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JUNE 21ST, 2013


[World History] Imperialism & Colonization: China, J apan, Asia, Boxer Rebellion, Open Door policy,
Sphere of influence
China: Opium Wars, Boxer rebellion, Imperialism
The opium Wars
1st Opium war
The Treaty of Nanjing (Nanking)
2nd Opium War
Treaties of Tianjin
1st Sino Japan War
Sphere of Influence
United States: Me too Policy
Boxer Rebellion
Japan: an imperialist Power
Meiji Restoration
Anglo-Japanese Alliance
Russo-Japanese War
Asia: South and South East
Malaysia and Singapore
Sri Lanka
Thailand / Siam
Asia: Central and Western
Anglo Russian agreement (1907)
Western Asia
Mock Question

ok so far, We were looking @Class 10 (Old NCERT), “Story of civilization volume II”, Chapter 9, “Imperialism and
Colonialism.” That chapter revolves around subtopics:
1. Meaning of Imperialism

Already covered under previous article. click me

2. Conditions that helped growth of Imperialism
3. Conquest of Asia

Asia being covered in the present article.

4. Conquest of Africa, Americas and the Pacific.

We’ll see them later in a separate articles.

5. Effects of Imperialism.

China: Opium Wars, Boxer rebellion, Imperialism

private traders licensed by the company to take goods from India to China. There was no demand for British goods in China. So the British had to pay back in gold and silver for importing Chinese tea. silk. Wealth of a country was measured in gold and silver. to cover up for their cost of importing Chinese goods. they used “country traders”—i. sold them in England @higher price=truckload of profit. But due to Chinese ban on opium. Instead. only two Chinese ports were open to foreign traders. Britain declared war (first Opium war) and easily defeated the Chinese. the British East India Company had established a monopoly on opium cultivation.e. Thus. In China the East India company used the same gold and silver (from illegal opium trade) to purchase Chinese tea. China was already a prosperous civilization that had invented paper. jade(jems) and porcelain(Chini mitti ke bartan). This Led to trade deficit for Britain (And recall the mercantilism policy. silk and other goods. The country traders sold the opium to smugglers along the Chinese coast for gold and silver.Europeans preferred export over imports. printing and gunpowder.. British merchant started smuggling opium from India into China on a large scale.) So. the East India Company did not carry the opium itself.Semi-colonization of China The opium War s The imperialist domination of China begin with the opium Wars Before these opium Wars. Result?=> . East India Company’s role opium trade In India. 1st Opium war Finally Chinese government officials seized an opium cargo and destroyed it. the illegal opium trade was profitable to British but it did immense physical and moral damage to the Chinese.

) MFN (Most Favored nation clause) Whenever any nation extracted a new privilege from China. 1st Sino J apan War For centuries Korea was a tributary state of China. Britain had exclusive rights over Yangtze valley. Britain and Germany agreed to give loans to China. But Japan won thanks to its adopted western military technology. these Western countries divided China into “sphere of influence” Sphere of influence = each Western country had certain regions of China reserved exclusively for its purpose only. 5. USA needed foreign trade to boost its economy. mines etc. Sphere of Influence Now. because of those ‘spheres of influences’. France. Russia. in that region). In China. 4.”) According to this policy. 3. residence in Beijing for foreign envoys the opening of several new ports to Western trade and residence right of foreign travel in the interior of China China was defeated again and was forced to grant even more privileges to the winners. China was forced to pay about $150 million to Japan for war damages. the American textile manufacturers had found markets for cheap cotton goods. Freedom of movement for Christian missionaries. 2. China had to recognize Korea as an independent state. but in return. Why? Korea is strategically located opposite the Japanese islands Korea’s natural resources of coal and iron This ultimately leads to War between Japan and China. China was forced to pay fines to British for war damages. all countries would have equal right to make trade anywhere in China. Taiwan and part of Southern Manchuria to Japan. that privilege was extended automatically to Britain! 2nd Opium War Soon. (Exclusive rights to build railway. 3. Therefore United States suggested the policy known as “Open door policy” (also known as “me too policy. China had to open 14 ports to Foreigners. even in disputes with Chinese! (Recall similar issue in India.the Ilbert Bill. This division of China into spheres of influence has been often described as the “ cutting of the Chinese melon” United States: Me too Policy After the economic depression of the 1890s. England and France fought another war with China. 2.The Treaty of Nanjing (Nanking) According to this treaty of Nanjing 1. given its bigger military. on the pretext that a French missionary had been murdered. but Japan was trying increase her influence over Korea. Result?=> Treaties of Tianjin 1. . for example. 3. China had to give away Formosa. and only Russia had the right to build railoads in Manchuria. 2. aka Arrow war). Germany and Britain. (2nd Opium war. So. But United States feared that China would be completely parceled out to France. but she did not have enough ca$h. China had to pay war damages to Japan. 4. Chinese government was no longer free to impose tariffs on the foreign goods Extraterritorial rights clause The British subjects in China were answerable only to British law. Result?=> 1. Russia. Hong Kong was given to Britain China had to open five port cities to the British traders. By the end of 1860s. Experts had believed that China would win.

Although the Boxers were officially denounced. Christian missionaries and Chinese converts. China was simultaneously exploited by many powers J apan: an imperialist Power . 2. Britain gained the monopoly of control over India. Result?=> Western powers got following: 1. 5. French. The foreigners called them “Boxers”. Fines from China for a period of 40 years 2. Corruption.Britain supported United States in this policy.economy and society without taking on the onus for ruling the country= semi-colonization. Right to station their troops in Beijing. They started seizing /destroying properties of foreigners. Epilogue China After the failure of boxer rebellion. and Americans sent their troops to curb this rebellion. Foreign powers bought these military commanders by giving ‘loans’ and in exchange the warlords granted even more privileges to the foreign powers. blaming them for harming traditional Chinese ceremonies and family relations. More trade concessions 3. although there are some fine differences: India China Colonization was Direct and absolute. no single imperial power had a monopoly of control. The extraterritorial right granted to foreigners China’s humiliating defeats in Opium wars and against Japan. indirect control over the politics. Boxers blamed foreigners for all the ills in China. they were secretly supported by many of the royal court. they resented the work of Christian missionaries. thinking that it would discourage the annexation of China by Japan or Russia. but the effect of these developments in China were same as any other areas which were formally colonized. British. The movement took form of a violent rebellion. This led to formation of a secret organization known as “Yihetuan” (Society of Righteousness and Harmony). inefficiency of their own royal government. + missionaries pressured local officials to side with Christian converts in local lawsuits and property disputes. China had been reduced to a status of an international colony Although China was not conquered or occupied by any imperialist country. Thus in a period of few decades. 3. Economic Exploitation by Western powers. Imperialism continued with the cooperation from Chinese warlords. Ultimately the military might of western powers crushed the Chinese rebellion. 4. German. Russian. Because Japan and Russia could easily send their armies to Chinese mainland. Japanese. Boxer Rebellion Chinese people was unhappy because of following: 1.

Dismanted of the old feudal regime and introduced prefecture system of administration. Universal primary education Modern army and navy and adopted western military technology. Japan also started her imperialist expansion. telegraphs. Anglo-J apanese Alliance between Britain and Japan to assist one another in safeguarding their respective interests in China and Korea It was a cornerstone of British and Japanese policy in Asia until after World War I. United States sent warships under Commodore Perry. 2. 9. 2. 3. How did Japan benefit from it? This alliance recognized Japan as a power of equal standing with great European powers. Government shifted from Edo to Tokyo A national constitution. 6. within a few decades. and forced the Japanese to open their country for the American shipping and trade. But Japan has few raw materials to support her industries. 7. China provided ample opportunities for Japan’s imperialist designs. Thus. Result?=> 1. Modern industrial enterprises. 5. So she also wants new lands for raw material and market for her finished goods.( Perfecture = Type of very vast Administration was centralized Municipality) Modern civil service bureaucracy was setup. 4. Following reforms were undertaken by Meiji government: 1.In 1850s. Japan adopted the slogan “wealthy country and strong arms” and sought to create a nation-state capable of standing equal among Western powers. (this is known as “Gun-boat diplomacy”) later. 8. Japan became one of the most industrialized countries in the world. We already saw how Japan defeated China in the first SinoJapanese war. Meiji Restoration It was a political revolution under which the erstwhile Tokugawa shogunate (feudal-military government) was replaced with a new imperial government under the Emperor Meiji. Japan made similar agreements with Britain. Modern banking and fiscal system. railroad. Holland. . But Japan itself became an Imperialist country after the Meiji Restoration. France and Russia. bicameral parliament (diet).

There was a revolt by Filipinos and Cubans against the Spanish rule. When first world war started. 2. culture or religion. including threats of war. both France and Britain exercised much power and authority over its affairs. France (ally of Russia) did not intervene. Cambodia and Vietnam France used a series of well-planned steps. China was defeated and it handed over certain parts of Southern Manchuria to Japan. then by Dutch and finally by British England introduced and rubber plantation in Sri Lanka=they formed 7/8th of Sri Lankan exports Sandwiched between Indochina (French) and Burma (British). Both Russia and Japan wanted to dominate Korea and Manchuria. 4. Indonesia under Dutch control Malaysia and Singapore Sri Lanka Thailand / Siam Philippines acquired by British Thus British could control of all the trade from far east and whatever passed through Strait of Malacca it was occupied by the Portuguese. Russo-J apanese War Recall under sphere of influence (in China). Afghanistan and Tibet. and occupied both Cuba and Philippines.In the Russo-Japanese War. Korea became a colony of Japan) Japan: Epilogue Japan’s rise as an imperialist power shows that imperialism was not limited to any one region. Russia agreed to evacuate southern Manchuria Russia recognized Japan’s control of Korea (ultimately in 1910. and became the master of Indochina. Iran. 1. United States used this opportunity to join the imperialist game. but were suppressed and Philippines became an American possession Asia: Central and Western Both England and Russia wanted to control Central Asia. the King of Burma gave France the right to build a railway in his territory British government feared French expansion and hence started a war with Burma. Anglo Russian agreement (1907) . 3. Result? => President Theodore Roosevelt of the United States served as mediator between Russia and Japan and a peace treaty was signed. religion or people. Japan could look back with some pride that she too had become a great power and could expand further at the cost of China if the Western powers would only allow her. But after first Sino-Japan war. fearing that Britain would intervene from Japan’s side. Thus. Imperialism was rather the result of greed for economic and political power which could distort the policy of any country regardless of its race. Russo-Japanese war. Russia gave half of Sakhalin Island to Japan. Although it remained independent state. Russia handed over Port Arthur and the South Manchurian railroad (which led to Port Arthur) to Japan. later the Filipinos also revolted against American occupation. 2nd half of 19th Century: Russian annexed almost all of Central Asia. Now let’s briefly look over the colonization of other parts of… Asia: South and South East Burma in 1880. Burma was annexed and became a part of British Empire in 1886 Indochina Indochina= Laos.=> ultimately. Russia is defeated. This helped Japan win the war. Burmese King was captured and sent to India. Russia was building railroads in Manchuria.

1907: England and Russia reached the “Anglo-Russian agreement” for controlling Iran via “sphere of influence”: North Iran= Russia. The new Soviet government denounced the old Anglo Russian agreements and gave up her rights in Iran. Germany and Turkey were defeated. Iran/Persia for both Britain and Russia. Mesopotamia Arabia They were under Turkish empire. 3. but England and France took them away after winning first world war. but an agreement was reached to divide the region among Germany. a joint Anglo – Russian supremacy was established over Iran. thus Germany as an imperialist nation was completely eliminated from race in Asia and other parts of the world. 1907: Anglo-Russian Agreement Russia agreed to recognize Afghanistan is being outside her influence. Tibet 1907: both retain and Russia agreed not to interfere in the affairs of Tibet 1911: Chinese monarchy was overthrown and Tibet increasingly passed under British influence. 1893: Durand Line between Afghanistan and British India. While Iran remained nominally independent. because of tribal-rebellions. Britain agreed not to annex Afghanistan as long as Afghani ruler remained loyal to her. Thus. 4. in modern times it has marked the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. France and England. Tibet both retain and Russia agreed not to interfere in the affairs of Tibet let’s check individual countries Afghanistan The British had a minor economic interest in Afghanistan. After the discovery of oil. to install a puppet regime in Afghanistan. France England and Russia opposed this. Southern Iran= Britain. But First World War changed the situation. but under the domination of foreign oil companies from United States and England. they were mainly worried about defending their crown jewel (India) against Russian expansion. 1. independent Iran was a convenient buffer area between the their empires. the main objective of Imperialist countries = obtain oil and concessions to control oil resources in Western Asia. and Tibet between them. 2. Part Under Anglo-Russian agreement Iran Divided Iran into Sphere of influence (similar to China) North Iran= Russia. Governor General Lord Auckland waged 1st Afghan war. central Iran was neutral and open to both. (Main players: America. The winners took away Germany’s colonial possessions. With three Anglo-afghan wars. the British and American oil interests became more powerful in Iran. Afghanistan. Afghanistan Russia agreed to recognize Afghanistan is being outside her influence. Western Asia During these years. Britain and France) . After discovery of Oil. Palestine. marking their respective spheres of influence. both Russia and England setup banks in Iran to obtain economic control. Initially. Through this railway. Germany was extending her influence over Turkey.between Russia and Britain on how to divide control of Iran. Syria. Britain agreed not to annex Afghanistan as long as Afghani ruler remained loyal to her. 1917: Russian Revolution established a new Soviet government. British learned that it is easy to overrun Afghanistan but very difficult of hold and occupy it permanently. Germany wanted to promote her economic interests in the region onto Iran and India. Southern Iran= Britain. A German company got concession to build a railway from Constantinople to Baghdad and the Persian Gulf. central Iran was neutral and open to both.

Colonization of Asia. Factors responsible 76 comments to [World History] Imperialism & Colonization: China. but the effect of these developments in China were same as any other areas which were formally colonized. resistance movements [Old NCERT World History ch12] (Part 1 of 2) Between Two world Wars. 12m 6. Open Door policy III. Anglo-Japanese Alliance VI. Describe the power-struggle between Russia and British in Iran and Afghanistan. culture or religion”. Sphere of influence II. Boxer Rebellion. Consequences. The First Russo-Japanese war 2. Meiji restoration V. Explain how Sino Japanese war helped them? 12m 5. Write a note on following (5 marks each) I.” Elaborate. Consequences. Asia. battles. Scramble for colonies.’ Japan. The Great Depression [Old NCERT World History ch11] Russian Revolution: Causes. Whereas China with its incomparably greater human and material resources spent itself vainly in trying to expel ‘foreign devils. click to enlarge Mock Question 1. Gun-boat diplomacy IV. Write a note on the “cutting of the Chinese melon” by Western powers. Japan. Analyse the factors responsible for the Boxer rebellion. Briefly explain the cause and consequences of the following events (5 marks each) I.s Reply to this comment desperatley waiting 4 new article Print || PDF Subscribe (Need Chrome)! (free!) . Rise of Japan as an imperialist country. The Opium wars II. 12m 7. Slave Trade. Sphere of influence « Older Comments 1 2 kumar. Comment 15m 9. Nazism. Open Door policy. Comment. Boer War [World History] Imperialism and Colonialism: Meaning. Americas [World History] Imperialism & Colonization: Africa. The First Sino Japan War IV. Africa. “Although China was not conquered or occupied by any imperialist country. events. Fascism. 12m 4. Boxer Rebellion V. The Treaty of Nanjing III. Click on the following timeline to see how individual pieces fit together. Paper Partitions. 15m Previous Posts [Old NCERT World History ch12] (Part 2 of 2): Second World War. Triple Alliance [Old NCERT World History ch9] Imperialism. not only retained its independence but became a world power in its own right. “Imperialism was the result of greed for economic and political power which could distort the policy of any country regardless of its race. by embracing the West. Comintern [Old NCERT World History ch10] First World War: Causes.This concludes the colonial domination of Asia. Treaty of Versailles. 15m 8. Anglo-Russian agreement 3.

a pathway conquer Civil Services…. whether my answer sheet would be rejected or accepted ? vignesh Reply to this comment . R dey in des old ncerts? Cnt find Raju Reply to this comment Dear All. In OMR answer means they may ask Statistics and data interpretation along with many other aptitude topics. Please guide me on this issue.But i am still very confused whether to leave it or not. But there was still mark white color ink left on the OMR sheet. The word “aptitude” has wider connotation. Thanks kk Reply to this comment Is Mrunal dead? He is not posting anything since many nincompoop mind your comments…….Even though you have mentioned that they have removed the Statistics and data interpretation part. Amritpal Reply to this comment Where to find des topics in detail. Hope u have that :-) abhi saha Reply to this comment hey you stupid foolish idiot…. What should I expect.If one see closely the syllabus they have mentioned “Aptitude” in the new syllabus. It is regarding the prelims paper. Although I have corrected it through whitener. Siddharth jain Reply to this comment kk mind your comments …… respect the person who is publishing such nice articles for us Chester Reply to this comment Plzz do Respect Mrunal’s work…… Persistent Patience.. I have blackened the wrong circle for the roll number.kumar.s Reply to this comment waiting 4 new article mayur Reply to this comment sir plz give strategy of new syllabus we are eagerly waitng santhu Reply to this comment just called as excellency vk Reply to this comment Sir Please throw us some light whether one should study Statistics and data interpretation because its not clear whether UPSC will not ask the question from it or not.

I have talked to Faird sir. Thank you « Older Comments 1 2 . He said that there is no need to worry as in cases if any conflict comes in computer scanning of roll no.they have already sent the answer sheet for evaluation Ramu Banoth Reply to this comment Mrunal sir could you please explain the technology missions topic from paper -IV of civils mains Raju Reply to this comment Thanks Vignesh. as per serial number of OMR sheet then manual checking is being done of the roll no. visit UPSC and get this resolved. ram bihari Reply to this comment Can you please tell what is the number to call?for contacting Imran Fardi sir vignesh Reply to this comment 011 23387410. It would be a great help if you can provide geography notes. As I’m from engineering background I found it very difficult to understand geography. If you are in delhi. Its there in telephone directory in UPSC site ram bihari I called them they said ab kuch nahee ho sakta. Fasil Reply to this comment Sir. They may ask you to send a letter with your details or they may tell it is not an issue. Please dont delay it any further as results are due to come in July 3rd week. So in all probability they will prepare the results soon and then start their checking.Immediately call Imran Faird sir in UPSC and ask him what to do. verification etc. in OMR sheet and actual roll no.