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PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM FOR POWER LEVELLING

Ishmeet Singh Bajwa
Department of Mechatronics Design
Abstract

Fluctuating photovoltaic (PV) output power reduces the
reliability in power system when there is a massive
penetration of PV generators. Energy storage systems that
are connected to the PV generators using bidirectional
isolated dc-dc converter can be utilized for compensating
the fluctuating PV power. This paper presents a grid
connected energy storage system based on a 2 kW fullbridge bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter and a PWM
converter for PV output power leveling. This paper
proposes two controllers: a current controller using the dq synchronous reference and a phase-shift controller. The
main function of the current controller is to regulate the
voltage at the high-side dc, so that the voltage ratio of the
high-voltage side (HVS) with low-voltage side (LVS) is
equal to the transformer turns ratio. The phase-shift
controller is employed to manage the charging and
discharging modes of the battery based on PV output
power and battery voltage. With the proposed system,
unity power factor and efficient active power injection are
achieved. The feasibility of the proposed control system is
investigated using Simulink simulation.
Keywords— Bidirectional isolated dc-dc converters, energy
storage systems, Phase shift controller, and Current controller

1. INTRODUCTION
Many countries are implementing PV solar panels as they are
a clean and sustainable source to meet their power demands.
However, the grid connected PV unit without energy storage
unit can affect the utility grid in a negative manner due to the
intermittent nature of PV. In order to solve this problem,
integration of energy storage system to level the output power
of PV is necessary [1–4].
There are many types of energy storage systems such
as superconducting magnetic energy storage, flywheel,
capacitor, battery, and pump hydro storage. The battery
energy storage device is modular, making it easy to be
connected close to the point of load and the PV generators. Liion batteries have high energy density and are being
increasingly used in battery connected PV systems [5].
However, as long as it is employed for PV application, an
efficient bidirectional system is required to perform the
charging and discharging of the batteries.
Various configuration of a bidirectional isolated dcdc converter has been investigated in [6]. Bidirectional dc-dc
converter can be categorized as isolated and non-isolated
topologies. Although an isolated converter is more

complicated and expensive than a non-isolated converter, it
benefits the system safety, reliability, and flexibility. In
addition, the full-bridge topology has a high efficiency, while
providing minimum switching loss, improved EMI, and
galvanic isolation for energy storage systems. It is also
preferred due to its minimal voltage and current stress in highpower applications [7–9]. The bidirectional full-bridge
isolated dc-dc converter is a reliable system with high
efficiency for PV applications in order to remove probable
fluctuations and stabilize the PV output.
As Figure 1 show, typically, battery energy storage
system (BESS) consists of a battery bank, a bidirectional full
bridge isolated dc-dc converter, and a grid connected PWM
converter. In addition to the power circuit of the converters, a
reliable control system is required for two main purposes.
Firstly, it is to manage the power flow in both directions,
achieving charging and discharging modes of the battery.
Secondly, it is to adjust the voltage of HVS with respect to the
voltage of LVS of the converter so that the voltage ratio of the
HVS with LVS is close to the transformer turns ratio [10]. The
voltage adjustment is necessary to decrease the peak switching
current and the turn-off overvoltage across the semiconductor
switches.
This paper focuses on the overall control of the BESS
which includes the controls of the bidirectional isolated dc-dc
converter and the PWM converter. This paper proposes two
controllers for the BESS. The first part is a feedback controller
that regulates the voltage of HVS DC capacitor based on the
battery bank voltage and the second part determines the
direction and the amount of the required BESS power based
on the PV output power and battery bank voltage.
Accordingly, while the 2 kW bidirectional isolated dc-dc
converter operates to regulate the power at the Point of
Common Coupling (PCC), the proposed control system
continuously adjusts the voltages of HVS so that the voltage
ratio of the HVS with LVS is close to the transformer turns
ratio, which results in increasing the converter efficiency.
PV

Unidirectional
dc-dc converter

Inverter

MPPT

Bidirectional
isolated dc-dc
converter

PWM
Inverter
BESS

Figure 1: Battery energy storage and PV systems connected to the utility grid.

Grid

3. and 20 kHz. TABLE 1: Circuit parameters of the bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter.4%). AC = 280 𝜇H(0. based on the battery voltage 𝑉𝐵.4%). 2kW. In a practical system. which will result in saturating the AC inductors in a practical system. The circuit configuration is similar to that in [10]. and 50Hz base. the leakage inductance of the transformer is neglected. The minimum voltage of 60V is based on the specification of Li-ion battery available.Figure 2: 2:The based on ona abidirectional bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter. this system monitors 𝑉𝐵 and keeps 𝑉𝐷1 at a level where the voltage ratio between 𝑉𝐷1 and 𝑉𝐵 is close to the transformer turns ratio. 𝐿𝑆 is 𝐿the background systemimpedance. In the simulation system. on a threebackground systemimpedance.1%). on a three-phase 200V. On the other hand. It also provides galvanic isolation to ensure system safety and reliability. The current control technique has been employed to regulate the voltage across dc-link capacitor 𝐶𝐷1. 𝑅𝐹= 0. and 20 kHz. However. The power transfer. 𝑉𝐵 is the battery voltage at the low-voltage side. POWER CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION Figure 2 shows the battery bank connected at the low-voltage side (LVS) of the 2 kW dc-dc converter. and 𝐶𝐹= 150𝜇F.5 μH 150 nF 1 mF 20 kHz HVS is based on 2 kW. The BESS is sized for active power injection at the PCC of up to 2 kW. the start-up procedure is employed to charge capacitors 𝐶𝐷1 and 𝐶𝐷2 through 5Ω and 20Ω resistors connected on the utility and battery sides. and 𝐶𝐹= 150𝜇F.2Ω (1%). 𝑃𝐷. 𝐿AC = 280 𝜇H(0. 𝐿𝐹= 44𝜇H (0. 𝑅𝐹= 0. to determine the desired . 𝑉𝐷1.2Ω (1%). 𝐿𝐹= 44𝜇H (0. 360V. phase 200V. respectively.1%). A 20 kHz high frequency transformer with a turns ratio of 6:1 is utilized as it is small in size and light in weight. is employed to prevent a large inrush current flow into the DC capacitors. 2. Therefore. 𝑉𝐵. Rated Power Transformer turns ratio Auxiliary inductor (HVS) Snubber Capacitor (HVS) DC capacitor (HVS) Auxiliary inductor (LVS) Snubber capacitor (LVS) DC capacitor (LVS) Switching frequency PDC N:1 LAH CSH CD1 LAL CSL CD2 f 2 kW 6:1 80 μH 10 nF 1 mF 3. and 50Hz𝐿base. 𝑉𝐷1 is regulated between 300V and 360V to maintain the ratio of HVS and LVS close to the transformer turns ratio. Table 1 summarizes the parameters of the circuit in Figure 2. In fact. of the bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter can easily be controlled by adjusting the phase-shift angle 𝛿 between two AC voltages 𝑉1 and 𝑉2 as expressed as [12] where 𝑉𝐷1 is the high-side voltage. OVERALL CONTROL SYSTEM Figure 3 presents the proposed overall control system. the phase shift controller considers output power of PV. consisting of four circuit breakers. LVS is based on 2 kW. The proposed control system regulates the injected power at the PCC to be at 2kW. 60 V. is set between 50V and 60V and at the high-voltage side. This paper verifies the proposed BESS for the application of PV output power leveling via simulation in MATLAB Simulink. 𝑆 is the Figure Thegrid-connected grid-connected BESS BESS based isolated dc-dc converter. 𝑃PV. The rated voltage of 60V is selected taking into consideration user safety. 2kW. the leakage inductance of the high-frequency transformer should be minimized to prevent the so-called spot heating on the transformer. and 𝐿 is the sum of the transformer leakage and auxiliary inductance referred to as the high-voltage side. The PWM inverter interfaces the high-voltage side (HVS) of the dc-dc converter with the utility grid at the PCC via the switching ripple filters and AC inductors. this paper investigates the feasibility of the system in PV output power leveling via the proposed control system. Three-phase 𝑑-𝑞 axis transformation control strategy is employed to regulate the capacitor voltage of the PWM converter. 𝜔 is the angular switching frequency. A start-up circuit. The operating voltage of the battery.

The controller also considers the battery voltage. The proposed control system is based on the d-q transformation method.output power from the BESS such that PBESS = PPCC – PPV (2) where in this paper PPCC = 2kW.1 Control Algorithm of PWM Converter. The d and q components of the three- . The proposed control system regulates the three phase currents. In the first condition. the excess power of PV can be discharged through a dump load [14]. In the third condition. The controller checks the battery voltage to be between 50V and 60V (50V < 𝑉𝐵 ≤ 60V). An accurate estimation of utility phase angle is critical for maintaining the power quality at the PCC. where V is the magnitude of the voltage at the PCC. In the second condition. the output power of PV is more than 2 kW. charging. A PLL has been employed for providing the grid phase angle information. Then the BESS operates in the discharging mode to compensate for the reduced PV output power. notches and other types of distortions in the input signal. Three PV output power conditions are considered during the operation of the proposed control system. Then it calculates the new phase shift angle. The amount of active power required to compensate the PV output power is calculated by the phaseshift controller. As shown in Figure 4. and Vpwm is the three-phase output voltage of the PWM converter. Note that for the purpose of simulation. Figure 4 shows the verification flow chart of the power management system of the phase-shift controller in the battery energy storage system. the PV output power is assumed and the modeling of PV generation system is outside the scope of this paper. 𝛿. the output power of PV is less than 2 kW. The Kirchhoff voltage law (KVL) can be applied to Figure 5. Figure 5: Equivalent circuit of the proposed system. and the three-phase KVL equation is expressed as Lsys 𝑖 𝑉 𝑉 [𝑖 ] = [𝑉 ] . the output power of PV is 2 kW. 3. and 𝑖𝑐 to achieve unity power factor and to regulate the dclink voltage at the PWM converter. harmonics. (ii) When the battery voltage is more than 60V and the 𝑃PV is more than 2 kW. sags/swells.Then the BESS is charged to absorb the surplus power of PV. The controller checks the battery voltage to be less than 60V (𝑉𝐵 < 60 V). 𝑉𝐷1. Apart from putting the BESS on standby.[𝑉 𝑖 𝑉 𝑉 ] (3) Where V𝑠 is the three-phase voltage at the PCC. 𝑖𝑎. 𝜔𝑡. and θ is 2π/3 for a balanced three-phase system. ωt is the phase angle. or discharging mode. there are two other conditions where the BESS goes on standby mode: The PLL provides fast and accurate synchronization information with a high degree of immunity and insensitivity to disturbances. 𝐿sys (𝐿AC +𝐿𝐹+ 𝐿𝑆) is the total per phase series inductance. In this case BESS goes to standby mode by changing the phase shift to zero. needed to level the PV output power through battery charging or discharging. This is to protect the Li-ion battery bank from being overcharged and over discharged [13]. 𝑖𝑏. and the HVS capacitor voltage. Figure 4: The verification flow chart to ascertain the BESS to be in standby. unbalances. 𝑉𝐵. Figure 3: Configuration of the proposed control system. The supply voltage can be defined as 𝑉 [𝑉 ] 𝑉 𝑉 [ 𝑐 𝑠𝜔𝑡 𝜔𝑡 𝜔𝑡 ] (4) (i) When the battery voltage is less than 50V and the 𝑃PV is less than 2 kW. Figure 5 illustrates the equivalent circuit of PWM converter and grid.

Then 𝑉PWM𝑑 and 𝑉PWM𝑞 can be obtained as 𝑉 𝜔 𝐿 𝑉 𝑉 𝜔 𝐿 𝑉 (6) Equations (10) are implemented as part of the control in Figure 6. the reference direct component of current is calculated as Using (5) and (6). 𝑉𝐷1. 𝑑ref.Therefore. and 𝑖𝑐. [ 𝜔 𝜔 ][ ] 𝑉 ] [𝑉 [ 𝑉 ] [𝑉 ] [ ] . . equation (3) can be rewritten as P * Lsys 𝑑 𝑑𝑡 𝑉 [ 𝑉 ] . The proportional-integral controllers PI2 and PI3 transform the errors from the comparisons of 𝑑-𝑞 components of current into voltage value as 𝑉 𝑉 Equation (8) can be divided into 𝑑 𝑑𝑡 𝑑 𝑑𝑡 (8) ∫ (7) In a balance system. by controlling the line currents. resulting in [ ] 𝑉 { { }( }( 𝑠 𝑠 ) ) 𝜔 𝐿 𝜔 𝐿 𝑉 𝑉 where 𝑉𝑠𝑑 is the measured magnitude of the grid voltage and 𝑉𝑠𝑞 is almost zero. PI1. The steady-state condition is achieved when the derivative terms of 𝑑 𝑑/𝑑𝑡 and 𝑑 𝑞/𝑑𝑡 are equal to zero.𝑃𝑃 𝑉 𝑑 𝑃 [ 𝑞 ] = 𝑃𝑃 𝑉 [𝑉 𝑉 𝑉 ]. 𝑖𝑏. [ (5) ] The inverse of the Park’s transformation matrix is defined as 𝑃 [ 𝜔𝑡 𝜔𝑡 𝜔𝑡 𝜔𝑡 𝜔𝑡 𝜔𝑡 ]. The parameters 𝑝 and are tuned by trial and error method. the instantaneous battery voltage 𝑉𝐵 is multiplied by the transformer turns ratio and is compared with the HVS capacitor voltage 𝑉𝐷1. These two references are compared with the actual values of 𝑑 and 𝑞 and the differences are passed through two PI controllers. PI 2 and PI3. 𝑃 𝜔𝑡 𝜔𝑡 𝜔𝑡 𝜔𝑡 𝜔𝑡 𝜔𝑡 . the zero sequence components are equivalent to zero and can be omitted. ib and ic are obtained using Park’s transformation through the transformation matrix. based on (10) for achieving 𝑉PWM𝑑 and 𝑉PWM𝑞. To generate the reference direct component of current. The goal of the control system is to regulate the voltage of HVS dc-link capacitor. The gain from 𝜔𝐿sys is considered to provide the decoupling terms.Figure 6: Current control of the PWM Converter Figure 6: Current control of the PWM Converter phase current ia. 𝑞ref is set at zero to avoid any reactive power transfer. Then the error is passed through a proportional-integral controller. 𝜔 𝜔 𝑉 𝐿 𝑉 𝐿 𝑉 𝐿 𝑉 𝐿 𝑑 The quadrature reference current. The outputs of PI controllers are added with measured 𝑉𝑠𝑑 and 𝑉𝑠𝑞. 𝑖𝑎.

The battery is charged or discharged through the bidirectional isolated dc-dc used.2 Control Algorithm of Bidirectional Isolated dc-dc Converter. increases and stabilizes at 270V causing gate pulse D to switch. At time periods 1. 3. and V𝑐ref which are the sinusoidal reference voltages of the PWM generator. V𝑏ref.25 PI3 0. 𝑉𝐷1. The switching frequency of the PWM converter is 10 kHz and for the bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter it is 20 kHz. The battery power is assumed to be equal to the power transfer 𝑃𝐷. circuit breaker 3 will be closed and the BESS will operate as per the requirement of the system. it generates 8 gate signals for the gate driver. SIMULATED WAVEFORMS Figure 7: Phase shift angle control of the bidirectional isolated dc-dc. Based on this concept. The simulation duration is 3. As soon as 𝑉𝐷1 is adjusted at 360V.Table 2: THE GAINS OF THE THREE PI CONTROLLERS. 𝑉𝐷1 and 𝑉𝐵 are employed to compute the phase-shift angle 𝛿 for the required battery charging power as and the phase-shift angle for the required battery discharging power as From Figure 8 (a) it can be observed that the irradiance of sun (W/m2) changes and from Figure 8(b) it can be observed that the ambient temperature (oC) changes which causes change in output power of PV power. 3. 4. The RMS voltage of the grid is 200V and its rated frequency is 50Hz. respectively. the dq reference voltages are transformed to V𝑎ref. converter connected to the PWM converter. A simulation model with the control system is built using MATLAB Simulink based on Figures 2 and 3. for a PV generation system rated at 2kW.3 𝜇s. The gate driver amplifies the signals and sends it to the full bridge converter. The voltage across the high-voltage capacitor.5 0.5s the irradiance of sunlight changes and temperature changes from 14. The circuit parameters and gains in Tables 1 and 2 are (b) Figure 8: (a) Change in Irradiance (b) Change in ambient temperature .04 Table 2 presents the parameter of each PI controller.5s. (a) In the phase-shift controller block.48 0. provided that the battery voltage is 60V.3 Simulation Method. The measured values of 𝑃PV.5s and 2. Figure 7 shows the control system of the bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter. KP KI PI1 0. The rated output power of the BESS is 2kW.9 0. the control system determines the desired BESS power as in (2) in order to regulate the injected power at the PCC at 2 kW as the PV output power varies. Table 3: SWITCH OPERATIONS DURING STARTUP SEQUENCE HVS DC-link Capacitor voltage VD1 < 270V 270V VD1 < 360V VD1 = 360V Gate Pulse D (with 5Ω at grid side) 0 1 1 Gate Pulse C (with 20Ω at Battery side) 0 0 1 Table 3 shows the operating sequence of the MOSFET switches during startup. Then.03 PI2 0. Finally. the control system starts to regulate 𝑉𝐷1 to 360V.0 s and the time step is 0.5oC to 16oC at 1.

(a) (b) (c) (d) .

(b) High-voltage-side capacitor voltage. The output power of 𝑃PV is 2 kW at 𝑡 = 0s. At 𝑡 = 1.5 s and 𝑡 = 3s. (e) BESS AC output power (f) Phase shift during Discharging mode Figure 9 illustrates the operation of the BESS with varying PV output power. the BESS operates to discharge the battery by changing 𝛿 from 0 to 0. so that 𝑃𝐷= 1kW to mitigate the power at the 𝑃PCC to 2 kW.5 s 𝑃PV = 1kW. In this mode.259 rad. Therefore.(e) (f) Figure 9: (a) Battery voltage. (c) PV output power (d) BESS DC power. The BESS start-up circuit operates and the voltage of HVS capacitor is regulated to 360V in 0. the PV is not injecting any power and phase-shift angle is increased again by same amount. Figure 10 presents the operation of the BESS during both charging and discharging modes. At 𝑡 = 2.35 μs. the output power from the BESS is equal to zero in this period. the BESS transfers 2 kW to the PCC.5s. it changes the direction of power and charges the battery bank. phase-shift angle 𝛿 is changes from 0 to 7.5 s. Between 𝑡 = 1. the PV is producing 𝑃PV = 1kW. The simulation assumes that the battery voltage is constant at 60V and subsequently voltage 𝑉𝐷1 is regulated at 360V by operation of the control system. Therefore. Therefore.14s therefore. So that 𝑃𝐷 = −1kWto mitigate the power at the 𝑃PCC to 2 kW. The controller of the BESS detects the power which is less than 2kW. The simulation assumes that the battery voltage is constant at 60V. Between 𝑡 = 0s and 𝑡 = 1. the output of PV increases to 3 kW. the control system detects the output of PV that exceeded 2 kW and battery voltage which is equal to 60V. . so that the BESS discharges power of 1 kW and mitigates the power at the 𝑃PCC to 2 kW.

(a) (b) (c) . the BESS will go on standby mode.When the power at PCC becomes stable at 2 kW.

c) BESS AC output power.(d) (e) (f) Figure 10: a) PV output power. f) Battery current . d) Phase shift during Charging mode. b) BESS DC power. e) High-side dc current.

The maximum efficiency of the converter is achieved around the onset of zero-voltage switching [11]. K. The THD of current during charging of the 𝐶𝐷1 is around 0.7% and during the discharging operation of the dc-dc converter the THD it is negligible.8% between PB = −1.6kW. . Sen. The proposed controller that regulates the HVS dc-link capacitor voltage is successful in ensuring that the voltage ratio between the HVS and LVS is close to the transformer turns ratio. Kroposki. 5. CONCLUSION Figure 11: Three Phase AC Voltage (Vpeak=200V. Martin Ordonez the valuable input and future suggestions for the project report. pp. Figure 12: Bidirectional power transfer versus phase-shift angle. The synchronized voltage and current waveforms show that the power factor is unity. and B. measured converter efficiency averages at 96.2kW and PB = −2. C.‖ in Proceedings of the IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting: Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century (PES ’08). Figure 12 shows the comparison of the simulated and theoretical power transfer PD versus phase-shift angle δ during battery charging and discharging [11]. As explained in Section 3. Therefore. The feasibility of the controller in injecting the required power at the PCC to level the PV output power has been verified via simulation. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author wish to acknowledge Dr. Figure 13: AC voltage and current of 3Ø during the operation of the BESS. Unity power factor is also achieved during battery charging and discharging at the utility side.Figure 11 shows the AC voltage and AC current during the operation of the BESS at the rated power 2 kW and battery voltage 60V. P.2kW. the system works with unity power factor. the measured converter efficiency peaks at 96% at PB = 1. Smith. 1–8. Pa. 50Hz) and Three phase AC current (Ipeak≈10Amps.50Hz) Figure 13 shows the enlarged view of 3Ø AC voltage and current. At battery discharging. At battery charging. the control system converges 𝑞 to zero. USA. REFERENCES [1] S. July 2008. This strategy increases the efficiency of the system by minimizing the switching current in the dc-dc converter. Pittsburgh. ―Advancement of energy storage devices and applications in electrical power system.

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