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17. High explosives detonated underneath it.

16. Flowing water, in streams and rivers or across the
land in sheets, is the dominant erosional process in
shaping Earth's landscape. Streams and rivers are not
merely systems for moving surface water to the world's
oceans and seas. They are also systems for moving
weathered rocks and other sediment to those large
bodies of water. In fact, it is estimated that streams and
rivers move about 1.65 billion tons (1.5 billion metric
tons) of sediment from land to the oceans each year. By
shifting such great masses of sediment, streams and
rivers become sculptors of the land. Streams and rivers
erode, transport sediment, change course, and flood their
banks in natural and recurring patterns. It is true that
most of the erosional work done by surface water is not
done by streams or rivers but instead by falling raindrops
and by the resulting unorganized runoff down slopes. Yet
streams and rivers are able to create both erosional
landforms (their own channels, canyons, and valleys) and
depositional landforms (floodplains, alluvial fans, and
deltas) as they flow over Earth's surface. Streams are also
found on the ground surface in caves and underneath and
... When water flows down a slope, it tends to gather in
small depressions on the ... an intermittent, yet rapidly
flowing, canyon or mountain stream spills out onto a plain
..... its velocity remains constant or increases (if it
increases, it can carry an even ...
15. A nozzle is a device designed to control the direction
or characteristics of a fluid flow (especially to increase

When the liquid molecules are heated. but rather is a transfer of energy within a substance (or between substances in contact). 13. which does not involve any motion of a substance.velocity) as it exits (or enters) an enclosed chamber or pipe. they move faster so the liquid boils and some molecules becomes gas molecules. Another way to transfer heat is by conduction. A nozzle is often a pipe or tube of varying cross sectional area. heat is often transferred by convection. The third way to transfer energy is by radiation. they move faster so the liquid boils and some molecules becomes gas molecules. Answer When the liquid molecules are heated. In fluids. This changes the shape of the displaced water and shifts the location of the center of buoyancy. nozzel is a device which convert (high pressure and low velocity fluid) at inlet into (high velocity fluid and low pressure) at exit 14. in which the motion of the fluid itself carries heat from one place to another. if the floating wood block is pushed down at one end slightly. an object whose density is greater than that of the fluid in which it is submerged tends to sink. the block tilts in the direction of the downward push. If the object is either less dense than the liquid or is shaped appropriately (as in a . which involves absorbing or giving off electromagnetic waves. There are three basic ways in which heat is transferred. and it can be used to direct or modify the flow of a fluid (liquid or gas).

ascending and descending is done using strict protocols to avoid problems caused by the changes in ambient pressure and the hazards of obstacles near the surface or collision with vessels.The procedures vary depending on whether the diver is using scuba or surface supplied equipment. either by their umbilical. Diver certification and accreditation organisations place importance on these protocols early in their diver training programmes. a non-inertial reference frame). This can occur only in a reference frame which either has a gravitational field or is accelerating due to a force other than gravity defining a "downward" direction (that is. Some people follow newer guidelines of 30 feet per minute. Scuba divers control their own descent and ascent rate. or be lowered and lifted by the surface team. or on a diving stage or in a diving bell. Some divers follow the rates set by the manufacturers of their dive computers. the force can keep the object afloat.[3] The center of buoyancy of an object is the centroid of the displaced volume of fluid. and others are comfortable ascending at 60 feet per minute.boat). In a situation of fluid statics. 12. and others just make sure to ascend more slowly than their own bubbles. In underwater diving. the net upward buoyancy force is equal to the magnitude of the weight of fluid displaced by the body. . while surface supplied divers may control their own ascents and descents.

because a pump is typically required to refill the tower. they cannot supply the water for a long time without power. A water tower also serves as a reservoir to help with water needs during peak usage times.Water towers are able to supply water even during power outages. which store treated water close to where it will be used. Irrigation is covered separately. especially one with tall and narrow proportions. since the tower is constantly being drained and refilled. and may not necessarily be connected to a public water supply.[2] Other types of water towers may only store raw (nonpotable) water for fire protection or industrial purposes. however. The water level in the tower typically falls during the peak usage hours of the day. Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities. A water tower is an elevated structure supporting a water tank constructed at a height sufficient to pressurize a water supply system for the distribution of potable water. In some places. .11. community endeavors or by individuals. and then a pump fills it back up during the night. the term standpipe is used interchangeably to refer to a water tower.[1] Water towers often operate in conjunction with underground or surface service reservoirs. and to provide emergency storage for fire protection. This process also keeps the water from freezing in cold weather. commercial organisations. usually via a system of pumps and pipes. because they rely on hydrostatic pressure produced by elevation of water (due to gravity) to push the water into domestic and industrial water distribution systems.

If the pumps fail (for example.000 gallons (that's a lot of water!). NC. the water tower holds enough water to keep things flowing for about a day. a tower can sometimes be replaced by a simple tank located on the highest hill in the area. Each foot of height provides 0. The amount of pressure at your tap can depend on how high the service reservoir or water tower is above your home. and they are tall enough to provide the necessary pressure.43 PSI (pounds per square Inch) of pressure.10. and a typical water tower might hold 50 times that amount! Typically. Pressure is the force that pushes water through pipes.000 or 30. Water towers are tall to provide pressure. a water tower's tank is sized to hold about a day's worth of water for the community served by the tower. take the water tower shown at the right. In hilly regions. The water tower must be tall enough to supply that level of pressure to all of the houses and businesses in the area of the tower. This tower is located in Kill Devils Hill. For example. A water tower is an incredibly simple device. A typical municipal water supply runs at between 50 and 100 PSI (major appliances require at least 20 to 30 PSI). A water tower's tank is normally quite large. elevated tank of water. during a power failure). So water towers are typically located on high ground. they all do the same thing: A water tower is simply a large. It is about 165 feet (50 meters) tall. A normal in-ground swimming pool in someone's backyard might hold something like 20. Water pressure determines the flow of water from the tap. Although water towers come in all shapes and sizes. near Kitty Hawk. .

The height of your property can also affect your water pressure ..someone who drives racing cars at high speeds. Driving in wet conditions can be hazardous and even drivers with local knowledge can be caught out during heavy downpours.. You should seek your water company's advice before installing this type of equipment to check whether the pressure in your water company's area is sufficient for these systems to operate efficiently. Take it easy through standing water and if the steering does become unresponsive due . race driver . There can also be problems during dry spells when people use hosepipes or sprinklers to water their gardens. 9.Low pressure can have a number of causes. Some modern heating appliances and showers will not work below certain pressure levels. as the most modern road surface is still susceptible to standing water.or on how much water other customers are using.someone who drives racing cars at high speeds automobile driver . For example. Low pressure can reduce water flow to a trickle and it will take a long time to fill a kettle or a cistern. You should not notice any difference in your water pressure after having a water meter at the top of a hill may receive lower pressure than properties which are at the bottom of the hill. Standing water creates a potential aquaplaning hazard as well as reducing visibility. automobile driver . when demand for water is high (such as in the morning or early evenings) pressure can be lower than during the rest of the day.

Without spoilers.could cause water to be ingested. The air intake on many cars is low down at the front and just an egg cupful of water in the combustion chamber is enough to wreck an engine. which you have to overcome to turn. All that extra weight has inertia. have them front and back. Many cars. from drag racers to sports cars to monster trucks carry different kinds of spoilers on them. slow speed to avoid creating a bow wave. Some cars. ease off the accelerator and slow down gradually. like the Ferrari F1 cars. Cars have spoilers to increase their grip on the road. and since they are probably the most scientifically advanced wheeled transportation. so increasing the weight doesn't help .Water doesn't compress and the piston in effect hits a wall. where you really want to grip. the only way to increase the grip would be to increase the weight. bending or breaking a con the rain. 8.Only attempt to drive through flood water if you know it's not too deep and maintain a steady. Driving fast even if the intake's above the water level . I'll use them for the discussion. Normally the weight of a car is the only thing that forces the tires down onto the pavement. or to change the compound the tire was made out of. Spoilers on the front of a vehicle are often called air dams. because in addition to directing air flow they also reduce the amount of air flowing underneath the vehicle which generally reduces aerodynamic lift and drag. The only problem with increasing the weight is that it doesn't help in turns.

Instead of having a heavy car. So. Fighter jets are the most common example of . they would still stick to the road. Only two.. and ones that are designed like that can have down force on the order of 3G's. but too much down force = too much drag. Drag is the natural reaction of the fluid (air) to resist motion through it (the car). A supersonic aircraft is an aircraft able to fly faster than the speed of sound (Mach number 1). Very very high performance sports cars. have a ratio called the 'lift/drag' ratio. That means they could hang completely upside down on the track. The way the spoiler works is like an airplane wing. but not so much that they are too slow. but upside down. right? There is one catch. at 200mph. Concorde and the Tupolev Tu-144. The advantages of this can be seen very readily.. were ever designed for civil use as airliners. Indy cars. and as long as they kept going fast enough. Every time a wing generates lift (or a spoiler generates down force) it also generates drag. which is slow. because it slows down the car. or having a very light car. which can slide away easily. more down force is good. you now have a car that sticks better the faster it goes. The spoiler actually generates what's called 'down force' on the body of the all. 7. Drag is bad. which is bad. Sounds perfect. The car designers try and maximize this so that the car has just enough force to get around the corners. Supersonic aircraft were developed in the second half of the twentieth century and have been used almost entirely for research and military purposes. like Le Mans or F1.

you hear a "sonic boom. thus traveling faster than sound itself. The sound seems to come from behind the plane because you're hearing sound that the plane emitted many seconds earlier. The cone moves along with the plane and as it sweeps over you. When the plane outruns its own sound waves. you hear the plane as it was sometime in the past. Inside the cone. Because the plane is flying faster (and therefore ahead of) its own sound. so what you see and what you hear get out of sync. you hear the sonic boom. Yes. its sound begins to pile up in a cone that radiates outward and backward from the supersonic plane. The angle of the cone . This problem becomes more severe as the plane's speed increases and. at a certain point." a sudden surge in pressure as the piled-up sounds of the plane finally reach your ears. you can't hear the plane at all. Outside the cone. The plane is flying ahead of its sound. The aerodynamics of supersonic flight is called compressible flow because of the compression (physics) associated with the shock waves or "sonic boom" created by any object travelling faster than soundAircraft flying at speeds above Mach 5 are often referred to as hypersonic aircraft. But right at the cone. 6.supersonic aircraft. something totally new happens. although they don't always travel at supersonic speed.

Igneous rock is formed when melted rock cools and hardens. As the diagram to the right illustrates. it crystallizes and forms the igneous rocks that can later be changed into metamorphic or sedimentary rocks. Metamorphic rock forms when igneous. metamorphic. Magma. Rocks come from magma. The rock cycle is a basic concept in geology that describes the dynamic transitions through geologic time among the three main rock types: sedimentary. When magma cools. metamorphic. each of the types of rocks is altered or destroyed when it is forced out of its . or other metamorphic rock is changed by heat and pressure. is referred to as lava when it reaches the earth's surface. Created by lava from volcanoes or magma that cools inside the Earth.depends on how fast the supersonic plane is going but the fact that it sweeps along the ground means that not everyone hears it at once. which is the molten material found within the earth. The rock cycle is a basic concept in geology that describes the dynamic transitions through geologic time among the three main rock types: sedimentary. Sonic booms can be heard throughout the plane's supersonic flight and they're so disturbing to people and animals that supersonic fight is limited to unpopulated areas or oceans. the sonic boom has little to do with actually passing through the speed of sound. sedimentary. Furthermore. either above or below the earth's surface. and igneous. which can be considered molten rock. and igneous.

indicating major geological or paleontological events. paleontologists. An igneous rock such as basalt may break down and dissolve when exposed to the atmosphere. and how processes change from one type to another over time. The geology or deep time of Earth’s past has been organized into various units according to events which took place in each period. Due to the driving forces of the rock cycle. and other Earth scientists to describe the timing and relationships between events that have occurred throughout Earth’s history.54 billion years old.equilibrium conditions. and is used by geologists. The rock cycle is an illustration that explains how the three rock types are related to each other. For example. The geological time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological measurement that relates stratigraphy to time. the boundary between the Cretaceous period and the . The table of geologic time spans presented here agrees with the nomenclature. rocks do not remain in equilibrium and are forced to change as they encounter new environments. Evidence from radiometric dating indicates that Earth is about 4. such as mass extinctions. Different spans of time on the GTS are usually delimited by changes in the composition of strata which correspond to them. or melt as it is subducted under a continent. plate tectonics and the water cycle. dates and standard color codes set forth by the International Commission on Stratigraphy.

Paleogene period is defined by the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. which marked the demise of the nonavian dinosaurs and many other groups of life. Older time spans which predate the reliable fossil rec .