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VOR, DME and NDB (Draft Report)

What is a VOR?

 Very high frequency Omni directional radio Range (VOR) is a
type of short-range radio navigation system for aircraft, enabling
aircraft with a receiving unit to determine their position and stay on
course by receiving radio signals transmitted by a network of fixed
ground radio beacons. Also it is the standard air navigation systems in
the world.
VOR components:
 VOR Radio Station
 NAV – 1 Radio
 VOR – 1 Gauge
VOR indicator components:

Omni Bearing Selector (OBS) – turns the compass card


Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) – the VOR needle, centered when on
the selected course and deflected left or right when off course


To/From flag indicates whether the selected course would take
the aircraft toward or away from the VOR


On/Off indicator or flag – indicates whether or not you are receiving a
reliable signal (A red and white flag on the Cessna and a red X on the
Lear HSI)


VOR uses frequencies in the very high frequency (VHF) band from 108 to
117.95 MHz


VOR’s are commonly described as broadcasting 360 separate radials
emanating from the station in all directions

the reference (or 360-N) signal and the rotating signal. a VHF omnidirectional range (VOR) and distance measuring equipment (DME). Interrogator transmits a center frequency of 1025 up to 1150 MHz iii. which consists of two radio beacons. iv. Uses of VOR:  VOR is used for orientation and position determination navigation by tracking to or from a station as a holding fix as soon as non precision instrument approach. DME operates in the 960 – 1215 MHz band ii. If the two signals are in phase the aircraft is on the 360 “radial”. while DME does the same for range. DOM components:  Interrogator on board on aircraft  DME station on the ground Operation: i. DME station replies on a frequency that is 63 MHz lower or 63 MHz higher iv.iii. VOR produces an angle between the station and the receiver in the aircraft. What is a DOM?  Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) – is a system that is used for aviation for navigation purposes. VOR’s broadcast 2 signals. if the receiver detects these signals are out of phase by ¼ then the aircraft is located on the 90 “radial” from the station and so on. placed together. Interrogator uses to differentiate the answer from send by DME station other answers What is VOR/DME?  It refers to combined radio navigation station for aircraft. Together. Interrogator uses unique pairs of pulse and same paring for the reply v. they provide the two measurements needed to produce a navigational "fix" using a chart VOR/DME Design Description .

where all functional units are installed. On a right-hand sidewall of the cabinet on the outside HF amplifier channel is placed. in the other compartments sections with guides are placed. HF channel. and signal check and control facilities. NDB ground station components:  Beacon Transmitter  Antenna Tuning Unit  Antenna Operation: i. On a right-hand sidewall of the cabinet on the outside all devices that form power amplifier and HF channel are placed. and input panel. covered by protective casing. RMD cabinet. low frequency radio transmitter used as an instrument approach for airports and offshore platforms.  Facilities placed in control room include RMA cabinet. Control room is designed to be placed in container. Transition to standby facilities is automatic. NDB transmits an Omni-directional signal to be received by the Automatic Direction Finder (ADF) . Facilities that ensure normal operation conditions of VOR/DME and operational staff. two heaters and five lighting lamps. modulation and amplification facilities. VOR/DME Technical Specifications VOR/DME Basic parameters and technical specifications meet to ICAO requirements and recommendations:  In VOR (RMA) and DME (RMD) cabinets 100% "cold" equipment backup is stipulated for generation of modulating signals. specifically made installation of major facilities as well as devices ensure appropriate climate conditions inside control room. In the first lower compartment two rectifiers are placed. Cabinet has six standard compartments by its height.  RMA cabinet is designed in standard case. What is an NDB?  A NDB or Non-Directional Beacon is a ground-based. RMD cabinet is made in standard case. consists of air conditioner. Cabinet has six equal compartments. in which cut-in cells represent functional units are installed. covered by protective casing.

The signal is transmitted on an uninterrupted 24/7 basis iv. especially just before sunrise and just after sunset (more common on frequencies above 350 kHz)  Terrain effect: high terrain like mountains and cliffs can reflect radio waves. NDB Adverse Effects:  Night effect: radio waves reflected back by the ionosphere can cause signal strength fluctuations 30 to 60 nautical miles (54 to 108 km) from the transmitter. To navigate using the ADF. consistent method for defining paths aircraft can fly  Fixes NDB are used by aircraft navigators and previously mariners to help obtain a fix of their geographic location on the surface of the Earth  Instrument landing systems NDBs are most commonly used as markers or "locators" for an instrument landing system (ILS) approach or standard approach. NDB antennas are usually too short for resonance at the frequency they operate – typically perhaps 20m length compared to a wavelength around 1000m Uses of NDBs:  Airways NDB bearings provide a charted. NDBs typically operate in the frequency range from 190 kHz to 535 kHz (although they are allocated frequencies from 190 to 1750 kHz) v. The pilot uses the ADF to determine the direction to the NDB relative to the aircraft iii. giving erroneous readings.ii. transmit a carrier modulated by either 400 or 1020 Hz vi. the pilot enters the frequency of the NDB and the compass card (or arrow) on the ADF will indicate the heading to the station. NDB radiators are vertically polarised vii. magnetic deposits can also cause erroneous readings .

com/training/VOR-1. which sends out a signal in all directions as has 360 individually selectable radials (courses). and sometimes also electrical interference (from a ground-based source or from a source within the aircraft) can cause the ADF needle to deflect towards the electrical source  Shoreline effect: low-frequency radio waves will refract or bend near a shoreline. both TO and FROM the ground based radio  http://www.php/Non-Directional_Beacon  http://www.  A VOR is: a Very High Omni Range transmitter. allow the operator to select an individual course (referenced to magnetic North) and actually track the course selected. so the navigator can track a specified .telecomabc. html  http://www.html#below  http://www. References:  but also. using an indicator with 360 selectable courses. but enables a receiver to detect it and with an indicator containing a pointer. Electrical effect: electrical storms. Then. the needle reading will be offset Difference between VOR and NDB:  an NDB is a Non Directional Beacon .html  http://www. which permits a VOR receiver to detect them. enable the signal to be 'homed in' on. as well as have 'TO' and 'FROM' information displayed via a flag. especially if they are close to parallel to it  Bank effect: when the aircraft is banked.lewisaire. while actually knowing his position relative to the so one can track right to the location of the ground based emits a radio signal in all directions providing no course guidance.