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computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, Vol. 2 Iss 2 pp. 35 - 39
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the current density distribution in straight flat conductors is solved by the finite-element method. In this model. As a final output. resistance and reactance of the straight flat conductors. 1. 35-39 © 1983 BOOLE PRESS LIMITED FINITE-ELEMENT SOLUTION OF STEADY-STATE SKIN-EFFECT PROBLEMS IN STRAIGHT FLAT CONDUCTORS G.COMPEL—The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering Vol. current i(t) = sin ωt. Using an integrodifferential approach to steady-state skin effect problems. COSTACHE Downloaded by UERJ At 12:03 13 July 2015 (PT) University of Ottawa. 2. let us consider one flat conductor representing the low voltage winding and carrying the a. the finite-element solution of steady-state skin-effect problems in straight flat conductors inside ferromagnetic materials is presented. Many papers have been produced on these topics and an excellent list of references is given in [1]. The results obtained for current density by the finite-element method were compared with analytical results provided by finite Fourier transform [3]. FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM The geometry selected to be studied represents the skin-effect problems for a transformer having primary windings made of sheets.c. No. 2. the method not being restricted by the geometry as usually happens when dealing with analytical techniques. The results obtained for a flat conductor placed inside a ferromagnetic medium are compared with analytical solutions provided by finite Fourier transforms. one can calculate parameters useful to designers such a a. 2] in terms of vector magnetic potential which for the straight conductors has only one component. A cross section of the transformer window is shown in Fig. The approach uses an integrodifferential finite element formulation [1. The finite-element approach has the advantage that it can be applied to any arbitrary shape of the conductor. 1. The application selected to illustrate the method is a fiat conductor placed in a ferromagnetic medium with a winding made of continuous sheets. the high voltage winding of the transformer is considered an 35 . For simplicity. 2. Ontario. Canada Abstract. especially now when new design concepts and complicated geometries are necessary for a better adjustment to the new technology.c. The approach takes into account a combination of one-dimensional finite elements corresponding to the flat conductors and triangular finite elements for the remaining domain outside conductors. In this paper. besides current density distribution. INTRODUCTION The problems of skin effect in electrical machines and transformers are very important.

The boundary conditions satisfied by the vector magnetic potential are [3] on the ferromagnetic wals A =0 on the conducting wall (3) (4) . Coslache. y) and the complex current density J(ω. (2) to the rest of the transformer window. y) have only components on the z direction. The magnetic material of the transformer core is assumed to be of infinite magnetic permeability in order to simplify the boundary conditions of the vector magnetic potential.Downloaded by UERJ At 12:03 13 July 2015 (PT) 36 G. Equation (1) corresponds to the conductor region and eq. x. Finite-element solution of steady-state skin-effect problems equipotential line for the vector magnetic potential. As the straight flat conductor of width g is considered infinitely long. The system of equations to be solved in terms of the vector magnetic potential is [2] -Ñ2A = 0 (2) where S c is the cross section of the straight conductor. the magnetic vector potential A(ω.

Finite-element solution of steady-state skin-effect problems 37 3. For the region outside the straight conductor. (1) and (2) for the boundary conditions (3) and (4) is [2] where Downloaded by UERJ At 12:03 13 July 2015 (PT) S being the total domain. the straight conductor can be assumed thin with a current density depending on y direction only. the vector magnetic potential can be approximated in each triangular finite element by a linear combination of interpolation polynomials as follows [1]: . while the second integral corresponds to the flat conductor (divided in linear finite elements). By considering 2b g.G. With this assumption. the functional (5) becomes In eq. (ÑA)2 is the integrand of two integrals: first integral extends over the region S (divided in triangular finite elements). (7). Costache. FINITE-ELEMENT APPROACH The general functional associated with eqs.

Finite-element solution of steady-state skin-effect problems For the elements located on the straight conductor only one-dimensional elements have been used. Using the values obtained for the magnetic vector potential.0109 m and L2 = 0. L1 = 0. the final system of equations is where NTR is the total number of triangular finite elements and N is the total number of vertices where the vector magnetic potential is unknown. 2. such as magnetic field H and electric field E. The trial functions (8) and (9) and the average value (10) are replaced into the functional and the derivatives with respect to node potentials are set to zero. The average value of the vector magnetic potential can be calculated as Downloaded by UERJ At 12:03 13 July 2015 (PT) where NS is the total number of linear finite elements. Costache. NC is the total number of vertices located on the linear elements. The above system of complex equations has the following general form: [S1 + j ω μ 0 σ S 2 ] A = B (12) which can be easily solved.38 G.001 m. They can be used to calculate .052 m. Le is the length of a generic linear element and γi are coefficients obtained by integration along each element.5 m.52 m. b = 0. can be evaluated. other field quantities. g = 0. Their generic trial function is given by A possible division into triangular and linear finite elements is shown in Fig. Once the vector magnetic potential is calculated. one can obtain the current density in the straight conductor [2]: The solution obtained by the finite-element method has been compared with an analytical solution established by a finite Fourier transform [3] for the following geometrical dimensions: h = 0. The results of the normalized current density for a frequency of 60 Hz are given in Table 1. As a result of this operation.

9687 + 0. . Techn. Sci. Roum. CONCLUSIONS The integrodifferential finite-element method has been applied to the skin-effect problem in straight conductors situated inside ferromagnetic media.0461 1. Sci.0378 1. resistance and a.j0.9691 + j0. Magn. [3] G.9558 1. Rev.1134 j0. Calculation of eddy-currents and skin-effect in nonmagnetic conductors by the finite element method.G.9315 + j0.384 0.0117 . 21(2) (1976) 175-180.0091 .0007 0. instead of an algebraic one.0362 j0.576 0. such as finite Fourier transform.j0.j0.0431 j0.0101 .000 0. Electrotechn.869 0.1197 0. A similar formulation can be used for the transient skin-effect problems in fiat conductors.0437 1.768 0.0123 1. K.0008 + j0.9613 .0432 j0. 4.j0. in which situation the final solution is obtained by solving a differential system of equations. Skin-effect in straight flat conductors placed in a ferromagnetic medium. Roum. Costache. 21(3) (1976) 357-363.192 0. defined by In eqs. The results obtained by this method are in agreement with those obtained by other methods. REFERENCES [1] A.1590 Downloaded by UERJ At 12:03 13 July 2015 (PT) the design parameters a. Costache.0110 1. [2] G.1610 j0.9307 + 0. Electrotechn. & Energ. (14) and (15) the integral of the complex Poynting vector is taken through a cylindrical surface which contains the unit length of the straight conductor.c.961 0. reactance per unit length. Techn. Rev. Costache.0242 j0. IEEE Trans. Finite-element solution of steady-slate skin-effect problems 39 Table 1 Normalized current densities obtained by finite element method and finite Fourier transform y/h Finite Element Fourier transform 0.c. MAG-18(1) (1982) 284-292.0234 0.0448 0. Konrad.0421 j0.0089 1. & Energ. Integrodifferential finite element formulation of two-dimensional steady-state skineffect problems.