You are on page 1of 5


A Study on Economic Development Through Sustainable
Urban Mobility

Development has been seen in terms of sustaining the rate of the income of the
people to achieve the desired output at a faster rate than the growth rate of its
population. The study includes multiple services that aims to make the entire
social system provided with the basic needs of human life, therefore alleviating
and reducing poverty rate, unemployment and social inequality. This is then
coupled with the study on sustainable urban mobility so as to give opportunities
for the low-income people maximize access to different parts of the city, therefore
having easy access of jobs, schools entertainment and etc. Combining the study on
economic development and sustainable urban mobility, the proposal for a transitoriented development will answer Davao City’s future problem; which is traffic
congestion and poverty is likely in the future due to the city’s rising population
and economic growth.

Keywords: Development,






Please read the instructions carefully for the preparation of your manuscript, and the submission deadline,
and procedure.
This document should be used as your template for preparing your full paper submission for the ACARE. If
you use this guidance document as your template and use the styles as they appear, it will greatly assist
those who are producing the proceedings. Do not format your paper to simply look like this document, but
use this template directly and change the text to your own text without changing the format of font, spacing,
etc. You should use the exact styles as in this document. (For those familiar with using Word styles and
formatting functions, the style list of this document is called ARF1. You can use the styles in this list to set
the formatting attributes, especially the typeface, line spacing, indents, and the space around headings,
tables and figures.)
Please have your paper checked and edited before submitting it, as the organizers may have to reject papers
that are of very poor English. MS Word spelling and grammar checkers will surface many errors, but there
will be many sentences with poor English that remain undetected by the automatic checks.
There will be a review for the full paper. Authors with accepted full paper will be notified by emails and are
required to submit THE REVISED final paper in a format according to publishing requirement. If you use
the styles designated in the template faithfully, you may need only minor adjustment to the final paper, if
the publisher require some changes to the formatting.


Language for Full Paper

The text should be in clear and concise United States English.


Margins and Layout

Your text should be laid out for a standard A4 size paper (8.27” x 11.69”, portrait). Margins should be set
accordingly as: top 1”; bottom 1”; left 1.25”; right 1”; gutter 0”; header distance 0.5” and footer distance
0.3”. The text area is thus 6.02” wide and 9.69” high. Text should be justified.


Header and Footer

Please follow the automatic page numbering format that is already set in the footer of this template. There is
no page number and header for the first page of each paper. Note that there are no headers for all even (left)

pages. Odd (right) pages, other than the first page, would include the paper title at the center of the header.
Use an abbreviation if your title is too long.


Fonts and Spacing

Body text should be set using the ARF1-Normal style (Professional looking fonts, 11 pt). Provide 6 pt
spacing after paragraphs. Paragraphs may not be indented. Emphasis within the text, such as words to be
defined or key phrases, should be italicised. Bulleted lists may be used (style: ARF1-Bulleted List), with a
simple dot for a bullet.

Numbered lists may be used;

1) Arabic numbers are preferred, set off by a close parenthesis.
Use only one Carriage Return/Line Feed after a paragraph. Do not insert any empty lines between



Put tables in the text, in the paragraph after they are first mentioned. Centre tables on the page, unless it is
necessary to use the full page width. Exceptionally large tables may be placed landscaped (90 o rotated) on
the page, with the top of the table at the left-hand margin.
Keep tables simple. All texts in the table are 9 pt with 1.5 line spacing. Column headings should be bold
and centered. Put units in the column heading, in parentheses. Legends should be italicised, left, 10 pt,
above the table. Leave 12 pt above and 6 pt below the legend.
Use fine horizontal rules. Only three are usually needed: one below the caption to start the table, one to end
it, and one below the column heads. Do not use vertical rules or boxes. Do not extend rules across the page
but only as wide as the widest text within the table. An example of a table is given below.
Table 1 Formatting Instructions (Source: Author)
Style Name

Style Format
Applicable for abstract and keyword

Based on ARF1-Normal | Font 8

ARF1-Bulleted List

Indent: Hanging 1.9
Based on ARF1-Normal | Italic | Flush Left | 24 pt after
Based on ARF1-Normal | Flush Left | 24 pt before | 0 pt after
Based on ARF1-Normal


Indent: Left 0.63 Hanging 0.63 | Outline numbered | Tabs 1.27
Based on ARF1-Normal | Italic


Flush Right | 12 pt before and after
Based on ARF1-Normal | Centred | 12 pt before | Widow/

ARF1-Figure Captions

orphan Control
Based on ARF1-Normal | Bold | Centred | 24 pt after | Widow/


orphan Control
Applicable for Reference and Appendix heading

Based on ARF1-Heading 1

Indent: Left 0 First 0 | No Number | Tabs: not at 1.59
Based on ARF1-Normal | Font 12 | Bold | All caps | Kern at 13

ARF1-Heading 1


ARF1-Heading 1.1

Indent: Hanging 1.59 | Flush Left | 24 pt before and 12 pt after

Widow/ orphan Control | Keep with next | Keep lines together

| Level 1 | Outline
Based on ARF1-Heading 1


Not all Caps | 12 pt before | Level 2
Based on ARF1-Heading 1.1 | Font 10 | Level 3
Based on ARF1-Heading 1.1.1 | Level 4
Applicable for body text

Times New Roman | Regular | Font 10

Justified | outline level = body text | 0 pt before | 6 pt after |

ARF1-Number List

single line spacing
Based on ARF1-Bulleted List | Outline numbered
Based on ARF1-Normal


Indent: Hanging 0.95 | Widow/ Orphan Control
Based on ARF1-Title

ARF1-Table caption

Font 12 | Not Bold | Italic | 0 pt before
Based on ARF1-Normal

ARF1-Table Header

Bold | Flush Left | 12 pt before
Based on ARF1-Table text

ARF1-Table Text

Bold | Centred
Based on ARF1-Normal


Font 9 | 1.5 line spacing | 0 pt after
Based on ARF1-Normal | Font 14 | Bold | Kern at 14 pt

Flush Left | 72 pt before and 0 pt after


Widow/ orphan Control | Keep with next | Keep lines together
Based on ARF1-Normal | Bold | Centred


Tabs: 7.62 centred 15.24 right flush
Based on ARF1-Normal | Font 9 | Bold | Centred

Tabs: 7.62 centred 15.24 right flush

ARF1-Heading 1.1.1



Illustrations include line drawings, charts, photographs and digital imagery. All such illustrations will be
considered as figures. They should all be digitised. High quality should be maintained. Line drawings
should be converted to a raster format. Set images to an appropriate final size and orientation.. Provide at
least 300dpi resolution for the final manuscript for printing purposes. Frame the figures where necessary.
Images should be inserted in the body of the document for review.
Each figure should be placed after the text that refers to it. Leave spacing of 12 pts above the figure and 6 pt
below. All figures should be mentioned in the text (Figure 1). Embed a Caption below the figure. The
editors will make final decisions regarding the location of the figure.


Figure 1 Sample Figure (Source:
Each figure must have a brief
descriptive caption. Use the ARF1Figure Caption style for the caption.
Number all diagrams, figures and
photos sequentially, Figure 1, Figure 2,
etc, with one character space between
the number and the caption. Use the
Caption style provided in the electronic
template. All figures should be referenced within the body text.



Equations should be italicised and centred on the page, with the equation number in parentheses, flush right.
Please put 12 pt spaces above and below the equation.


Whenever possible, try to avoid breaking equations between parentheses, brackets, or braces.


Bullets and Numbering

Please refer to the section Fonts and Spacing.


Identification and Credits

List of all authors, affiliations and proper credits for contributors should only be provided in the final paper,
i.e. accepted full paper.



The ‘References’ heading should not be numbered (see later section). References should follow the APA
style This style is one of the most widely used. It should be possible for all authors to collect bibliographic
data and format it in a consistent manner. Many web sites include examples of how to format your
references using the APA Style.
Only texts that are cited in the paper should be included in the References. All works that are cited should
be included in the References section.


References should be cited in the text by author name and the date of publication, enclosed in parentheses.
The citation is placed at the end of the sentence. If there are three or fewer authors, all authors are included
in the citation embedded in the text. More than three authors should be cited as the first author and then the
designation “et. al.” If a single sentence has more than one citation, all citations are enclosed in a single set
of parentheses. Multiple citations within a single set of parentheses are separated by a semicolon.
Here are examples of citations as they would appear embedded into the text:

One author: (Yeang 1996)

Two authors: (Hawkes and Forster 2002)

Four or more authors: (Johnson et al. 1999)

Two works by same author in same year: (Lam1998a, 1998b)


Several works by same author in different years: (Olgyay 1952, 1963)

Several works by different authors: (Johnson et al. 1999; Yeang 1993; Ong 2003; Olgyay et al.


Bibliographic Data

The bibliographic data should be provided in the References. Bibliographic data lists all authors in the order
as designated on the title page or under the title in a journal publication. First names should be initialised.
The References should be alphabetized by first author’s surname. If more than one work has the same first
author, the works should be alphabetised by second author and so on. If more than one work by the same
author list is cited, the works should be ordered by date of publication. If it is still impossible to distinguish
the author list, then a lower case letter may be appended to the year of publication.
Bibliographic data should include the author, the year of publication, the title and publication in which an
article appears, and the publisher.

Headings in your paper should be created using the predefined heading styles in the template. Generally,
first to third orders should be used, fourth order heading only when you really need it, and fifth order
headings and further should be avoided. All headings use Times New Roman, bold. For exact details, such
as the line spacing before and after headings, please see Table 1.


Subheading, Second Order

Second order heading is also in 12 pt font, bold, but not all capitals.

Subheading, Third Order

Third order heading is in 10 pt font, bold, again not all capitals. If headings follow one another without text
in between them, some adjustment will be done.

Subheading, Fourth and Higher Order

For fourth and higher order headings, if you really insist on using it, is similar to third order heading but just
add another level to your numbering. This is not encouraged, but try to limit your subheading to third level

Hawkes, Dean, and Wayne Forster. 2002. Architecture, engineering and environment. London: Laurence
King Pub. in association with Arup.
Johnson, E.A., S.F. Wojtkiewicz, L.A. Bergman, and B.F. Spencer, Jr. (1997), “Observations with Regard to
Massively Parallel Computation for Monte Carlo Simulation of Stochastic Dynamical Systems,”
International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics, 32(4), 721–734.
Olgyay, Victor W., and Soontorn Boonyatikarn. 2000. The Shinawatra University: Design for the
millennium. In Architecture, city, environment: Proceedings of PLEA International Conference 2000,
Cambridge, United Kingdom, July 2000, edited by Koen Steemers and Simos Yannas. London:
James & James.
University of Chicago Press. 1993. The Chicago manual of style, 14th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago
Yeang, Ken. 1996. The Skyscraper, Bio-climatically considered; A design primer. London: Academy