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REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

A. Review of Related Literature
The Jamaican Cherry (Muntingia calabura), is a well-known multipurpose tree that
grows rapidly reaching a height of approximately 8 to 13 meters. The tree belongs to the family
Elaeocarpaceae and has attained a variety of vernacular names in the countries of Mexico,
Central and tropical South America, some islands of the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia. As a
pioneer plant, it has the quality of thriving into poor soils and can also do well in acidic and
alkaline locations. The tree grows at ease with little or no care, and is widely distributed; making
it adapted to different soil types. It can resist harsh conditions such as drought and degraded soil,
but cannot tolerate high salinity. This medium-sized evergreen is known for its small, red, edible
fruits which are cultivated in many countries, yet, another significance is that it is largely valued
for its wood. Used as fuel, its timber, when dry, ignites quickly, generating intense heat and high
flames with very little smoke. It is lightweight and sturdy, durable enough for interior sheathing
and indoor carpentry use. Muntingia bark is usually stripped off and is recognized in yielding a
very strong, soft and silky fibre used for cordage, textiles and other handicrafts (Pendergrass,
2003).
A fibre is a thin, flexible strand of raw material, obtained either naturally from plants and
animals; or synthetically, from mineral sources. Fibres are linked by millions of molecular
chains, held together by natural forces. They differ in the lengths of their chains, and in the way
that they are lined up. Fibres can be spun into a filament such as thread, yarn, or a rope; woven,
knitted, matted or bonded. Greatly essential to humanity, it provides the starting point for all
manufacturing products such as textiles, fabrics, handicrafts, and as timber for building. Strength

resistance to rot and mildew. there is an increasing popularity of natural fibre composites. 2003).of fibres gives it its capability in withstanding great pressure. Throughout the years. and form. As a renewable resource. kapok. Manila hemp. flax. bowstring hemp. having bent without breaking. Largely responsible for plant structures. and flame-retardant ability. common hemp. jute. Cotton. More fibers are manufactured by the textile industry maintaining consistency of the fibre quality. natural or synthetic is constantly being pushed to satisfy the needs and demands of the industry. being able to stretch and retain its original shape. structure. and pliability. Each property offers a unique and specific application. Today. our specialists select the right types of fibre Cellulose is an organic substance. Always bearing in mind the required properties for our customers’ applications. a long-stranded polysaccharide that consists of as many as several thousand linked glucose molecules. sisal hemp. cellulose also provides the basis of all natural and synthetic fibers. elasticity. and their environmental friendliness. production of fibres. ramie and palm are some of the common recognized fibres (The New Book of Knowledge. B scientists and researchers had been continuously probing on new sources for mass production of fibers. Linear chains of cellulose permit the hydroxyl functional groups on each anhydro glucose unit to interact with hydroxyl groups on adjacent chains through hydrogen bonding and van der Waals’ interaction (a consequence of . The main reasons for the increasing popularity of biocomposites or natural fibre composites (NFCs) are the availability and consistent quality of a wide range of fibres. Other qualities include water absorption. chemical content.

Short fibers may also be found less than 1mm .( Peterson. A natural fiber may be divided as an agglomeration of cells in which the diameter is negligible in comparison with the length. account for the crystalline nature of cellulosic fibers (Campbell. Many of which have septa dividing them into small chambers. They are sometimes manufactured as the basis of synthetic fibers. ramie. or even differentiate from the ground meristem. especially those of cellulosic types. molecules and surfaces. 2002) Plant Fibers can both be found as a part of the primary or the secondary plant body. One-celled or multinucleate (Fahn. largely responsible for the attraction or repulsion of atoms. Although nature abounds in fiber materials. Cellulose is can be digested by only a few microorganisms such as those that live in the digestive tract of cattle and termites. flax. as well as intermolecular forces). It is insoluble in water and forms rigid structures with other cellulose molecules. These relatively strong intermolecular forces acting upon chains. 2009) Natural cellulose fibers are fibers considered to be recognizable as being part of the original plant. They can be derivatives of the procambium. Regenerative fibers. 1990). 2007). kenaf and jute are commonly examples of natural cellulosic fibers. Several types of fiber can be alive or dead. collectively with the high linearity of the molecule. Fibers are mostly cambial derivatives (those fiber bundles in the secondary phloem and xylem). Cellulose fibers show little interaction with water or any other solvent because of tightly packed glucose units against the adjacent chains. only a small number can be used for textile products or other industrial purposes (Ray. Cotton.quantum dynamics. hemp. those which differentiate from parenchyma cells after wounding.

It can be hard fibers-abaca and sisal. linen and jute. Alkali Retting .(Quesada. regenerated fibers-soybean and bamboo. and bast fibers-nettle. or may arrive at at average length of 55 cm. 2008). 2009). (Yadun. Bast fibers are fibers collected from the inner bark or bast surrounding the stem of the plant.long. seed fibers-cotton and kapok. such as Arabidopsis thaliana. ramie. Plant fibers are classified typically from the part of the plant from which it is used. hemp. like Boehmeria nivea (ramie).

Complicated but coordinated processes are induced by a combination of hormonal signals. elongation.. development. application of plant fibers.. flax.B. and hemp for fiber formation. mostly GA and auxin. nuclear divisions and formation of coenocytes. This study relates to the present study because it encompasses information about physiology of fiber differentiation. but with complicated molecular interactions. programmed cell death. a review on plant fibers were studied based on their characteristics. model plants for development. The study reveals that fiber differentiation can be divided into a number of main stages such as the determination of cell fate to fiber and tissue patterning. and some of the major model plants : Arabidopsis thaliana. Review of Related Studies In the study of Lev-Yadun (2010) entitled “ Plant Fibers: Initiation. . Eucalyptus sp. and further researches about plant study. initiation and growth. Model Plants. Growth. intrusive growth between other cells without elicitation of wound responses. structure and uses. deposition of a secondary lignified cell wall. Populus sp. and Open Questions”.