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JUNE 15TH, 2013

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[World History] Imperialism and Colonialism: Meaning, Factors responsible
Prologue
What is imperialism?
What is colonialism?
What is Neocolonialism?
What is New Imperialism?
Conditions/factors that helped the rise of Imperialism
Industrial Revolution and Capitalism
Marxists: Capitalism = Imperialism
Protectionism
Mercantilism
Supply of raw material
Investment
Infrastructure investment
Why Political domination necessary?
Slave trade
Transport and communication
Rise of extreme nationalism
Mind diversion
Fear and security
Civilizing mission
Christian Missionaries
Adventurers and explorers
Favorable conditions in Asia and Africa
Mock Questions

Prologue
New Syllabus: General studies Mains Paper I contains following topics on World History
History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national
boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on
the society.
You already have Younger/New NCERTs, if not click on following:
1. India and the Contemporary World I (Class 9)
2. India and the Contemporary World II (Class 10)
3. Themes in World History (class 11)
But in terms of depth / coverage /analysis of World History, the older NCERTs were better. Although for someone living in a small
town / remote area, it’s impossible to find them. So, I’m uploading the summaries one by one for the benefit of such aspirants.
We start with Class 10 (Old NCERT), “Story of civilization volume II”, Chapter 9, “Imperialism and Colonialism.”
That chapter revolves around subtopics:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Meaning of Imperialism
Conditions that helped growth of Imperialism
Conquest of Asia, Africa, Americas and the Pacific.
Effects of Imperialism.

This first article deals with first two topics (Meaning and conditions). Future articles will cover the rest. Keep in mind,
1. This is mere base / foundation / starting point to supplement your readings from IGNOU BA, MA etc.
2. These are “summaries” (and not verbatim paragraphs). I’ve taken liberty to include external sources to elaborate the explanations.

which leads the capitalist countries to conquer and dominate precapitalist countries of the world. Europeans lost more territory than they acquired in North America and Latin America. Players in New Imperialism: New imperialist countries emerged viz. Britain and France continued to be powerful and expand. and what happens in a colony is colonialism. most countries of Asia Africa and other parts of the world. Why? because Between 1775 and 1875. The country which is subjugated by a metropolitan capitalist country is described as a colony. While. Belgium. Benjamin Disraeli said “These wretched colonies will all be independent in a few years and are millstones around our necks. There was a widespread feeling in Europe that colonies were more trouble than they were worth and the sooner or later colonies would revolt and fight for independence. the pursuit of colonies had slowed down. What is Neocolonialism? In the present day world. control or rule by a country over the political and economic life of the areas outside its own borders. Imperialism refers.What is imperialism? The term imperialism means the practice of extending the power. Colonialism =the total system of imperialist domination of a pre-capitalist country. Italy. because of successful revolution. Imperialism Colonialism Colonialism usually implies formal political control. Occupation / direct rule over a country by another country=not always an essential feature of imperialism The essential feature= exploitation. sphere of influence and various types of commercial and economic agreements. But why did it happen? What were the Conditions/factors that helped the rise of Imperialism . where under the control of one or another imperialist country. What is colonialism? Colonialism means the practice of acquiring colonies by conquest (or other means) and making them dependent. subordinates another country/ colony for its own economic and political interests. directly or indirectly. politically or economically sovereignty. Until recent years. ok so far we know the meaning of Imperialism. Imperialism is a specifically European phenomenon colonialism is the system prevalent in the colonies. Spanish colonial rule from Mexico to Argentina was overturned.” However. During this phase a few industrialized capitalist countries established their Political and economic control and domination over the rest of the world. Power of Spain and Portugal declined. This may be done through military or other means and particularly through colonialism. The form of domination and control included direct colonial rule. USA and Japan. In other words. Germany. When we study imperialism we examine the impact of empire on the metropolis (home country) Here we study impact of empire on the colony. more broadly. however the imperialist control has not come to an end. What is New Imperialism? During the initial period of Industrial Revolution. by the powerful countries. Imperialism refers to the process of capitalist development. Neocolonialism is the practice of (mainly economic) exploitation and domination of independent but economically backward countries. almost all countries are politically independent. The imperialist country or Metropolis (literal meaning mother country). New imperialism resulted because of the economic system that had developed as a result of Industrial Revolution. with or without direct political control. the pursuits and rivalries re-emerged in the last quarter of the 19th century. This new face of imperialism (1875-1914) is often described as the new imperialism. to control or influence that is exercised involving territorial annexation and loss of either formally or informally.

arm twisted local rulers to gain exclusive market for their products and so on. Even when other European countries began to use machines. so one country’s gain required another country/colony’s loss. the possibility for investment at home is exhausted. establish colonies. iron. tin. then smuggled into China to pay for the goods they had bought from China. they needed more and more raw material. Africa and the two Americas. therefore she gained almost complete control over the world markets. and it’d lead to the demise of Capitalism. indigo in India. Supply of raw material As the industries grew in Europe. For example. More and more production the production of goods was far in excess of the demand at home Result?=> Because of the “underconsumption” in domestic market. Cotton= India and Egypt 2. coffee. Mercantilism It was the economic policy prevailing in Europe during the 16th. and 18th centuries. Exports to foreign countries is preferable to imports or domestic trade. Marxists: Capitalism = Imperialism Lenin argued that Imperialism the Highest Stage of Capitalism. Wealth of a nation depended primarily on the possession of gold and silver. Indigo. England was the first country where industries developed. They setup “trading posts” which would later become “forts”. wealth is concentrated in fewer and fewer hands. Result? = European powers could not sell their products to each other. The capitalist entrepreneurs used two ways to make big profits: Method to increase profit? => Consequences? 1. the capitalist countries. It fails to explain the Communist imperialism of Soviet Union itself! Protectionism As started ^above. tea.) Smuggling: sometimes.g. Western powers had to find new markets for selling their goods. A colonial possession should provide wealth to the country that controlled it. This policy assumed following: Volume of world wealth and trade was relatively static.g. because exports brought more money into the country. copper and later oil. and exploit small. 1. goods produced in one country were sold to another country to pay for the goods from that country. sugar. coal. they tried to protect and stimulate its domestic industries by imposing heavy tariffs on imported items. gold. So nations acted accordingly. So. 2. they could not compete with England’s low prices. rubber= Congo and East Indies They also needed =food grains. tobacco. In Capitalist system. The English promoted cultivation of opium in India. Problem with this explanation? 1. e. All this was done and justified as the objectives of mercantilism were fulfilled. minimum wages to workers low wages = low purchasing power of the majority of the domestic population= low demand of products in home country. weak nations. They had to find totally new markets and customers in Asia. It fails to explain pre-capitalist imperialism of Greece and Rome. Result?=> Imperialists forced the colonies to cultivate only one or two crops which were needed as raw material for their own industries (e. Sugar in Cuba. Investment . 17th. the capitalist nations had to find new markets and buyers to sell their products. 2. Governmental interference in the national economy is justified if it helps achieving the of above objectives. and capitalists have no choice but to invest abroad.Industrial Revolution and Capitalism Industrial Revolution created the capitalist system of production.

thus making FDI(!) easier than earlier. They also invested to strengthen control over colony’s economy e. Britain and other powers used “abolition of slavery” as an excuse to wage war against African chiefs and kings. Later. failure to enter the race was perceived as a sign of weakness. Transport and communication The Industrial Revolution brought drastic changes in transport and communication. Colonies were symbols of national greatness and nationalists of every economic class were proud of them. later. the Europeans introduced plantation system in North America. postal network. mining and plantation. Besides. As we saw under “Demand” topic. totally unacceptable to an aspiring great power. Writers and speakers in England. Result?=>The export of capital for investment in other countries began to become more important in the export of goods. Infrastructure investment The Western powers invested in their colonies to promote industries that could produce goods for export e. For the same reasons. Result?=> political domination became necessary. Towards the end of 19th century. Africa and Americas. But if the same amount was invested in Asia or Africa. Therefore. Soviet union’s policy to ‘liberate’ the peoples of Eastern Europe and the Third World. low wages + excessive production= underconsumption. Once the scramble for colonies began. Western countries began to look upon Asia and Africa is good places to invest their capital. Thus Morocco became “French Morocco”. by the end of the 19th century colonialism like nationalism developed into a mass cult. to annex it. West Indies and Brazil. if resisted.g.Towards the end of 19th century. you could earn as high as 20% profit. because of little purchasing power of local people. Steamship could carry goods much faster than the old sailing vessels. Slave trade The Spanish rule in Americas had resulted large-scale extermination of original inhabitants/Native-Americans. Because they were forced to work in gold/silver mines and were massacred. Railways. Thus every area of the world was brought within easy reach of the industrialized countries. for the cultivation of sugarcane. Hence it became necessary to establish trading posts in the coastal areas of Africa to keep steady supply of African slaves. But Why? Both Asia and Africa had abundant supply of raw material and cheap labour= good profit. minerals and oil). faster than ever before. Nawab or tribes chief could not contain an uprising or rebellion? What if there was a change in the government? Such things could lead to reduction in profit or even loss of whole investment.Africa). Why Political domination necessary? As the foreign powers invested more and more money in business and infrastructure in Asia. Foreigners brought new diseases. French investors in Morocco (N. Nationalist intellectuals in all European powers argued that national greatness meant seizing colonial territory. France and Germany promoted the idea of imperialism and took great pride in calling their territories as “empires” Germany’s expansion under Hitler was also based on the belief that German national culture was inherently superior than others. many nations developed myth of their superiority over other people Each country felt that she too must have colonies to increase her own prestige and power imperialism became the fashion of the age. it would only fetch 3 to 4% profit. ivory. and Native Americans had no immunity against them. if capital was invested in Europe. appealed to their home government in France. with the help of cheap local labor. their risk increased: what if the weak local prince. (For timber. and USA’s “protecting Freedom” = also . Nationalism in the late 19th century came to be associated with chauvinism. cotton and tobacco (to supply as raw material to home industries). The imperialist countries built railroads and inland waterways in the conquered areas. financial institutions such as banks expanded their influence and power. These plantations needed lot of laborers. Thus could get raw material out of the interiors and send their manufactured products. Rise of extreme nationalism the later part of 19th century was a period of intense nationalism Germany and Italy had just succeeded in becoming unified nations. but their hidden aim was to expand territorial possession.g.

Rudyard Kipling England Wrote a poem titled “White man’s burden”. Asian and African states were not united. But often they were followed by profiteering traders and soldiers. The only exceptions. the ruler vs. colonies were acquired to get cheap raw material and market to sell finished products. Civilizing mission Many European writers and thinkers used to blatantly support and justify Imperilism and colonization. Christian Missionaries Usually they went alone into an unknown areas in a spirit of duty and religion. merchants etc. Mind diversion Colonies helped to ensure social peace and prevented socialist revolution at home by taking the minds of the working class off their misery. chiefs. Hence for them. Thus.examples of imperialism driven by moral and ideological concerns.” Adventurers and explorers They had prominent role in Europe’s taking over of Africa. Singapore and Cyprus – not to protect England but to protect its conquered lands and trade routes to India from her rival nations. the explorer’s home government would take over the protection of the entire area around the trading Post. .there was nothing left to do but to take them all. (And ultimately first World war). while Indian and Arab ships didn’t have guns. Military strength Asian and African state did not have the economic might of imperialist powers. Then wars took place to protect the missionaries. On the basis of such reports. Fear and security Initially. The rival nations installed similar bases elsewhere to protect their colonies and trade routes from England. because they considered it their nation’s destiny to civilize and Christianize the people of Asia and Africa US President McKinley himself justified the annexation of Philippines in following words: “ We must help our little brown brothers…. Then this imperial home government would proceed to claim the entire territory as her own colony. a way of bringing civilization to do backward people of the world. where Europeans could not succeed in war = Afghanistan and Ethiopia. bows and outdated firearms (if any). a trading post would be first setup. if you acquired one colony. There were Conflicts between states and within states.to fight a long war. To many Europeans and Americans. Favorable conditions in Asia and Africa Biggest factor was lack of industrialization. Aden. England established naval bases and coaling stations at Port Said. Jules Ferry France Superior races have the duty of civilizing the inferior races. They fought with axes. the prospect of saving souls seemed as important as the prospect of expanding prestige and profit. Internal rivalries Politically. He who would avoid civil war must be an imperialist. They first went into unknown or little-known territories and brought back the reports that often indicated opportunities for trade and development. you had to acquire other colonies to protect the first colony => leading to a chain reaction and race for grabbing more and more colonies. warlords. and to educate the Filipinos and uplift and civilise them as our fellow men for whom Christ also died. while Europeans had new rifles and a “maximgun” (a fast firing machine gun) + the naval artillery to pound the coastal cities of their enemies. (Cecil Rhodes). They considered it was their Christian and moral responsibility to educated ignorant peoples into higher culture and convert them to Christianity. imperialism = a noble task. Hong Kong. Gradually. It gives a rhetorical command to white men to colonize and rule people of other nations. All these seemed quite natural to most Western people. Hence they often sought the support of Europeans against their rivals. But then Imperialist countries started acquiring places for their military or strategic importance also. For example.

can you please write a note on these basic terms used in Pub ad and explain the terms in your words . Triple Alliance [Old NCERT World History ch9] Imperialism. even though they had outlived their usefulness. Comintern [Old NCERT World History ch10] First World War: Causes.” Comment 7. could not compete with factory made products. Division of Germany-USSRYugoslavia (Part 1 of 4) [Old NCERT World History ch12] (Part 2 of 2): Second World War. 2. Consequences. They still followed the old ways of governing. 25 marks 1. Colonization of Asia. therefore i am finding some problem in understanding the terms used in Public Administration. 6. Explain colonialism and neo-colonialism. Mau Mau rebellion. They didn’t have the strong feelings for “nation-state”. Americas [World History] Imperialism & Colonization: Africa. Boer War 104 comments to [World History] Imperialism and Colonialism: Meaning. The loyalty of people still rested in local princes or tribal chieftains. 3. No Machines The Westerners admired and desired the fine quality goods made by Asian and African craftsmen. But these craftsmen relied entirely on handmade tools= small scale production. Factors responsible « Older Comments 1 Print || PDF Subscribe (Need Chrome)! (free!) 2 Amit Reply to this comment Dear mrunal sir I am having Pub Ad as my optional subject. SEATO. Mock Questions 12 marks 1. NATO. Nazism. Write a note on the economic angle of Imperialism. Vietnam War. 5. like the Europeans. missionaries and explorer in the spread of colonization. Treaty of Versailles. The Great Depression [Old NCERT World History ch11] Russian Revolution: Causes. 4. List the conditions that helped growth of Imperialism and colonialism. French Guniea. Slave Trade. But during 19th century their governments became very weak. Consequences.” Comment “All great nations in the fullness of their strength have desired to set their mark upon barbarian land and those who fail to participate in this rivalry will play a pitiable role in time to come. Explain imperialism and new-imperialism. powerful empires had existed in Asia and Africa. battles. As i have not joined any coaching institute . resistance movements [Old NCERT World History ch12] (Part 1 of 2) Between Two world Wars. Warsaw and NAM (Part 2 of 4) [Old NCERT World History ch13] After WW2: Birth of UN. Korean war. Paper Partitions. Write a note on the role of writers. 3. Why were Asian and African countries so easily dominated by Western Powers? Previous Posts [Old NCERT World History ch13] After WW2: African Independence: Egypt.No Empires In the ancient and mediaeval times. How did nationalism help to make imperialism popular in Europe? “The dominant directive motive behind imperialism was the demand for markets and for profitable investment. Fascism. events. Explain the role of capitalism and industrial revolution in the emergence of Imperialism. CENTO. Khmer Rouge (Part 3 of 4) [Old NCERT World History ch13] After WW2: Cold War. Apartheid (Part 4 of 4) [Old NCERT World History ch13] After WW2: Asian Independence. Africa. Scramble for colonies. 2.

org/category/public-administration Ashok Gowda Reply to this comment please go through this link of mrunal sir.. Pankhuri Sarkar Reply to this comment Thank u so mch for posting this article.html Pankhuri Sarkar Reply to this comment cn u any1 gv me the link to download ignou books Arun Kumar Reply to this comment Mrunal Sir.please post the interview of ias toppers having history as optional . Any pointers will be very helpful in this regard Thanks brother.. cn u pls guide for the same… Rohit Reply to this comment http://mrunal. Can you let us know if these old NCERT books like 1) The story of Civilization.org/2013/06/download-public-administration-mains-ignou-bama-no-registration-fullsets-toppers-notes-neeraj-om-kshitijlast-34-years-paper-1979-2012. risha Reply to this comment thanks Mrunal Sir.org/category/public-administration Ashok Gowda Reply to this comment http://mrunal.html Roy Reply to this comment thanxx a lot sir for taking up mains topics……lukin forward to more of such(including topics in world geography) in the future……….I am unable to understand the meaning of terms like Value Free science or value neutral science... Please help me sir Rohit Reply to this comment http://mrunal. 2 (NCERT) Arjun Dev 2) Contemporary World History (NCERT) Arjun Dev & others are available online ? or All these available in any coaching centres? I tried to get them in Bangalore. Philosophy of Public administration. But NCERT book store itself doesn’t have them .it may be helpful.thankss again……. Vol. http://mrunal. m very garteful to u… Pankhuri Sarkar Reply to this comment Sir I hv Pub AD as my optional subject. I would like to thank for all your efforts and helping the aspirants.org/2013/06/download-public-administration-mains-ignou-bamano-registration-fullsets-toppers-notes-neeraj-om-kshitij-last-34-years-paper-1979-2012.

Ek to Marxirm pe bhi banta hai. Please sir can v have hindi version of this site please. Could you please suggest some books for world history karthik Reply to this comment could you please guide me.ac. where can I get Story of civilization part 1&2.informer. i mean if you and bandwidth and adequate resources. it is very useful .. could you send to me CONTEPRORY WORLD HISTORY -II of old ncert collection.Please see if you can cater this request.and also information regading to prepare eassy writing for civil services mains. .org nagaaj Reply to this comment sir. Romit Reply to this comment Can u specify which class old ncert is necessary for world history preparation Avantika Reply to this comment Endless thankyous & admiration for you Mrunal.com/mrunal. You are amazing ^_^ deepika Reply to this comment Thanks a lot for ur work. saumitra .plz…… Chetan Reply to this comment Mrunalji.egyankosh.so sometimes it is hard to understand in english Specially unknown topics . Ankush Reply to this comment can anyone please provide the link where detailed syllabus of civil services is written by someone(sorry i don`t remember the name) in the classification manner under different headings of different papers on this website?…. this is the topic which is need of the hour after imperialism and colonialism. thanks in advance… Usha Koradiya Reply to this comment Hallo sir . Awaiting reply.plz reply as i am unable to search it. Amit Jain Reply to this comment Hello Mrunal.Arun Kumar Reply to this comment Hi Pankhuri Sarkar. you can download IGNOU books from website http://www.in/jspui/ But better search any topic in the above link and download topic wise. Thank u Jaan Reply to this comment http://website.plz…………. I really like your site . Sir I have one request that I have studied in regional language .

simple.TMH Comrehension by Arun Sharma. Verbal reasoning & Decision making by Premanand Jha. http://www. Pradeep Reply to this comment Those who are looking for Old ncert The History of Civilization Vol.. he indeed is Dronacharya.TMH Reasoning by Arun Sharma. nikil Reply to this comment thank u sir. let us say Byjus.should i wait for sometime or any other source plz let us know. Ankush Reply to this comment I read the following books: 1. I have found the book and here is the link. Hope this information helps. My relation with him is like of Eklavya and Dronacharya.2 by Arjun Dev. 3. Did various model papers and also bought xerox of test series offered by many coaching centres. Crackias and Vajiram.document[world history] is unable in eGyankosh. By the way. ( just to get a flavor) The best thing about these books are that these are very structured and concept has been explained holistically. Word of advice is start early. it will make coaching centres run out of business. Dhanu . Quant by Arun Sharma. precise.Excellent books written by him. Ankush Phawa.mediafire.is this a network error. Though i can not compare myself with Eklavya. Paradox is if every one read these books holistically. give yourself proper time and see magic happening. odrwise it was nt possible for me to do it living here khurda madheswaran Reply to this comment thank you sir. Arun sharma now teaches at Vajiram & Ravi and he is a GURU.Arihant Publications.com/download/9t2gln4kvg668zf/The_Story_of_Civilization_Part_2_-_Arjun_Dev.Reply to this comment can u suggest book for polity mains n thanks for this awesome work shani Reply to this comment hey laxmikant is enough wat i thnk Dhiraj Kumar Reply to this comment what r the books u should go for thorough practice of csat in prelims.pdf Dhanu Reply to this comment mrunalji. 2.thanq Pradeep Reply to this comment Remove /jspui from the URL. 4. it is very useful.

all the best for exam.Reply to this comment thanq Pradeep.Its really very good.:) « Older Comments 1 2 . lucky Reply to this comment Very good article!! Great insight into history!! Aspirant Reply to this comment Hey pradeep thank u man Nikita Reply to this comment @Pradeep:Thank U so much..Its been so long I have been trying to get this book by Arjun Dev.