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Contemporary Educational Psychology

The latest reviewed version was checked on 24 December 2011. There are template/file changes awaiting review.

This Wikibook is about educational psychology--the study of how learning and teaching occur in
educational settings. It is divided into chapters as listed below, which are preceded by an introduction that
describes the features of the book in some detail. Initially most of the contributions have been made by
myself, Kelvin Seifert, a professor of educational psychology at the University of Manitoba, Canada, though
Chapter 10 and 11 (about assessment of learning) were drafted primarily by Rosemary Sutton, a professor
of educational psychology at Cleveland State University. This may change over time--others may join, and
eventually I may leave. If you wish to contact me try leaving a note on my talk page.
The sections below introduce the features of the book. If you want to skip the introduction, go directly to
the Table of Contents.

of Contemporary Educational Psychology

The book is divided into thirteen chapters, each dealing with topics, themes, and examples that represent
one way of understanding educational psychology (admittedly my way, at least when the book was first
posted). The overall organization resembles that of many commercial ed psych texts, but a careful look will
show that it is definitely not identical with others.

the PRAXIS II "Principles of Learning and Teaching"

A key difference is that content is intended to parallel the content of the commonly used PRAXIS II test
called “Principles of Learning and Teaching” (PLT), published by the Educational Testing Service[1]. The PLT
test is required in 25-30 American states for persons seeking permanent certification as public school
teachers. If you happen to live in a U.S. state requiring a licensure exam for becoming a teacher, you may
be familiar with the PRAXIS tests, and hopefully will appreciate the way this Wikibook is organized.
The decision to organize according to the PLT was based on the assumption that preparing for this exam
would be easier if the text content mapped onto PLT topics in a straightforward, one-to-one manner. This is
admittedly a rather simple assumption, but one that seemed at least worth trying. It has proved easier to
implement for some topics and chapters than for others. You must of course be the ultimate judge of the
book's success in mapping onto the PLT. Your assessment will depend a lot on your particular needs in
preparing for licensure as a teacher. In any case, since this is a Wikibook, suggestions (on the discussion
pages) or editing (on the "real" pages) are especially welcome.
Using the PLT as an organizing device, along with posting this book as a Wiki, are the two ways
that Contemporary Educational Psychology differs from the major commercially available textbooks
about educational psychology. If you do not live in a PRAXIS-using American state, or if you live outside the
United States, the PLT-related feature of the organization will not much matter to you, one way or another,
though you may still (hopefully) appreciate the online, open-source status of this particular textbook.


of the book

As of this current revision, all chapters have the following parts:

Table of Contents

Body of the chapter itself (this is the longest part of each chapter-file)

Links to tables and figures discussed in the chapter--mostly just promised, not yet actual

Chapter summary (less than one page when printed)

What is still to be added will be partly up to you as readers. In the opinion of KelvinLeeSeifert, further
enhancements might include these features, in whole or in part:

List of key terms from the chapter

List of external Internet websites relevant to the chapter

Complete references cited in the chapter (most of these are listed at the bottom of their
relevant subpages, and some may overlap a bit from one chapter to another)

More descriptions of a teaching experiences relevant to the chapters and sections (in addition
to those already embedded in the text)

More in-depth analyses of selected research issues or studies (in addition to those already in
the text)

Photographs relevant to particular written content


NOT in Contemporary Educational Psychology

Since this book is not published commercially, it contains no pictures or elegant graphics--at least
initially. It is also missing some of the teaching or "pedagogical" aids of some commercial books,
such as a glossary of definitions or a website of supplementary materials. To get a permanent
copy of a chapter or a section, you have to print the material for yourself. Some passages may
seem a bit “American” in content, a fact that is likely to be noticeable and possibly annoying to
some non-American readers. Whether these differences really are important will be for you to
If it really is important for this book to resemble a conventional commercial textbook, then the
material posted here can certainly be revised in that direction by additional contributions (including
by contributions from yourself) over time. It is worth noting, though, that textbook styles vary
significantly by country of origin and by field of study; the highly feature-enhanced style of some

The two wikis are similar in initial organization of content.  Chapter 1: The Changing Teaching Profession and You  Chapter 2: The Learning Process  Chapter 3: Student Development  Chapter 4: Student Diversity  Chapter 5: Students with Special Educational Needs  Chapter 6: Student Motivation  Chapter 7: Classroom Management and the Learning Environment  Chapter 8: Instructional Strategies  Chapter 9: Instructional Planning  Chapter 10: Teacher-made Assessment Strategies . Contemporary Educational Psychology is also related to a student-written wiki about educational psychology. [edit]Table of Contents This is a "brief" Table of Contents" in that it contains chapter titles only. but students were assigned the task of adding to and revising their own material. but they serve very different purposes and therefore may evolve in different directions over time. as understood originally by two persons. the initial posted draft has some of the earmarks of a printed text. Switzerland. Each chapter title links to a detailed table of contents for the chapter--one showing sections and subsections--and these in turn (of course) link to the actual material of the book. Since Seifert and Sutton began with the expectation of writing a conventional university textbook. how much this will happen. The student-written wiki-text about educational psychology began with the same table of contents as this Wikibook. a sort of hybrid blog/wiki based in Geneva. This Wikibook (Contemporary Educational Psychology) began with a “snapshot” of educational psychology taken at one point in time (20062007). Time will tell. For leads on what other styles are possible. This circumstance may lead to the two online wiki-texts to begin with similar content.commercial texts is a strictly American phenomenon. but to diverge eventually. check Edutech. however. Kelvin Seifert and Rosemary Sutton. found at The Learning Technology Commons of the University of Manitoba.

Internet Resources for Chapter 1 8. Chapter Summary: The Changing Teaching Profession and You 6. Constructivism: Changes in How Students Think Changes in How Students Think 5. Major Theories and Models of Learning 3. New Trend #3: Accountability in Education Chapter 1: The Changing Teaching Profession and You/Accountability in Education 4. How Educational Psychology Can Help 5. References  Chapter 2: The Learning Process 1. Sequencing and Readiness 4. Behaviorism: Changes in What Students Do Behaviorism: Changes in What Students Do 4. Chapter 11: Standardized and Other Formal Assessments  Chapter 12: The Nature of Classroom Communication  Chapter 13: The Reflective Practitioner [edit]Complete  Table of Contents Chapter 1: The Changing Teaching Profession and You 1. Chapter Summary Constructivism: . Are There Also Challenges To Teaching? 3. New Trend #1: Diversity in Students Chapter 1: The Changing Teaching Profession and You/Teaching Is Different From in the Past/Diversity in Students 2. New Trend #4: Increased Professionalism of Teachers Chapter 1: The Changing Teaching Profession and You/Professionalism of Teachers 4. Key Terms from Chapter 1 7. Teachers’ Perspectives on Learning 1. Dependence of Learning on Curriculum 2. Dependence of Learning on Teaching 3. New Trend #2: Using Technology To Support Learning Chapter 1: The Changing Teaching Profession and You/Teaching Is Different From in the Past/Technology to Support Learning 3. Transfer as a Crucial Part of Learning 2. The Joys of Teaching 2. Teaching Is Different From in the Past 1.

Development of Motor Skills 4. Moral Development: Forming a Sense of Rights and Responsibilities Chapter 3: Student Development/Moral Development 1. Abraham Maslow: A Hierarchy of Motives and Needs 1. External Resources 8. Puberty and Its Effects on Students 3. and Initiative 2. Health and Illness 3. Cognitive Development: The Theory of Jean Piaget Chapter 3: Student Development/Cognitive Development: The Theory of Jean Piaget 1. Why Development Matters 2. The Crisis of Adolescence: Identity and Role Confusion 4. Key Terms 7. The Formal Operational Stage: Age 11 and Beyond 4. and Integrity 2. Preconventional Justice: Obedience and Mutual Advantage 2. Autonomy. Being Needs: Becoming the Best That You Can Be 2. The Sensorimotor Stage: Birth to Age 2 2. Physical Development during the School Years 1. Deficit Needs: Getting the Basic Necessities of Life 2. References 5. Conventional Justice: Conformity to Peers and Society . References  Chapter 3: Student Development 1. Moral Development: Forming a Sense of Rights and Responsibilities 3. Trends in Height and Weight 2. The Preoperational Stage: Age 2 to 7 3. Cognitive Development: The Theory of Jean Piaget 1. Generativity. The Crises of Adulthood: Intimacy.6. Crises of Infants and Preschoolers: Trust. The Crisis of Childhood: Industry and Inferiority 3. Social Development: Relationships and Personal Motives Chapter 3: Student Development/Social Development: Relationships and Personal Motives 1. The Concrete Operational Stage: Age 7 to 11 4. Kohlberg’s Morality of Justice 1. Social Development: Relationships and Personal Motives 1. Erik Erikson: Eight Psychosocial Crises of Development 1.

Gender differences in the classroom Chapter 4: Student Diversity/Gender Differences 1. Postconventional Justice: Social Contract and Universal Principles 2. Position 1: Caring as Survival 2. Cultural Differences in Attitudes and Beliefs 2. Differences in cultural expectations and learning styles Chapter 4: Student Diversity/Cultural Differences 1. Gender Differences in the Classroom 1. Unbalanced Bilingualism 3. Gilligan’s Morality of Care 1. Physical Differences in Gender Roles 2. Social Differences in Gender Roles 3. Position 3: Integrated Caring 3. References  Chapter 4: Student Diversity 1. Public Talk versus Private Talk 3. Bilingualism: Language Differences in the Classroom 1. Accommodating diversity in practice 6. References  Chapter 5: Students with Special Educational Needs . Academic and Cognitive Differences in the Genders 4. Language Loss 2. Position 2: Conventional Caring 3. References 6. Multiple Intelligences 3. Attention Paid 2. Differences in Cultural Expectations and Styles 1. Understanding “The Typical Student” versus Understanding Students 7. Balanced or Fluent Bilingualism 2. Distributing Praise and Criticism 2. References 5.3. References 4. Cultural Differences in Language Use 3. How Teachers Influence Gender Roles 1. Individual Styles of Learning and Thinking 2.

Categories of Disabilities—and Their Ambiguities 1.1. References 2. Section 504 2. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (or IDEA) 3. Assisting Students with Learning Disabilities 1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 1. Behavioral disorders Chapter 5: Students with Special Educational Needs/Behavioral Disorders 1. References 3. Adaptive and Functional Skills 3. Learning Disabilities 1. Intellectual disabilities Chapter 5: Students with Special Educational Needs/Intellectual Disabilities 1. Responsibilities of Teachers for Students with Disabilities 1. Behavioral Disorders 1. Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Chapter 5: Students with Special Educational Needs/ADHD 1. Behaviorism: Reinforcement for Wrong Strategies 2. Mentoring. Include the Student Deliberately in Group Activities 4. Differences in Perceptions: ADHD versus High Activity 2. Least Restrictive Environment 3. Metacognition and Responding Reflectively 3. Defining Learning Disabilities Clearly 2. Causes of ADHD 3. Individual Educational Plan 4. Levels of Support for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities 2. Giving More Time and Practice Than Usual 2. Three People on the Margins 2. Intellectual Disabilities 1. Strategies for Teaching Students with Behavioral Disorders . Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (or ADA). Alternative Assessments 2. Teaching Students with Intellectual Disabilities 1. 3. and the Zone of Proximal Development 2. Learning disabilities Chapter 5: Students with Special Educational Needs/Learning disabilities 1. Constructivism. Teaching Students with ADHD 2. Growing Support for People with Disabilities: Legislation and Its Effects 1.

References 3. Goals That Affect Achievement Indirectly 1. References 5. Operant Conditioning as a Way of Motivating 2. Stimulating Situational Interests 1. References . Cautions about Behavioral Perspectives on Motivation 2. Motives as Goals 1. Situational Interest versus Personal Interest 1. Physical disabilities and sensory impairments Chapter 5: Students with Special Educational Needs/Physical and Sensory Impairments 1. Failure-avoidant Goals 2. References 5. Goals That Contribute to Achievement 2. Signs of Visual Impairment 2. A Caution: Seductive Details 2. Teaching Students with Visual Impairment 2. References  Chapter 6: Student Motivation 1. Hearing Loss 1. Identifying Circumstances That Trigger Inappropriate Behaviors 2.1. Encouraging Mastery Goals 2. Visual Impairment 1. The value of including students with special needs 6. Fairness in Disciplining 2. Motives as Interests 1. Physical Disabilities and Sensory Impairments 1. Benefits of Personal Interest 2. Motives as interests Chapter 6: Student Motivation/Motives as Interests 1. Motives as goals Chapter 6: Student Motivation/Motives as Goals 1. Social Goals 3. Motives as Behavior 1. Teaching Students with Hearing Loss 2. Signs of Hearing Loss 2. Teaching Interpersonal Skills Explicitly 3.

Supporting the Need for Competence 3. Choice of Tasks 2. References 5. Effects of Self-Efficacy on Students’ Behavior 1. Using Self-Determination Theory in the Classroom 1. Influencing Students’ Attributions 2.4. Motives as self-efficacy Chapter 6: Student Motivation/Motives as Self-Efficacy 1. Expectancy x value: effects on students’ motives Chapter 6: Student Motivation/Expectancy-Value Theory 1. Stress or Discomfort 5. Expectancy x Value: Effects on Students’ Motivation 2. Motives as Self-Efficacy 1. References 8. Motivation as Self-Determination 1. Prior Experiences of Mastery 2. The bottom line about motivation: sustaining focus on learning 9. Social Messages and Persuasion 4. Persistence at Tasks 3. Stability. A Caution: Motivation as Content versus Motivation as Process 2. and Controllability 2. Motives related to attributions Chapter 6: Student Motivation/Motives Related to Attributions 1. Response to Failure 2. References  Chapter 7: Classroom Management and the Learning Environment 1. References 6. References 7. Emotions Related to Success. Locus. Learned Helplessness and Self-Efficacy 3. Keeping Self-Determination in Perspective 2. Self-Determination and Intrinsic Motivation 2. Supporting the Need to Relate To Others 3. Motivation as self-determination Chapter 6: Student Motivation/Motivation as Self-Determination 1. Watching Others’ Experiences of Mastery 3. Why classroom management matters . Sources of Self-Efficacy Beliefs 1. Supporting Autonomy in Learners 2. Motives Related to Attributions 1.

Pacing and Structuring Lessons and Activities 1. Providing Moderate Amounts of Structure and Detail 3. Computers in the Classroom 3. Communicating with Parents and Caregivers 2. Conflict Resolution and Problem Solving 2. Establishing Daily Procedures and Routines 3. Arranging Classroom Space 1. Communicating the Importance of Learning and of Positive Behavior 1. Visibility of and Interactions with Students 4. Responding to Student Misbehavior 1. Preventing management problems by focusing students on learning Chapter 7: Classroom Management and the Learning Environment/Preventing Management Programs 1. References  Chapter 8: Instructional Strategies . References 4. Giving Timely Feedback 2. References 3. Preventing Management Problems by Focusing Students on Learning 1. Keeping management issues in perspective 5. Natural and Logical Consequences 4. Choosing Tasks at an Appropriate Level of Difficulty 2. Responding to student misbehaviour Chapter 7: Classroom Management and the Learning Environment/Responding to Misbehavior 1. Displays and Wall Space 2. Establishing Classroom Rules 2. Preventing Management Problems by Focusing Students on Learning 1. Pacing and structuring lessons and activities Chapter 7: Classroom Management and the Learning Environment/Pacing and Structuring 1. Ignoring Misbehaviors 2. Spatial Arrangements Unique To Grade Levels or Subjects 2. Maintaining the Flow of Activities 5.2. Maintaining Accurate Records 6. References 2. Managing Transitions 4. Gesturing Nonverbally 3.

References 2. Cooperative Learning 3. Advance Organizers 2. References 4. Mastery Learning 2. Critical Thinking 2. Madeline Hunter’s Effective Teaching Model 4. Madeline Hunter’s Effective Teaching Model 3. Direct instruction 5. References 3. Organizing New Information 2. Major Instructional Strategies and Their Relationships 1. References . Elaborating and Extending Information 4. References 2. Lectures and Readings 3. Forms of Thinking Associated with Classroom Learning 1. References 4. Recalling and Relating Prior Knowledge 3. What Are the Limits of Teacher-Directed Instruction? 5. Teacher-Directed Instruction 1. Examples of Cooperative and Collaborative Learning 4. Mastery Learning 2. Mastery learning Chapter 8: Instructional Strategies/Mastery Learning 1. Lectures and Readings 1. Creative Thinking 2. Instructional strategies: An abundance of choices 5. Problem-solving Chapter 8: Instructional Strategies/Problem- Solving 1. Creative thinking Chapter 8: Instructional Strategies/Creative Thinking 1. Student-centered models of learning Chapter 8: Instructional Strategies/Student-Centered Models of Learning 1. Heuristics and Algorithms 3. Strategies To Assist Problem Solving 5. Direct Instruction 3. Major instructional strategies and their relationships Chapter 8: Instructional Strategies/Major Instructional Strategies 1. Common Obstacles to Solving Problems 4. Well-structured versus Ill-structured Problems 2.1. Inquiry Learning 2.

Students as a Source of Instructional Goals 1. Taxonomies of Affective Objectives and Psychomotor Objectives 2. Chapter 9: Instructional Planning 1. The Internet as a Learning Tool 2. Formulating learning objectives Chapter 9: Instructional Planning/Formulating Learning Objectives 1. Using Local Experts and Field Trips 1. National and State Learning Standards 2. Students as a source of instructional goals Chapter 9: Instructional Planning/Students and Instructional Goals 1. Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised 3. Creating Bridges Among Curriculum Goals and Students’ Prior Experiences 1. References 5. References 2. Field Trips 3. Local Experts 2. From General to Specific: Selecting Content Topics 2. Emergent Curriculum 2. Taxonomies of Educational Objectives 1. Service Learning 2. From Specific to General: Behavioral Objectives 3. Modeling as a Demonstration . Creating bridges among curriculum goals and students’ experiences Chapter 9: Instructional Planning/Creating Bridges with Students' Experiences 1. References 4. Curriculum Frameworks and Curriculum Guides 3. Multicultural and Anti-Bias Education 2. Enhancing Student Learning through a Variety of Resources 1. Bloom’s Taxonomy 2. Selecting General Learning Goals 1. Taxonomies of educational objectives Chapter 9: Instructional Planning/Taxonomies of Educational Objectives 1. Finding the Best in Both Approaches 4. References 6. Enhancing student learning through a variety of resources Chapter 9: Instructional Planning/Enhancing Learning with Variety of Resources 1. Modeling 1. Selecting general learning goals 2.

Part 2: Types of Teacher-made Assessments Chapter 10: Teacher-made Assessment Strategies/Selecting Appropriate Assessment Techniques. Basic Concepts 2. Assessment for Learning: An Overview 3. Reliability 4. References  Chapter 10: Teacher-made Assessment Strategies 1. Guided Practice 2. Part 2 1. record keeping 3. Part 1: High quality assessments Chapter 10: Teacher-Made Assessment Strategies/Selecting Appropriate Assessments. and Record Keeping 1. Selected Response Items . References 2. questioning. Guided Practice. Selecting Appropriate Assessment Techniques. Modeling as Simplified Representation 2. Planning for instruction as well as for learning 8. Selecting Appropriate Assessment Techniques. and Homework 1. Teachers’ Observation. Validity 2. Anticipating Preconceptions of Students 4. Activating Prior Knowledge 3. Part 1: High Quality Assessments 1. Independent Practice.2. Teacher’s observations. References 7. Questioning 3. Selected response items Chapter 10: Teacher-made Assessment Strategies/Selected Response Items 1. Part 1 1. Homework 2. Selecting appropriate assessment techniques. Part 2: Types of Teacher-made Assessments 1. Absence of Bias 2. Validity 3. Observation 2. Questioning. Record Keeping 2. Independent Practice 3. Reliability 3. References 2. Selecting Appropriate Assessment Techniques.

References 3. Acting and Reflecting 2. Extended Response 3. Self and Peer Assessment 2. Advantages and Disadvantages 3. Grading and Reporting Chapter 10: Teacher-made Assessment Strategies/Grading and Reporting 1. Communicating with parents and guardians 4. How should grades be calculated? 3. Portfolios 1. References . Ethical issues—privacy and voluntary consent 4. Performance Assessments 1. Teachers’ Purposes and Beliefs 2. Adjusting instruction based on assessment Chapter 10: Teacher-Made Assessment Strategies/Adjusting Instruction re Assessment 1. References 4. Action Research: Studying yourself and your students 1. Assessment that Enhances Motivation and Student Confidence 1. Communication with Parents and Guardians 3. References 2. What kinds of grade descriptions should be used? 4. How are various assignments and assessments weighted? 2. Providing Feedback 4.1. Assessment that enhances motivation and student confidence Chapter 10: Teacher-made Assessment Strategies/Assessment That Enhances Motivation 1. Scoring Rubrics 4. Advantages and Disadvantages 2. References 2. Strengths and Weaknesses of Selected Response Items 2. Performance assessments Chapter 10: Teacher-made Assessment Strategies/Performance Assessments 1. Adjusting Instruction Based on Assessment 2. Portfolios 5. Common Problems 2. Action research: Studying yourself and your students 6. Cycles of Planning. Choosing Assessments 3. Completion and Short Answer 2. References 5. Constructed response items Chapter 10: Teacher-made Assessment Strategies/Constructed Response Items 1.

Basic Concepts 1. References  Chapter 11: Standardized and Other Formal Assessments 1. Sampling content 2. International Comparisons 2. Z-score 2. Subgroups and AYP 2. Alignment of Standards. High Stakes Testing by States Chapter 11: Standardized and Other Formal Assessments/High Stakes Testing by States 1. Standards Based Assessment 1. T score 3. References 5. Implications for Beginning Teachers 2. International Testing 1. Uses of standardized tests 1. Central tendency and Variability 3. Growth or Value Added models Chapter 11: Standardized and Other Formal Assessments/Growth or Value Added Models 1. International Testing Chapter 11: Standardized and Other Formal Assessments/International Testing 1. Frequency Distributions 2. Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) 1. Sanctions and AYP 3. Differing State Standards 2. Stanines 4.7. Adequate Yearly Progress 4. Testing and Classroom Curriculum 3. Grade Equivalent Scores . References 2. Kinds of Test Scores 1. Academic Content Standards 2. Testing in the Canadian Provinces 2. Summary of Chapter 10: Teacher-made Assessment Strategies 8. Growth or Value Added Models 1. References 3. Basic Concepts about Standardized Measurement 1. Types of Standardized Tests 2. Standards Based Assessment 3. Understanding Test Results Chapter 11: Standardized and Other Formal Assessments/Understanding Test Results 1.

Stereotype Threat 5. Nonverbal Communication 1. and Unintended Communication 2.2. Group Work 5. Are Standardized Tests Biased? 2. Effective Content Talk 2. References 2. Issues with Standardized Tests Chapter 11: Standardized and Other Formal Assessments/Issues about Standardized Tests 1. Eye Contact 4. Accuracy of Predictions 4. Communication Elsewhere 1. Effective Verbal Communication Chapter 12: The Nature of Classroom Communication/Verbal vs. References  Chapter 12: The Nature of Classroom Communication 1. References 2. and Behavior Control 2. Verbal. Communication in Classrooms vs. Lecture 2. Social Distance 2. Communication Elsewhere Chapter 12: The Nature of Classroom Communication/Communication in Class vs. Effective Nonverbal Communication 4. Do Teachers Teach to the Tests? 6. Communication in Classrooms vs. Effective Nonverbal Communication 1. References 3. Summary and Conclusions 5. References Chapter . References 4. Structures of Participation: Effects on Communication 12: The Nature of Classroom Communication/Structures of Participation 1. Questions and Answers 3. Procedures. Elsewhere 1. Classroom Discussion 4. Effective Procedural and Control Talk 3. Effective Verbal Communication 1. Wait Time 5. Do Students and Educators Cheat? 7. Nonverbal. Functions of Talk: Content. Item Content and Format 3.

The Bottom Line: Messages Sent. References  Chapter 13: The Reflective Practitioner 1. Three Purposes of Educational Publications 2. Example #1: How Do Children Acquire Moral Commitments? 1. Probing for Learner Understanding 2. Example #3: The Impact of Bilingualism on Reading . Promoting a Caring Community 2. Communication Styles in the Classroom 1. Helping Students To Articulate Their Ideas and Thinking 3. Relevance: A Critical Framework 2. Promoting Academic Risk-Taking and Problem-Solving 4. References 6. Authors’ Assumptions about Readers 2. The Reader's Role: Interested Observer of Children 2. Colleagues as a Resource 2.5. How Students Talk 2. Examples of Professional Publications Chapter 13: The Reflective Practitioner/Examples of Professional Articles 1. Example #2: Learning Disability as a Misleading Label 1. Reading and Understanding Professional Articles Chapter 13: The Reflective Practitioner/Understanding Professional Articles 1. Using Classroom Talk to Stimulate Students' Thinking 1. Types of resources for professional development and learning Chapter 13: The Reflective Practitioner/Resources for Professional Development 1. The Readers’ Role: Concerned Advocate for Social Justice 3. Relevance: A Framework for Understanding Moral Development 2. Messages Reconstructed 8. Reading and Understanding Professional Articles 1. References 3. How Teachers Talk 2. References 7. Communication Styles in the Classroom Chapter 12: The Nature of Classroom Communication/Communication Styles in the Classroom 1. Using Classroom Talk to Stimulate Students’ Thinking Chapter 12: The Nature of Classroom Communication/Classroom Talk to Stimulate Thinking 1. Types of Resources for Professional Development and Learning 1. Professional Associations and Professional Development Activities 2.

The Nature of Action Research 2. The challenges of action research Chapter 13: The Reflective Practitioner/Cautions and Challenges of Action Research 1. Example #3: Focusing on Collaboration 2. The Reader's Role: Both Teacher and Researcher 4. Action Research in Practice 1. Action Research: Hearing from teachers about improving practice Chapter 13: The Reflective Practitioner/Action Research 1. Gaining Informed Consent 3. Example #2: Focusing on Development 3. Insuring Privacy of the Student 2. The book uses some of the same content as this wikibook. [Mueller. Relevance: Recommendations for Teaching English as an Additional Language 2. but has been revised and reorganized extensively. Benefiting from All Kinds of Research 7. Insuring Freedom to Participate 2. References [edit]Related External Links Educational Psychology -. References 6. Action Research: Hearing from Teachers about Improving Practice 1. References 5. meaning that all materials are collected and posted by the owner/manager. Ethical Cautions about Action Research 1.a free.1. Social psychology wiki This is an HTML-based site.] Personality psychology wiki This is a wiki. It is meant to serve as an introduction to educational psychology for preservice --a wiki of resources for teaching introductory educational psychology. Example #1: Focusing on Motivating Students 2. teachingedpsych. open-source textbook downloadable as a PDF file. not HTML-based. An introductory psychology wiki emphasizing videos A wiki-based site that is especially rich in short videos useful for teaching introductory psychology Contemporary Educational Psychology/Chapter 1: The Changing Teaching Profession and You < Contemporary Educational Psychology . Practical Challenges about Action Research 3. References 4.

keep on connecting with others.2 New Trend #2: Using Technology To Support Learning o 3. that’s me. But then she remembered one good reason: she was teaching for Nadia. She was teaching so she could keep on growing as a person. “Ashley the teacher. And another reason: she was teaching for Lincoln. “But why am I doing this?” she added quietly—and realized she wasn’t always sure of the answer herself.Contents [hide] 1 The Joys of Teaching 2 Are There Also Challenges To Teaching? 3 Teaching Is Different From in the Past o 3. keep on learning new ideas. and their joy in learning .” she said proudly to the empty room. She remembered twenty other reasons—twenty other students. enjoying a blessed moment of quiet after the students finally left at the end of the day. Why be a teacher? The short answer is easy:  to witness diversity of growth in young people. usually) tried so hard. tired old Lincoln.3 New Trend #3: Accountability in Education o 3. challenging herself to see if she really could keep up with twenty-two pre adolescents at once. and really accomplish something worthwhile with them.1 New Trend #1: Diversity in Students o 3.4 New Trend #4: Increased Professionalism of Teachers 4 How Educational Psychology Can Help 5 Chapter Summary: The Changing Teaching Profession and You 6 Key Terms from Chapter 1 7 Internet Resources for Chapter 1 8 References [edit]The Joys of Teaching She looked around the classroom. That’s why she was teaching. who needed her help more than he realized. who sat at the table to the left. always smiled so well and always (well. And one last reason: she was also teaching for herself.

Whatever your teaching is about. when properly understood. As a teacher. of course. but you will often teach students long enough to communicate an important message: that there is much in life to learn—in fact more than any one teacher. They could come from families who are Caucasian. I’ve got two. “It’s not like I expected it to be. they will share potential as human beings: talents and personal qualities— possibly not yet realized—that can contribute to society. poor. more than this to be said about the value of teaching. “But it’s not all surprises. the “young people” that I just referred to. or book can provide. Their first language could be English—or something else. wonder and excitement. at least sometimes with some children!” As a teacher. Your job—I am tempted to say your privilege—will be to help your particular “young people” to realize their potential. of course. And that has actually happened. I’m doing more screening and testing of kids than I expected. you will be able to do this by laying groundwork for lifelong learning. They could be only six years old. Consider. Whoever your particular students are. music. I’ve had to more about using computers than I ever expected—there’re a lot of curriculum materials online now. or they could be sixteen. namely an excuse not only to teach valuable knowledge and skills. its immensity can be a source of curiosity. I expected to be able to ‘light a fire’ under kids about learning to read. you will have an advantage not shared by everyone member of society. .” he said. is never-ending. African-American. whether as leaders. to encourage lifelong learning—both for yourself and for others  to experience the challenge of designing and implementing interesting. and the skills could involve sports. Learning. There are all sorts of possibilities. with reading disabilities. or something else. immediate concerns. but to point students beyond whatever they will be able to learn from you. and a reason to be optimistic about life in general and about your students in particular. or somewhere in between. Nathan paused for a deep breath before speaking to me. or art—or whatever. exciting activities for the young  to aggravate the sense of attaining knowledge so that it can restored in the mind and propagated when required as in Hindu vedic way of teaching srutis and smritis. and one of them has a part-time aide. “I’ve got five kids who speak English as a second language. for instance. and the computers help the kids you need more practice or who finish activities early. experts. or supporters of others. or learning to read. maybe three. The knowledge could concern science. There is. even though it sometimes focuses on short-term. and it all takes time away from teaching. Hispanic. or even adults. I didn’t expect that. math. course. They could be rich. You will not teach any one student forever.

. though sometimes without realizing how much they do depend on it. to point out connections between their new learning and their prior experiences. The very complexity of classroom life virtually guarantees that teaching never needs to become boring.“OK. and they do improve steadily with continued teaching over time. But that’s also when I meet with the Ecology Club (I’m the faculty advisor). Maybe I have marking to do before class. As long as you remain in teaching. Right from the start. skill at design and communication of curriculum is one of the major “perks” of the job.” Jennifer Fuller said to me. maybe one or two from parents concerned because their child is doing poorly in one of my classes. A student shows an insight that you never expected to see—or fails to show one that you were sure he had. Whatever I don’t finish in the morning. suddenly getting almost businesslike in her tone. ones that communicate new ideas and skills effectively. Something new and exciting is bound to occur just when you least expect it. though. I always quit by 9:00—that’s always when I watch TV for an hour. Or maybe we all have to troupe down to library for a staff meeting (groan…). The job never stays the same. or merely differently than expected. or maybe I have to get a lab demonstration ready. 3. I have to finish after school. Whatever happens. you realize that you understand it differently and more deeply than the first time you taught it. After teaching a particular learning objective several times. get to school by 7:45 if the traffic’s not bad. And so on. or just ‘vegetate out’ with a book. Although these really take a lifetime to master. and I only teach periods 2. “Here’s my typical day teaching tenth grade: I get up at 6:30. Fuller!”—that sort of thing. to present new materials in a sensible sequence and at an appropriate pace. though. Your students will depend on your skill in these areas. You understand for the first time why a particular student behaves as she does. and begin thinking of how to respond to the student behavior more helpfully in the future. so I might have to finish stuff in the evening. but evolves continually in new directions. and 5. but a lot of times I have to. They will need you to know how to explain ideas clearly. Then I check my email—usually there’s at least a little stuff from the principal or some other administrator. have a quick breakfast. you will be able to feel the satisfaction of designing and orchestrating complex activities. maybe one or two from students—“I’m going to be sick today. The challenge of designing and orchestrating is attractive to many teachers. Now it’s 8:15 and I have two hours before my first class—this term I teach only biology. you get to have a job with novelty. they can be practiced successfully even by beginning teachers. Ms. An activity goes better than you expected— or worse. I try not to do it then.” Whatever you teach. because it is where they exercise judgment and “artistry” the most freely and frequently.

decide what you think are the most important ideas or skills needed for this work. sometimes “bad things happen to good teachers. You will. too. you might accidentally discourage a student without intending to—make her feel incapable of learning “enough. If anything. however. the only person who can make that happen will be you. And some problems can be subtle: when you call attention to the wonderful immensity of a field of knowledge. unexpected events in your classroom can become chaos rather than attractive novelty. As you will see as from reading this book.temperament and the mother tongue of the child. “How. the undesired events make the good. along with your growing professional knowledge and a healthy dose of common sense. To paraphrase a popular self-help book.As a teacher its very important to have a sense of beingness with the child so that the child should feel free to communicate with the teacher. or often seems unfriendly.Its very common that a child has a kind of fear psychosis and they fail to communicate and this leads him towards failure. if at all. or never seems motivated. Exciting. and satisfying when teaching. but you may also have trouble reaching a certain individual student. In this sense you will not need to “go it alone” in learning to teach well. You may try to make a difference in students’ lives.As a teacher its very important to understand the stranded.” Every joy of teaching has a negative possibility lurking near it. be personally responsible for becoming and remaining the best teacher that you can possibly be. You can bring these resources to your work. Focus on the kind of teaching that you personally hope to do. there are supports and strategies for maximizing the good. desired ones even more valuable and satisfying. The student simply does not seem to learn much. and in all likelihood that you will welcome. and render your work as a teacher all the more important. are described in this book in the chapters ahead.” The complexity of designing and implementing instruction can become overwhelming. Go beyond obvious generalities (like “A teacher should know the curriculum and the students”). is this list different from what it might have been a generation—or even two generations—ago?” [edit]Teaching Is Different From in the Past . and be as specific as possible (like “A first-grade teacher should know several ways to introduce reading”). [edit]Are There Also Challenges To Teaching? Here. Look at your list of needed ideas and skills and ask yourself. valuable. the simple answer is also “yes. instead of satisfying. the “bad things” of teaching do not negate the value of the good.” [1] But as in the rest of life. or whatever. Before You Read Further: If you expect to become a teacher. Some of the resources for making this happen.

The fourth trend is toward increased the professionalism of teachers. This change gives teachers more opportunity to use their professional expertise.In the past two decades teaching has changed significantly. each has a one-of-a-kind . and keeping records. always been diverse in the sense that each student learns at his or her special pace and special way. The first trend is toward diversity: students today are more diverse in many ways. schools. and at how you will therefore need to prepare yourself to teach. The third trend is toward accountability in education: both the public and educators themselves are paying much more attention than in the past to how to assess (or provide evidence for) learning and good quality teaching. The changes are so important that they have influenced much of the content and discussions in this book. teachers are in positions to assess the quality of their own work as well as that of colleagues. communicating. and even its title. Now more than ever. The use of technology has created new ways for students to learn. The attention has increased the importance of education to the public (a good thing) and also improved educational choices for some students. and students use computers today than in the past for research. but in the process has altered how teachers can teach most effectively. but also made instructional planning more challenging in certain respects. Contemporary Educational Psychology. The diversity has made teaching more fulfilling as a career.” How have these changes—as broad as they are—show up in the daily life of classrooms? For the answer to this question. look at the trends again in more detail. at how the trends have changed what teachers do. To see what I mean. The second trend is toward instructional technology: classrooms. and even raised issues about what constitutes “true” teaching and learning. and to take steps to improve it when or if it is necessary. so much in fact that schools are not what some of us may remember from our own childhoods. but it also creates higher standards of commitment and of practice and therefore greater worries about teaching “well enough. as well as the attitudes. knowledge and skills that it takes to prepare for a teaching career. The changes have affected both the opportunities and the challenges of teaching. of course. look with me briefly at four new trends in education. writing. But it also may be creating new constraints on what teachers teach and on what students learn. [edit]New Trend #1: Diversity in Students Students have.

they have all contributed to a fourth trend in education. and often instructors make concerted efforts to connect concepts and ideas from education and psychology to actual. meaning that schools and teachers are held responsible for their educational activities.. but also need to be. and students to be more accountable for their work. These and other features of contemporary teacher education make it easier for you to become the kind of teacher that you will not only want to be. and that students are held responsible for learning particular amounts or types of knowledge.) [edit]New Trend #4: Increased Professionalism of Teachers Whether you consider the first three educational trends worrisome.. these tools have greatly increased the amount and range of information available..) [edit]How Educational Psychology Can Help All things considered. then.. the general public and public leaders have begun expecting schools.. or a mixture of the two.) [edit]New Trend #3: Accountability in Education In recent years. In principle. (read more. Fortunately.. satisfying.. exicitng. and worthwhile profession. The trends just described mean simply that you need to prepare for teaching somewhat differently than in the past... teachers..personality. (read more. they offer more time to practice teach in the schools... A lot of those reference are framed around the daily problems and challenges—and . for example. and perhaps differently than your own teachers did a generation ago. the increase in professionalism of teachers. there are ways to do this... times have changed for teachers. But teaching itself remains an attractive. "technology" means using computers and the Internet as resources for teaching and learning.) [edit]New Trend #2: Using Technology To Support Learning For most teachers and classrooms.. This book—about educational psychology and its relation to teaching and learning—can be one of these supportive features as you get started.(read more.. useful practices when teaching. To make it as useful as possible.(read more. Many current programs in teacher education provide a better balance of experiences for future teachers than in the past. and each shows a unique pattern of motives to learn. the text makes continual reference to the demands of teaching and to current trends and changes in the teaching profession.

increased expectations for accountability in education. and activities. try the Wikipedia articleWikipedia:Educational Psychology. the spread of instructional technology in schools and classrooms. see also the detailed table of contents for individual chapters. As you read the chapters and sections of this book. increased diversity of students. Topics are emphasized roughly in proportion to two factors: 1) their importance as reported by teachers and other educational experts. the development of increased professionalism among teachers. 2. tasks and activities. namely. and especially by teachers who are relatively new at teaching. the research is related to the current trends in education discussed earlier in this chapter--either to support those trends or to oppose them or (sometimes) both at once. tasks. and that is organized a bit differently than many others in this field. 3. lifelong learning. you will (hopefully) see why. learning.satisfactions—faced by teachers. challenges. . Discussion of the theories is framed so as to contribute to understanding these roles. they can be found by going first to the general Table of Contents and clicking on individual chapter titles. As it happens. and the changing educational landscape in which teachers do their work. the focus is often teachers’ and learners’ roles. The result is a book that is not just about the research happening in educational psychology. the challenge and excitement of designing effective instruction. educational psychology contributes strongly and concretely to understanding teaching. Wherever possible and appropriate. and satisfactions helpfully.) [edit]Chapter Summary: The Changing Teaching Profession and You Teaching certainly offers a number of satisfactions. witnessing and assisting the growth of young people. If you want a relatively brief explanation of what educational psychology "is" without a lot of attention to its applications to teaching per se. and 4. too. and 2) the ability of educational psychology to comment on particular problems. If you want a preview of what is in each of the chapters. Instead of making theories the centerpiece of the book. Four educational trends have affected the way that these satisfactions are experienced by classroom teachers: 1.

the psychological and social awareness of teachers. As you will see. and 3. It offers information. [edit]Key Terms from Chapter 1  Accountability in education  Action research  Adequate yearly progress (AYP)  Assessment  Diversity  High-stakes testing  Instructional technology  Lifelong learning  No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB)  Professionalism  Teacher research [edit]Internet Resources for Chapter 1 [Educational Testing Service] Try this website if you are curious to learn more about licensing examinations for teachers. but usually amount . students as learners.Each trend presents new opportunities to students and teachers. but also raises new issues for teachers to deal with. including the PRAXIS II test about "Principles of Learning and Teaching" (PLT) discussed in this chapter. advice. 2. Educational psychology. instruction and assessment. can help teachers to make constructive use of the new trends as well as deal with the dilemmas that accompany them. and useful perspectives specifically in three areas of teaching: 1. specific testing requirements vary somewhat by state. and this textbook.

are not restricted to the United States. viewed from an international perspective.” This organization has extensive information and news about all forms of diversity in education. it seems. They are both useful for planning instruction. [EdChange Associates] [Council for Exceptional Children] These two websites have numerous resources about diversity for teachers from a North American (USA and Canada) perspective. and the second one—by the Council for Exceptional Children—focuses on children with special educational needs. [Education branch of UNESCO] UNESCO is the abbreviation for the “United Nations an examination about subject matter knowledge. Scientific. New York: Schocken Books. and Cultural Organization. When bad things happen to good people. though as the new items on the website show.  Category: Contemporary Educational Psychology . H. ↑ Kushner. The first one— maintained by a group of educators and calling itself EdChange—focuses on culturally related forms of diversity. (1983). and often one about principles of teaching and learning as well. the challenges take different forms in different countries. The challenges of teaching diverse classrooms. [edit]References 1.