12 16 3 D 4 0 2 11 D H H ž H H ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž 0 H H P   2 0 0 0 2 4 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 2 2 2 3 2 0 2 ) 0 0 ) ) ) T A B 6 G 2 4 0 2 0 2 3 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 0 3 2 0 3 2 3 0 2 3 0 0 0 2 4 0 ž ž ž ž 3 0 2 3 51 .

Angeline the Baker (con’t)  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžž žž  žžžžžž É P D 25 G 5 2 29   3 2 5 2 0 5 3 2 0 3 2 0 2 0 4 4 2 0 4 2 0 3 ž Lž ž ž H P 4 2 2 žž ž ž D 3 ž ž ž žž ž ž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž 33   D ž 0 2 4 3   D ž   ž žž 2 3 0 2 3 ž ž 4 0 ž ž ž 4 3 2 2 ž 0 4 2 ž ž ž 4 0 2 0 ž 3 2 2 ž žž 7 0 H 0 5 6 H P 3 2 3 2 3 ž žž ž 6 7 0 2 3 2 0 G ž ž žž 4 3 ž 3 4 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 4 4 0 4 2 0 2 0 4 4 2 0 S 4 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 G ž ž Bend 0 ž žž 5 0 0 É 2 3 2 0 0 5 0 D 4 5 žž ž ž žžž žžžžžžžž žžžžžžžž žžžžžžžž 4 0 Bend 52 2 0 4 41 ž ž ž ž 4 0 37 4 0 ž ž ž 2 2 žž ž ž 3 2 3 2 0 H 0 0 3 2 0 4 3 ž ž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžž 4 0 4 S 5 0 0 0 4 2 0 4 2 0 H 4 4 H H 5 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 3 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

Angeline the Baker (con’t) 45   žžžžž ž žžžÉ ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžžž ž ž ž ž ž D 3 H H 0 2 4 0 2 0 4 2 žžž ž ž ž  ž  49 8 10 7 7 9 7 10 ž ž ž   ž) ž )  ) 57   2   4 10 8 3 0 H 0 3 2 2 ) 7 9 7 8 10 8 7 8 7 9 7 8 8 8 8 8 ) 5 3 3 3 3 5 2 0 3 2 0 2 5 5 5 3 0 0 0 4 2 4 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 3 2 0 2 0 0 4 0 2 0 2 0 4 4 2 S 0 4 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 4 S 9 11 G 5 D S 3 3 3 3 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ) ž ž ž ) 7 5 10 É ž ž ž ž 0 61 9 D 2 7 ž ž ž ž ) ) ) 10 9 10 12 2 4 10 7 9 D 53 0 2 0 3 2 3 G žžžžž žžž žžžžžžžž žžžžžžžž 3 D 0 4 0 2 2 4 0 2 4 0 2 4 2 4 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 0 0 4 2 0 2 0 É Bend 2 0 4 0 2 0 4 2 ½ ½ 53 .

As the pick moves down through the D string your middle finger picks upwards on the B string so you have a pinching effect and both strings are played simultaneously. if you’ve never tired hybrid picking it may feel awkward at first. not simultaneously. In Example 2 you are adding a G note in between the harmonized scale notes. After you have had the opportunity to experiment with his technique. In all of the non-adjacent string harmonized scale examples that you were given previously in this course you have always been asked to played the notes consecutively. In the third example you are adding two Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . This note is played with your pick. it is fun to explore because it allows you to pick multiple nonadjacent strings at the same time and thus can create a much fuller sound than single string flatpicking. You can also strum across the strings in order to hit notes that are on adjacent strings. You can pick the B string with the nail of your middle finger. take a look at the four examples shown on the next page. with the help of our good friend Brad Davis. but play them simultaneously by picking the notes on the D string with your pick and picking the notes on the B string with your middle finger as shown in the photos in the next column (the photos show the G and high E string being picked. If you play with the flesh of your middle finger the tone will be more mellow. However. as in playing double stops or strumming chords. You worked briefly with this scale back in Volume 4. In this section we are going to present a very simple way of using both pick and fingers in order to get you started. At the top of the next page you will see a graphic depicting a harmonized scale. However. A little later. Way back in the introduction to Volume 1 you learned that the two primary right hand techniques used to play the acoustic guitar were flatpicking (using a plectrum to pick each note) and fingerpicking (using your thumb and multiple fingers or fingerpicks). Over the years many flatpickers have developed a “hybrid” style of picking that involves the use of the flatpick and the middle and/or ring fingers of the right hand. and clearer. If you pick with your fingernail the tone will be brighter. If you are playing with just a pick you can easily pick strings that are played as single consecutive notes. louder. but you get the 54 idea).Hybrid Picking — Part I For every arrangement that we have presented thus far in this course you have been expected to pick each and every note with your guitar pick. If you’ve never experienced this technique. The first example (“Crosspicking Example”) is taken from measures 56 and 57 of Tim May’s “Beaumont Rag” arrangement that is presented on pages 57 through 59 of this book. This is a situation where the hybrid technique comes in handy. The first is very simple as you are only playing the harmonized scale notes. In order to begin to learn how to use pick and fingers together it will help to start with something simple. or with the meaty park of the end of your middle finger. the one thing that you cannot do if you are only using a flatpick is play simultaneous notes on strings that are not adjacent. Try playing through the groups of notes shown in the graphic. we will present a more complex hybrid technique. So here we are going to demonstrate how to use your pick in combination with your middle finger to play simultaneous harmonized notes on non-adjacent strings. Play through the crosspicking example and then play through each of the three hybrid picking examples.

you can then back off and use the technique more sparingly. Try and see if you can figure out how to use the hybrid technique. On pages 113 to 117 of this book we will talk about how to add a third finger to the hybrid picking technique. Once you get a feel for how to do it. Play through these examples until you have a good feel for the technique and then experiment with other harmonized scale patterns. The next step in learning how to employ the hybrid technique would be to take a simple melody and play through the entire melody with your pick while simultaneously playing a harmonized note with your middle finger (or you could get adventurous and try 1 2 0 3 2 3 0 4 3 4 0 5 4 5 0 5 to play two harmonized notes using both your middle and ring fingers). to play an alternate version of the entire phrase that Tim plays on “Beaumont Rag” from measure 56 all the way through measure 61. it is a good exercise. Playing an entire song this way may end up sounding too monotonous. however. If you find that you are having trouble finding harmony notes.Hybrid Picking on a Harmonized Scale in the Key of C Harmonized C Scale on D & B Strings C E Fret: 1 2 D E F G o o 3 4 F A B B C D 9 10 G A o 5 6 C E o oo 7 8 Crosspicking Example 11 12 13 14 15 Hybrid Picking Example 1 C ž ž ž  ž   ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ÉÉ É É É  É É É T A B 1 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 C 0 2 1 0 3 0 3 0 4 4 0 0 5 Hybrid Picking Example 2 C ž  žž ž ž ž 1 2 0 3 3 0 5 0 0 Hybrid Picking Example 3 ž  ž 4 4 ž ž ž 0 5 5 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž C ž 0 notes (both played with your pick) in between the harmonized scale notes. in combination with straight picking. rely on your knowledge of harmonized scales and chords and/or work through the section of this book that talks about finding harmony parts to melody lines (page 90 to 103). Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 55 .

G. is to switch between a “straight time” feel and a “swing feel. For instance if you look at the note emphasis in measures 56 to 59 you’ll hear that Tim is emphasizing the downbeats played on the 4th string (D string). but the change in emphasis creates interest and movement in the solo. and note articulation right your rendition of Tim’s solo will not sound much like the song. if you can get those elements to line up. your rendition will sound like the song. but also to demonstrate how the techniques that you have learned previously in this course could be applied in more advanced ways. from the A chord you will notice that the A . You have to listen closely to what Tim is doing and try to duplicate it. and thus be able to improve your ability to use dynamics and note articulation in your own playing. and then swings again from measures 11 through 17. dynamics. We recommend that in order to really understand what Tim is doing. Tim said that he likes to use major 7 arpeggios when he is playing songs in a swing style to add a swing flavor to the tune. check out the use of chromatic notes in measures 34 and 35. Once you can combine the two together. The picking patterns are similar and the note choices are similar. groove. One thing that Tim does in this song. Another good phrase to look at in “Beaumont Rag” is the one that appears in measures 18 through 22.” you will find a lot here in Tim’s improvisation to add into your version. C. One thing you might want to experiment with is the F.G . is to take each song phrase-by-phrase. That is a tough phrase to pull off. Also. The crosspicking is unconventional and the timing in measures 20 and 21 can be difficult. The rest you’ll need to get by listening to the recording. In many of the arrangements that you’ll find in this book if you don’t get the feel. In other words.V . F#°. or 30 to 32). One more thing to note about this phrase is that adding that B note over the C chord makes this a Cmaj7 arpeggio. D.Beaumont Rag Dynamics. The purpose of this “Advanced Technique” section was not only to introduce you to new techniques. break it down stepby-step. Articulation For many of the songs that are presented in this section of the book the tab does not tell the whole story. Listen to this part of the song and see if you can tell the difference. transitions to a straight time feel in measures 6 through 10. Groove. then work on the dynamics and note articulation until you can get that phrase to sound just like the recording. Tim takes them all to the next level in these arrangements. If you already know how to play “Beaumont Rag. so we’ll not examine that part of the progression now. Feel. If you want to learn this phrase. Much of what comes across in Tim May’s playing is not evident from the written arrangement because you can’t get dynamics.C is the VI II . however. Once you are comfortable with that. C progression at the end of the A section. the way Tim articulates this phrase can’t really be shown in the tab.I progression that we discussed earlier in this book. The paper will only give you an idea about when and where the notes are played. Tim did a superb job! Right Hand Pattern for Measures 19 through 22 ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ 56 ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . it would be very difficult for you to just look at the tab and be able to play the song the way it is supposed to sound. and in several other songs in this section of the book.” For instance. the runs that move up and down the neck are more intricate (measures 23 to 25. A. The crosspicking is more complex (measures 18 to 23). or the use of a drone string in measures 50 to 54. etc. But on top of that. However.D . note articulation and subtle timing intricacies from what is written on the paper. then add the left hand notes. In measure 60 he changes his picking pattern and starts emphasizing the downbeat on the 2nd string. First learn the picking pattern by muting the strings and just working on the right hand pattern as shown in the diagram below. We will talk about the use of diminished chords in Volume 7. Although many of the techniques that you will find in the songs that Tim presents in this Volume are techniques that you have seen before. in this tune he starts off with a swing feel for the first five measures.

Audio Tracks 2-07 & 08 Beaumont Rag Capo 2 ž žžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž É   ž ž ž  G 0 1 1  T A B 6 1 3 C 1 0 3 3 0 3 0 3 4 0 G C  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž 0 2 0 2 0 2 3 11  ž žžžž 5 16  6 žž D 0 1 3 6 0 0 3 3 2 0 3 0 1 2 4 3 0 3 1 5 2 0 1 2 3 žžžžžž žžžžžžžž ž ž ž žžž ž 0 2 0 1 3 0 1 0 0 1 3 3 1 5 S 3 6 3 6 5 6 6 ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž C 4 3 F 0 3 4 C 2 0 2 2 1 0 3 2 0 1 2 0 2 1 0 1 3 0 C F#° 1 2 1 2 1 2 G ž žžžž É 1 2 0 2 0 1 0 3 G 2 H 0 3 G 3 ž ž ž ž 2 A 3 1 4 5 3 4 C ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 3 3 0 1 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 4 H 0 2 2 3 3 3 2 4 ž žž žžžž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 3 3 G 21 4 2 3 2 4 2 3 0 2 C 3 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 S 5 7 3 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 5 7 5 8 S 7 9 3 S 9 7 5 7 5 3 57 .

Beaumont Rag (con’t) G C C7  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž É ž ž  ž ž žžž 25 5 5 7 5 0 3 4 3 4 0 0 5 F 6 5 7 7 5 7 H 0 3 3 2 0 3 2 0 10 8 10 9 3 2 3 10 12 11 12 3 3 S 5 7 ž ž ž ž ž ³  ) C ³  0S 12 13 ) 12 10 0 2 1 2 D 10 9 11 2 0 G ž ž Lž ž ž ž A C F#° 7 3 2 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  30 0 ž ž Lž 10 7 C ž ž  ž L ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž ž  ž ž Lž ž 34 G 8 38 0 7 0 8 7 6 5 0 5 4 3 0 3 2 0 1 G 3 1 0 2 0 3 1 2 3 0 0 3 2 0 3 2 0 3 2 3 0 ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž 42 G 0 58 1 2 0 3 2 C ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 3 2 0  0 4 0 2 0 1 3 0 1 3 1 2 3 0 1 ž ž ž Lž C 3 S 5 4 3 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 2 3 0 ž ž É C7 5 6 6 1 2 0 2 3 4 ž Lž ž ž 6 5 3 6 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

Beaumont Rag (con’t) 46  É ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž F F#° 5 1 C 0 2 0 A 3 1 D 0 3 3 1 0 1 3 0 2 žž žž C G 0 3 2 0 žž žž ž ž 0 1 0 2 3 0 1 0 2 2 S 4 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  50 G C 3 4 5 3 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 3 4 5 H 3 5 4 5 5 3 5 5 5 6 5 5 5 3 5 5 4 0 3 ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž L ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž G 54 C 3 4 0 3 58 G  žžž S 7 9 0 ž 8 2 3 ž ž ž 0 0 8 P 0 0 ž 7 2 3 2 ž žž 0 7 0 1 3 ž 6 0 3 3 žžž 0 3 0 0 ž 3 1 2 ž 0 1 0 C ž 0 5 ž ž ž 0 5 0 3 ž 4 3 0 0 4 ž ž ž 0 4 0 4 0 ž 3 0 5 0 5 0 žžžž žž 0 3 1 0 0 2 ÉÉ  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž É ž ž ž ž ž ž É 62 F#° F 3 0 2 3 4 0 C 4 0 5 A 0 5 6 7 D 0 3 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 2 C G 3 0 3 2 3 0 2 3 2 3 2 0 1 0 2 59 .

but doesn’t lay it on so thick that it becomes annoying. save two—the G# note in measures 3 and 4. In measures 18 and 19 Tim sets up a little repetitive pattern using the D. Each time he plays that note it is used as a passing tone between the D note and the E note. a little spice can make it taste just right. If you are spicing up your food. and 14.” you will find that ever note in that solo is a note that belongs to the C scale. in fact. We presented this tune back in Volume 3 of this course and we have also presented various versions in other volumes. using the open E note. play through those two measures. 11. It doesn’t take much. 10. Tim makes great use of that D# tonality by continuing to go back to it. “Old Time players tend to play this tune with the Am in the B part. He plays that note 10 times in the first 17 bars. The same is true for music! That is why Tim May is one of my favorite pickers. E. and then Tim throws in that G# note on the 3rd beat of measure 19. To give you an idea about what that one note adds to that section of the solo.Billy In The Lowground “Billy In The Lowground” is one of the most popular flatpicking standard tunes and it is probably one of the songs that you’ll end up picking at every jam session that you go to. but it will catch the listener’s ear as it comes by. Regarding this chord choice. and 60 so your ear gets used to that little chromatic walk up or walk down and it makes the solo a bit more interesting than if only consonant notes had been played. The ear quickly latches on to the tonality of those notes. There is a lot of cool stuff in this solo for you to work with. Explore this solo and I know that you’ll find a few passages that you can insert into your own version of “Billy In the Lowground. It is a very small change. Tim said. If you add too much it can ruin it. Those little “color notes” thrown in here and there will go a long way to make your solo memorable to the audience. 7. In doing that he has set that note up as the added “spice” in that section of the song. One of the things you learned in that section was that you don’t always have to use consonant notes and. the D# note in measures 2. in measures 55 through 57. The one thing that you may note as being different in this version from the others that we have presented is the use of the Am chord in the B part instead of the F chord. If you analyze Tim’s note choices for the first A part of his improvisation of “Billy In The Lowground. and G notes on the B and high E strings.” Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . but play a G note instead of the G#. a well placed dissonant note can really add some spice to your solo. I think that Am is cooler!” Back on pages 18 through 23 of this volume we talked about consonant and dissonant note choices. Then play it again with the G# note. A couple of the runs that I love include the drone note passage over the C and Am chords in measures 42 through 45 and the descending run on the high E and B strings. 12. or vice-versa. He adds just enough spice to make it interesting.

Audio Tracks 2-09 & 10 Billy In The Lowground    3 2 0 3 1 2 0 0 2 1 0 1 3 1 0 C  žžžž 6 0 Am ž ž ž ž  T A B žžžž ž žžžžžž žžžžžžžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž C 1 1 2 0 2 2 2 1 Am 0 1 3 1 2 G 3 2 0 2 0 3 1 2 0 2 1 0 3 2 0 0 2 3 3 0 3 1 0 2 0 C 2 Am 3 0 2 3 C  ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 3 1 S 3 5 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž 11 0 0 1 1 2 0 2 1 0 0 3 0 1 2 1 0 3 0 0 2 3 0 3 0 2 3 0 1 2 0 2 3 0 1 2 0 2 1 žžžžžžž ž ž ž ž 0 2 1 S 2 3 5 0 0 S 3 5 0 ž 0 5 G C C Am ž žžž ž žžžžžž ž ž ž  ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžž žžžžž ž ž ž ž  Am 16 3 P 5 3 0 1 3 0 3 1 0 3 2 0 0 0 3 0 1 S 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 4 S 5 3 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 7 C Am G C žžžžžž žž ž ž ž žžžž žžžžž žž žžžžžžžž žž  ž Lž É 21 8 5 7 5 S 8 10 0 8 8 0 3 5 3 5 3 5 0 3 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 5 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 1 0 2 0 2 0 P 1 0 3 61 .

Billy In The Lowground (con’t) 26  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž C 3 S ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Am 5 3 3 5 3 0 5 3 5 0 3 0 5 5 3 C 0 1 0 S 3 0 5 0 Am 3 1 0 2 G 1 1 4 C ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž É 30 2 1 4 1 2 0 2 3 0 3 2 0 3 0 2 3 C 3 C ž 38 3 ž 5 5 3 ž ž S 5 S ž 3 4 3 ž ž 0 0 3 7 S 2 0 2 3 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Release 8 9 10 0 2 10 10 8 8 0 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 1 2 0 0 3 1 S 0 3 0 5 9 7 ž Am 9 0 7 4 9 Bend 7 8 0 5 5 7 5 7 7 2 Am 3 S 0 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž žž 34 0 G 3 1 0 2 0 1 2 0 C 2 0 3 1 1 ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 42 C 0 62 Am 0 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 3 0 2 2 0 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

Billy In The Lowground (con’t) 3 ž ž ž 3 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž É P 46 C Am 0 1 1 50  3 0 3 1 0 2 0 1 3 0 1 0 2 H 0 1 2 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žH É ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 3  5 C 3 5 0 5 5 3 0 5 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 1 3 S S 8 5 7 5 6 5 7 5 ) 6 6 3 0 2 3 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 3 S 8 0 8 8 S 7 8 8 10 8 10 G C ž ž ž ž ž ž Am ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž É ž C 8 10 12 12 10 8 5 C P 0 Am S 54 0 3 1 G 8 10 0 8 8 7 8 S 0 7 5 7 0 5 3 5 0 3 1 0 0 2 1 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž 58 C Am S 3 62 5 3 3 5 5 0 0 1 3 0 5 4 3 0 3 C ž ž ž ž 3 2 3 0 1 3 ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž Lž ž É 1 3 0 1 2 P 1 0 3 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 1 0 3 1 Am 3 0 0 3 3 0 S 2 0 4 0 0 0 G 2 0 C ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž É 0 2 0 3 0 3 0 2 3 63 .

when you lightly touch the string at one of these nodes and then pluck the string. so you have to use your right hand to touch the node. you cancel the fundamental tone and you hear the overtones created by the vibrations of the string to the left and right of the node. or 12th frets. and the double (1/2). Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . 7th. however. the locations of the nodes shift up the fingerboard. The photo below demonstrates how you can lightly press the node with the index finger of your right hand while holding the pick between your middle finger and thumb in order to pick the string. For instance. In the past you may have experimented with adding natural harmonics to your solos by “chiming” at the 5th.” As stated above. and some of the overtones. triple (1/3). The harmonics that are produced in this case are called “artificial harmonics. 7th. When you pick an open guitar string the pitch that you hear as the prominent tone is the “fundamental tone. 7th.” which is a result of the string vibrating at its fundamental frequency. The diagram at right shows the fundamental (1). However.” When an open string is plucked these nodes are referred to as “nodes of natural harmonics. These are just the first three of many overtones that are produced when you pluck a string. You can play these harmonics by lightly touching any string just over the 5th. and you still have to hold the pick and pick the string with your right hand as well. and 12th frets with a left hand finger while you pick the string with your right hand. The result is a belllike chiming sound. from ringing and you are amplifying the vibration of certain overtones on the string. like “Bugle Call Rag.Using Harmonics — Natural and Artificial 64 1 1/2 1/3 1/4 7th 5th 19th 12th 24th Saddle If you have been playing the guitar for a number of years you have no doubt discovered 0 the “natural” harmonics that occur at the 5th.” Both natural and artificial harmonics can be used in a song to add texture and variety to your solo. and quadruple (1/4) overtones. When you lightly touch the string in one of these positions you are preventing the fundamental frequency. Banjo players are familiar with using harmonics because Earl Scruggs used them in some of the songs that he made famous. at the same time you hear the fundamental tone.” Many players will use natural harmonics in the intro or ending to a song. many overtones are also being produced by the string’s vibration. The points along the string shown on the diagram are called “nodes. if you are pressing down a string at the third fret with your left hand. and 12th frets of the guitar. a harmonic is found o o o o oo o at the 15th fret instead of the 12th fret. or 12th frets. did you know that you can also play harmonics when you are fretting a string with your left hand? When a string is fretted you can still play harmonics. When playing natural harmonics you use your left hand to touch the string lightly at the 5th. 7th. When you play artificial harmonics your left hand is pressing down on a string. However. These nodes shift up by the same number of frets as your left hand shifts up from the nut.

From the chart at right you can see that this note is very. the fundamental frequency of the A string is 110 Hertz. If F3 is our harmonic at the 7th fret. If we call the fundamental frequency F1. very close to the E string fundamental frequency of 329.6 246. F3 = 330 Hertz.6 Hz.4 F1 = fundamental F2 = octave F3 = octave + perfect 5th F4 = 2nd octave F5 = 2nd octave + major 3rd F6 = 2nd octave + perfect 5th F7 = 2nd octave + harmonic 7th F8 = 3rd octave 65 . Thus.Audio Track 2-11 Mary Had A Little Lamb . Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking Guitar String E B G D A E Fundamental Frequency 329. In summary. then the relationship between the fundamental frequency and the second harmonic (F2 = harmonic at the 12th fret) is F2 = 2F1. you now know that the 12th fret harmonic produces a note that is an octave higher than the open string note. we would find the notes as outlined in the second chart at right.Natural and Artificial Harmonics  ž  C 1 0 (12) T A B 5  ž ž C 0 (12) ž ž ž ž 0 (12) 3 (15) 1 (13) 3 (15) ž ž 3 (15) 1 (13) 3 (15) ž ž ž É G ž 0 (12) 0 (12) ž ž 3 (15) G ž 0 (12) 0 (12) 0 (12) 0 (12) In the tab at the top of this page you will find an arrangement of the melody to “Mary Hand A Little Lamb” played using both natural and false harmonics. then your A string will vibrate at a frequency of 110 vibrations per second. Thus. We can see that our harmonic at the 5th fret (F4) is going to equal 440.9 196 146. F2 on the A string will equal 220 Hertz. If your guitar is tuned to the international standard of A above middle C having a frequency of 440 Hertz (cycles per second). In reading this tab the first note is the note that you play with your left hand and the second note (the one in parenthesis) is the fret location where you touch the ž É 3 (15) ž 3 (15) 3 (15) 0 (12) 3 (15) ž 0 (12) ž ž C C ž É 3 (15) 1 (13) É 3 (15) 3 (15) ½ ½ string with your index finger to chime the harmonics. Tim May uses this technique in the intro to “Bury Me Beneath the Willow” as presented on page 67.8 110 82. This is why you can tune your guitar by matching the harmonic at the 7th fret of the A string with the harmonic at the 5th fret of the low E string! If we continued to analyze the natural harmonics beyond the first three. but two octaves higher. the formula here is going to be F3 = 3F1. and the 7th fret harmonic produces a note that is an octave plus an interval of a fifth higher. which is the same note as the A string. the 5th fret harmonic produces a note that is two octaves higher than the open string note. Thus. Continuing with this formula [F(N) = N(F1)]. which is one octave above the note on of the open A string. Play through this example in order to get a feel for the technique and then try to come up with your own arrangement of a different song. Guitar String Frequency and Harmonics Here is an interesting pitch versus frequency sidebar.

The longer you can let those notes ring out. pull-off. it is the note that defines the A9 chord and works effectively as a drone here. The technique that Tim displays in this song that we have not addressed thus far in this book is his use of multiple. It also gives you a chance to work things out in a key that may not be as familiar to you—the key of E! One of the things to take note of while you are listening to Tim’s recording of this song is the amount of time that he is letting notes ring out. It becomes especially important when you are playing slow songs. We have yet to talk about 9 and 11 chords in this course. work to make your execution of these techniques very crisp and precise. those notes set up an A11 tonality. In analyzing these solos and finding all of the tasteful. however. Work with these phrases over and over again until you can get every note to sound out with good tone. the root and fifth of the E chord. the more fluid your solo is going to sound. In the last part of measure 9 and the first part of measure 10 he uses a slide. pull-off. and slide techniques. then another slide. interesting. 66 I think that using these two open strings over these three chords works well because the tonality of those two notes are the strongest tones in the key of E (being the root and fifth of the tonic chord). he said. On the third beat of measure 10 he executes a hammer-on followed by two pull-offs (he also executes this move in measures 38 and 60). In order to execute these phrases correctly. in measures 17 to 27. In measure 8 he uses a hammeron followed by two slides. is make use of the open B and E strings while he is playing up-the-neck. which really grabs your attention because of all of the higher pitched notes that have been playing in measures 17 to 28. Over the A chord the open B note is used as a drone in measures 19 and 20. In measure 6 he uses three hammer-on applications in a row. and inventive ways Tim presents them. Over the B chord Tim creates a descending pattern that uses the B and E notes as drones. in another display of cool.Bury Me Beneath the Willow Now that you’ve had a chance to work with natural and artificial harmonics on the last couple of pages. “Well. Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . consecutive hammer-on. I also like the run. This song provides you with some great techniques to use when playing slow tunes. but he also throws in the open E string as well. it is amazing to me that every one of the solos in this book were improvised. By using some string skipping and advanced crosspicking patterns he really creates a beautiful full sound over those measures. where Tim has a descending line and uses the high E string as a drone. your left hand execution of the hammer-on. I’ve vowed to try to make at least a small bit of it stuff that I will “normally do” too. in measures 43 and 44. Tim’s note choices set up an A9 tonality. then a pull.” After listening to it. Over the second measure of A. Over the two measures of E all of those notes are E notes or B notes. Being able to let your notes ring out is a skill that we can always work on. and because allowing those open strings to ring out over those 10 measures sets up a pleasant background voice to all of the other notes that are being played. you can apply the harmonics technique to the opening measures of “Bury Me Beneath the Willow” as shown in the arrangement on the next page. Over the B chord he primarily uses the open B string. over the A chord. we will get into those chord extensions and how they are used in Volume 7. Even though the B note is not in the A major chord triad. When I mentioned this to Tim. and slide have to be very accurate. Tim hits that low E note in measure 29. all of these songs were improvised. Another very cool thing that Tim does in the song. and have the notes ring out properly. Over the first measure of A. Over the E chord he uses both the open B string and open E string and he can easily get away with it because both of these notes are in the E chord. Finally he lands down-the-neck playing the notes that are found in the E9 chord. Then. Each of these four-note executions is accomplished with just one application of the pick on the string. In order to play these techniques in succession like this. In measures 53 through 58 Tim also uses open strings combined with chord tones fretted up-the-neck. but all of the techniques that I’m using is just all of the stuff that I normally do.

................................................H T A B  É É  2 0 2  É  S 2   4 žž žž ž A 11 0 2 4 2 4 0 2 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž É E H 2 0 ÉÉ žžž 2 2 2 0 2 4 S S S 5 0 (12) 0 (12) 0 (12) 2 (14) 1 (13) ž ž ž ž É B 7 16 0 (12) 0 (12) 2 (14) 0 (12) 0 (12) 0 (12) 2 (14) 0 (12) 7 5 E S 1 2 2 4 4 É žžž 4 4 2 1 4 2  ž ž  20 9 0 S 4 ž 9 6 ž 0 4 ž 11 6 ž 0 S ) 5 7 ž ž ž ž žž ) 11 7  9 E 0 0 S 0 11 13 )  S 9 0 9 10 0 9 0 7 4 5 H P P S 2 2 4 2 0 H žž ž P ž  ž žž ž žž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ) ž ž ž ž H 0 (12) 2 0 4 E E H H žžžžž ž ž B žžž É 5 5  7 P H 0 5 4 S ) 1 2 H ž žž 2 S 2 ) ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž A 5 0 2 6 S 0 8 4 7 0 8 ž žž ž žž žž ž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž B 13 0H 0 13 14 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 0 0 13 0 0 11 0 0 9 0S 0 11 13 0 11 11 0 0 11 0 9 67 .Bury Me Beneath the Willow    É  E 1 Audio Track 2-12 & 13 ž ž É É A ž ž É É ž ž ž ž ž ž E É É harmonics .......................

Bury Me Beneath the Willow (con’t)  É É  žž ž ž ž) ž  B 24 E 0 8  É É  ž ž ž ž H ž 2 2   ) 2 0 2 1 É žž ž ž ž 1 0 0S 2 4 1 P   0 4 ž 2 0 2 12 11 12 11 13 14 0 ) 7 9 8 ) 2 ) 4 4 0 0 4 0 0S 4 6  0 2 4 0 0 13 6 2 4 S 2 1 H 1 0 žž žž ž ž ÉÉ 0 0 13 0 0 9 0 0 11 2 2 ) 0 0 4 2 0 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 0 0 2 0 5 0 2 1 2 0 2 ) 0 4 2 2 0 5 ž ž ) ž žžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ) 0 0 4 A H 0 ) 0 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 4 0 0 4 0 E H S 5 0 6 H É ž H ž ž žž ž  ÉÉ É A 7 0 B žž E ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž ) ) P ÉÉ P 0  0 9 Bend Up and Down ž ž ž ž ž ž ) E E ž ž ž ž ž ÉÉ ž ž É 11 68  ) 0  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  40 9 2 36 4 S 7 E 28 32 0 0 0 8 žž  ) 4 2 0 5 S  7 H 2 ž ) ž B P P 0  7 P ) 12 A ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 7 9 7 9 S 10 0 9 0 7 0 5 0 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

Bury Me Beneath the Willow (con’t)  ž ž ž ž ž ž É ž ž É  A 44 4 49  0 0 2  57  0 0 0  2 E S H 0 2 1 2 2 0 2 0 4 4 4 2 0 1 2 E É ž žžž ÉÉ ÉÉÉ S 2 H 0 6 7 0 4 6 0 2 4  4 E ž 0 ž žžžžžž 0 7 9 0 9 9 žž ž žž ž ž 4 2 1 0 0 1 0 ž 7 0 6 0 0 6 0 2 4 ž 9 0 ž 0 ž 9 9 7 0 5 0 2 0 4 2 0 8 0 8 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžž ž ž žžž ž ž žžž ž ž ž 9 9 0 0 9 žž ž žž ž ž 1 4 2 0 0 1 8 0 0 S 9 7 6 0 0 S 7 6 4 0 0 ž 1 0 0 2 2 0 H 4 2 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 1 1 S 6 4 H P P 0 2 0 0 2 0 žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž ž A 0 2 0 2 S 4 0 2 4 2 0 E 5 0 8 B E    ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ÉÉ ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ÉÉ ž ž ž ž ž ž É É P ritard 61 2 4 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 0 6 2 4 6 B 0 E ž 9 0 0 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž A ž žž ž ž žžž ž É P 2 1 E  B 0 4 53 žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž ž E 2 H 2 4 2 4 2 4 0 0 1 2 2 0 H 0 4 5 ½ ½ 69 .

Playing in Minor Keys So far in this course we have been working with songs and tunes that are played in major keys. iv. iv. additionally. Play through a i. and seventh scale degrees. and the seventh becomes diminished. At the beginning of this volume. iv. it provides composers with a better harmonic palette to work with and thus leads to better chord choices. and fifth scale degrees is still going to be the most common in a minor key. fourth. composers and arrangers invented the harmonic minor scale. In order to solve that problem. as shown below. iv. The problem that composers and arrangers have with the i. and the vii is diminished. and the ii chord is diminished. so it is worth taking some time to learn about playing in a minor key and improvising over the chord changes in a minor key. You were introduced to the harmonic minor scale back at the beginning of Volume 5. The harmonic minor fixes that problem and. When we look at diatonic triads built on a minor scale. v progression in Em and see for yourself. fifth. Although most of the music that you will run across in bluegrass and folk music is written in a major key. and v chords are minor. you will see that the diatonic triads that are built on the E natural minor scale are the exact same chords that showed up when we built diatonic triads on the G major scale. the III. when we studied diatonic triads. Back in Volume 5 we started our improvisation study with the simple I. third and fifth scale degrees of a major scale are the only major chords in the diatonic progression. VI. they are simply rearranged to start at the Em chord.” The “better chord choices” includes a V instead of a v. the ii. You’ll remember that for diatonic triads that are built on the notes of the major scale. iii. From our discussion about relative minor chords earlier in this book you know that the notes of the Em scale are exactly the same as the G major scale. however. you will also occasionally run across a tune that is written in a minor key. The third becomes an augmented chord. and VII chords are major. At the top of the next page you’ll see a chart comparing the diatonic chords built on a natural minor scale with those that are built on the harmonic minor scale in the key of Em. Diatonic Triads in the Key of E minor Em F#dim žž žž G Bm C D i iidim ž žž žž ž Am III iv v 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 1 2 4 2 0 0 0 2 3 0 1 2 2 0 0 2 3 4 4 2 2   ž   žžž ž ž 1 T A B 70 žž žž žž žž žž žž VI žž ž žž ž Em VII i 0 1 0 2 3 3 2 3 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 0 žž žž žž žž žž ž ž Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . “Major scales have the leading tone built in. V. and vi are minor. If you study the diagram at the bottom of this page. IV. the progression is now going to be i. Remember what we said about the harmonic minor in Volume 5 was. v instead of I. A progression based on the triads built off the first. v progression in a minor key is that the pull from the v to the i is not nearly as strong as the pull from the V to the i. The only difference between the two scales is that the G major scale starts on the G note and the Em scale starts on the E note. and V are major. you saw that those diatonic triads that were built on the first. V chord progression. If you compare the two you will see that for the harmonic minor scale the diatonic chords change on the third. the fifth moves from minor to major. IV. the I. we discover that the i. IV. but the natural minor does not.

play through a i. IV. Another minor scale that contains the V chord is the melodic minor scale. Just for fun. let’s avoid confusion with the Roman numerals for the purposes of combining these chords by saying that natural minor scale includes a bVI. iv. ii. So a melodic minor progression would be i. each having a difference only in the sixth and/ or seventh scale degree. i progression and you should detect a more solid pull from the five chord to the one chord when the five chord is major. V7 progression and you should notice that the V7 has the strongest pull back to the i. you know that you are probably working with the harmonic minor scale. V. iv. When you hear that tonality in a chord progression. v. In this one the V chord and the IV chord are both major chords. You can see that when composers are working in minor keys they have a lot of chord choices that would fit. V. Since we are dealing with three different minor scales.Diatonic Chords Built on the Natural Minor Scale Em F#° G Am Bm C D i ii° III iv v VI VII Up Another Third: B C D E F# G A Fifth Up a Third: G A B C D E F# Third G Scale: E F# G A B C D Root Chord: Diatonic Chords Built on the Harmonic Minor Scale Em F#° Gaug Am B C D#° i ii° IIIaug iv V VI vii° Up Another Third: B C D# E F# G A Fifth Up a Third: G A B C D# E F# Third G Scale: E F# G A B C D# Root Chord: Diatonic Chords Built on the Melodic Minor Scale Chord: Em F#m Gaug A B C D#° i ii IIIaug IV V vi° vii° Up Another Third: B C# D# E F# G A Fifth Up a Third: G A B C# D# E F# Third G Scale: E F# G A B C# D# Root Play through a i. If we ignored the diminished and augmented chords for the time being and just looked at the major and minor chords that we have built on the scales shown above. i progression and then play through a i. IV. the harmonic minor has a bVI. iv. v. III. you can see that we have the i. iv. and bVII. and a vii° and Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 71 . V. bVI. and bVII designation may be confusing here. The bVI. and bVII chords to choose from.

IV . For now. Just remember that it is always that V .IV . Another interesting thing that can happen to chord progressions in both major and minor keys is called “chord borrowing. I i Cold Frosty Morning The tune that we are presenting here is the first song that we have presented in this course that is in a minor key. Some songs might start out with a minor chord.i or V7 . It is this V to i ending 72 that really tells us that this song is in the key of Am.” you’ll see that they took full advantage of these chord choices. That way when we talk about the chords used in minor keys and we use bVI.” It is one of those songs that is not quite as popular as many of the others that we have presented in this Volume. it is one of those great tunes that should be in every flatpicker’s repertoire. This song is in the key of Am and for the most part we have a i .IV . D. The IV chord is another chord that is typically borrowed from the parallel major key.i progression in the key of Cm. Have fun working with “Cold Frosty Morning.VII .III .bVII . let’s go ahead and take a look at our presentation of a song that is in a minor key. If you check out the progression to a song like the Eagles “Hotel California. However.A . E.V . how do you know that this song is in a minor key? It starts off with the A minor chord. It is the old tune “Cold Frosty Morning. you’d borrow a major chord from the key of C.iv .F#.F# .bVI . C. If you look at the key signature to this tune you’ll notice that it is the same key signature as you find for the key of C major (no sharps or flats). The progression goes like this: Bm . G. So. Measures 29 and 30 have this same sequence.V. The old time players stay with the Am.v . Meaning if you are playing in the key of C minor.V chord changes in measures 21 and 22. You’ll run into one of those later in this book. Throughout this course we’ve talked about how almost every song ends on the chord of the key and that the second to the last chord is usually a V chord. If you’ll take a look at the last few measures of this song (measures 31 and 32 or measures 63 and 64) you will see that we have an E chord followed by an Am chord. B. you may find that some people like to use the A major chord in the B part.the melodic minor has a vi° and vii°.G .V . From our study of diatonic harmony we know that the diatonic chords of a major and natural minor keys are: Major: I Minor: i ii ii° iii III IV iv V v vi VI vii° VII Using the chord borrowing principle means that if you had a i .I relationship in a song that helps define the key. but that is not the best indicator of key. thus shifting the key from minor to major.i progression. You may run into some songs that start out minor. Because there are a number of types of minor scales to work with. Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . chord options are many. but then shift to major. Learn this version and bring it out at your next jam session! One last note: If you do run across this tune at jam sessions. you will know that they are the chords of the natural minor. Remember that the key of Am is built from the C scale notes. F. The progression for this tune shifts back and forth between the i and the VII for 20 measures and then presents a quick sequence of i .” If you want to spice up a harmony in a minor key you can borrow a “parallel” chord from a major key with the same name.i progression.” You’ll notice that the chord progression here is quite simple. or i . you could borrow the IV and V chords from the key of C major and thus use a i . but actually end up being major. Note: The IV chord appears diatonically when you build triads on the melodic minor scale or the Dorian mode scale.D . We will work more with minor scales and chords in Volumes 7 and 8 of this course.Em .III . but some more modern players go the the A major chord. We have already talked about “borrowing” the V chord from the major key when we created the diatonic chords that were based on the harmonic minor scale.iv .E . so the notes of the Am scale are: A. bVII.

Audio Tracks 2-14 & 15 Cold Frosty Morning H ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž  žž ž ž ) ) žžžžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžž žžž Am 1 T A B H 2 ) 0 2 4 0 2 ) 0 1 S ) 3 3 G  5 Am 0 2 0 0 2 0 2 H 2 0 5 0 3 3 0 0 2 2 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž É G 6 1 0 1 0 3 3 0 3 3 5 0 3 H ž ž ž ž ž ž Am 1 0 2 0 0 2 3 2 0 0 2 4 0 2 2 H 0 2 0 2 ) 4 0 2  žž žž žž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž L ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  G 10 0 1 0 3 0 3 S 0 5 5 0 5 Am 0 0 4 5 3 0 0 4 G 5 3 0 4 3 Am  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž 3 14 0 2 18  1 H P 2 0 1 0 ž ž ž ž É S 5  7 5 2 0 3 2 0 2 0 1 2 0 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 2 2 2 0 2 0 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 0 0 0 3 S 5 5 3 5 0 žžžžž žžžžžžžž žžžž žžž ž ž ž žžžžžžž ž G Am C D E P 3 5 0 3 0 3 0 3 0 3 0 3 0 3 0 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 3 0 3 5 0 3 0 1 3 0 3 1 0 S 2 0 2 4 4 73 .

Cold Frosty Morning (con’t) ž žžžžž ž ž žžžžžž ž ž ž ž žž žž žž žž Am G žžžžžžžž žžžž žžž 23 0 28  2 0 1 2 0 2 žžžžÉ 2 0 5 3 2 0 É É 5 8 10 11 2 0 2 4 0 2 2 2 1 ) 3 3 S 5 3 3 3 3 0 0 3 žžžžžž žž ž žžžÉ Am 12 0 1 0 3 1 0 2 0 2 0 3 2 0 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž ž 3 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ) 0 0 5 G 33 1 3 5 5 3 S ž  ž EÉ D H H 0 0 3 0 1 1 1 3 5 0 2 2 2 C Am S 5 7 5 3 2 0 0 H  0 0 4 3 P 5 5 3 0 3 1 0 2 3 Am 37 P 0 1 0 2 0 3 G 2 0 Am  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž 2 2 0 2 0 4 0 2 0 žž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 41 H 2 74 0 2 4 0 2 0 1 0 1 5 0 žž 2 0 žž žž  ) H 1 2 3 4 4 3 4 )  5 5 0 0 2 G ÉÉ 3 4 2 0 1 žž 3 4 2 0 2 1 0 3 2 2 0 2 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 3 4 0 5 3 0 S 5 7 S 5 3 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

Cold Frosty Morning (con’t) ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž É 3 Am 45 5 49  0 3 0 5 3 2 G H P 0 3 1 0 0 1 0 2 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž É 0 3 5 5 Am 53 3 5 5 C Am S 7 5 3 3 0 0 2 2 1 0 2 2 1 0 3 2 0 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž G 7 5 D 2 0 8 5 7 0 3 0 5 3 E 0 3 1 0 2 0 Am ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž É 2 57  0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 H 3 4 0 0 0 0 2 3 0 4 2 4 0 4 4 S 0 5 5 G ž ž ž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 0 Am 61 É 2 2 3 0 2 ÉÉ C 0 1 0 3 2 0 2 3 0 2 0 žž  žž žž ž  ) D 0 3 E 0 4 0 4 S ) 5  2 2 0 S 4 4 0 4 0 4 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 1 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 0 2 1 0 2 0 0 4 0 0 1 2 É ÉÉ ÉÉ 2 0 1 2 2 Am 0 2 0 75 .

There is a lot to learn here. A rake is a like a slow strum. The notes Tim played on the back half of that measure are A#. after hearing Tim’s improvisation and looking at what he has done to it. this one would be very simple to analyze. The only difference between the A part and the B part is that the theme is slightly different. then E C# E E. he thought it would be good to present a fiddle tune that lays out nicely in open A. however. Phrase 3 repeats phrase 1 note-for-note. D. In terms of dynamics. so we’ve included that chord as the passing chord in measure 50. F#. Dillon Hodges. I’m reminded of David Grier’s statement: “There are no boring tunes. however. C#. But Tim said he didn’t think about it that way when he played it.V .ii . However. In the opening phrase—the theme—Tim moves way up on the neck and instead of just using a repetitive A. The A and the B parts have the same chord progression. There are so many interesting things that Tim does with this tune that we don’t have the space to run through a full analysis. What he did was take the shape that he was playing over the A chord and moved it down the neck and played the same pattern starting on the D note. which is the prominent melody note of the second phrase (measures 3 and 4).” I quickly became bored with the tune because my arrangement was boring. Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . I’ll have to honestly admit that I did not really like this tune because of its repetitiveness. The B part is very similar. we’ve provided a very straight forward melody-based version of the tune on the next page. He said the pattern works because that D note is emphasized. Tim’s is not. The “Devil’s Dream” progression moves is I . Tim’s pattern uses D. this is one of those fiddle tunes that moves from the I chord to the ii chord. We will leave it to you to listen closely and compare what Tim has done with the melody-based version. play a A#dim chord here. this is the first time you are seeing “Devil’s Dream” in this course. G#. The structure of this tune is about a simple as you can get. you want a slight bit of separation between them.Devil’s Dream Most of the tunes that we are presenting in this book are tunes that you’ve had exposure to previously. It is almost as fast as a strum. E. First. so have some fun with it! The Rake: The only technical aspect of Tim’s playing here that we have not discussed previously in this course is the “rake” that appears in measure 44. After you play through this arrangement you will notice that this is a very simple and very repetitive tune. Listen to Tim play this measure on the recording and you will get the idea. B. In the A part the theme in phrase 1 is very simple and repetitive. Here he is emphasizing the fretted notes and not the drone strings. If you are not familiar with this tune. and this one will give you some practice working in the key of A without the capo. The sub-theme in phrase 2 restates the theme over the ii chord. Let’s quickly look at what Tim does with this tune. Since we’ve not looked at this tune before in this course. The timing of a rake lies somewhere between an arpeggio and a chord strum. then the resolving phrase is a folding scale over the ii-V-I progression. 76 The melody-based version repeats a D. and since Tim did quite a bit to spice it up in his improvisation. just boring arrangements. You’ve only been exposed to a few tunes in this course that were written in open A. A. These notes are all a minor third interval apart and thus they form a A#dim7 arpeggio (see chart on page 27 where we talked about seventh chords). For the sub-theme Tim does not stay with the notes of the Bm chord as in the simple melody-based version. If we were picking this tune apart phrase-by-phrase as we did with some of the tunes back in Volume 3. Secondly. He does a lot to spice this one up. Tim wanted to add this tune for a couple of reasons. and G.I. E note sequence he throws a B note into the mix and plays the notes in an interesting crosspicked sequence. Way different! These notes are found in the Bm11 chord. F# pattern. play through this simple version and get a feel for it. The notes are not played as tightly as a chord strum or as loosely as an arpeggio (time-wise). C#. Another thing to point out is Tim’s use of the A#dim7 arpeggio as a transition between the A chord and the Bm chord in measure 50. It occurs about 46 seconds into the recording. E. Tim had his rhythm man. you don’t want all of the notes to be played exactly at the same time. Tim said to pay attention to the note emphasis in measures 17 to 20.I -ii .

Audio Track 2-16 Devil’s Dream — Simple Melody-based Arrangement    ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž    A 1   T A B Bm 5 4 5 0 5 4 5 0 5 4 5 0 2 0 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 4 2 4 3 2 2 5 4 2 0 4  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žÉ  5 A Bm 5 4 5 0 5 4 5 0 5 4 5 0 2 0 3 2 3 E 2 0 3 2 0 A 0 3 2 0 3 2 2      ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž  A 9 2  Bm 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 2 0 2 0 2 3 2 3 2 2 4 3 2 2 4 3 2 0 2 5 4 2 0  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žÉ ž ž ž  13 A 2 Bm 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 2 0 3 2 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 3 E 2 0 3 2 0 3 2 0 A 3 2 0 2    77 .

Audio Tracks 2-17 & 18 Devil’s Dream Bm ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž   ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž   A 1 T A B 10 13 10 0 12 12 13 0 10 13 12 13 10 13 10 0 3 6 0 3 5 0 5 6 3 5 6 6 3 0 0 6 A Bm E A ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž žž žžžž žž  žžžž É 5 10 10 13 0 12 13 12 0 10 12 13 13 10 13 10 0 3 6 0 0 3 0 6 0 1 0 2 1 Bm A ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž É  9 3 2 3 0 5 4 5 0 2 0 0 3 H 0 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 4 0 2 3 2 3 0 3 E 3 2 0 3 2 0 2 1 2 A 0 A É ž ž    ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ÉÉ ž ž ž ž ž  Bm 7 78 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 11 0 0 12 13 0 0 0 14 14 1 2 0 0 5 4 0 4 5 7 4 2 3  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž žžžžžžž  Bm 14 19 ž žž A 0 2 2 3 5 5 0 4 žž žžž ž ž ž ž žžž žž ž ž A 2 2 0 0 5 6 žž ž žž žžžž É 0 14 14 2 0 3 2 0 2 0 0 10 9 0 0 9 9 0  žžžžž Bm  2 3 0 3 0 ž 0 4 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

Devil’s Dream (con’t) ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž É ž ž Lž ž ž ž 24 ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž )  ½  E 5 A A 0 5 0 7 7 Bm S ) 0 10 12 9   12 9 9 12 9 10 12 9 10 12 10 10 9 8 E A L ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž žžžž É  Bm A 29 7   34 10   9 10 7 0 5 10 S 9 10 7 8 10 9 10 10 7 10 0 0 5 4 3 2 0 Bm 10 7 ½ 10 A žžžž ž ž ž ž 2 0 4 0 4 7 0 4 7 A ž ž ž ž ž ž žž ž ž ž žžžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžžžžž ž ž 0 4 7 39 S 0 5 7 0 4 7 0 7 4 Bm 0 7 4 7 E 0 4 7 0 4 2 A 4 0 4 2 0 A ž žžžžž žž žžžžžžžž U 0 S 0 0 0 6 7 4 6 0 0 A ž ž ž   ž É   žž  rak   e 44 4 5 7 5 5 6 5 0 0 2 4 0 0 2 3 0 3 4 7 0 3 2 0 0 4 0 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 0 4 0 4 7 3 2 0 2 ž žž žžžžžžžž É 0 2 4 7 0 Bm ž ž ž ž ž žžž) žž žžž Bm 5 4 0 S S S 4 0 0 3 2 3 0 2 3 ) 5 7 7  žžžž ž žžžÉ E 2 3 0 3 2 0 A 2 1 2 79 .

Devil’s Dream (con’t) Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž  49 A 2 0 0 2 3 3 2 0 2 2  ž  ž  ) 57 ) 0 3 0 2 3 2 3 0 H 2 0 1 2 0 4 2 0 3 2 E 2 3 0 2 2 3 4 0 0 5 4 0 3 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 S 0 2 2 2 0 3 4 4 A P 4 0 0 3 0 3 4 3 2 0 0 0 2 ž ž žžž ž ž ž žžž žžž Bm  0 5 4 2 3 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž ž ÉÉÉ A 2 2 0 Bm A 2 2 0 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž  53 Bm A#°7 0 3 4 0 3 4 S 3 5 7 5 7 Bm ž ž ž ž ž ž   ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž É  61 A E P P 5 5 5 A 4 4 4 2 2 3 0 3 2 0 3 0 5 0 2 3 0 3 2 2 0 1 2 A#dim7 X X 80 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

5. A. Using the II9 and the V13b9 makes that pull towards the I stronger still. V. forget the root (just remember we’re making a D chord but the root note is missing and will be implied—the bass player or rhythm guitar is probably providing it anyway). then. Right now we will only talk about the “dominant” 9th chord. C. G. C in the key of C). F#. measures 23 and 24 of this tune represent the first occurrence of quarter note triplets in this course. You have seen plenty of examples of eighth note triplets. Now. If all of that sounds confusing. C. minus the root note. This is the F7b9 chord. C. E.East Tennessee Blues Next up we have “East Tennessee Blues. and 25 we have a II. Most of the time the music is moving so quickly that it’s not quite as repellent as it may seem!” What’s really useful about the flat 9 arpeggio is that the shapes on guitar are exactly the same as the fully diminished (diminished 7) four note shapes. Over the G chord Tim plays a G13b9 chord. 9. Tim selected to play some very interesting notes over those two measures. F#. The formula for the dominant 9 chord is spelled using the following scale degrees: 1. The timing catches your ear. C. A. or two beats in 4/4 time. In the key of F# your diminished 7th chord will be: F#. This is used in swing. You’ll remember that the eighth scale degree is the octave. and A. Dropping the D (root/tonic) we now we have: F# (3rd). is 3rd. D#. quarter note triplets are a great device to use when you want to throw a twist into a song’s timing. so adding the flat 9 really creates extra tension. Over the D chord the notes that are played make up a D9 arpeggio. Add a minor third on top and we have the D7 chord: D. Tim said that he learned this chord from a song that Vince Gill played on a Christmas record. However. If we add another minor third on top of that we have the D9 chord: D. let’s look at the D chord. you know your flat 9 arpeggios! From the chart on page 27. You’ll notice that this is the same chord as what we are calling the D7b9. listen to Tim play “East Tennessee Blues” on the CD and listen to those two measures. D# notes for the “flat 9” (usually referred to as D7b9) chord. and we will talk about eighth note triplets in greater depth on page 122 of this book. Dominant 7 and flat 9. so the 9th scale degree is one beyond the octave. looking at it from bass to treble you have: D F# A C D#. You will notice that in measures 23. you know that a diminished 7 chord is made by stacking three minor third intervals. the explanation for how the flat 9 and diminished 7 chords differ logically in their derivations will be explained in more detail in Volume 7. For now. The “flat 9” Arpeggio Another element of Tim May’s style that we encounter in this tune is the use of what Tim calls the “flat 9” arpeggio. 24. b7. Given that information. V. which is the same note as the 2nd scale degree. just recognize that the flat 9 chords have the same minor 3rd intervals that fully diminished chords have—so you can play diminished shapes as long as you know where to start! Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 81 . In order to get a feel for the timing. E. We will study more about chord extensions in Volumes 7 and 8 of this course. one octave up. E. There are even more types of ninth chords. A. A. don’t worry. The notes of a D9 chord are: D. country and bluegrass (fiddler Aubrey Haynie uses it brilliantly in his version of ‘Red Apple Rag’) when we really want to create a strong sense of the need to resolve: the 7th chord already wants to resolve. however. C. minus the root.” You first encountered this tune in Volume 5. 5th. D# (b9). here is what Tim has to say about the “flat 9”: Take a D7b9 chord. F#. F#. The notes Tim plays here are F#. As you can tell by listening. Earlier in this book you learned how to work from a chord triad and make a seventh chord by stacking a third interval on top of the triad. When playing quarter note triplets you are playing 3 notes of equal duration in the space of two quarter notes. but Tim offers something completely different here. So. We know from our earlier discussion about the “V of the V” that a II. A “nine chord” is made by once again stacking another third interval on top of the seventh chord. I progression has a strong pull towards the I. minus the root note. A (5th). C (dominant 7th). F#. The flat 9 arpeggio. If you know your diminished arpeggios. A. we will not concern ourselves with all of the different varieties of 9 chords here in this volume. jazz (particularly Gypsy Jazz:) and even folk. You saw back on page 27 that there are many different types of seventh chords. C. Quarter Note Triplets One thing that you will encounter here in “East Tennessee Blues” that you have yet to see in this course is the use of quarter note triplets. Flatten the 9 and you have D. The D major triad includes the notes D. A. I progression (D. As if the quarter note timing wasn’t enough to catch the listener’s ear. 3.

you will end back at the same notes. and D#. Because there are 12 notes in the chromatic scale.I move and is something that Tim loves to use. Remember. So. let’s look at Tim’s application of the flat 9 arpeggio in “East Tennessee Blues. Here in “East Tennessee Blues” the flat 9 is used over the IV chord (F). but it can also be used to create tension in other places and in other ways. Using the flat 9 tonality is a very nice way to spice up a V . the first thing to do is to listen very carefully and try to copy the timing that you hear on the recording. if you try that and still have a hard time getting the notes in the right place.The flat 9 arpeggio is used most often over a 5 chord (see the notes in this book for the songs “Forked Deer. but they are all the same notes. The interesting thing to notice here is that in all three sections shown in boxes below the notes are all the same. or figuring out the right hand pick direction.” “Red Wing”). We’ll point it out as it comes up again in this book and talk about it in more detail in Volumes 7 and 8. if you walk up minor thirds. The measure looks like this: 82   ž   ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž D 1 T A B G 2 4 2 0 4 1 2 0 0 4 4 0 2 3 2 D# C A F# This is the D7b9 arpeggio (minus the root) played in a descending direction. then drop those notes out. The minor third cycle continues to repeat.” which appears later in this book (page 132). However. Syncopation In “East Tennessee Blues” Tim does a bit of syncopation and so this would be a good spot to just mention that if you are having trouble with the timing of a syncopated phrase. every interval in this arpeggio is a minor third (three half steps). you will play the exact same chord. See the tab below: D G ž ž ž ž ž  ž L ž ž ž ž ž ž   ) ) s r s 7r  s r s 5r  s1 r s0 1r 5 4 3 3 7 6 5 T ) ) A B  s = downstroke r = upstroke D G ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 7 6 5 7 ( 7 )( 7 ) 5 4 3 5 ( 5 )( 5 ) 1 3 0 1 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . the D7b9 and the F7b9 notes are exactly the same. This one is taken from Tim’s arrangement of “Red Wing. Fiddle players often use it in this same way over the 4 chord (F) in the song “Cotton Patch Rag” (key of C). The notes are in a different order. ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž žž ž  ž   ž žž 1 F T A B 4 1 2 5 3 3 3 4 7 4 5 8 3 7 10 7 8 11 3 10 13 10 11 10 3 A C D# F# D# C D F# A F# D# F# A C D# D# E F F# G G# A A# B C C# D D# 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 3 } } } } 1 2 minor 3rd minor 3rd minor 3rd minor 3rd The reason this works is because. if you play any diminished chord and walk the entire chord up three frets (3 half steps). So this phrase is just begging to resolve to the G note in the next measure. F#. but the chord is the same. Play the fill in notes lightly until you get a feel for the right hand pick direction and timing.” It occurs here over the F chord in measures 35 and 36. try to place repeated eighth notes to fill in where the syncopation occurs. These are the notes of the F flat 9 arpeggio (minus the root). The arpeggio descends from the D# note down a succession of minor third intervals and lands on the F# note. A. Tim plays this tune in the key of G and uses the flat 9 over the V chord (D). one octave higher. In order to help you get a better idea of this “flat 9” tonality let’s look at a simpler example. as you can see from the diagram above. if we take away the root notes. So. which is the leading tone to the G chord. They are played in different order. C. We show these two measures below.

Audio Tracks 2-19 & 20 East Tennessee Blues ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž Lž ž  ž  ž žLž ž ž ž ž ž žžžž C 1 3 5 3 0 3 5 3 0 T A B F 3 5 3 0 5 3 0 3 C 1 0 2 1 4 1 3 1 3 0 1 2 3 0 2 0 3 3 2 0 3 2 0 2 žžžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž D 6 G 3 C 3 P 0 2 3 0 2 3 0 2 3 S 4 0 2 4 0 2 0 3 2 0 2 0 3  3 2 3 0 0 2 1 2 ž Lž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž žž žžž ž žžž žžžžž F C É 4 4 3 0 3 4 2 1 0 4 3 0 ž É žž ž H ž   ž žž ž 16 2 0 3 S 3 5 3 5 3 3 11 2 0 3 S 1 C C  3 S ) 5 7 5 7 S 8   5 7 9 5 G 1 1 ž ž 10 6 1 0 2 0 3 0 2 0 3 3 2 0 žžžž žžžžžžž ž F 8 6 5 5 6 8 5 6 5 7 7 5 3 2 0 3 2 3 0 2 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 6 7 6 7 1 0 8 3 3 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 21 C 2 0 2 D 0 1 3 0 1 3 0 1 0 3 0 1 3 0 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 3 4 2 G 3 1 0 3 1 3 2 3 1 0 0 3 0 3 83 .

East Tennessee Blues (con’t) C  ÉÉÉ žž ž ž žž 1 0 2 1 0 2 3 0 3 25 F H H ž L ž žž ÉÉ žž L žž ž É ž ž  žž žž 4 0 4 5 0 5 4 0 4 3 0 3 ) C 1 2 3 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 29 1 2 H 0 2 3 2 0 2 3 0 1 0 2 C 7 5  37 ž ž )  C  12 13 ) S 6 5 8 0 5 3 4 0 4 0 2 3 10 10 8 8 7 8 0 4 G 4 3 C ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž É 1 2 0 2 0 0 2 1 3 0 ž 1 0 ž ž S 3 1 7 4 1 0 0 7 3 3 3 S 2 5 4 7 4 S 5 8 3 ž ž D ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ) 12 8 2 S F 0 1 1 ) 1 3 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž žž  33 1 2 3 1 2 ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ) 6 5 7 7 3 10 7 S 8 11  ž ž ž ž )  5 5 4 3 )  G 10 13 10 3 11 10 ž ž ž ž 1 3 0 1 ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž  41 C F P P 2 3 84 1 3 1 0 3 0 3 1 0 2 0 3 0 2 3 0 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 3 1 4 1 3 1 2 0 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

East Tennessee Blues (con’t) C G C ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 45 4 1 4 1 2 0 4 1 4 1 4 1 2 0 0 2 3 2 2 0 3 3 2 0 3 žž žž žž žž 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 2 ž ž 0 1 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 49 C 3 F 0 2 0 3 2 3 0 ž ž ž ž ž S 6 8 8 7 5 3 0 3 3 2 0 2 0 S 1 3 5 3 3 5 5 5 7 5 7 6 5 7 5 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ) ž 53 C  2 S D  ) 5 3 0 3 0 2 G 3 0 2 3 2 0 2 1 0 1 0 3 1 0 3 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  57 C 1 C É 61 5 F 0 5 4 5 5 4 5 5 4 5 6 4 6 6 4 6 6 4 6 6 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž É G 1 3 0 1 3 0 1 0 3 1 0 3 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 1 C 0 2 0 0 2 0 3 1 4 6 5 4 5 ÉÉ ÉÉ 0 1 0 2 85 .

and D. and G. if you land on a chord tone on the strong beats (stable notes). C#. So in measure 49 Tim is playing a A11 arpeggio and in measure 50 he is playing an A13 arpeggio.” Tim bends the D# note up to E over the A chord on the first beat of measure 57. Diminished Chord Moving to Major Chord (V — I)   ÉÉ  É 0 2 3 86 ÉÉ É É 2 3 3 0 É  ÉÉÉ 3 2 3 2 ÉÉ É É 2 3 3 0 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . The Held Bend In measures 57 and 58 of “Forked Deer” we not only come across two measures of quarter note triplets again. In the A scale these notes are the 9th. with the exception of two “spicy” measures.I). The notes Tim plays here are the A#. In the first 16 bars Tim presents a pretty straight treatment of the tune. The first chord in the second line of tab is the A#dim7 (with the E note played as the lowest note). to get a sense of how the diminished triad diminished seventh chords want to Diminished Arpeggio—Ascending & Descending   ž ž ž ž ž ž ž   ž T A B 3 0 2 3 3 0 2 3 resolve to the tonic. As we discussed in the Improvisation section of Volume 5. In measures 37 to 39 Tim also employs a chromatic run. As we mentioned previously. If you think about it. play through the ascending and descending arpeggio shown in the first line of tab below. Then in measure 10 he plays a long descending chromatic run.Forked Deer “Forked Deer” is another flatpicking standard that Tim has jazzed up a bit. the notes of the G chord are G. while holding the bend. B. This is a cool thing to do. In measure 4 he throws in the G note over the A chord to give it an A7 tonality. He then continues to play that note throughout the measure. you can play chromatic notes in between those stable notes and all will sound just right. play the tab in the two measures on the second line below. So that you can really get a sense of this tonality. but notice that he lands on a chord tone on all of the strong beats of these measures (first and third beats of measure 38 and first beat of measure 39). As you know from our discussion back on pages 81 and 82. An interesting thing that Tim does here in measures 49 and 50 is that he plays G chord tones with an A base (G/A) over the A chord. E. leading to the D chord (V . which is the A7b9. That is followed by the D major chord. minus the root. That chord is then followed by the D major chord. In measure 44 we see the flat 9 arpeggio that we talked about back on page 81 and 82 played over the A chord. We can call this the “held bend. If your ear can become accustom to this tonality. but we also see a new bend technique. The first chord in the first measure of this line is an A#dim. toggling back and forth between the bend B string and the open E string. minus the root. 11th. you will be able to recognize it in Tim’s improvisations and then you will be able to utilize it in arrangements of your own. and 13th scale degrees. One thing that you may have noticed about the melody to “Forked Deer” is that the tonic of the V chord is the strongest melody note and is played at the top of each measure of the B part under the V chord. He does not release the bend until the first beat of measure 58. when you use this arpeggio over the V chord it creates a very strong pull towards the I. this is also a A7b9 chord. Then.

Audio Tracks 2-21 &22 Forked Deer   ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž   D 1 T A B G 0 2 3 5 2 3 3 0 D 7 8 10 8 7 0 3 2 A 0 2 3 5 0 0 0 3 3 D 2 0 3 0 3 0 2 2 3 2 3 5 2 3 0 D G A D D G ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžžž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž Lž ž ž ž G 6 8 11   7 0 8 7     2 0 2 0 4 0 2 0 4 0 2 4 0 2 4 D 3 0 2 0 4 0 2 1 G 0 4 D 3 2 0 4 G žž ž ž žž ž ž žžžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž ž ž ž ž ž 0 2 4 2 0 A A ž 4 0 0 A žžž ž 3 0 0 2 4 7 9 7 4 0 2 0 4 0 7 9 7 6 0 2 žžžžžž 6 ž žžž ž 6 0 S 4 5 D žžž ž ž 4 0 2 21 3 2 0 A D 0 4 16 0 0 3 2 7 0 2 4 0 4 3 0 žžžžžžž ž 7 0 6 2 2 0 0 2 3 2 3 2 0 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž Lž ž D 6 7 9 7 9 3 0 4 2 0 0 7 6 7 7 9 7 9 7 9 0 3 2 0 2 3 ž žžžž ž žžžž žžžž ž žž žž ž žž ž D 6 6 0 7 9 7 7 9 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 0 4 G 2 0 2 A 0 2 0 4 D 0 2 4 0 0 0 0 87 .

Forked Deer (con’t) 25   A ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ) S H 4 5 5 0 6 0 7 ) 7 6  8 D ž ž ž ž žž ž žž žžžžžžžž P 7 8 5 8 8 0 7 8 5 0 8 7 8 5 8 0 5 3 0  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžž žžžžžžž  ž žžžžžžžž A 29 D S 3 5 33   0 0 0 3 2 0 3 2 0 3 2 0 2 0 3 0 2 0 A 2 0 4 0 D 2 0 2 0 4 0 2 4 žžžžžžžž žžžžž žžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ) žžžž žž 3 S  S 3 5 3 5 7 0 2 0 2 2 4 ) 0 2 4 4 D G G D 5 A 7 0 5 3 5 0 2 3 2 3 2 0 3 2 0 3  ž L ž  ž L ž ž ž ž L ž ž ž Lž ž Lž ž Lž  ž žžžžžžžž žžžžž žž ž D 37 0 41   1 2 1 0 3 2 1 D 0 3 2 1 0 4 3 2 0 G S 2 5 A D 2 0 0 4 0 4 0 4 2 0 S 0 2 5 žžžž ž ž ž ž žžžžžžžž žž žžžž žžžžžž ž ž ž D 0 88 G G 4 2 4 0 4 2 0 3 D 2 4 0 2 4 0 2 A 4 0 2 4 0 2 0 0 2 3 2 0 3 2 3 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

Forked Deer (con’t)  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž É D 45 G 0 49   3 A ž   0 4 0 4 ž 4 ž 4 5 0 0 3 ž ž Lž 1 S 2 žž 4 A 2 2 ž ž ž 5 0 53 2 D 0 5 ž ž ž 9 8 7 0 0 1 2 3 0 8 7 9 8 7 9 ž 7 0 2 4 3 3 3 Bend 0 4 3   ž) ž   61 A ) 7  5 0 4 É 5 4 4 É ž 0 D 2 0 2 4 0 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 0 5 0 4 0 0 1 žžžžžžžž žžžžž ž 3 2 3 A 0 2 0 3 3 D 2 3 0 0 2 3 0 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 3 0 D 3 3 0 0 G 3 Release 2 0   ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž L ž É  57 A 4 D 5 6 A 0 D 0 2 2 3 0 ž ž ž H P 1 žž žž ž ž ž 2 4 žžÉ 3 0 0 4 0 ž ž ž ž ž Lž Lž ž H 2 5 G 4 3 0 4 3 2 S 2 2 0 3 3 2 0 S 5 7 7 7 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž É ž 3 D 3 2 0 3 2 3 0 3 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking G A D P 3 2 0 3 3 0 2 0 2 0 4 0 2 4 0 89 .

Earlier in this Volume you learned about diatonic harmony (building diatonic triads). The 90 easy fix is to “nudge” each of those sour notes up or down a half step and make them chord tones. The fundamentals of working out harmony parts on any instrument. However. and will work just fine. you can take any recorded flatpicking tune that you have on CD. our intention here in this volume is not to try and provide a full treatment of harmony theory. Or. strict parallel harmony can tend to sound a bit monotonous after a few bars. find the harmony part. In the vocal world. or four part harmony—can be a very involved process. you can record a lead part and have fun harmonizing with that. if you were to play this new harmony part that you have created along with a partner who is playing the melody. Remember back in the last volume when we talked about those pesky notes that are a half step away from the chord tones (the fourth and seventh scale degrees)? Well. In fact. then your harmony part is going to sound OK. From there you can explore all of the possibilities on your own. While there are many ways to practice playing harmony parts on the guitar. but we will talk about that later. I said that parallel harmony sounds “OK” because although it is not going to sound bad. it may not sound too interesting. are based on building harmonized scales (as you studied back in Volume 4) and utilizing diatonic triads. Basic Two-Part Harmony First we are going to take a look at creating a twopart harmony that is based on notes that are diatonically a third above the melody note. In this book we want to provide you with enough basic information about harmony to allow you to start to explore this wonderful world with a guitar playing partner or two. any harmony notes that are a half step away from a chord tone might sound a bit sour. it turns out that if you universally move all of your melody notes up a third and play those new notes along with the melody. people will refer to this harmony voice as the “tenor part.” This means that if we are in the key of G we simply take all of basic melody notes and move them up a third (two scale degrees) to create a harmony part. three. Since all of the intervals are exactly the same.Twin and Triple Guitars—Playing Harmony Parts Learning how to play harmony parts on the guitar— two. you are going to work with the notes and intervals that make up the diatonic chords. You may have to make another adjustment or two. we could dedicate an entire book to this topic alone. if you have the ability to record yourself. Sounds easy. then play along with the recording. however. Chord Tone Intervals — Key of D D 4th C# Octave B A 5th G 3rd F# E 3rd D 4th C# 6th B A G 5th 3rd F# E D 3rd Octave Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . there is a good chance that some of those notes aren’t going to sound exactly right. right? This first step is actually pretty easy. that will be enough to get you going. or vocal. The harmony part that you have created by raising all of the melody notes up a third is referred to as “parallel harmony” and it is the first step in learning how to work out a basic harmony part. If you do that. It is safe. In other words. If you understand the basics. Or. working out harmonies with your picking partners can be the most fun. it is consonant.

but there is a lot you can do to make it sound more interesting. in order for the notes to sound consonant. The basic melody sounds OK. Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 91 .Whiskey Before Breakfast . from the chord. and/or intervals. Moving up a diatonic third or down a diatonic sixth are your best notes to use. Creating parallel harmony is like learning how to play the basic melody of a song. In the chart at the bottom of the last page we’ve laid out two octaves of the D scale and circled all of the chord tones. indicating the intervals between those chord tones. The first thing that you can do to make the harmony sound more interesting is to add some other harmonic intervals into the mix.Melody      ž ž ž ž ž ž D 1  0 T A B 5   0 2 2 4 0 2 4    ž D 9 2  2 D 3 2 2 0 4 0 2 2 0 4 0 2 ž ž ž ž ž ž 3 3 3 0 4 0 2 4 4 2 3 G 0 2 0 D 0 2 0 2 3 2 0 4 0 3 0 0 0 2 D 4 0 4 2 0 D ž É 2 0 0 A 2 0    ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž A ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 4 it will work. moving up a perfect fifth or down a perfect fourth will also work just fine. 2 G ž ž ž ž ž ž 0 0 2 Em 3 2 4 2 A 0 4 É 2 0 2 4 ž A 2 ž žžž žž ž žžž žž ž žžž ž žžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 0  ž ž ž ž  13 A G ž ž ž ž ž ž 0 G 2 D Audio Track 2-23 4 2 2 D ž 4 É 0 0 2    are notes. More on that later. but it is only a first step. The intervals that you have to choose from. However.

Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . A parallel harmony. You may notice that in the first measure we “nudged” the seventh scale degree (C#) up to the octave (D). using all diatonic third intervals.” The tab shown on the previous page is a very basic version of the song. enough theory. however. More about that decision in a moment. A very similar version was presented in Volume 3. is shown above.Harmony (Parallel 3rds)    ž ž   ž ž ž ž D 1  4 T A B 5   0 3 0 2 4 0 2   ž   D 9   3 D 2 3 3 0 2 2 4 4 0 4 É 2 2 2 3 2 3 5 3 ž ž ž ž ž ž G 3 D 3 0 3 2 2 0 2 ž 0 0 0 2 ž ž ž ž ž ž A 5 3 0 3 0 3 2 2 0 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 3  ž ž ž ž  13 3 G ž ž ž ž ž ž Audio Track 2-24 A ž žžž žžž žž ž ž ž ž žžžžž ž ž 3 D 0 G A 2 0 3 2 3 0 3 3 G 3 2 5 7 D 3 0 2 A 3 D ž 0 4  É 4   A ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 0 4 0 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Em 2 0 2 0 2 0 3 ž 2 0 D É 4 3 2    = Notes that had to be nudged Whiskey Harmony OK.Whiskey Before Breakfast . we left the G note (which is a half step away from the chord tone F#). The notes that are circled are 92 the ones that we had to “nudge” to a chord tone because the diatonic third interval was a half step away from a chord tone and thus had a more dissonant sound than we could accept at this point. Let’s try a practical example using the fiddle tune “Whiskey Before Breakfast.

Obviously one way to do it would be to labor through labeling each note of the melody. The first graphic below show the harmonized scale (in the key of D) as it was presented to you back in Volume 4. In that line we’ve made an adjustment when the harmony note was on the fourth scale degree (G in this case) and the seventh scale degree (C# note in this case). Track 22. However. How Did We Do That? This course is all about teaching you how to fish. depending on how the melody line is Harmonized Scale Fretboard Diagrams: Key of D Harmonized D Scale on A & D Strings F# o Fret: 1 2 3 G A B D E F# G 8 9 10 11 8 9 10 11 o 4 5 C# o 6 7 D E F# A B C# o oo 12 D 13 14 15 13 14 15 Harmonized D Scale: First Five Frets F# E C# C# G D D A A B B E F# F# G D o Fret: 1 2 3 o 4 = Scale Note 5 o 6 7 o oo 12 = Harmony Note Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 93 . Track 23. however. We moved the G note up to A (which is a chord tone in the D chord) and we moved the C# note up to D (obviously also a D chord tone). For the change from the G to A note. using that method can be slow and tedious. Then play through the second line of tab. The second graphic shows the same scale. At the top of the next page we’ve presented a tab of the harmonized scale. we want you to get away from using tab. When you play it as single notes this scale flows nicely. however. Give it a try. You could come up with a written tab if you did it this way. the difference is subtle and you may prefer to leave that G note in many instances. Also.For now. You can also listen to the two parts played together on Disc 2. counting up a diatonic third from that note and then writing down the harmony note. The short cut to figuring out this parallel harmony part involves the use of harmonic scales. Play through it and see if any of those intervals sound a bit dissonant to your ear. we’ve moved it up to the first five frets. as single notes. When you played this scale in Volume 4 you were playing it linearly. you are going to encounter those notes that are a half-step away from a chord tone. try to play this harmony part along with the recording of the melody that we have provided on audio Disc 2. not catching the fish for you. when you play the entire scale as double-stops. so writing down the harmony part is a step backwards in our effort to get away from the paper. Remember those from back in Volume 4! Those scales are going to become very useful to you when you are trying to figure out harmony. So we don’t want to just give you the tab to the parallel harmony part without teaching you how to easily figure it out for yourself. The second line of tab may sound smoother to you.

shown in the next column is the melody played with strict third intervals. it will usually be appropriate to change the C# note to a D note in the harmony. Therefore. especially if you are hitting that C# note against a stable melody note. The next is a variation where by we have changed both the C# note to D and the G note to A. The A note is a chord tone and is likely to be a stable melody note. Since the E note is not a chord tone. it is usually going to be a passing tone when it appears in the melody. Checking Your Work The first measure of “Whiskey Before Breakfast” demonstrates exactly what we’re talking about in the preceding paragraph. Let’s take that first measure and look at it in several different ways.Harmonized Scale     žž D 1 T A B žž žž 0 2 4 5 žž 2 4 4 5 žž žž 2 2 3 4 žž žž 0 2 2 3 žž žž 0 2 2 3 Adjusted Harmonized Scale 1   D žž 4 5 žž 2 2 žž 2 4 žž 4 5 žž žž 3 2 3 4 = Notes that are changed from being a raised third to a chord tone moving. 94 Strict Parallel Harmony (3rds)       žž žž žž žž žž 1 T A B D   45 2 2 2 2    ž    žž žž žž žž ž žž 0 2 2 4 0 0 žž Modified Parallel Harmony 1 T A B D   45 2 2 2 4 0 0 3 2 3 2 = Modified Notes Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . Then the third variation would be what is shown as the first measure in the tab on the next page. The first tab. you will see that the G note is paired with an E note. the change from the C# to the D note is usually going to be necessary. A good way to “check your work” when you are figuring out harmony parts is to play the melody and harmony together as shown on the next page. However. If you will take a look at the harmony notes. However. that C# note is paired harmonically with the A note.

Double Stops    ž ž    žž žž žž žž ž ž D 1   45 T A B 5   0 3 0 2 0 2 2 4 4 5 0 2 2 4   ž  ž D 9   3 2 3 2 D 2 3 2 4 4 5 3 2 3 2 0 0 2 4 0 2 4 5 ÉÉ 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 5 2 3 3 5 5 7 3 5 3 4 0 0 2 4 3 2 2 4 0 2 3 4 3 4 0 2 3 4 2 2 0 2 3 4 2 3 3 2 0 0 3 5 3 5 2 4 5 7 7 8 D 3 4 0 0 2 4 A 3 2 D žž 0 2  ÉÉ 4 5   A žž žž žž žž žž žž ž ž 0 0 0 2 4 0 5 2 4 5 žž ž ž žž žž ž ž žž žž žž žž G 2 4 Play through all three of these variations and see which one you like best.Whiskey Before Breakfast . However. as shown in the “modified parallel harmony” example did something to alter the flow of the harmonic line. so you can usually get Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 95 . In the “strict parallel harmony” example the C# note played against the A note on the last two beats sounds too harsh. Changing that C# note to a D in the “modified parallel harmony” made that interval more consonant. So I opted to keep the G note as the harmony note for the E note. Make sure that you are playing a strong double stop so that you can hear both notes ringing out together. In this instance the E note in the melody is a passing tone. To my ear the one shown in the tab above sounds the best. to my 2 2 3 5 D 0 2 2 4 A Em 2 3 žž žž žž žž žž ž ž G 0 0 2 4 žž 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 4 žž žž žž žž žž žž A 5 7 3 0 2 0 žž žž ž ž žž žž žž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž žž ž ž ž ž 4 5   žž žž žž žž  13 3 2 G žž ž ž ž ž žž ž ž žž Audio Track 2-25 A žž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž žž žž žž ž žž žž ž žž žž žž žž žž žž ž ž žž 3 2 D 0 0 G 2 4 0 2 3 5 žž 2 4 0 2 D ÉÉ 4 5 3 4 2 2    ear. The dissonance of the G and E notes played together over a D chord is very subtle. not a repeated note. so I felt like the harmony also needed a passing tone. changing the G note to an A note (on the “and” of the first beat).

Then work on the harmonized A scale and harmonized G scale in the same way. 5th. 4th. again working up a scale that starts at the most consonant notes and then moving towards more dissonant notes. It is still a D note. First find all of the double stops. Therefore. In the example shown on the next page we moved it up to an F# note because F# is the third note in the D chord triad (remember the notes of the D chord are D. Homework: After working with the three harmonized scales mentioned above. Work with both the regular harmonized scales and the modified scales. Measure 3 remains the same. it will be easier for you to find and hear harmony parts. down a perfect fourth. if you familiarize yourself with harmonized scales you will have an easier time figuring out harmony notes for the non-chord tones. In the first two measures of the parallel harmony. or fifth notes of the scale. then finding a harmony note in the chord will. 3rd. so we took the one on beat four of the first measure and moved it down an octave. if the melody comes from the 1st. but also know how to find them on your fingerboard when you are called upon to come up with a harmony part. we moved that up to an F# note. or 7th scale degrees.” Then my response would be. in most cases. but played an octave lower. The next group of notes that you can choose from. we raised it up an octave. Creating a Harmony Variation Once you have worked to create a parallel harmony arrangement. To create our first harmony we used all raised diatonic third intervals. The choices that you have are many. however. It was moved up to be a D note in our parallel harmony example (the root note of the D scale). In creating this harmony part we started with the parallel harmony part that was presented on page 92 and then we made some modifications. memorize where the harmony notes in the double stops are. work for you. Twinkle) and try to find the harmony line to the song without writing any of the notes down. You have a harmony that works. Our original melody note there was an A note (the 5th degree of the D scale). Harmonically. especially when you are only working to create a two part harmony. measure 4 also remains the same. if you know how to easily locate all of your chord tones and Practice: Practice familiarizing yourself with the notes of the harmonized D scale from the open notes up to the fifth fret by playing them as double stops. how do I learn how to hear it?” Working with the harmonized scales and familiarizing yourself with those scales on your fingerboard is a good way to not only learn to hear those intervals. However. you don’t have as much freedom because you don’t want to step on other people’s parts. In the past whenever I’ve talked with people about learning harmony parts. 96 also have a familiarity with the notes of the harmonized scale. Since the F# is in the D chord and the original melody note (A) is also in the D chord—and we are playing over a D chord—it all fits. that is fairly easy task if you know the chord shapes and positions. Work to really gain a familiarity with the positions of each paired notes and how they sound together. if the melody hits the root. We have already stated that if you are playing either the fourth or seventh scale degree that it may be best to play a chord tone along with those notes as well. Take a look at the harmony part to “Whiskey Before Breakfast” shown on the next page. the C# to A note dissonance over a D chord is more noticeable. When you are trying to figure out a note that will harmonize with a chord tone. For the note on the first beat of measure 2. or up or down an octave from the third. You could also chose to move up a perfect fifth. The only thing we did different was to make Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . Then record the melody and play the harmony with it. From there. Therefore. take any simple song in the key of D (like “Twinkle. are going to be those notes that can be found using other chord tone intervals (beside a raised diatonic third or lowered diatonic sixth). you now have your basic building blocks. “OK. You simply find another note in the chord. third. you will be safe in the harmony if you simply play another chord tone. This is where the real fun begins because the next step is to try to spice up that harmony and make it sound more interesting. But with two part harmony there are a lot of choices. F#. and A).away with that interval. So. the one thing that I was always told was “you just have to learn how to hear it. When you start to work with three or four part harmonies. then play the harmony without the melody. we felt like there were just too many D notes played in a row at the third fret of the B string. whether they were vocal or on an instrument.

A. The parallel diatonic third harmony is: F#. The parallel harmony raised all of those notes a diatonic third to: G. so we spread the interval out a whole octave here. The note that we dropped off the end was a C# note. E. sometimes you want to add a little dissonance for effect. D. G. F#. G. jumping up a diatonic fifth interval is Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 97 . F#. D. D. which is one half step away from the C note in the a chord. The most consonant harmony is “tight harmony. We did this just because we felt like it fit better. B. Moving these notes up an octave adds a small bit of tension. When you are creating two part harmonies. However. A. E. F#. G. E. A. G. In the variation shown above I took the first note up a fifth to the A note. B. In measure 5 our melody notes were D. the tighter the sound.Modified Harmony    ž   ž ž ž ž ž D 1  4 T A B 5   0 2   ž    3 ž D   0 2 3 D 2 0 2 0 4 0 2 3 3 2 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 2 2 3 2 4 2 0 3 2 ž 5 2 3 Em 2 3 5 3 2 ž ž ž ž ž ž G 3 D 3 5 3 2 3 G 2 3 ž ž 7 5 0 ž A 7 D 0 3 0 2 A 3 2 3 ž 0 5 3 2 3 D  É   2 2 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 3 beat four a quarter note.Whiskey Before Breakfast . In measure 4 the melody line was E. F#. D.” meaning 0 3 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 2 0 A É ž ž ž ž 2 3 3 G 3 A 3 2 0 ž ž ž ž ž ž 9  2 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž A G 3 D 2 13 0 0 Audio Track 2-26 4 ž 8 ž 2 ž ž ž 5 D É 4 7 6    the smaller the interval between harmony notes. So it was one of those pesky notes.

F#. A. In measure 6 we noticed that of the seven melody notes. The first note of the harmony (F#) is a third below the melody note (A). The only chord tone that you will have to be careful with when moving up a fifth is the A note. So in our harmony it is going to become a D note. but remember. D. in the modified harmony example I moved it up to a C# note. Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . after you get a feel for the intervals and learn to hear what sounds good Third and Fifth Intervals from Chord Tones D nudge C# B 5th 3rd F# E D 98 3rd A G 5th nudge 3rd Thirds and fifths work because. on the use of thirds and fifths). G. which is a chord tone. this is not a chord tone. A fifth up from A is the E note. A. So moving up a perfect fifth interval from F# is going to land you on the D note after the nudge. I encourage you to play through the two harmony examples that we have provided here and then try to create others on your own. at first it will be a slow and labor intensive process that will involve trial and error. A third up from D is a chord tone (F#).OK to do if you want to add some variety. which is a chord tone. A. D. The third harmony note (D) is a fifth above the melody note (G). but it is the note that we are going to nudge of to D. Again. The only two notes that are not from the chord are the G and E notes. you can see that although we changed things around quite a bit. The first note (A) is a fifth away from the original melody note (E). Notes in the scale that are not chord tones are going to be predominantly used as passing tones in a melody. Also. The sixth harmony note (A) is a fifth below the melody note (E). and the final harmony note (D) is a third below the melody note (F#). but you may have to also think about nudging up to F# or down to D. The fourth harmony note (A) is a third above the melody note (F#). this is the note that we are going to nudge. For the most part. The melody notes are A. which is the interval of a fifth above the F# in the A scale. So. they are your chord tone intervals. when moving up from a chord tone you can always use a third interval as long as you remember to nudge that C#. all of our intervals are either thirds or fifths in this measure (see the sidebar. I chose to end the modified harmony on a F# note. So. D. The notes that are up a diatonic fifth will usually fit. The notes we are playing in the tab above are: F#. The second note is the F# repeated. it may sound OK. C# is not a chord tone. These are all chord tones and are either an interval of a third or a fifth away from the original melody notes. E. Like anything. For the second note in this measure the original melody note is an F#. Moving up a perfect fifth from the root note (D) we land on the A note. The movement up a perfect fifth from A does not land you on a chord tone. Moving up a fifth from the F# note we land on the C# note. depending on the movement of the melody line. for the most part. So there you have just one of many harmony choices for the given “Whiskey Before Breakfast” melody. The last note of the melody is a D note. F#. if you are creating a three part harmony. we selected to play an arpeggio over the D chord here that did not step on any of the melody notes. and A. In measure seven we kept the modified harmony exactly the same as the parallel harmony. However. However. F#. Then in the last measure we changed the first two notes to notes that fit the A chord. Both the E note and the A note are in the A chord. you have to be careful because the third part may be using that fifth interval as their prominent interval and you don’t want to step on that part. F#. The fifth harmony note (F#) is a third above the melody note (D). five of them were from the chord (D). if you raise the passing tones the same amount as you raise the surrounding chord tones. When dealing with that situation. you don’t want to add too many fifth intervals in a row or your harmony will start to sound like a Gregorian chant. you are going to be safe. So you will have to be careful in that situation as far as using the fifth intervals. shown below. F#. a third up from F# is a chord tone (A). So. If you look at the diagram (left) you can see that the chord tones of the D chord are D. A third up from A is C#.

the most consonant harmonies can also be the most boring harmonies. For instance. 1) Parallel Harmony: Create a parallel harmony based on moving all melody notes up a diatonic third or down a diatonic sixth. you may remember from the “Rule of Nine” that you learned about in the intervals appendix of Volume 4 that if you start at any note and go up a major third. use your ear as a guide. then you can chose any other chord tone. keep in mind that the farther away you are from the melody note. Next. From these basic guidelines things can go in many different directions as far as creating interesting two part harmony. The closer the harmony notes are together. the more dissonance you will create. Playing Chord Tones: So that you don’t have to remember all of those intervals. the rule of thumb to keep in mind when you are selecting harmony notes is that if your melody note is a chord tone of the chord that you are playing over. In other words. you will understand it more and get better at it. going up a third to the 3rd scale degree. that choice will also depend on where you go with your third note. below we are listing some guidelines to follow. If they sound “bad” or sour. only an octave lower. add other chord tone intervals (diatonic thirds. at any octave. So you might want to spice it up a little bit by varying your harmony from always being the same interval away from the melody note. If you come up with harmony notes and you play them against the melody and they sound good. then they are good. choosing notes that are in the chord are also going to also be the most stable and consonant choices. but sometimes parallel harmony can sound monotonous. Again. or go down a perfect 4th. This will give you a nice parallel harmony. sixths. 2) Creating Harmonic Variation: In addition to your diatonic third intervals. let’s say that you are playing over a D chord and the first melody note in a measure is a D and you move that up a third to a F#. Melody notes that are in the chord are usually going to be the most stable and consonant. Then your next melody note in that measure is an E note. In other words. and then going up another third to the 5th scale degree. Melody notes that are not in the scale of the key are the least stable. Melody notes that are not chord tones are a little less stable. That is not necessarily a bad thing. So adding a bit of dissonance is not a bad thing. For instance if you look at the chart on page 90 you’ll see that you can go up a major third from the D note and be at the F# note. Your ear is your best judge. Louvin Brothers. in the harmony and it will work. Remember. However. play through the harmony and if any of the notes sound “off. and fourths) in order to create a bit of variety in your harmony line. Then. However. fifths. Everly Brothers) and listen Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 99 . if you are playing over a D chord and the melody is a D note. The same relative relationship is true when you go up a perfect 5th. Less stable notes are typically passing tones or “color” notes. then move that note up or down in a way that is consistent with the surrounding chord tones. It is going to sound best to be consistent with the movement of the melody line and thus move the harmony note up a third as well (to a G note). A or D note on the fingerboard and you will be in harmony with the melody. However. then you can go down a minor sixth and your be at the same note. nudge any of those notes that are a half step away from a chord tone up or down to be on a chord tone if the are creating a dissonant sound.together and what doesn’t. While your ear is always going to be your best tool in deciding what sounds good and what doesn’t. Non-Chord Tones: If your melody note is not one of the chord tones. To get ideas listen to two-part harmony singers (Delmore Brothers. Blue Sky Boys. the “tighter” that harmony will be. tension and release adds interest to harmony arrangements in the same way it adds interest to solo arrangements. the most pleasing harmonies are going to be the most consonant harmonies. Monroe Brothers.” nudge them up or down to a chord tone. chose notes that also act as passing tones or “color” tones and everything will usually work out just fine. Again. if you go down a minor sixth from the D note you will end up at the F# note that is an octave below the F# note that was a major third above D. then you might want to change them and take a look at why they sounded bad to you. Two-Part Harmony Rules of Thumb Here are the steps to follow when creating two-part harmony. just something to keep in mind. While a diatonic chord is built from the root. So when you are creating harmony notes to go along with those non-chord or non-scale notes. so when choosing harmony notes to go along with those chord tone melody notes. then you can chose any F#.

the harmony will most likely be a non-chord tone. 100 0 A G 2 D 5 G 2 ž Až ž ž   13 Audio Track 2-27 3 É 2 2 0    • Land on a chord tone when the melody lands on a “stable” note and when chords change. Stick with those intervals and you can’t go wrong. Once you get the basics worked out. Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . A 0 3 3 5 5 2 3 ž ž ž ž 7 7 7 3 3 10 10 D 3 3 3 2 ž 2 2 4 D 2  É 2 ž ž ž ž ž 9 5 A ž D 2 3 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž G 0 3 0   A Em 5 to twin fiddlers. then you can try more sophisticated arrangements where the lead and harmony players change parts back and forth during the harmony break. parallel fifths and/ or fourths in two-part harmony are usually avoided. • If the melody note is a non-chord tone.High Baritone Harmony žžž žž ž žžž ž ž ž žžžž ž ž žž    žž ž ž ž   ž D 1 2  T A B 5   0 3 0 2 ž ž ž ž ž ž D 2 0   ž   D 9   0 3 2 2 10 2 2 2 0 3 2 2 0 3 0 2 3 ž É ž ž ž ž ž ž 5 5 5 5 9 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 5 7 10 7 D ž ž ž ž ž ž G 3 3 5 3 2 3 In Summary: A Few Helpful Hints • Parallel thirds and sixths are the most common interval choices for two-part harmony. The more you listen and practice the better you will become.Whiskey Before Breakfast . • While it is fine to add perfect fifth and perfect fourth intervals into your harmony line. • Follow the line of the melody and harmonize diatonic passages diatonically and chromatic passages chromatically.

Or. • Harmony notes can repeat or they can drop out for a beat or two. or up a diatonic third from the tenor Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking Practice: Play through the arrangement of “Whiskey Before Breakfast” that is shown on the next page.Strict Parallel Harmony (5ths)   žž ž ž ž ž   žžž žž žž ž ž T A B 0 0 2 2 4 5 2 2 4 2 3 2 3 4 5     ž žž ž D 1 Stable Melody Notes 1 2 3 2 T A B Modified Parallel Harmony   žž žž ž ž   žžž žž žž ž ž 1 T A B D 2 4 5 0 2 2 3 2 4 0 0 0 2 3 2 žž ž 2 3 2 = Modified Notes D 0 ž 4 ž ž 2 2 line. The basic rule of thumb here is that you want to play a third part that is below the melody line you’d step down an interval of a fourth to the chord tone that is below the root. Avoid those intervals unless you are specifically using them to add some tension. you’d move up a perfect fifth from the melody line.” We’ve presented all three parts as if you strummed them all together in the Too many fifth of fourth intervals in a row and your harmony begins to sound like a Gregorian chant. The high baritone arrangement is shown on the previous page. if you wanted to play the third part up above the tenor line. Strum through each of these chords very slowly to get a feel for the tonality of each. So. break down the harmony measure-by-measure as we did with the first measure. minor. So in building a three part harmony we are creating the sound of full major. It’s your call given the situation. Adding A Third Part When you add a third part to the harmony. Homework: After playing through the tab shown on the next page. you have far less freedom for variation because you don’t want to step on top of the other harmony player by playing duplicate notes. and/or augmented chords. if you are playing the harmony part that is just above the melody line (tenor) and the other harmony player is playing the harmony part that is just below the melody line (baritone) or just above the tenor line (high baritone). When you are working to create three part harmonies what you are doing is creating triads. 101 . Let’s take a look at all three parts of the first measure of “Whiskey Before Breakfast. This arrangements has all three harmony parts for every note of the solo. The more you study what others have done in terms of harmony arranging. you don’t want to play the same notes as he or she is playing. diminished. Analyze the note choices for each harmony part to get a feel for the decisions that we made when creating this three-part harmony arrangement. From our earlier discussions you know that triads are the building blocks for chords. • The most dissonant intervals when creating harmony parts are seconds and sevenths. the better you will understand the process and the easier it will be for you to come up with your own harmony parts. For our “Whiskey Before Breakfast” example we decided to move up above the tenor line and create what the bluegrass vocalists call a “high baritone” part. Try to recognize which chords match the chords of the song and which ones are passing chords.

We also nudged the D note on the “and” of beat two up to E so that we would not have to play two D notes in a row. The other change that we made to the “strict parallel harmony” was to move one of the tenor notes. You’ll remember that in the two-part harmony we could have followed the rule of thumb that says you nudge notes that are a half step away from scale notes. We followed our rule of thumb and nudged that note up to a D. The first arrangement shows how the parallel harmony would lay on top of the tenor line that is shown on page XX.Whiskey Before Breakfast . However. since the previous note was also a D and we wanted to create movement in the harmony. It could have stayed a D note and fit just 102 3 2 4 2 3 9 8 9 3 3 3 3 4 4 2 5 4 3 4 5 žž žž žžž žž ž ž žž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž žž žž žžž žž žž ž ž ž ž žž žž ž ÉÉ É 5 5 6 A G žž ž D 5 7 7 2 3 2 žž žž žžž žžž žžž žž ž ž ž žž Až ž ž   žž ž žž žž  13 G 3 2 4 ÉÉ É 2 4 5 2 3 4 0 2 2    fine harmonically. we nudged the D up to an E note. The first problem that we need to fix is the existence of those C# note at the top of beat two. we decided to keep that note as a G note instead of Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .Three-Part Harmony žž ž ž žž ž žž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž žž žž žžž žž žž ž žž žž ž žž žžž žžž žžž žžž žž ž ž ž ž žž žž    žž žž žžž žžž ž ž  ž   žž ž ž ž D 1 2  45 T A B 5   0 2 2 3 2 4 0 0 0 2 3 2 žž žž ž ž žž žž žž ž ž žž ž ž D 2 4 5 0 0 2    žž  ž D 9   0 0 0 3 2 4 3 2 2 3 2 2 4 5 10 10 11 2 3 2 2 3 2 0 0 3 0 3 0 2 2 0 2 4 4 2 4 5 2 3 2 2 3 2 0 0 0 3 2 4 0 0 2 2 4 5 2 3 5 7 7 5 7 7 7 10 7 8 10 8 9 11 9 2 3 3 2 2 4 2 0 2 žž žž žž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž žž G 3 3 4 D 3 3 4 5 5 6 3 3 4 2 2 2 3 2 4 A 0 2 2 3 4 5 3 3 4 5 5 6 5 7 7 2 3 2 3 4 5 žž žž žž žžž ž ž ž 7 8 9 7 8 9 žž ž 2 0 2 D 2 4 5 žž ž ž ž žž ž žž ž ž ž žž 5 5 6 10 10 11 10 12 12 A žž žžž žž žž žžž žž ž ž ž ž ž žž žž ž D 3 4 5 2 0 2 3 2 4 D 3 3 4 3 4 5 3 2 4 2 3 2  ÉÉ É 9 8 9 G 7 8 9 3 2 4 0 3 0 0 2 0 2 2 4 2 4 4 2 5 5 4 7 5   A Em 5 7 7 tab on top of the left column on the previous page. However.

A diatonic third up from D is an F# note.nudging it up to A. In the melody the first note of beat 4 is an E note. Your homework is to analyze each of these chords and compare them to the melody notes in order to learn what choices were made when we crated the three-part harmony on this song. the better you are going to understand the choices that you can make when creating your harmony parts. If you compare the chords that were created in the three part harmony with those stable melody notes. When you are writing your own three part harmonies. using the A note is consistent with the G to A move that was made in the second note of the measure and kept the harmony from being entirely parallel. but it does give nice movement to the melody line and adds a little tension. Moving up a third from E would be a G note. you don’t always necessarily want to stay with parallel harmony. The other two chords that are created by this harmony are passing chords. A. In the second measure a second note was also modified. For now. That F# note under the G chord is the leading tone (half step from the root). Number 2). and 25. B walk up in the harmony. since the previous harmony note was a G. 21. Remember. The melody note on the B string in that chord is a D note. Tim and Dillon decided to use a B note in the harmony here. A diatonic third up from D is an F# note. which works just fine as a passing note between the G the proceeds it and the B that follows it. Let’s take a look at what modifications were made. Here in the three part harmony we decided to go ahead and nudge it up to A and then add the third above that (B) to the high baritone. so they bumped the harmony up to an A note. On the previous page we present an arrangement of “Whiskey Before Breakfast” which includes all three parts of the harmony played as chords. However. In order to give you another example to look at. If you would like more harmony examples. We felt like this chord gave us a smoother transition. In this measure those chords just happen to be an Esus4 and a G6 chord. you will find that they are all D major chords. you will find that. we encourage you to build chords around each melody note and then strum through them to see if the chord you built will fit the melody line in both flow and harmony. The first note of the melody was a D note. In the first two measures after the intro (measures 5 and 6). 23. so it was nudged up to the G note. so it was nudged up to G. 17. The more you study and analyze harmony parts that other people have created. 15. However. which is the root of the chord and would fit just fine in the harmony. That interval is not the most consonant. as with most simple melodies. you will notice that the harmony note here is an A note. Measure 7 is identical to measure 6. If you break this measure down and find the stable melody notes. Try it both ways and see what you think. so the F# note would fit because it is a chord tone. Again. that is our problem note over the G chord. you’ll notice that the first two notes were Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 103 . A diatonic third up from E is a G note. Measures 11 and 12 follow strict parallel third harmony. you will see that Tim and Dillon stuck fairly close to a parallel harmony that was a diatonic third above the melody... please turn to the January/ February 2010 issue of Flatpicking Guitar Magazine (Volume 14. Tim and Dillon did not want to repeat that G note.a nice G. The next note of the melody is an E note. We will get into the formation and usage of those chords in Volume 7 of this course. If you study the note choices. which correspond with the passing notes of the melody. Here we are under a D chord. In the B part the entire harmony arrangement follows parallel harmony with the exception of the note that is played on the B string against the G chord in measures 13. Measures 9 and 10 are identical to measures 5 and 6. However. Leather Britches You can hear this version of “Leather Britches” on the audio CD as it is played by Tim May and Dillon Hodges. they are chord tones (see tab at the top of the right hand column on page 101). The diatonic third above D is F#. the best way to make decisions when modifying a harmony away from the third or fifth intervals is to strum the chord and see if it sounds OK in the context of the tune. modified. A G would have worked just fine in the harmony. we’ve provided you with a two-art arrangement for “Leather Britches. In measure 8 the first note of the melody is a D note. However.” on the next two pages.

Leather Britches (Melody) Audio Tracks 2-28 & 29     žžžžž žž ž žžž žž žžžžž žž ž žžÉ 1 T A B 7  H H 4 5 5 5 5 5 5  5 5 5 5 5 5 D 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 G  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž žž  042040  02 G 0 2 0 4 2 0 D 2 0 G žžž ž žžžžž žžžžžž žžžžžžž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž 0 1 0 1 0  H 0 4 2 0 0 0 4 2 0 4 0 0 4 2 0 2 2 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 4 2 0 2 4 4 5 020 0 2  3 2 0 3 D G ž ž ž žž žž  žž žž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  žž žž  žž žž  ž ž ž ž žž žž  žž žž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž žž  ž) ž ž) ž ) ) ) )   3 5 7 3 5 3 3 3  3 3  2 0   3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 7 7 3 3 3 3 5 3 3 3 3 3 1 0 3 3 3 3 8 10 8 10 8 10 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 0 4 4 4 4 ) ) ) ) ) ) 13 19  G D G žžžžžž ž  žž žžž É 8 7 8 7 10 8 7 9 7 9 žž žž   žžžž ž ž ž ž ž  )  2 0 3 3 3 1 0 3 3 2 0 4 4 ) 24 104 D G 7 10 8 žž žž  ž ž )  3 3 3 3 4 4 ) ž ž ž žžž ž ž žž ž ) žž  žž žž  ž ž ž )  3 3  3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 ) ) 3 P P 3 5 7 5 3 5 3 5 3 žž ž ) žž  žž žž  ž ž ž )  3 3  3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 ) ) D G žžžžžžžž žžžžžžžž ž žžžÉ 8 10 7 8 10 8 10 7 8 7 8 7 10 8 7 0 3 1 0 2 0 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

Leather Britches (Harmony) Audio Tracks 2-28 & 29   žžžžžž ž ž ž É   ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž   žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž É 1 T A B 7  S H 2 4 4 4 4 4 4  4 4 4 4 4 4 19  3 3 3 4 4 4  02031030  G žž  žž žž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž )   7 8 10 7 8 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 ) ) G 0 2 0 3 1 0 2 0 13 12 10  žžžžžž ž  D 5 3 2 0 G 3 1 0 12 11 12 D G žž  žž žž  Dž ž ž G žž žž  žž žž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ) ) )   5320   7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 10 10 8 8 8 8 3 1 0 8 8  8 8  12 13 12 13 12 13 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 ) ) ) ) žž ž ) žžžžžž D ž GÉ ž ž ž ž  ž 12 10 12 10 24 3 4  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžžžžžž žžž žžžž žžžžž žžž žž ž žžž žžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  žž 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 3 1 0 3 0 0 3 1 0 1 3 3 3 1 0 1 S 0 0 4 0 0 2 0 2 2 0 2 2 0 0 2 2 4 4 4 2 0  3 2 D  žžž  ) 13 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 G 10 13 12 žž žž  žž žž  ž ž ž ž ) )   7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 ) ) žž ž ) žž  žž žž  ž ž ž )  7 7  7 7 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 ) ) žžžžžžžž 3 P P 7 8 10 8 7 8 7 3 8 žž ž ) žž  žž žž  ž ž ž )  7 7  7 7 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 ) ) G ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Dž žžžÉ 12 13 10 12 13 12 13 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 10 12 10 12 10 13 12 10 12 11 9 12 10 9 105 .

Some folks choose to play it with the major third while other choose to play it with the minor third. It is also a great example of a song that is “modal. and since Reuben is obviously lonesome. Take a look at the two arrangements of “Lonesome Reuben” shown below. The safe answer is “neither!” Tim May said that when he plays rhythm on “Lonesome Reuben” he uses the “long D” diad. you might be asking about the chords to play when you are accompanying a modal song. We are talking in terms of major and minor modes. we are not talking in terms of the “Greek modes” that were presented earlier. You were introduced to this chord in Volume 4. the third is not in the chord and thus the harmony doesn’t define the tune as being major or minor. The second rendition has a bluesier or lonelier sound. you might choose to play it with the minor third note. So.Lonesome Reuben all of those F# notes to F notes (the minor third). If the interval between the root and the third is a minor third interval than the scale or chord is minor. If the interval between the root and the third is a major third interval. When people talk about a tune being “modal” they are referring to a tune whose melody could go either way. sometimes playing the F and sometimes playing the F#. This is where you play the regular D chord. then the scale or chord is major. however. In the first I’ve used a major third (F#) note every time the third scale degree comes up in the melody. Play both versions and you’ll notice that it doesn’t really change the song.” When we speak of modes here. A song like Lonesome Reuben is “modal” because the strongest melody notes are the root and 5th. In the second arrangement I changed Audio Track 2-30 Lonesome Reuben — Major Third     É žž É É D 1 T A B 2 2 2 4 0 A É žž É É É žž É É 2 2 2 4 0 2 2 4 0 D ½ ž É ž É 4 0 0 4 0 ½ Lonesome Reuben — Minor Third 1  106  D A É ž Lž É É É ž Lž É É É ž Lž É LÉ 2 2 2 2 3 2 0 2 3 0 0 2 3 2 3 D É ž Lž É 0 0 3 0 ½ ½ Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . Should you play a major chord. Instead you reach up and fret the A note at the 5th fret. Modal Tunes “Lonesome Reuben” is the classic Drop D tune for guitar players in bluegrass. That note could go either way. you do not play the F# note on the high E string. As you know from your previous study. as per the title. That way all of the notes that you are playing in the chord are either D notes or A notes. So. You could even mix and match. or a minor chord. with the third being nebulous. it is the third note of a scale that defines whether a scale or chord is major or minor.

Lonesome Reuben     ½ ž L ž ž ž ž ž ž ž L ž ž  ž žL ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž Lž ž Lž ž ž Lž ž ž L ž ž É H T ½ H 0 0 2 2 0 0 12 1 E B G D A D Audio Tracks 2-31 & 2-32 Drop D Tuning A B 6  0  3    3 4 0  1 0  0 3 3 2 0 žž žž 0 5 3 0 3 3 0 3 0 3 0 0 3 0 1 D ž ž Lž Lž ž ž ž Lž ž Lž ž ž ž S 3 4 0 Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž 0 3 S 3 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 D L L ÉÉ ž 5 5 0 ž 5 5 ž L L žž ž žž žž ž ž L ž ž ž ž ž ž ž L ž L L ÉÉ 3 3 0 P 0 0 3 3 3 3 ž ž ž ž Lž Lž ž ž Lž ž ž Lž  É D 2 1 2 1 0 3 0 2 3 S 4 0 0 0 D A7 0 18 3 A7 3 3 14 3 0 2 10 D ž ž ž Lž 3 0 3 ž Bend 0 3 3 0 3 S 5 0 žž ž ž žž ž ž žž ž ž ÉÉ É É 2 3 2 0 2 3 2 0 2 3 2 0 2 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 ž ž ž 2 S 3 0 0 žžžž žžž ž Lž ž ž ž Lž ž ž L ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž 5 2 2 5 3 2 0 3 1 0 2 4 0 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 1 2 1 0 1 2 1 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 107 .

Lonesome Reuben (con’t) 22   ž P 0 1  L ž ž  0 ž ž S     0   ž 0 3 0 2 ž ž žž ž Lž S 7 9 0 0 3 0 2 žž 2 1 žž 4 ž ž 0 0 5 7 4 0 S ž 4 0 S 5 7 ž Lž ž 7 0 0 ž Lž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 3 S 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 7 5 3 2 0 7 7 0 0 3 1 2 1 S 0 0 S 3 2 0 3 5 3 S 4 3 5 0 0 0 3 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 3 A7 ž ž ž 2 0 D S 0 0 4 0 0 ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž 0 ž 5 3 5 H 0 ž 3 5 3 0 5 7 Bend ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž Lž žž Bend 3 É S S 0 ž ž Lž D Lž É 0 0 0 3 2 D 5 0 0 S 5 0 3 Lž ž 0 0 108 žž 1 2 0 ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž 2 40 5 1 1 2 A7 0 35 3 0 3 D 5 7 30 D ž ž Lž Lž ž ž ž Lž ž ž Lž ž ž Lž Lž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž Lž 3 26 A7 3 ž ž Lž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž 2 0 3 0 3 2 3 0 3 2 0 2 L žž žž žž  ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ) 0 4 D S 7 S 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 10 8 10 ) 8 8  5 6 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

Lonesome Reuben (con’t)  ž L ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž  ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž Lž ž 44 3 7 48   5 7 5 7 5 7 S 5 3 H 0 5 0 3 3 0 3 0 Lž ž ž ž ž ž Lž É 3 5 3 0 3 0 H 3 0 0 3 0 3 D H H Bend 3 0 H 5 0 0 3 4 0 0 3 0 ž ž ž ž žžž H ž Lž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž L ž ž ž 3 D 0 0 5 0 A7 3 3 0 ) 0 3 0  2 3 3 2 0 3 3 2 2 2 0 0 2 3 2 1 2   L ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žL ž  ž ž L ž L ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž L ž ž  ž L ž L ž  ž  ž ž Lž ž Lž ž ž Lž É ž A7 53 1 58   2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 1 0 3 0 1 2 D 121 02 1 0 H 3 4 0 0 3 0 H Bend 3 0 0 3 0 0 ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž L ž ž ž ž Lž ž Lž ž ž ž  ž L ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž 3 D S 3 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 2 3 0 2 1 2 0 3 1 3 0 1 3 S A7 D  L ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž Lž Lž ž ž ž ž  ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž Lž 1 3 1 2 1 0 2 1 0 3 2 0 3 1 3 62 2 S 1 3 5 5 3 1 3 2 0 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking S 3 5 0 0 3 0 3 É 0 ½ ½ 109 .

you’ve got cool repeated phrases in measures 6 through 10. Number 5 of Flatpicking Guitar Magazine guest author Kevin Stevenson demonstrated how to fit a quote from The Andy Griffith Show theme into “Blackberry Blossom. the same quote was used in measures 23 through 25 of “Beaumont Rag” Version 1 (page 41). One person gets it started by quoting a popular song in their solo and then the rest of the band picks up on it and each person tries to fit a different quote into their solo. Sit down and work out a measure or two of any popular song that you know—and your audience will recognize—and see if you can fit it into one of your bluegrass song or fiddle tune solos.” Then on page two you have bends. This adds variety without changing the notes or the pattern. and cool neighboring notes phrases (measures 40 and 41). Leave It to Beaver. classic rock phrases. People use quotes from TV show themes (The Andy Griffith Show. If the quote is something that everyone in your audience will recognize. In this song take a careful listen to measures 18 to 20. Tim emphasizes the notes that he plays on the high E string in these measures. You’ve got tremolo in measure 2. If you’ll check back in Volume 3.can you ever get too much of this song? Obviously we think not because we are going to give you a few more versions here. The one thing that you’ll find here that we have yet to talk about in any detail is “quoting. Here Tim uses a quote from “Sailor’s Hornpipe” in measures 33 to 35 (it starts Note Emphasis In nearly every song Tim May plays in this book dynamics and note emphasis play a big role. really. notice how he has arranged his crosspicking pattern so the emphasized notes fall on different beats in every measure. Christmas tunes. however.” and shows us how note emphasis can play a role in providing variation. you will get their attention and a big smile on their face. show tunes.). The Flintstones. In this version of “Lonesome Road Blues” you will find a lot of very cool use of techniques that you have been exposed to previously in this course. There are hundreds of ways to fit quotes into your solos. or your own arrangement.” But. May I Quote You? So far in this course you’ve been exposed to at least a dozen versions of “Lonesome Road Blues. or quotes from other bluegrass songs or fiddle tunes. Some bands even have “quote wars” on stage.” Quoting involves taking a phrase from another popular song and inserting it into the song you are playing. places a quote from “Sailor’s Hornpipe. In Volume 2. on the last beat of measure 33). over the C chord. Here Tim adds a little change to the chord progression (throwing in the Em chord).Lonesome Road Blues You have seen “Lonesome Road Blues” several times already in this course. etc. you’ve got some nice crosspicking in measures 18 through 21.” You could fit a similar quote from that song into “Lonesome Road Blues” in the same spot where Tim fit the “Sailor’s Hornpipe” quote. and you’ve got Tim’s “arpeggio on two strings” technique that we ran across in “Alabama Jubilee... you’ve got some triplets in measures 14 an 16 (you’ll work more with triplets in this book on pages 122 to 123). movie themes. Play through “Lonesome Road Blues” one time (your own arrangement) and then on your second solo fit in the quote that is shown below over the G chord in the first four measures. Bonanza. Quoting Andy Griffith Show Theme     ½  ½  1 T A B 110 G žž É 0 2 0 Audio Track 2-33 ž ž  ž ž L ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž ) ) ž ž S ) 2 3 ) 1 0 S 0 2 3 0 2 3 0 3 0 0 3 0 2 0 3 3 0 0 0 žž žž 3 3 0 0 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . slides. Tim loaded this tune up with all kinds of cool stuff. then go back to the melody. more triplets. classical music.

Lonesome Road Blues      ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž LÉ ž ž ž žž G 1  T A B 6     3 3 6 5 3 P 5 3 4 3 4 0 0 2 0 3 2 0 2 0   G 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 3 2 0 1 2 3 3 3 0 1 C 3 2 0 3 2 3 0 1 2 G ) 0 3 H 1 2 0 2 0 0 0 2 7 5 7 4 0 2 3 4 0 1 2 6 0 2 0 2 3 2 0 2 0 6 0 2 1 0 3 4 0 0 S 4 5 4 3 0 3 ž ž Lž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 0 7 7 8 6 6 7 7 7 6 0 6 7 7 7 6 8 6 7 7 7 6 3 7 7 1 2 1 H C G ž  ž  ž ž  ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž žžž ž žLžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 0 2 D H P ž Lž S 3 ž ž ž ž žžLž ž ž žLžž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž G ž ž ž H H É ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 3 P 0 2 4 0 2 3 Em 0 4 0 2 3 žž É ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž ž ž 2 0 4 3 0 2 G )  2 3 3 3 3 ž ž ž ž žžžž žžLžž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž 2 21 S 2 C 3 16 1 3 3 2 11 0 Audio Tracks 2-34 & 2-35 7 6 0 0 3 4 0 6 3 0 3 4 0 6 3 0 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 3 4 0 6 3 0 3 0 3 0 3 4 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž 0 2 0 2 0 1 2 0 111 .

Lonesome Road Blues (con’t) 26   C G ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžž ž ž Lž ž ž ž 2 3 0 3 2 3 0 2 3 2 3  ž ž Lž  ž ž ž ž ž ž D 31 3 3 4 3 4 0 3 0 G 7 6 ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž Em 5 0 3 4 0 0 2 P H 2 0 1 2 ž 0 0 2 0 H 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 žž ž G É ž ž ž ž ž 0 2 S 3 5 4 3 5 6 S 5 7 Bend ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ) ) 3 0 0 3 1 0 0 2 0 3 S ) 3 6 C G ž  ž ž ž Lž ž  ž Lž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž  žžž žž Lž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ) 5 36 S 0 0 0 5 6 0 0 6 7 8 8 6 7 6 5 5 8 0 3 4 0 2 3 2 3 3 0 žž 3 2 0 3 2 40   ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž 0 2 3 45   C G 0 5 ž É žžž 3 5 5 3 2 4 3 5 5 4 G Em S 112 1 2 0 5 4 5 0 3 2 G 3 0 5 4 5 0 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 0 G 3 0 0 3 ž ž žž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž Lž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž É D 3 Bend 5 3 P P 5 3 4 0 3 2 0 2 0 3 2 0 3 P P 3 3 2 0 3 3 0 1 2 3 2 0 ÉÉ ÉÉ 3 3 0 0 3 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

Exercises Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking       1   T A B     ! D ž  0 P P = Pick A žž žž žž ž  Lž ž ž ž P R M 2 2 0 3 žž L žž R M P 7 7 ž P 2 2 4 P 5 5 R M P P žž R M 0 M = Middle Finger 7 7 0 ž P 0 2 4 P 2   žž žž   R M R M 5 5 7 7   R = Ring Finger 113 . you will have an understanding of the technique as Brad uses it. we recommend that you first work with the lick that is repeated in the first two measures of the example on the next page. Then next work on the lick that is shown in measures 5 on the next page. Now we are going to rely on our good friend Brad Davis to show you how you can really add some fireworks to your solos by combining pick and fingers like some of the best country Telecaster players do it.flatpick. If you are interested in learning this technique and applying it to your flatpicking solos. Watching this video footage will give you an excellent visual example of this style of hybrid technique. When you watch the video you will notice that here the hybrid technique is mostly used to play double stops. Back on page 54 we introduced you to this technique and gave a simple example. so it becomes very difficult to play the double stop and the have enough time to get back to play the next note. or you can also find it on our Flatpicking Essentials website at: www. Once you watch the video. especially when he is executing a crosspick style roll. Work these two licks over and over as shown in the tab below. You may also notice that it is very difficult to play this tab with a pick because the double stops and single notes are mostly all eighth notes. all single string up strokes with the middle finger. The first thing we’d like you to do is go online and watch Brad’s video clip demonstration. Notice that for both the hybrid example shown on the next page and the “Lonesome Road Blues” example Brad is playing in the key of A.youtube.Hybrid Picking . feel. so we are going to place that tab first. If you are playing this tab at a high tempo it would be very tough to pull of with pick alone. then follow it with the “Lonesome Road Blues” tab. You can find it on YouTube by going to www. and all double stops with the middle finger and ring finger together. While you can also play double stops with your pick.Part II We are now going to take another look at hybrid picking. Play the tab shown on the next page using your pick to play the double stops and then listen to Brad play the same thing on the video and you’ll hear the difference. Brad said that the general rule to use when employing this technique is to play all downstrokes with the pick. you are not going to get the same tone.com/essentialshybrid. The hybrid picking example is a good place to start. He said that this technique lays out better in that key. Brad did us a huge favor and transcribed his “Lonesome Road Blues” solo from that video and he also transcribed the example that he plays about midway through the video. but Brad also uses the middle and ring finger for some single notes. Hybrid Picking .com and searching on “Brad Davis Chickin Pickin”. and groove that the hybrid technique can give you.

Hybrid Picking Example     1 A žž žž žž ž žž žž žž ž žž L žž   žž žž žž ž Lž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž Lž ž T A B 0   5 2 2 3 4 2 2 P 0    4 P 2 4 2 0 0 2 2 3 0 0 4 1 2 1 2 4 0 2 2 2 3 4 P 5 5 7 7 0 0 5 7 5 7 5 5 7 7 7 5 5 7 6 7 5 7 D 5 S 7 5 3 5 5 3 4 5 0 2 3 4 A H žž H žž L žž L žž ž L ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ) 3 2 ) 0 3 2 0 1 2 H 0 0 2 0 3 S 4 0 H H 0 2 0 3 4 3 2 P 3 2 0 P 2 0 0 S 3 5 0 3 2 ž žžžžžžž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž Lž ž ž ž ž žž žž žž ž 3 ž ž ž ž ž 3 E A 3 H H 0 5 7 114 3 2 2 A 7 7 0 13 0 2 2 žž L žž žž žž žž L žž žž žž  ž ž ž ž Lž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž 0  2 4 2 D P 9 Audio Track 2-36 Arranged by Brad Davis 5 0 7 S 5 4 7 0 5 0 S 6 2 0 0 0 3 0 3 S 4 3 2 2 S 5 S 4 0 4 6 0 3 6 4 2 4 2 2 3 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

Lonesome Road Blues — Hybrid Picking     Audio Track 2-37 Arranged by Brad Davis 1 T A B H  ÉÉ  A   H 0 0 4 5 0 0 0 0 0 žž ž ž žž ž ž ž žž žž 2 2 9 0 0 0 4 5 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 H 4 2 4 2 2 0 0 2 2 2 2 2 H 4 2 2 A ž ž ž ž ž ž É ž Bend Release 3 2 0 2 0 0 0 1 žž ž ž ž žž ž ž žž ž ž L ž ž ž D ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž É 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 3 H žž ž H ÉÉ ž 2 2 2 2 2 0 Lž ž ) ) D A 13 žž L žž žž L žž žž žž žž žž  žž žž  žž L žž  L žž žž L žž  ž žž  ž ž ž ž ž )  ž ) ž ž ž ž ž 2 0 0 2 2 P 7 7  0 ) 2 0 0 2 P 5 5 7 7 7 5 7 5 5 7 5 7 7 7 7 7 5 5 7 6 žž žž žž žž ž    žž žž žž žž žž ž ž ž  17 E P P 9 9 9 9 7 7 9 9 7 7 9 9 9 9 7 7 9 9 7 7 9 9 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking S 10 9 0 0 10 8 10 7 0 0 0 8 8 0 3 7 7 0 5 5 4  7 H 6  L žž  ž ž L žž  ž É ž  7 A 5 5 H 6 7 5 5 H 6 7  S 7 7 ) H ž S ) 7 115 .

Lonesome Road Blues — Hybrid Picking (con’t)  ž ž ž L ž ž  A 21 S   25 11 D ž 0 29   9 10 8 9 8 1 2 ) 0 0 1 1 3  žž  37 A 2 2 116 2    žž žž žž žž 7 7 2 4 P 0 ž ) 2 1 0 0 3 2 0 9 9 7 7 ‘ ‘ 2 2 ) 0 P P H 0 0 0 3 2 0 A 3 3 ž ž ž ž L L žž 2 2 2 2 ž ž Lž ž 3 0 5 5 0 2 P 3 0 0 2 3 4 H žž žž 5 5 ) 5 5 5 5 5 5 ) 7 7 ‘ 2 2 H žž ž 2 2 S ) 4 ‘ H žž žž ž ) 0 2 2 2 4 5 5 ) 0 7 5 S 7 5 3 0 0 2 4 2 2 2 H 2 4 2 2 2 H 2 4 ‘ ) 1 žž žž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž H H ‘ ž ž É H 6 4 5 5 9 9 9 9 3 žž žž ž Lž ž ž Lž ž ž Lž ‘ ‘ 7 7 2 H žž ž žž žž žž 9 9 0 H L L žž ž 0 A ž ž Lž ž 3 žž H žž H žž ž ž 0 0 7 2 E 9 9 S ) ž ž ž 2  10 ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž 3 H žž L žžH žž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž Lž ž ž Lž ž ž ž L žž 0 33 7 ž Lž A D ž ž Lž Lž 2 2 2 4  H ‘ ‘ ) Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

Lonesome Road Blues — Hybrid Picking (con’t)  L ž ž  D 41 žž žž žž žž žž L žž žž žž žž ž ž ž ž ž P 1 2 45  žž žž   0    ÉÉ P 0 1 0 1 2 1 0 1 2 0 1 0 1 0 2 1 1 2 0 0 L žž ž ž  ž L ž ž ž É D Bend 7 7 5 5 S 3 6 5 3 4  0 1   10 9 ‘ ) 5 0 3 3 0 S 4 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž 7 0 ‘ 7 7 5 5 P 0 3 3 3  ž ‘ 8 8 H 6 7 0 3 0 0 P 0 3 A 0 5 7  10 9 E H H 52  Bend Lž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž L ž ž ž ž ž ž 0 49 S A H 7 Lž ž H  ž L ž L žž  ž ž ‘ ‘ ‘ A 5 0 7 4 0 2 5 4 0 H 3 4 ž ž 2 2 4 5 H H 0 3 ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž 5 7 0 5 7 S 4 ž 0 3 ž Lž ž S 5 0 ž 6 ž Lž ž ž Lž Lž ž ž ž 2 0 0 0 1 2 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 0 3 0 3 É 0 ½ ½ 117 .

Midnight On The Water
“Midnight On The Water” is another great tune
that Tim has arranged in Drop D tuning. This
is our one and only waltz time selection in this
volume. One of the technical timing/transcription
details that we’ll need to point out here is that for
the majority of this song Tim doesn’t play with a
“straight” eighth note feel. He plays with a bit of a
“bounce” in his timing for much of the tune. Our first
option in presenting the arrangement was to write the
tune out with straight timing and then tell you to play
with a “bounce.” However, in this tune we could not
do that because sometimes Tim plays it straight and
other times he bounces. So, in order to present this
arrangement we are indicating the timing as shown in
the examples below. The first line shows the timing
for a “straight” eighth note feel and the second line
shows how we are writing the timing to indicate that
you should play with a “bounce” in your groove.

Slow songs are great to practice because in order to
make them sound good you really have to pay attention
to your timing, tone, articulation, and note clarity. The
best way to learn this song is to listen very carefully to
what Tim is doing in terms of timing and articulation
and then try to duplicate what you hear. You may notice
that in this tune, like “Bury Me Beneath the Willow”
Tim uses a lot of consecutive hammer-on, pull-off,
and slide techniques. In measures 59 to 61 he also
uses a long passage of consecutive triplets. The use
of consecutive triplets will be discussed on page 122,
following this song.
The B part of “Midnight On The Water” makes use
of some of the diatonic chords that we talked about in
the first section of this volume. The B part progression
is: D - Em - Bm - G - D - G - D - A - D. This is a I - ii
- vi - IV -I - IV - I - V - I progression.
Have fun playing this great waltz!

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Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking

Midnight On The Water (con’t) ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž žž ž ž É   ž   52 3 Rak T A B e 3 S 9 10 12 10 10 11 12 14 14 3 3 ž ž  ž Em ž ž )  12 10   10 10 7 S ) 10 9  7 8 8 ž ž ž ž ž ž )  ) 10 8 7  9 7  8 D 3 3 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž L ž ž  ž ž  ž ž  ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž žž žž  57 Bm 7 3 G S 9 10  9 7 S   9 7 6 7 6  3 7 3 8 10 S 3 10 8 3 8 7 9 9 9 3 3 3 7 7 5 7 3 3 3 5 5 3 3 4 D G ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ) ž ž ž  ) ž  7 5  3 0 S S 5 5  5 7  9 7 8 10 ) 7 5) 7 6 7 4 2 0 62 A D Bend Up and Down Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 2 4 0 3 2 3 3 žžž ž  ž 0 3 2 0 2 5 4 3 D H 0  0 5 3   121 .

We recommend that you try both ways and find the one that is most comfortable for you. As shown in the triplet examples below. with the exception of a couple of examples in the Dan Crary section of Volume 5. in this option the convention of playing down on every down beat is broken for beats 2 and 4 because you end up playing an upstroke on those beats. If used tastefully. However. Timing-wise. you’ll know that a lot of notes played quickly leans towards the tension side of arrangement.Triplets Triplets can be used as a very effective embellishment and can add a bit of excitement to your solo. as shown in examples 2 through 6 below. thus breaking the alternating pick direction pattern. In other words. played over one beat in 4/4 time. you have three notes. however. we have not shown an example of using a slide in a triplet here). If you’ll remember our tension and release rules that appear on page 42. but as you can see. Most flatpickers choose one of two options as shown in Example 1 in the previous column.” so in order to prepare you for the triplets that appear in this song. playing several measures of consecutive triplets can be a great way to add some flash and excitement to a guitar solo. Option 2 retains the convention of playing a down stroke on every downbeat. the alternating pick direction rule is going to be compromised one way or another. Tim uses this technique in the next song. whether it is just one triplet or a series of triplets. if you pick every note of a triplet. an eighth note triplet is defined by three notes being playing over the time value of two eighth notes. You’ve encountered a few triplets here and there throughout this course. When you use a hammer-on or pull-off the alternating pick direction rule (picking down on the down beats and up on the off beats) will remain in tact. in order to accomplish this you will have to play two downstrokes in a row. however. however. So if you are playing consecutive triplets you can play four triplets in a row over a measure of music in 4/4 time. Play through all six triplet exercises in order to prepare yourself for the arrangement of “Nine Pound Hammer” Example 1     1 Option 1: Option 2: T A B Lž ž ž ž ž sr s r s sr s sr 1 s 3 3 1 1 3 3 = downstroke Example 2   žžž  ½   1 sP r 3 T A B 122 3 2 0 s 3  ½ = downstroke 3 3 3 3 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž r srs rsr s sr s sr s 1 3 1 1 3 3 r = upstroke Example 3 žžž s 3 P P 3 2 0 3  ½  ½ r = upstroke 3 3 3 Example 4 3 ž ž ž  ½ 2 s r H 3 0 3  ½ Example 5 3 žžž s H H 0 2 4 3  ½  ½ Example 6 3 ž ž Lž  ½ s H 2 P 3 2  ½ 3 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking . “Nine Pound Hammer. Option 1 continues alternating the pick direction. so you don’t want to overuse triplets. you may want to work through the six triplet exercises that start at the top of the next page. most of the eighth note triplets that you will play are going to include some kind of hammer-on or pull-off (some could also include a slide or two. All of the exercises in this section present eighth note triplets. each of equal time duration. we’ve not exposed you to the idea of using many consecutive triplets.

Triplets Exercise 1     1 T A B G Audio Track 2-40 3 3 3 3 3 ½ ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž Lž ž L ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 3 3 H H 2 0 3 1 0 2 2 3 0 H 3 4 0 2 H 3 0 3 3 3 3 H H 3 3 Triplets Exercise 2 0 4 H 2 3 P 0 3 2 3 P 0 2     T A B 2 3 1 2 3 2 1 3 3 3 ½ 3 ž ž Lž ž P 0 ½ 0 ½ P 0 2 1 3 0 3 3 Audio Track 2-40 3 žžžž 3 ž ž  ž ž ž ž ½ ž  ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž Lž ž ž  ž ž ž Lž ž 3 3 ž ž ž ž ž 3 P G H 2 3 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 2 3         3 3 3 ž ž ž ž  ž ž žž H H 0 2 3 3 0 H H 1 2 3 1 2 3 3 ž ž ž ž H H 0 2 3 0 3 2 0 3 3 Triplets Exercise 4 1 0 3 3 3 3 H H H H 3 3 3 3 3 T A B 1 3 Triplets Exercise 3 1 H 0 Audio Track 2-40 3 P T A B H 3 0 3 3   ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž   ž ž Lž 3 2 3 3 1 3 3 H H 0 1 2 3 P 3 2 0 3 žž žž ž ž  ž ž ž 3 3 H H 0 2 3 H H 0 2 3 3 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 3 3 P 2 1 2 1 3 ž ž ž 0 2 3 H H 0 1 2 3 0 P 2 3 1 0 3  3 Audio Track 2-40 3 H H 3 P 0 3 3 3 ž ž ž ž ž ž žžž H H 0 1 2 3 H H 0 1 2 3 H H 0 2 3 3      123 .

Once you have learned some of the licks and phrases that Tim uses in “Nine Pound Hammer.B13 . If we assume the root note (G) is implied. After he hits the hammer. A change in phrasing or emphasis gives you variety and continuity at the same time.Triplets Exercise 5     1 T A B 3 3 3 3 3 ž ž ž žžž  ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 0 0 0 3 3 3 Audio Track 2-40 ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 0 0 3 3 3 5 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 ž 3 3 3 6 6 6 3 3 3 Audio Track 2-40 Triplets Exercise 6 3 3 3 ž 3 ž ž ž 3 ž žžžžžžž ž ž ž ž 3  ½  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžž ž ž žžžžžžž É 3 3 3 3 1 T A B HP HP HP HP 5 6 5 3 5 3 1 3 1 0 1 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 HP HP 2 4 2 0 2 0 3 3 HP HP 3 5 3 2 3 2 3 3 HP 0 2 0 3 HP HP HP 3 5 3 2 3 2 0 2 0 3 3 3 ½ 3 Nine Pound Hammer “Nine Pound Hammer” is another standard flatpicking and bluegrass song that you have seen several times in this course. Then he hits the C7 again of the first beat of measure 12. We will talk more about 13th chords in Volume 7. On the last beat of measure 11 Tim anticipates the change 124 to the C chord by playing a C7 (minus the root note). Tim said. and D. but if you change the phrasing or emphasis of those notes you can create a totally different sound. “You can use the exact same notes. Listen closley to the CD to get the right feel for that 4 measure phrase. 3 and 4 of measure 36.C13 over beats 2. Then he slides way up to a G13 and plays that over the first 3 beats of measure 37. B. Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .” Another cool thing that Tim did here was to add those hammered notes after three-note chord strums in measures 9 through 12. You’ll hear that in measure 34 Tim is emphasizing the off beats and then in measure 35 he emphasizes the down beats. He plays C13 .” go back and improvise over the “Nine Pound Hammer” rhythm track (Disc 1. Tim also goes to some of those 13 chords that he likes in measure 36 to 38. In addition to giving you plenty of triplets to work with in this arrangement. the three notes of the chord are F. then this is a G7 chord. Tim also makes some good use of dynamics. Then he plays an F#13 over the fourth beat of measure 37 and hits a strong G13 on the first beat of measure 38. Track 2) and see if you can mix some of what Tim is doing with a few licks and tricks of your own. Take a listen to the phrase in measures 34 and 35.

Audio Tracks 2-41 & 42 Nine Pound Hammer      ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž ž ž G 1  T A B 6   G      0 S 2 5 0 0 0 2 3 3 0 2 S 3  H 4 H H G 3 3 2 H ) 0 4 ) žž ž ž ž ž  ž ž Lž L ž 0 3 3 4 0 3 3 H 4 1 1 3 3 ž žžž ž  žžž ž H 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 H H 8 8 9 8 8 8 9 8 )  3 0 3 0 5 7 6 S 7 5 3 3 S 3 H 3 G 4 0 H 3 3 4 H 0 1 2 0 3 5 P 1 0 3 4 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 0 0 3 3 3 H 3 3 4 3 G 3 0 H 3 3 3 ž  ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž 0 3 2 3 G D 3 H 1 2 Lž ž ž ž 4  ³0 3 5 3 5 3 4 0 0 3 0 ) ) C H ž Lž ž ž žž ž  žž ž   žžž ž  ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ) ) 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 1 2 S 4 0 H 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 0 S 2 5 D žž ž  žž ž žž ž  žž ž  L ž ž ž L ž 0 17 S 2 5 3 G 3 3 3 14 2 5 ž ž ž ž L ž  ž H³ H L ž ž  ž ž L ž ž ž ž ž ž 1 2  0 S 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 H 10 C 1 0 2 0 2 Hž H ž ž ž ž ž L ž ž ž ž ž ž L ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž 3 0 3 2 ) 3 0 ) 0 1 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 3 0 3 C 0 3 0 1 0 2 1 0 2 0 3 0 1 2 125 .

Nine Pound Hammer (con’t) 21   žž žž  žž ž ž  ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž C G S 3 5 3 5 2 25       3 4 0 0 3 0 2 S 0 2 3 G 3 5 3 G 3 3 0 5 3 Lž ž ž ž ž ž 5 L ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 3ž ž ž 3ž ž žžžžžž  ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 3 3 1 3 C É 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 0 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 0 0 3 3 3 5 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 3 3 6 6 6 5 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 G 3 3 5 5 5 3 D 3 Lž ž ž Lž ž ž Lž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 H 3 3 P 3 3 4 3 5 3 4 0 2 3 2 0 2 0 1 2 3 žž  ž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž  L žž  ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž S G 3 G 0 1 2 0 2 0 3 žž žž žž žž žž žž  ž 37  L ž ž ž ž ž ž  žž  12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 9 0 3 3 ÉÉ LÉ G 12 12 10 0 3 0 3 C 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 ž žž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž 0 D 3 3 0 3 4 3 0 P 3 2 0 3 126 S 4 0 0 3 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 32 S 3 3 G 1 28  D 1 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 3 G žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž É ž 2 0 0 2 0 H 1 2 P 0 2 0 0 5 5 3 4 4 2 5 5 3 ÉÉ ÉÉ 3 3 0 0 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

B. In the first six measures of the tune Tim said that he was trying to “use space” in order to demonstrate that you don’t always have to fill up each measure with eighth notes when you play a fiddle tune. In measure 27 he emphasizes the A note on the second beat (over the D chord). etc. 13ths). In measure 26 he emphasizes the G note on the first beat (over the G chord). Here Tim provides an arrangement in the key of A. they still work to give some ground the solo to some extent (the F# and C# notes in those measures are adding some dissonance) . this is one of those tunes that sounds great when you play it out of open A. We’ll point out one of those tension-building lines in “Red Haired Boy. This dissonance is resolved with the D arpeggio leading to the strong E note over the A chord in the first beat of measure 55. Tim’s use of dynamics and and take note of which notes he is emphasizing. He said. Plus. which strengthens the Aadd9 tonality. Back at the beginning of this section of the book we talked about tension and release. 11ths. While most people will play this song in the key of G and capo up at the second fret to place it in the key of A. Once again. Anytime we mentioned those places where he used chord extensions (7ths. B..” Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 127 .” In measures 26 through 29 notice. sounds better than the flat 7 in the key of G (F chord). he is conveying the melody of the song by placing emphasis on chord tones. he was creating tension. A good exercise would be to take that tension and release list that we gave you back on page 42 and analyze Tim’s solos in terms of their tension and release qualities.Red Haired Boy In Volume 3 you were presented with two versions of “Red Haired Boy. “This is an example of throwing in some notes outside of the chord tones to add tension and then resolving to a strong chord tone. however. C#. major 7th chords. followed by an Aadd9 arpeggio (A. Tim has made great use of it throughout his solos here. In measure 28 he doesn’t emphasis any of the notes.” one in the key of G and another in the key of A. Tim said. “You don’t have to be in a hurry to blaze eighth notes all the time. chromatic runs. This is followed by a B note at the top of the change to the A chord. E) over the G chord. in the rhythm I think that the flat 7 chord in the key of A (G chord). Playing this song in open A allows you to play a great solo on the lower pitched strings (as Tim does in his arrangement in measures 10 to 20). The particular chord tones that he chose to emphasize here are not even necessarily the stable melody notes. In measure 29 he emphasizes the B note on the first beat (over the G chord). The resolve to the tonic—the one chord—always releases the tension. It seems to have more meat to it when you can hit a good solid G note on the low E string when the progression goes to the flat 7 chord. F#).” In measure 53 Tim plays a Gmaj7 arpeggio (G. 9ths. once again.

Red Haired Boy    ½  1 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž A  ½ T A B Audio Tracks 2-43 & 44 D žž É  2 2 4 0 2 0 2 3 2 2 3 A G 0 2 3 0 S 3 2 0 3 5 5  ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž H ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ) A 6 S ) 3 11   D  5 5   E H 3 2 D 0 2 2 3 3 3 2 A 3 2 0 3 2 0 3 2 G A 0 0 2 1 H ) 1 2 2 A ž žžžžžž  0 0 0 0 2 4 A 0 D ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žLž ž ž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žLžžLžž ž ž 2 0 2 4 0 16 0 A 3 3 2 0 4 0 20 A 4 2 0 2 4 0 E 2 3 3 3 0 A 4 2 4 G 0 4 0 2 4 02 H 0 0 3 0 D H 4 3 4 0 0 A ž ž ž ž Lž ž žžžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 2 4 0 4 2 0 4 2 0 4 0 4 0 4 2 0 3 2 3 0 2 4 0 2 4 0 2 4 0 2 4 0 2 4 0 2 4 0 2 Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž žžžžÉ  ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž 21 G 4 128 A 0 2 4 0 2 0 3 2 D 2 2 3 0 3 2 3 0 2 3 A 0 0 S 3 5 E 0 0 0 3 2 0 2 A 2 0 1 2 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

Red Haired Boy (con’t) G D A G ž ž  L ž ž L ž ž ž  ž žž ž ž ž ž žžžžžž ž ž ž žžž ž žžž ž  26 P P 3 2 3 2 0 3 0 5 2 0 3 0 2 3 2 0  ž ž L ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž É ž  A 30 0 3 4 5 0 2 0 3 3 2 0 2 3 ž ž D ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž É  12 9 10 0 9 10 0 H 9 10 0 0 9 0 3 7 3 2 0 A 0 3 2 3 2 3 E 0 2 0 3 2 0 4 A 0 2 3 4 0 ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž A 34 3 2 0 ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž Lž ž É D 2 P P A 7 G 0 7 3 2 H 0 2 0 H 3 2 2 3 3 2  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž Lž ž žžžž P A 38 D 2 42   2 3 0 5 2 0 A 3 2 0 2 3 2 3 0 A 2 0 D Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžžžž ž ž žž H 0 4 0 2 4 0 2 0 0 4 5 H 0 5 7 E 2 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 0 4 2 0 4 2 0 Lž L ž  ž ž ž ž) A S 5 0 0 6 7 6 ) 7 8  A H 2 3 2 0 0 2 4 Lž ž ž ž ž G 8 8 8 S 8 10 129 .

Red Haired Boy (con’t) D Lž ž ž Lž ž ž Lž ž Lž Lž  É  A 46 8 10 50     10 P 8 9 G 8 7 8 7 E A Lž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž 0 5 10 6 0 2 7 D 0 4 4 2 0 3 0 3 2 4 4 0 G A Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž žžž 0 54 9 A 0 4 2 0 0 1 2 1 S 4 0 2 4 2 5 4 2 0 3 4 0 0 2 4 0 2 0 2 4 2 3 0 2 4 2 Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž žž žž žž ž žž É ž ž žžž A 3 0 D 5 2 A 3 0 3 E 2 0 3 3 2 0 2 A 0 4 4 2 0 4 2 0 4 Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž žžžž  Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 58 G 0  É  62 A 2 D 4 0 2 3 0 0 2 A 2 0 2 3 0 2 3 0 2 3 2 3 2 3 5 0 3 2 0 3 2 0 2 0 3 L ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžž ž žž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž É 3 D 2 3 0 3 2 3 0 2 3 A E P 0 3 2 0 3 130 G A P 2 0 4 2 0 3 4 2 0 4 2 0 3 4 0 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

Bb. Here he plays notes from the Gmaj7 chord. fill in repeated eighth notes as we suggested back on page 82. so we felt like it would be best to give you the advanced arrangements of bluegrass and fiddle tunes here in Volume 6. and A. Making it swing for Tim was not just a matter of swinging the groove. Also. and then present an introduction to swing and jazz in Volume 8. Measures 44 to 46 give us another chance to study dynamics. By emphasizing notes on different beats of these measures Tim adds texture and excitement to a phrase that could sound flat if it was played without the use of dynamics. Bb. and A notes give this phrase a A13 tonality. Tim said that the 13th tonality is another tool that he likes to use when playing swing. Back at the end of Volume 2 we presented a straight version of this tune. If you want to familiarize yourself with the Gmaj7 tonality. D and F#. D#. C#. This was the example we showed back on page 82. as well as diminished. swing chords. Bb. or 13 extensions—you are going to add that swing or jazz accent to your solo. In measure 9 Tim. 11. B. however. If you have trouble with the timing. There were good reasons for putting the material in Volume 7 (Advanced Rhythm) before the material in Volume 6 (Advanced Technique). “I’m in swing mode and that gives me license to play maj7th chords. play through the ascending and descending lines in the tab in the right hand column. knowing that Tim would be using some of the advanced chord information in his solos. Remember from our 7th chord discussion earlier in this book (page 27) that a G7 chord (dominant seventh) consists of the notes G. So let’s talk about some of those note choices. and jazz chords even if you are only interested in playing fiddle tunes and bluegrass. and C# notes give this measure a Gdim tonality. Hopefully the bits of swing and jazz that Tim has used here will picqued your interest and also help you understand why it would be to your advantage to study advanced chords. B. G. We will not study swing and jazz applications in depth until Volume 8. In measure 45 he emphasizes the E note on the third beat. The E. augmented. we finally decided to put the Advanced Technique material first. uses that flat 9 arpeggio and plays it in a descending sequence (D#. while the Gmaj7 chord consists of the notes G. and E notes over the C chord. D and F. In measures 50 and 51 Tim’s note choices over the C chord include: E. he continues with the maj7 tonality by playing a similar figure over the G chord in measures 28 and 29. For this arrangement making it swing also means adding in some note choices that give the solo more of a swing feel. When we were developing the outline for this course we went back and forth about Volumes 6 and 7. we will study more about all of the chord extensions. Tim said. A. Gmaj7 Ascending     1 T A B ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 0 2 3 0 4 3 4 2 Gmaj7 Descending Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking  ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž 2 2 3 4 0 4 0 2 3 131 . As we’ve mentioned several times during this section of the book. maj7th. or it can be delivered with a swing feel. once again. address advanced chords in Volume 7.Red Wing “Red Wing” is one of those tunes that can be played with a straight fiddle tune feel. Bb. That F# note at the end begs to resolve to the G note at the top of the next measure. In the last half of measure 10 Tim plays G. F#). 6th chords—or 9. pay attention to the syncopation in measure 26 through 29. In measure 44 Tim is emphasizing the C note at the top of the measure and the D note on the fourth beat. and suspended chords in Volume 7. Here in this volume Tim makes it swing. In measure 46 he emphasizes the F# note on the “and” of the first beat. C. A. Any time you use diminished. The G. In measures 26 and into 27 Tim sets up a Cmaj7 tonality by playing B. trying to decide which one should come first. which is a tonality that helps give this tune the swing feel. E. E.” So.

Audio Tracks 2-45 & 46 Red Wing ž žžžžž ž ž ž   žžž ž  žžžž ž  žžž      ž ž ž G 1  T A B 0 2 C  0 4 0 1 0 2   3 0 2 G 3 2 0 3 1 0 2  0 4 0 2 0 3 H  ž ž ž ž ž ž ³ ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ³ ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ) D 6 1 G 1 0 2 0 1 A )³ 0 2 0 D ³ ) 2 0 2 4 0 2 2 0 2 3 2 0 16   3 G S 0 2 3 5 D 0 G žžžžžžž ž É 0 0 2 3 0 ž ž 3 2 1 4 0 4 5 7 3 2 0 3 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ) 5 5 7 0 0 4 0 2 3 2 D É C Release Bend 7 4 2 0 4 2 0 0 3 2 G ž ž ž Lž ž žž žž žžžžžž  žžžžžžžž žžž žžžž ž ž žž ž  C 11 4 1 2 4 2 0 0 4 G 5 7 8 7 2 3 ) 5 7  1 0 2 0 4 0 2 4 žžžžÉ G S 3 5 3 3 3  ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž žžžLž ž  ž ž žLž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž L ž ž ž L ž ž ž ž ž ž ž D 21 0 3 2 0 132 3 2 1 3 1 2 3 1 G S 34 02 4 0 4 2 0 4 2 0 3 2 3 0 1 2 3 1 2 3 3 0 S 5 2 3 7 3 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

Red Wing (con’t)  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž )  ž ž ž ž žž C 26 7 S 8 5 5 7 7 )9 7 9 2 8 9  ž ž  ž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžž ž G 31 0 1 0 2 0 3 35   S 0 3 2 0 6 6 7 3 1 3 3 G ž ž  ž ž ž  ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž žž ž 8 10 Bend 7 8 10 7 9 3 9 Bend 9 9 3 9 8 7 8 10 6 3 H  5 7 0 5 7 9 3 G D G ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžžžžžž ž žžžžžž  É 7 7 7 A 6 7 S 5 3 3 0 2 3 2 0 5 D 3 1 1 0 1 2 G 2 0 4 2 0 4 2 0 žž 0 2 ž ž ž ž ž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžž 3 3 3 4 2 4 0 0 2 4 2 4 0 3 2 3 ž ž Lž G ž ž Lž É D 1 5 3 8 7 4 3 7 6 5 0 H 3 0 2 3 2 H 0 2 3 0 2 0 2 4 3 0 2 0 3 2 3 3 G D ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžžž ž ) ž C  É  44 0 4 C 6 40 0 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 3 H P D 2  3  ) )4 2 3 žžžžžžžž ž ž  )ž ž  ) G )  7 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 7 8 0 7 8 0 5 2 3 0 3 1 0 2 0 4 2 133 .

Red Wing (con’t) 49   žžž S 4 5 ž ž C 7 5 É Release Bend G 0 7 ž ž ž 8 9 8 ž ž ž É 10 9 10 ž ž ž ž ž žžžž 10 8 G   10 8 7 10 8 7 10 8 Lž ž ž Lž ž ž  ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž žžž žž  ž ž ž ž ž ž 3 D 54 G P 8 9 8 9 7 5 9 0 0 5 7 0 0 0 2 4 0 4 0 2 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 1 0 1 3  žžžžž žž žž žž ž )  ) 3 62  žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž žžžžžž C 58  S 5 0 D 0 0 0 žž žž 5 5 3 4 žžž žžž 0 0 0 0 0 0 ) 0 3 ) 3 3 2 G 0 0 3 3 5 3 0 2 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 G 7 7 3   žž L L žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž É ž 0 2 3 0 1 2 0 0 2 4 0 3 4 2 0 P 1 H 0 3 134 S 3 0 1 2 3 0 2 4 0 3 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

In the first two measures after the intro (measures 3 and 4) Tim plays it fairly straight and sticks close to the melody.Temperance Reel Here is our old friend from back on page 9 of this volume. however. Work with the rhythm track and see what you can come up with. “Temperance Reel. but we’ll let you explore the rest of this solo on your own. But then he gets a little friskier over the first measure of Em. This passage adds some dissonance to the solo. After you work with Tim’s improv ideas here you may want to go back and try the exercise on page 9 again. Very cool! In the rest of the A section Tim uses neighboring notes to great effect. but I suppose Tim couldn’t help himself. he resolves it right away with the big half-note E at the beginning of measure 6. Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 135 . Things would have been dead-on the melody if that F# note in measure 4 was a G. after you have spent some time with this tune go back and try the exercise on page 9.” You worked with this tune back when we introduced the vi chord. And again. Then at the start of the B section there is no doubt that the E note is prominent here with this two measure tremolo! There is a lot of other cool stuff here.

Audio Tracks 2-47 & 48 Temperance Reel   žžžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž   žžžžž žž ž žžž žž ž žžžž G 1 T A B 6  S 4 5  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 G žžž É 2 0 2 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 0 4 3 4 3 4 0 Em 0 0 4 0 4 0 2 0 1 2 0 3 0 3 1 0 3 1 0 Em 2 3 D 0 3 2 0 G žžž žžžžžžžž ž ž ž ž žž ž žžžžžžž 2 0 2 3 2 0 2 3 0 2 0 2 2 4 0 4 2 0 0 2 4 4 H 0 0 4 5 žžžž žž žž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  žžž žž žž ž G 11 0 15     4 0 2 0 1 3 0 3 1 3 2 0 3 3 1 0 2 4 3 5 3 4 3 2 0 4 0 2 4 3 Em D G ž ž ž ž ž žž ž ž žž ž ž žž ž ž ž ž žž ž ž ž žž ž ž žž 0 4 0 0 2 1 3 0 1 0 2 0 0 4 2 2 4 0 4 2 0 4 0 2 4 0 4 2 0 žžžžžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž žž ž žLž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Em D Em 3 2 2 2 2 2 0 136 5 3 2 0 G 0 19 Em 2 0 2 2 2 2 2 0 2 0 0 4 0 1 2 1 0 4 0 1 2 0 2 4 0 2 S 2 4 S S 3 5 3 5 7 5 7 3 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

Temperance Reel (con’t) ž žžžžžžžž  žžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž ž ž ž ž ž žžžž ž  G 24 D G Em 3 S 7 5 3 4 0 3 4 3 5 4 5 5 3 5 4 3 1 4 2 1 0 2 S 2 4 3 5 0 2 5 5 0 3 3 0 5 0 3 2 0 3 3  žžžž 3 ž ž ž žžžžž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Lž 3 žž P D 29 Em 3 2 0 3 0 2 3 4 0 2 0 2 0 4 1 2 4 1 2 0 G 1 3 S P 2 4 0 3 0 4 3 4 4 3 0 Em ž žžžžÉ ž 34 ž ž žž žž ž ž  ž ž  žžžžžžžž ž D G 2 0 2 4 39     4 5 0 9 7 7 9 7 8 8 10 Em 3 2 0 2 3 2 0 2 0 3 1 2 ž ž ž ž É ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 4 0 2 4 0 2 0 1 3 0 2 2 10 12 12 12 12 10 7 8 7 D 3 H 0 2 3 G 8 7 0 2 4 0 4 2 S 9 5 4 G ž ž ž ž žžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž É ž H S 7 8 10 G 0 43 H 0 0 0 žž žž žžžž 3 G 1 0 0 2 0 2 0 4 0 2 0 2 0 H 2 4 0 4 5 0 3 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž Em 3 3 4 4 0 0 0 2 4 0 2 4 0 2 S 2 4 3 3 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 137 .

Temperance Reel (con’t)  žž ž žž ž žž ž žžž ž ž ž  3 51   3  4 3 5 3 4 2 0 3 4 2 0 2 4 0 ž žžž ž ž ž ž  ž ž 3 5 7 5 0 8 3 3 S 3 D 0 5 0 0 0 0 G 2 3 0 S 3 0 3 5 3 4 ž žžžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžž ž 3 3 Em H P 5 3 Em D ž ž Lž ž É 3 3 3 Em 0 55 žž žž žžž ž ž žž žž žž ž G 47 7 0 4 3 3 H P H P 8 7 0 10 4 0 2 3 1 3 H P 2 3 2 0 H P 5 3 5 3 0 3 7 3 ž ž ž ž ž Gž ž ž  ž L ž ž ž ž ž žžž 8 10 8 0 3 3 2 0 0 3 10 12 12 12 12 12 10 12 11 10 12 11 12 3 Em D ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžžž ž žžžž 58 ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžž   D G S 10 11 12 14 10 12 14 14 14 10 10 10 12 12 12 12 12 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 G D G ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž Em ž ž ž ž ž  ž žžž žžžžž  žžž žžžžžžžž žž ž  ž žž 62 8 7 7 0 5 138 8 5 6 7 8 5 8 3 0 3 0 2 0 3 1 0 0 2 4 0 4 2 0 4 2 0 4 2 0 0 3 H 0 2  Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

A blast of notes for a measure or two that are played at double the time (in this case Tim moved from an eighth note feel to playing a long string of sixteenth notes) can have a great dramatic effect. Slow tunes are ideal for the use of double time phrases. A The F# note that Tim plays at the end of this measure takes the tune into the A Dorian. refer to the tab example on page 118.” Tim uses the Dorian scale over the Am chord again in measure 64. Remember from our discussion of modes that the notes of the A Dorian mode are the same as the notes of the G scale. Some people will also continue to play the iv chord (Dm) over measure 15 instead of changing to the E7 chord there. In the A part you can see that the E7 followed by the Am (V . in measure 7 some people. the notes of the Am scale are the same as the notes of the C scale. These chords are the III and the VI in the key of Am. Going back to straight time then releases that tension. however. E. like Tony Rice. but starting on the A note: A. Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 139 . G. A Tim said. Take a look at measure 34. they are the I and the IV in the key of C. C. E. but don’t over do them! Dorian Mode There are a couple of instances in this solo where Tim employs the Dorian mode. including the E7 will give the progression a stronger pull to the i chord (Am) in measure 16. the E7 chord in measure 24 pulls the ear back to Am. F#.i) defines the tonality as Am. You will find them here in measures 44 to 45 and measure 57. will use a V7 chord. This is also one of those slow tunes where Tim moves back and forth between the “bounce” feel and the “straight eighths” feel. but starting on the A note: A. Double Time Another technique that Tim employs here in “Wayfaring Stranger” is the use of “double time” phrases. Tim is playing over an Am chord.Wayfaring Stranger Major or Minor? “Wayfaring Stranger” is one of those tunes that has a tonality that floats back and forth between minor and major. Also. G. F. D. This is a great dramatic effect. “Playing that sixth degree of the Dorian scale over the Am gives it the Gypsy Jazz sound. If you’ve not read the information about these two grooves. D. especially when playing slower tunes. However. However. So the beginning of the B part feels like the song has shifted to the key of C major. B. In the B section the F chord followed by the C and then the F again makes the song feel like it is shifting to a major key. C. As you know. B. in this case an E7. If you refer back to our tension and release chart on page 42 you will see that strings of rapid notes create some tension.

Wayfaring Stranger Audio Tracks 2-49 & 50 ž ž ž ž  ³ H ž  ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žH ž  H ž ž   ž ž ž ) ž ž ž S 3 5 0 0 1  1 5 5 5 5 5 3 5 5 5 3 1 0 3 3 H H    T ³  2 2 2 ) 2 2) 2 0 2  0 2 A 0 2 2 ) ) B Am 1 6 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž É ž ž ž ) ž) S S  1 S  4 5 4 5 5 3 3 3 3 ) 3) 5 5 Dm  Am É 3 ž 0 žžžž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž É ž ž 3 3 2 4 1  01 4 2 4 1 0 0 1 S 3 5 3 E7 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžžž ž ) ž ž )žžžž ž ž ž ž  S S S 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 12 12 12 13 13  13 1 S  5 5 5 8 8 8 8 10 10 ) ) 355 5 3 1 0 3 Dm 11 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žž ž ž ž É H žž žž žž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž  žž žž ) ) ) ž ž ž ž ) ) 3 S S S   3 5 5 1 3 5 5 H 3 5 5 3 1 0 1 3 5 5 3 S 6 6 8 5 S 0 2 4 5 5 4 2 0 2 5 7 7 9 9 ) 0 2 ) ) ) ) 3 ) Am 16 F C Bend ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 3 ž ž É ž ž ž žž )  žžžžž F 21 9 140 2 0 2 0 1 3 1 S S E7 ) 3 5 3 3 1 0 S 3 5  3 5 3 S 3 1 S 2 3 5  5 žžžž ž ž ž ž ž žžž 3 ž HP 0 1 0 3 3 1 0 2 1 2 0 3 2 3 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

Wayfaring Stranger (con’t) 3 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž H ž ž ž  ž  ž ž ž ž  H ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž  ž  ž ž ž ž 3 3 0 1 0 1 S  1 3 3 5 3  H S 0 2 S  0 2 S 0 2  5 4S 5 5 5  0 2 5 7 0 2 5 7 4 5 5  3 0 0 0 0 ) ) E7 Am Am 31 ž ž H ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ) ž  ž ž ž   ž ž ž ž ž ž 3 3 Am 26 3 Dm 5 5 5 5 5   3 1 0  2 2 3 0 2  0  3 2  H 2   02 2 0 2 1  S 2 ) 3 5 ž ž ž ž H žž žž žž  ž ž žžž ž ž ³ ³ H  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž 3 3  2 1 1 1 3 1 1  2 1 32 32 32  ³ ³ 2 4 4 4 2 0   3 0 2 )2 0 2 ) 3 Am 39 ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ÉÉ )  35 5 6 7 S 7 S 8  10 S 8 10 S 8 10 3 3 H ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž  ž ž ž žž ž žž žž  43  1 2 3 5 4 5 3 3 4 H 1 2 0 0 H 1 2 0 0 ) 1 2  Release Bend ) 10 10 ³ ³ 8 P 10 10 10 8 8 8 5 5 5 2 3 3 ) 0 6 S 5 7 9 6 3 ž ž ž ž ž P P 0 3 ž ž Hž ž ž ž Dm 3 3 ) 2 1 3 P 3 3 3 1 0 žžž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžžž žžžž žžžž ž 0 2 3 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 0 2 3 0 3 2 0 2 0 0 2 3 0 2 0 2 0 1 2 141 .

Wayfaring Stranger (con’t) 3 ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž) ž) ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž H PP S S 1 1 3 1 0 3 4 0 S 0  H 1 3 1 3 3 5 3 1    2 0 0 2 0  2 0 0 ) ) 2 2 0 0 2    3 0 0 2 3 Dm 46 Am E7 3 3 C H  žžž ž )ž ž  ž ž  ž ž ž  ž ž  ž ž  ž ž ž žž  P  P H H 1 1 1     H 1  0 2 2 0  0 0 ) 2 00 3 02 0 2 3 3 ) F žž žž žž žž E7žž  54 ž  ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž )  )   S  0 5 5 7 8 10 8 7 7  6 8 8 10 12 10 8 9 0 3 5 ) ) 50 F H ž ž Am 58 S ) 2 4 H P H ) 1 2 1 2 ) 1  0 3 0  H 0  3 0 žžž žžžžž žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  3 5 3 E7 S 3 5 5 6 5 S 5 6 S S 3 5 Am ž ž 0 0 žžž 0 1 2 2  Bend 0 4 ž ž ž P ritard P 5 3 3 1 1 0 0 S 0 142 žž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž žžžžž 0 3 1 0 3 1 0 2 0 1 0 0 S 2 0 2 4 H žž H H ž ž H H ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž ž  ž Dm 62 S ž ž ž ž ž žž ž ž ž  ž  ž ž S 0 1 3 5  1  01 3 2 0 2  0 2 4 1 0 3 2 ) 0 Bend 4 ) 0 žžžžžž rubato 3 1 0 0 2   02 ) 3 žž H P 2 4 2 2 0 2 3 ž 0 žž 2 2 1 3 ½ ½ Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .

Over the G chord in the next measure Tim uses the D note as a drone and adds the F# note and the C# note. The only other thing that we’d like to point out in this tune is the phrase in measures 41 through 45. Then a beat later. These two measures (10 and 11) provide some tension. Then on the “and” of beat 4 Tim plays a double stop consisting of B and D notes. here you go! In measure 10 Tim threw in one of those maj7 tonalities. The first thing to mention here is the dynamics and the changing emphasis on the notes that Tim is playing. Over the D chord this is a D9 tonality. Then he plays that some double stop on the “and” of beat 3. which anticipates the upcoming G chord. The other thing to notice is placement of the double stops. If you glance at those measures you will see a lot of tremolo on the open D string. on the “and” of beat 4. we’ve not presented anything that approaches an “advanced” version. The tremolo is dotted with a few double stops. but over the G chord it would be a Gmaj7#11. So. over a D chord. “I did it because I like to throw people off!” That’s problably just a little bit of his Mississippi humor. In measure 41 Tim places this double stop on the “and” of beat two. This adds a D6 tonality for one note. Over most of the D chord section Tim is using a double stop that consists of an E note and a C# note. he said.Whiskey Before Breakfast You’ve made it to our final tune! Congratulations! We have used “Whiskey Before Breakfast” for many of our examples in previous volumes. On the first beat of the D chord (third beat of measure 11) Tim plays a B note against the D chord. When asked about it. but then it is released and we finish out this section of the tune with fairly smooth and fluid movement. In measure 42 he places it on the “and” of beat 1. which is followed by a three note D major arpeggio. In that measure he is playing over a D chord and uses the C# note to add the maj7 tonality. Over the A chord he just drones on the D string and then hits a strong D note—an octave higher—on the “and” of the 4th beat. Very cool stuff! Have fun with this one! Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 143 . which anticipates the change to the A chord. It continues the tonality of the Dmaj7. however. for those of you who have been looking for new ideas to add to this tune. over a D chord. Listen to the passage and take note of the dynamics he is using. he plays a double stop consisting of an A note and a C# note. which anticipates the upcoming D chord.

Whiskey Before Breakfast

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Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking

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Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking

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Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking

and re-harmonization. or when you are accompanying your own singing at home. Always pay special attention to dynamics. augmented. Take your time and refer back whenever you need to spice up one of your arrangements. but in Volume 7 we are going to really take your rhythm playing to the next level. maj7 arpeggios. You’ve learned a good deal about chords and rhythm thus far. 6th. so I encourage you to take it slow and stick with it. 9th. then you deserve a big “Congratulations!” One of our goals in designing this volume of the course was to have Part II “Advance Technique” present a summation of all of the things that you have learned in this course. phrasing. And don’t try to do it all at once. 11th. and 13th chords. and 9. V progressions so that you can create a lot of interesting rhythm when you are playing at your local jam. some Old-Time rhythm. chord substitutions. and 13th chords. We are also going to talk a bit about things like chord inversions. and present it all in the arrangements of the songs and tunes that he improvised for you. notch it up a level. Next we are going to get into some stylistic study of chords by presenting some Western swing style rhythm. tone. 11. This stuff is not easy. We are going to first use all of the above mentioned chord knowledge to teach you how to really spice up your standard I. and the first half of Volume 6. Break everything down into small components and then build back up. some more advanced Blues rhythm. I asked Tim May to take everything that you have learned in this course. flat 9 arpeggios. I think he did an amazing job. “drop 2” chords. but learn how to apply the techniques and principles that he uses here to your own unique arrangements—then you will be well on your way to becoming a great arranger and improviser in the flatpick style. If any of that sounds interesting to you. Not only did he give you plenty of examples of all of the techniques and music principles that you have studied in Volumes 1 through 5. some Celtic rhythm. then please come and join us in Volume 7! Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking 147 . and timing. IV. If you will really take some time and seriously study Tim’s arrangements—not just learn to play them. groove. suspended. In Volume 7 we will dive deep into the world of rhythm. and many of the interesting things that go along with those chords.Conclusion and The Road Ahead Wow! That was a lot of stuff! If you have managed to work through all of the exercises and transcriptions in this book. But we won’t go too far out on a limb and we will try to keep things practical by relating everything you learn to tunes that you might run across at any local jam session or festival campground jam. some basic jazz rhythm. We are going to first talk about diminished. but he also added some extra goodies that touch on things to come—like his use of diminished chords and arpeggios. and some Gypsy jazz rhythm. voice leading.

V . this appendix can serve as a handy reference.I .IV .I G C D G     ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ 1 Audio Track 1-02 Progression # 2: I .IV .flatpick.I .V .I (Lonesome Road Blues) G C G     ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ 1 C G D G  ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ 9 Audio Track 1-04 Progression # 4 (Carter’s Blues)     ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ G 1 D G F C G Progression # 5 (I Am A Pilgrim) D Audio Track 1-05 G C G     ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ 1 G C C7 G D G  ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ 9 148 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .V .IV . medium. Slow.com/essentialsaudio Audio Track 1-01 Progression # 1: I . and fast rhythm tracks to each of these progressions can be found on the web at: http://www.I (Nine Pound Hammer) G C G D G     ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ 1 Audio Track 1-03 Progression # 3: I .IV .I .Appendix: Chord Progression Summary So that it will be a bit easier for you to find all of the chord progressions that we have presented in Volumes 5 and 6 of this course.

I       ¤¤ ¤¤ G 1 5   C Em ¤¤ ¤¤ D ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ G ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ Audio Track 1-08 Progression # 8: I .V 1  Bm D ¤¤ ¤¤ Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking G Em ¤¤ ¤¤ Bm D ¤¤ ¤¤  149 .vi .V .ii .ii .vi .Appendix: Chord Progression Summary (con’t) Audio Track 1-06 Progression # 6: I .I       ¤¤ ¤¤ G 1 Em Am D G ¤¤ ¤¤ Em ¤¤ ¤¤ Am D ¤¤ ¤¤  Progression # 9: I .V .vi .iii .V       ¤¤ ¤¤ G 1 Em C ¤¤ ¤¤ D ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤  Audio Track 1-07 Progression # 7: I .vi .IV .V .I Audio Track 1-09       ¤¤ ¤¤ G 1 5   Am ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ G D ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤       ¤¤ ¤¤ G Em  Audio Track 1-10 Progression # 10: I .IV .

I G C C G D7 G     ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤ 1 Progression # 14: I .V7 .ii .V7 .iii .IV7 .IV .I7 .AVII .I Audio Track 1-14       ¤¤ ¤¤ G 1 5   G ¤¤ ¤¤ F ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ D ¤¤ ¤¤ Progression # 15 (Blues Feel): I7 .I .Appendix: Chord Progression Summary (con’t) Audio Track 1-11 Progression # 11: I .IV .iii .IV       ¤¤ ¤¤ G 1 Am Bm G C ¤¤ ¤¤ Am Bm ¤¤ ¤¤  ¤¤ ¤¤ Audio Track 1-13 Progression # 13: I .I7 (Twelve Bar Blues)       ¤¤ ¤¤  9  150 G ¤¤ ¤¤  Audio Track 1-15 G7 1 5 ¤¤ ¤¤   C7 ¤¤ ¤¤ D7 ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ C7 ¤¤ ¤¤ G7 ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ G7 ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤  Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .V       ¤¤ ¤¤ G 1 C Bm ¤¤ ¤¤ D ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤  Audio Track 1-12 Progression # 12: I .I .IV7 .V .

II7 .V7 .I (Key of C) 1  5  9  13  A7   ¤¤ ¤¤  D7 ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ G7 C ¤¤ ¤¤ Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Imrov II & Advanced Flatpicking  151 .Appendix: Chord Progression Summary (con’t) Audio Track 1-16 Progression # 16: VI7 .

152 Flatpicking Essentials Volume 6: Improv II & Advanced Flatpicking .