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This article is about the Internet encyclopedia. For other
uses, see Wikipedia (disambiguation).
For Wikipedia’s non-encyclopedic visitor introduction,
see Wikipedia:About.
Wikipedia ( i /ˌwɪkɨˈpiːdiə/ or i /ˌwɪkiˈpiːdiə/ WIK-iPEE-dee-ə) is a free-access, free-content Internet encyclopedia, supported and hosted by the non-profit
Wikimedia Foundation. Those who can access the site
can edit most of its articles, with the expectation that
they follow the website’s policies.[6] Wikipedia is ranked
among the ten most popular websites[5] and constitutes
Differences between versions of an article are highlighted as
the Internet's largest and most popular general reference shown.
Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger launched Wikipedia on
January 15, 2001. Sanger[10] coined its name,[11] a
portmanteau of wiki[notes 2] and encyclopedia. Initially
only in English, Wikipedia quickly became multilingual
as it developed similar versions in other languages, which
differ in content and in editing practices. The English
Wikipedia is now one of more than 200 Wikipedias and
is the largest with over 4.9 million articles. There is a
grand total, including all Wikipedias, of nearly 35 million articles in 288 different languages.[13] As of February 2014, it had 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors each month.[14] Globally, Wikipedia
had more than 19 million accounts,[15] out of which there
were about 69,000 active editors as of November 2014.[2]

nonsensical or irrelevant text.

1.1 Restrictions

Over time, the English Wikipedia and some other
Wikipedias gradually have restricted modifications. For
example, in the English Wikipedia and some other
language editions, only registered users may create a
new article.[20] On the English Wikipedia and some
others, some particularly controversial, sensitive and/or
vandalism-prone pages are now "protected" to some
degree.[21] A frequently vandalized article can be semiprotected, meaning that only certain editors are able
Supporters of Wikipedia cite a 2005 survey of Wikipedia to modify it.[22] A particularly contentious article may
published in Nature based on a comparison of 42 science be locked so that only administrators are able to make
articles with Encyclopædia Britannica, which found that changes.[23]
Wikipedia’s level of accuracy approached EncyclopæIn certain cases, all editors are allowed to submit moddia Britannica 's.[16] Criticisms of Wikipedia include
ifications, but review is required for some editors, declaims that it exhibits systemic bias, presents a mixture
pending on certain conditions. For example, the German
and is
of “truths, half truths, and some falsehoods”,
Wikipedia maintains “stable versions” of articles,[24]
subject to manipulation and spin.
which have passed certain reviews. Following protracted
trials and community discussion, the English Wikipedia
introduced the “pending changes” system in December
2012.[25] Under this system, new users’ edits to cer1 Openness
tain controversial or vandalism-prone articles are “subject to review from an established Wikipedia editor beUnlike traditional encyclopedias, Wikipedia follows the fore publication”.[26]
procrastination principle[notes 3] regarding the security of
its content.[19] It started almost entirely open—anyone
could create articles, and any Wikipedia article could 1.2 Review of changes
be edited by any reader, even those who did not have a
Wikipedia account. Modifications to all articles would be Although changes are not systematically reviewed, the
published immediately. As a result, any article could con- software that powers Wikipedia provides certain tools
tain inaccuracies such as errors, ideological biases, and allowing anyone to review changes made by others.




The editing interface of Wikipedia

The “History” page of each article links to each
revision.[notes 4][27] On most articles, anyone can undo others’ changes by clicking a link on the article’s history page.
Anyone can view the latest changes to articles, and anyone may maintain a “watchlist” of articles that interest
them so they can be notified of any changes. “New pages
patrol” is a process whereby newly created articles are
checked for obvious problems.[28]
In 2003, economics PhD student Andrea Ciffolilli argued that the low transaction costs of participating in a
wiki create a catalyst for collaborative development, and
that features such as allowing easy access to past versions of a page favor “creative construction” over “creative destruction”.[29]



Main article: Vandalism on Wikipedia

American journalist John Seigenthaler (1927–2014), subject of
the Seigenthaler incident

ter at Vanderbilt University, called Wikipedia co-founder
Jimmy Wales and asked whether he had any way of knowing who contributed the misinformation. Wales replied
that he did not, although the perpetrator was eventually traced.[35][36] After the incident, Seigenthaler described Wikipedia as “a flawed and irresponsible research
tool”.[34] This incident led to policy changes at Wikipedia,
specifically targeted at tightening up the verifiability of
biographical articles of living people.[37]

2 Policies and laws
See also: Wikipedia:Five Pillars

Any edit that changes content in a way that deliberately
compromises the integrity of Wikipedia is considered
vandalism. The most common and obvious types of
vandalism include insertion of obscenities and crude humor. Vandalism can also include advertising language
and other types of spam.[30] Sometimes editors commit
vandalism by removing information or entirely blanking a
given page. Less common types of vandalism, such as the
deliberate addition of plausible but false information to an
article, can be more difficult to detect. Vandals can introduce irrelevant formatting, modify page semantics such
as the page’s title or categorization, manipulate the underlying code of an article, or use images disruptively.[31]

Content in Wikipedia is subject to the laws (in particular,
copyright laws) of the United States and of the U.S. state
of Virginia, where the majority of Wikipedia’s servers
are located. Beyond legal matters, the editorial principles of Wikipedia are embodied in the “five pillars” and
in numerous policies and guidelines intended to appropriately shape content. Even these rules are stored in
wiki form, and Wikipedia editors write and revise the
website’s policies and guidelines.[38] Editors can enforce
these rules by deleting or modifying non-compliant material. Originally, rules on the non-English editions of
Wikipedia were based on a translation of the rules for
the English Wikipedia. They have since diverged to some
Obvious vandalism is generally easy to remove from wiki extent.[24]
articles; the median time to detect and fix vandalism is a
few minutes.[32][33] However, some vandalism takes much
longer to repair.[34]
2.1 Content policies and guidelines
In the Wikipedia Seigenthaler biography incident, an
anonymous editor introduced false information into the
biography of American political figure John Seigenthaler
in May 2005. Seigenthaler was falsely presented as a suspect in the assassination of John F. Kennedy.[34] The article remained uncorrected for four months.[34] Seigenthaler, the founding editorial director of USA Today and
founder of the Freedom Forum First Amendment Cen-

Main pages:
Wikipedia:Content guidelines



According to the rules on the English Wikipedia, each
entry in Wikipedia must be about a topic that is
encyclopedic and is not a dictionary entry or dictionarylike.[39] A topic should also meet Wikipedia’s standards

of “notability”,[40] which generally means that the topic
must have been covered in mainstream media or major
academic journal sources that are independent of the article’s subject. Further, Wikipedia intends to convey only
knowledge that is already established and recognized.[41]
It must not present original research. A claim that is likely
to be challenged requires a reference to a reliable source.
Among Wikipedia editors, this is often phrased as “verifiability, not truth” to express the idea that the readers, not
the encyclopedia, are ultimately responsible for checking the truthfulness of the articles and making their own
interpretations.[42] This can at times lead to the removal of
information that is valid.[43] Finally, Wikipedia must not
take sides.[44] All opinions and viewpoints, if attributable
to external sources, must enjoy an appropriate share of
coverage within an article.[45] This is known as neutral
point of view (NPOV).



Wikipedia’s initial anarchy integrated democratic and hierarchical elements over time.[46][47] A small number of
administrators are allowed to modify any article, and an
even smaller number of bureaucrats can name new administrators.
An article is not considered to be owned by its creator
or any other editor and is not vetted by any recognized
Avoidance of a tragedy of the commons is attempted with
the attention of individual Wikipedians.[49]



time, Wikipedia has developed documentation for editors about dispute resolution. In order to determine community consensus, editors can raise issues at the Village
Pump, or initiate a request for comment.
3.2.1 Arbitration Committee
Main article: Arbitration Committee
The Arbitration Committee presides over the ultimate
dispute resolution process. Although disputes usually
arise from a disagreement between two opposing views
on how an article should read, the Arbitration Committee
explicitly refuses to directly rule on the specific view that
should be adopted. Statistical analyses suggest that the
committee ignores the content of disputes and rather focuses on the way disputes are conducted,[58] functioning
not so much to resolve disputes and make peace between
conflicting editors, but to weed out problematic editors
while allowing potentially productive editors back in to
participate. Therefore, the committee does not dictate
the content of articles, although it sometimes condemns
content changes when it deems the new content violates
Wikipedia policies (for example, if the new content is
considered biased). Its remedies include cautions and
probations (used in 63% of cases) and banning editors
from articles (43%), subject matters (23%) or Wikipedia
(16%). Complete bans from Wikipedia are generally limited to instances of impersonation and anti-social behavior. When conduct is not impersonation or anti-social,
but rather anti-consensus or in violation of editing policies, remedies tend to be limited to warnings.[59]

4 Community

Editors in good standing in the community can run for
one of many levels of volunteer stewardship: this be- Main article: Wikipedia community
gins with "administrator",[50][51] privileged users who can Each article and each user of Wikipedia has an assodelete pages, prevent articles from being changed in case
of vandalism or editorial disputes, and try to prevent certain persons from editing. Despite the name, administrators are not supposed to enjoy any special privilege in
decision-making; instead, their powers are mostly limited
to making edits that have project-wide effects and thus
are disallowed to ordinary editors, and to implement restrictions intended to prevent certain persons from making disruptive edits (such as vandalism).[52][53]
Fewer editors become administrators than in years past,
in part because the process of vetting potential Wikipedia
administrators has become more rigorous.[54]


Dispute resolution
Video of the 2005 Wikimania (an annual conference for users of

Wikipedians may dispute, for example by repeatedly Wikipedia and other projects operated by the Wikimedia Founmaking opposite changes to an article.[55][56][57] Over dation)



ciated “Talk” page. These form the primary communication channel for editors to discuss, coordinate and

Historical chart of the number of Wikipedians considered as active by the Wikimedia Foundation

Wikipedians and British Museum curators collaborate on the article Hoxne Hoard in June 2010.

Wikipedia’s community has been described as cultlike,[61] although not always with entirely negative
connotations.[62] The project’s preference for cohesiveness, even if it requires compromise that includes disregard of credentials, has been referred to as "antielitism".[63]
Wikipedians sometimes award one another virtual barnstars for good work. These personalized tokens of appreciation reveal a wide range of valued work extending far
beyond simple editing to include social support, administrative actions, and types of articulation work.[64]
Wikipedia does not require that its editors and contributors provide identification.[65] As Wikipedia grew, “Who
writes Wikipedia?" became one of the questions frequently asked on the project.[66] Jimmy Wales once argued that only “a community ... a dedicated group of a
few hundred volunteers” makes the bulk of contributions
to Wikipedia and that the project is therefore “much like
any traditional organization”.[67] In 2008, a Slate magazine article reported that: “According to researchers in
Palo Alto, 1 percent of Wikipedia users are responsible
for about half of the site’s edits.”[68] This method of evaluating contributions was later disputed by Aaron Swartz,
who noted that several articles he sampled had large portions of their content (measured by number of characters)
contributed by users with low edit counts.[69]
A report in August 2014 showed that Wikipedia had at
least 80,000 editors.[70] A significant decline in the number of English-language editors was reported in 2013
by Tom Simonite who stated: “The number of active
editors on the English-language Wikipedia peaked in
2007 at more than 51,000 and has been declining ever
since...(t)his past summer (2013) only 31,000 people
could be considered active editors.”[71] Several attempts
to explain this have been offered. One possible explanation is that some users become turned off by their
experiences.[72] Another explanation, according to Eric
Goldman, is found in editors who fail to comply with

Wikipedia cultural rituals, such as signing talk pages, implicitly signal that they are Wikipedia outsiders, increasing the odds that Wikipedia insiders may target or discount their contributions. Becoming a Wikipedia insider
involves non-trivial costs: the contributor is expected to
build a user page, learn Wikipedia-specific technological
codes, submit to a sometimes convoluted dispute resolution process, and learn a “baffling culture rich with injokes and insider references”. Editors who do not log in
are in some sense second-class citizens on Wikipedia,[73]
as “participants are accredited by members of the wiki
community, who have a vested interest in preserving the
quality of the work product, on the basis of their ongoing participation”,[74] but the contribution histories of IP
addresses cannot be attributed to a particular editor with
A 2007 study by researchers from Dartmouth College
found that “anonymous and infrequent contributors to
Wikipedia [...] are as reliable a source of knowledge as
those contributors who register with the site”.[75] Jimmy
Wales stated in 2009 that "(I)t turns out over 50% of all
the edits are done by just .7% of the users... 524 people...
And in fact the most active 2%, which is 1400 people,
have done 73.4% of all the edits.”[67] However, Business
Insider editor and journalist Henry Blodget showed in
2009 that in a random sample of articles, most content
in Wikipedia (measured by the amount of contributed
text that survives to the latest sampled edit) is created by
“outsiders”, while most editing and formatting is done by
A 2008 study found that Wikipedians were less agreeable,
open, and conscientious than others.[76][77] According to a
2009 study, there is “evidence of growing resistance from
the Wikipedia community to new content”.[78]

4.1 Diversity
One study found that the contributor base to Wikipedia
“was barely 13% women; the average age of a contributor
was in the mid-20s”.[79] A 2011 study by researchers from
the University of Minnesota found that females com-

3%) women enrollment by 2015 had not been met.898 articles in different rates of 50 percent or greater).6%) [84] technology into Wikipedia. and Pennsylvania State.5%) nounced in a BBC interview the Wikimedia Foundation's Cebuano (3.wikipedia. noted the contrast in these Wikipedia editor statistics with the percentage of women currently completing bachelor’s degrees.[89] Wikipedia editor demographics (April 2009).9 million articles.5%) community.[85] and more women administrators. president of the National Council for Research on Women. These differences tors to enhance the 'management' presence of women at may lead to some conflicts over spelling differences (e. In fall 2013. and to increase the potential ferent dialects or may come from different countries (as of existing editors to nominate more women administrais the case for the English edition).497 editors who started editing Wikipedia during 2009. and 77 more have over 10. French. the six largest language editions are (in order of article count) the English. more software changes. hoped to see female contributions increase to twenty-five percent by 2015. Swedish.[83] language editions (as of 12 July 2015)[90] In response. Wales agreed that Sue Gardner’s goal of 25% Spanish (3. Twelve of these have over one million articles each Jimmy Wales has described Wikipedia as “an effort to .4%) Wikipedia. Cebuano. Wales said Other (48. most notably on whether images that are not licensed freely may be used There are currently 288 language editions of Wikipedia under a claim of fair use. inGerman (5. the English Wikipedia. has over 4. prised 16.[87][88] The largest. 36 more have over 100.000 articles. 15 colleges and universities. German. Since Software changes were left open to explore ways of inWikipedia is based on the Web and therefore worldwide.[82] Linda Basch. three more have over 700. according to Alexa. master’s degrees and PhD programs in the United States (all at Distribution of the 35. [86] Wikipedia. they diverge 5 Language editions on some points of policy and practice. Spanish: 7%. The unit for the numbers in bars is articles.535. German: 5%. with the remaining split among the other languages (Japanese: 8%. offered colDutch (5.1% of the 38. or simply Wikipedias).[93] Though the various language editions are held to global policies such as “neutral point of view”. Russian: 4%).org.7%) the foundation would be open to more outreach.Russian (3. WarayWaray. As of May 2015. Russian.g. Portuguese and Chinese). Vietnamese and Polish).5%) In August 2014. Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales an. the English subdomain (en.[94][95][96] (also called language versions. creasing the appeal of Wikipedia to attract women readcontributors to the same language edition may use difers to register as editors. English Wikipedia) receives approximately 58% of Wikipedia’s cumulative traffic.2%) cluding Yale.[80] In a January 2011 New York Times article.[5] As of July 2015.4%) plans for “doubling down” on the issue of gender bias on Italian (3. Noam Cohen observed that just 13% of Wikipedia’s contributors are female according to a 2009 Wikimedia Foundation survey. Italian. colour versus color)[92] or points of view.[81] Sue Gardner. Waray-Waray (3. Dutch. a former executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation. Spanish.000 articles.000 articles (Japanese. French. Swedish. German. and Waray-Waray Wikipedias. Dutch.1%) lege credit for students to “write feminist thinking” about French (4. various universities have hosted edit-a-thons English (13. Brown.5 (English.8%) to encourage more women to participate in the Wikipedia Swedish (5.

geography.000 editors up or down.000 editors within narrow seasonal variances of about 2. and mathematics. 2000. West Africa Central Africa.”[104] The attrition rate for active editors in English Wikipedia was cited by The Economist as substantially in contrast to statistics for Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia).[99] and it maintains a list of articles every Wikipedia should have. Madagascar 85% North America 55% 60% pt es 25% 45% 30% he Spain South America South America Portugal Central America 5% 35% 5% 10% East China West China Israel 70% 10% Europe Southern Africa 20% ar zh West-North Africa 25% 30% Middle East 10% Europe 25% North America fa 25% 40% North America 45% fr 20% 42% 40% smp North America Iran 6 History Europe North America Mid-North Africa imately 42.[100] The list concerns basic content by subject: biography. Australia France. science. in part because fully automated translation of articles is disallowed. a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process. under the ownership of Bomis. it is not rare for articles strongly related to a particular language not to have counterparts in another edition.000 editors as of the start of 2014.000 editors which has dropped to 30.[106] Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia. As for the rest. which link to the counterpart articles in other editions. Nupedia was founded on March 9.[104] No comment was made concerning which of the differentiated edit policy standards from Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) would provide a possible alternative to English Wikipedia for effectively ameliorating substantial editor attrition rates on the English language Wikipedia. Its main figures were the Bomis . the number of active editors in English Wikipedia has lost approximately 20. were cited as peaking in 2007 at approximately 50. society. and the documented trend rate indicates the loss of another 20.000 active editors on English Wikipedia by 2021 if left unabated. For example.[102] The Wikimedia Foundation hopes to increase the number of editors in the Global South to thirty-seven percent by 2015.[105] North America 45% Main article: History of Wikipedia Estimation of contributions shares from different regions in the world to different Wikipedia editions Translated articles represent only a small portion of articles in most editions.[98] For instance. even when they meet notability criteria of other language Wikipedia projects. some efforts are made to supervise them all.000 active editors. They are coordinated in part by Meta-Wiki.[103] On March 1. articles about small towns in the United States might only be available in English. 51% en 25% 7% 5% Europe 10% Europe North America Far East. the contrast has pointed to the effectiveness of Wikipedia in other languages to retain its active editors on a renewable and sustained basis. a web portal company. 2014. Australia Far East. It reported that the proportion of the edits made from North America was 51% for the English Wikipedia.000 editors to attrition since 2007. At the quoted trend rate.000 editors by 2021. history. culture. The attrition rates for editors in English Wikipedia. The Economist reported that the number of contributors with an average of five of more edits per month was relatively constant since 2008 for Wikipedia in other languages at approx- Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia but none were so successful. technology. Meta-Wiki provides important statistics on all language editions of Wikipedia. the Wikimedia Foundation’s wiki devoted to maintaining all of its projects (Wikipedia and others).[104] Given that the trend analysis published in The Economist presents the number of active editors for Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) as remaining relatively constant and successful in sustaining its numbers at approximately 42. and 25% for the simple English Wikipedia. by sharp comparison.6 6 HISTORY create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language”. A study published by PLOS ONE in 2012 also estimated the share of contributions to different editions of Wikipedia from different regions of the world. down to 10.[101] Articles available in more than one language may offer "interwiki links". The Economist in an article titled “The Future of Wikipedia” cited a trend analysis concerning data published by Wikimedia stating that: “The number of editors for the English-language version has fallen by a third in seven years.[97] Though each language edition functions more or less independently.

[114] and announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list.”[71] In July 2012.7 Wikipedia originally developed from another encyclopedia editor-in-chief for Nupedia and later Wikipedia.[123] Around 1. Nupedia was licensed initially under its own Nupedia Open Content License. 2007. 2001. the growth of the edition.”[135] Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia. mostly reviewing 2014 via by 2013 that average was roughly 800. the project lost only 4. in terms of the numbers of articles and of contributors. 2001. a claim which was questioned by MIT’s Technology Review in a 2013 article titled “The Decline of Wikipedia. switching to the GNU Free Documentation License before Wikipedia’s founding at the urging of Richard Stallman.000 articles.000 editors during the first three months of 2009.[117] On September 25. the Atlantic reported that the number of administrators is also in decline. It had reached 26 language editions by late 2002.800 in June 2011. sur. users of the Spanish Wikipedia forked from Wikipedia to create the Enciclopedia Libre in February to wikipedia.[112] On January 10.[108][109] While Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia. denying the decline and questioning the methodology of the study. and 161 by the final days of 2004. By August 8.000 articles and 18 language editions.[110] Wikipedia’s policy of “neutral point-ofview”[115] was codified in its first months.000 writers” in June 2010 to 35. which had held the record for 600 years. 46 by the end of 2003. Wikipedia had over 8. Slashdot postings. Nupedia. appears to have peaked around early 2007.[129][130] The Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend.[122] Though the English Wikipedia reached three million articles in August 2009. 2001. a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid (Spain) found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49.[120] Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control in Wikipedia. Bomis intended to make Wikipedia a business for profit.900 editors during the same period in 2008. 2012 passing even the 1408 Yongle Encyclopedia. courages viewers to edit Wikipedia.[110] Originally. 2001. MIT’s Technology Review revealed that since 2007. as a single English-language edition at www.[134] In the November 25. the site has lost a third of the volunteer editors who update and correct the online encyclopedia’s millions of pages and those still there have focused increasingly on minutiae.000 articles.[116] the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project’s increasing exclusivity and resistance to change. issue of New York magazine. English Wikipedia passed the mark of two million articles on September 9. and to change Wikipedia’s domain from wikipedia.[121] These moves encouraged Wales to announce that Wikipedia would not display advertisements. the sixth-most-used website.[131] Wales disputed these claims in 2009. in comparison. is facing an internal crisis. and web search engine indexing. there were relatively few rules initially and Wikipedia operated independently of Nupedia. CEO Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger.[113] Wikipedia was formally launched on January 15. 2013. Katherine Ward stated “Wikipedia.[118] And by the end of 2001 it had grown to approximately 20. Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a “feeder” project for Nupedia.800 A promotional video of the Wikimedia Foundation that enarticles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006.[110][111] Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal. Otherwise. In 2013. noting a decrease from “a little more than 36.Wikipedia blackout protest against SOPA on January 18.[126][127][128] In November 2009. com. Wikipedia had over 13.[133] In the same interview.[119] Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former’s servers were taken down permanently in 2003. Wales acknowledged the presence of a slight decline.[125] Others suggest that the growth is flattening naturally because articles that could be called “lowhanging fruit”—topics that clearly merit an article—have already been created and built up extensively.[132] Two years later. Wales also claimed the number of editors was “stable and sustainable”. making it the largest encyclopedia ever assembled.[124] A team at Wikipedia content . and its text was incorporated into Wikipedia.[107] Sanger and Wales founded Wikipedia.

other experts feel that Google’s Knowl. [140][141] nal concluded that as a resource about controversial toptemporarily replaced Wikipedia content. and a lack of . which includes over 50 policies and nearly 150. a peer review in 2005 of forty-two scientific Clay Shirky.7. “If entry in Wikipedia contained around four inaccuracies.[147][148] Critics have stated that Wikipedia exhibits systemic bias.”[144] the study reflects “a topical strength of Wikipedia 7 Critical reception See also: Academic studies about Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia Some sites have been developed to criticize some of Wikipedia’s aspects. absence of statistical analysis (e. 2014. and some falsehoods”. when the rank was number 33. it received 8 billion pageviews every month.. usually by a group with an “ax to grind” [17][152] An article in Education Next Jourmillion people viewed the blackout explanation page that on the topic. half truth.”[144] When contacted on this matter.[136] As of March 2015. In 2014. Wikipedia is often edge Graphs project launched last year may be gobbling cited for factual inaccuracies and misrepresentations.[139] More than 162 tent voices. “While Encyclopædia Britannica are carefully and deliberWikipedia’s managers think that this could be due to er. with Wikipedia receiving around 18.1 Accuracy of content lion between December 2012 and December 2013.[138] On February 9.reputation for accuracy. associate professor at New York University entries on both Wikipedia and Encyclopædia Britannica and fellow at Harvard’s Berkman Center for internet and by the science journal Nature found few differences Security indicated that he suspected much of the page in accuracy. lending such encyclopedias a rors in counting. 2014. the Wikipedia Watch criticism website listed dozens of examples of plagiarism in the English "stigmergic accumulation”. stating. others have examined the sample size and selection method used in the Nature effort. Wikipedia spin.[149][150][151] in a series of coordinated protests against two proposed laws in the United States Congress—the Stop Online Journalists Oliver Kamm and Edwin Black noted how Piracy Act (SOPA) and the PROTECT IP Act (PIPA)— articles are dominated by the loudest and most persisby blacking out its pages for 24 hours. This marked a significant increase over January 2006.using our network of established Wikipedia editors and admins.”[14] CRITICAL RECEPTION edited "..8 7 In January 2007. “according to the ratings firm comScore. “Wikipedia may not have fared so well using a random sampling of articles or on humanities subjects.[155][156] and in response. creates omissions which can lead to false beliefs based on On January 18. concluding that the fact that Wikipedia explicitly is not designed to provide correct information about a subject. 2012. about three.[142][143] Wikipedia. which claimed it could have client’s pages contributors” in science articles.[157] In addition to the point-for-point disagreement between these two parties.[18] follows a long tradition of historical encyclopedias that accumulated improvements piecemeal through In 2006. ics. Wikipedia was ranked number 9. Britannica. That’s a decline of about 2 bil. Conversely. Wikipedia is notoriously subject to manipulation and Loveland and Reagle argue that.. However.”[16] Reagle suggested that while you don't need to click [any further]. The New York Times reported that Wikipedia has 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month. Its most popular versions are leading the slide: page-views Main article: Reliability of Wikipedia of the English Wikipedia declined by 12 per cent. in part or in whole. Nature gave a rebuttal of the points raised by Britannica.3 million unique visitors. With 42.”[154] The findings by Nature were disputed by Encyclopædia Britannica.000 words as of 2014.”[144] Varma added that. and concluded that “the average science view decline was due to Knowledge Graphs.[17] Articles in The Chronicle of Higher Education and The Journal of Academic Librarianship have criticized Wikipedia’s Undue Weight policy. and suggested a “flawed study design” (in Nature 's manual selection of articles. surpassing the New York Times (#10) and Apple (#11). according to comScore Networks. like the issue of paid editing of Wikipedia.9 million unique visitors.[153] On January 20. for comparison). Columnist and journalist Edwin Black criticizes Wikipedia for being a mixture of “truth. up Wikipedia users. Wikipedia has rank 6[5][137] among websites in terms of popularity according to Alexa Internet. Wikipedia entered for the first time the top-ten list of the most popular websites in the United States. of reported confidence intervals). you can get your question answered from the search page. the English Wikipedia participated incomplete information. in process.[145] a service formerly offered by the WikiPR company.”[146] Several Wikipedians have criticized Wikipedia’s large and growing regulation.ately written by experts. Subodh Varma reporting for The Economic Times indicated that not only had Wikipedia growth flattened but that it has “lost nearly 10 per cent of its page-views last year.g. but rather only present the majority “weight” of viewpoints. those of German version slid by 17 per cent and the Japanese Articles for traditional encyclopedias such as version lost 9 per cent.

“Can Wikipedia Ever Be a Definitive Medical Text?".[182] edit articles to disclose that arrangement.ticles have passed. stated that have questioned the project’s utility and status as an “Fifty percent of physicians look up conditions on the encyclopedia.Beck continued to detail in this article new programs of ous forms of paid advocacy seen as counterproductive Dr. among others.[178] As a consequence of the open structure. 2014 to have strengthened its rules and improve a group of 200 health-related articles of central laws against undisclosed editing. Wikipedia was re. cites Wikipedia as a “general source” that “can be ases and novel results. and vari.[177] Wales once (2006 or earlier) said he entry rather than making full-length revisions.[160] the insertion of false information.e. after a not so long think steady diet of Big Macs with everything”. I would opt for Wikipedia.7. said the changes address a senti. James ment among volunteer editors that.[158] 9 they got failing grades on papers because they cited Wikipedia. 2014 follow-up article in The Atlantic titled her.”[183] These issues. in his opinion. he also cautions that errors are facts as well as leads to more in-depth resources”. an article in The Harvard Crimson newspaper reported that a few of the professors at Harvard University include Wikipedia in their syllabi. respectively). Amin Azzam at the University of San Francisco to the maintenance of a neutral and verifiable online to offer medical school courses to medical students for encyclopedia. “while not authoritative.intellectual equivalent of a dietitian who recommends a nomics was more likely to be true. says 'less than 1 percent' of Wikipedia’s medical ar[183] citing any encyclopedia in academic work. In February 2007. the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation’s chief com. as well as internal quality control programs ported in an article by Jeff Elder in The Wall Street Jour. 'we're not an advertis.” He comments that some tra.[174] some specifically prohibit Wikipedia citations. owing to small sample size.learning to edit and improve Wikipedia articles on healthing and undisclosed editing issues.In a May 7.. 2014.[175][176] Wales stresses that encyclo7. since no one is ultimately responsible for any claims appearing in it.within Wikipedia organized by Dr.[162] 7. we're an encyclopedia. . but that the reliability of On March 5. but that there is a split in their perception of using Wikipedia.1. prefer. and that academics and experts must be vigilant in correcting them. “For God’s sake. he said.and receives about ten emails weekly from students saying low-quality content may be intermingled within an entry. spammers. munications officer. he told the students they got what they deserved.[179] In June 2007. ring primary sources.[161] vandalism. and should not be relied upon as Because contributors usually rewrite small portions of an authoritative.”[182] easy target for Internet trolls. high.[159] Concerns have been raised by PC World in 2009 regarding the lack of accountability that results from users’ anonymity.[173] tured. along with Google. you're in college. who has participated in that process beMost university lecturers discourage students from fore.' Heilman. and some are editing articles themselves Wikipedia’s open structure inherently makes it an to improve the quality of available information.2 Quality of writing pedias of any type are not usually appropriate to use as citeable sources. had been parodied since the Beck added that: “Wikipedia has its own peer review first decade of Wikipedia.1 Medical information Critics argue that Wikipedia’s open nature and a lack of proper sources for most of the information See also: Health information on Wikipedia makes it unreliable. vs >105 and >106 set sizes for Britannica and the English Wikipedia.[168] The article stated medical importance up to Wikipedia’s highest standard of that: “Beginning Monday (from date of article).'"[168][169][170][171][172] reviewed doesn't mean it’s a high-quality reference.[164] Editors of traditional lantic magazine in an article titled “Doctors’ #1 Source reference works such as the Encyclopædia Britannica for Healthcare Information: Wikipedia”.Julie Beck quotes Wikiproject Medicine’s Dr. Wikipedia “makes no guarantee of validity” of its content. notably by Stephen Colbert on process before articles can be classified as 'good' or 'feaThe Colbert Report. and similar problems. 42 or 4 x 101 articles compared.[163] Some commentators suggest that Wikipedia may be reliable. However. James Heilman to nal on June 16.(2011).Heilman as stating: “Just because a reference is peering service.[165] (Wikipedia) site.A Harvard law textbook. former president of the American Library Association Michael Gorman condemned Wikipedia. are over-reported in a real boon” in “coming up to speed in the law governing a journal articles and relevant information is omitted from situation” and.[27][167] In response to paid advocacy edit.[180] stating that Economist Tyler Cowen wrote: “If I had to guess whether academics who endorse the use of Wikipedia are “the Wikipedia or the median refereed journal article on eco. Katherine Ma. Legal Research in a Nutshell ditional sources of non-fiction suffer from systemic bi. don't cite the encyclopedia”.2 Quality of writing study “statistical power” (i.[181] frequently found on Internet sites. Julie Beck writing for The Atany given article is not clear. changes peer review evaluated articles using its Featured Article in Wikipedia’s terms of use will require anyone paid to and Good Article peer review evaluation standards.related issues. can provide basic news reports.

Pie chart of Wikipedia content by subject as of January 2008[194] A 2008 study conducted by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Palo Alto Research Center gave a distribution of topics as well as growth (from July 2006 to January 2008) in each field:[194] • Culture and the arts: 30% (210%) • Biographies and persons: 15% (97%) • Geography and places: 14% (52%) • Society and social sciences: 12% (83%) • History and events: 11% (143%) • Natural and physical sciences: 9% (213%) • Technology and the applied sciences: 4% (−6%) • Religions and belief systems: 2% (38%) • Health: 2% (42%) 7.. Frequent Wikipedia critic Andrew Orlowski commented: “Even when a Wikipedia entry is 100 per cent factually correct. he said. Since it has terabytes of disk space. religiously. Wikipedia rejected an online petition against the inclusion of images of Muhammad in the English edition of its Muhammad article..[193] among other countries. almost unreadable style..[184] Contrasting Wikipedia’s treatment of Abraham Lincoln to that of Civil War historian James McPherson in American National Biography Online. he gives an example of Wikipedia’s prose that he finds “both verbose and dull”. a history professor.] and [. The policy has sometimes proved controversial: in 2008. with each topic covered encyclopedically in one article. but praised “McPherson’s richer contextualization [.”[185] A study of articles on cancer was undertaken in 2010 by Yaacov Lawrence of the Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University limited to those Wikipedia articles which could be found in the Physician Data Query and excluding Wikipedia articles written at the “start” class or the “stub” class level. even if Wikipedia articles are factually accurate.[191] Pakistan. he pointed out its “waffling” conclusion: “Some historians [.] his ability to convey a profound message in a handful of words. or pornographic because Wikipedia is not censored. stated that American National Biography Online outperformed Wikipedia in terms of its “clear and engaging prose”.. bloodthirsty outlaw.”[184] Other critics have made similar charges that. The presence of politically.[188] The exact degree and manner of coverage on Wikipedia is under constant review by its editors. offensive..[192] and the United Kingdom. Through its "Wikipedia Loves Libraries" program.3 Coverage of topics and systemic bias See also: Notability in English Wikipedia Wikipedia seeks to create a summary of all human knowledge in the form of an online encyclopedia. and disagreements are not uncommon (see deletionism and inclusionism). was an important aspect of good historical writing. While generally praising the article.10 7 Roy Rosenzweig. he said that both were essentially accurate and covered the major episodes in Lincoln’s life.[186] The Economist argued that better-written articles tend to be more reliable: “inelegant or ranting prose usually reflects muddled thoughts and incomplete information”.. and pornographically sensitive materials in Wikipedia has led to the censorship of Wikipedia by national authorities in China. while others continue to view him as a daring soldier and local folk hero. they are often written in a poor.” By contrast.[195] .. which.] his artful use of quotations to capture Lincoln’s voice [..[187] CRITICAL RECEPTION Wikipedia contains materials that some people may find objectionable.] remember him as an opportunistic. Wikipedia has partnered with major public libraries such as the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts to expand its coverage of underrepresented subjects and articles. By example. it can have far more topics than can be covered by any printed encyclopedia.[189][190] • Mathematics and logic: 1% (146%) • Thought and philosophy: 1% (160%) These numbers refer only to the quantity of articles: it is possible for one topic to contain a large number of short articles and another to contain a small number of large ones. Rosenzweig also criticized the “waffling—encouraged by the npov policy—[which] means that it is hard to discern any overall interpretive stance in Wikipedia history”. and those facts have been carefully chosen. and thought that “Wikipedia’s lack of readability (to non-college readers) may reflect its varied origins and haphazard editing”. passing an illiterate translator at each stage. he quoted the conclusion of Wikipedia’s article on William Clarke Quantrill. Lawrence found the articles accurate but not very readable. citing this policy. it all too often reads as if it has been translated from one language to another then into to a third.

” The results were tabulated for several language versions of Wikipedia. In 2011.4 Explicit content 11 A 2011 study conducted by researchers at the University (iii) 9/11 conspiracy theories. later criticized the inclusion of the picture as “distasteful”. The original release cover nantly consists of young males with high education levels caused controversy and was replaced in some countries.2 Systemic bias Systemic bias on Wikipedia may follow that of culture generally.”[207] Following the complaint by Sanger. male. but said that they constituted “obscene visual representations of the sexual abuse of children”. a non-profit. Human penis.The Wikipedia article about Virgin Killer—a 1976 album opposite definitions for apparent antonyms. such as non. were not of real children. and photos from When multiple editors contribute to one topic or set of hardcore pornographic films in its articles. in 2013. Anarchism and Muhammad. Editors may dispute suspected biases and discuss easily available to anyone with access to the internet. inclining to being young. There was a greater concentration of females in the People and Arts category. which predomi. cluding children. Wales deleted sexual images without consulting the community. incontroversial articles. illustrations of zoophilia. studied the statistical trends of systemic bias at Wikipedia introduced by editing conflicts and their resolution. the three largest conflict rates at the time of the Oxford study were for the articles covering (i) Croatia.4 Explicit content while males focus more on Geography and Science.[206] Wikimedia Foundation spokesman Jay Walsh strongly rejected Sanger’s accusation. we would remove it.naked prepubescent girl. (ii) Scientology and list to Internet service providers. topics.picture of the album’s original cover. Wales voluntarily gave up some of the powers he had held up to that time as part of his cofounder status. educated. English-speaking.[207] saying that Wikipedia did not have “material we would deem to be illegal. which issues a stop 7. under the PROTECT Act of 2003.[200] By comparison.[197] graphic content. 2013. access to the Wikipedia article Virgin 22.7. essay by Tom Simonite in MIT’s Technology Killer was blocked for four days by most Internet service Review titled “The Decline of Wikipedia” discussed the providers in the United Kingdom after it was reported effect of systemic bias and policy creep on the downward by a member of the public as child pornography. Cadaver.” Such a “mutually reverting edit pair” is defined where one editor reverts the edit of another editor who then. technologically aware. Biases of its own may include over-emphasis on topics such as pop culture. returns to revert the first editor in the “mutually reverting edit pairs.[198] Taha Yasseri of the University of Oxford. After some editors who volunteer to maintain the site argued that the decision to delete had been made hastily. for the German Wikipedia. outlining his concerns that two categories of images on Wikimedia Commons contained child pornography.[200] of Minnesota indicated that male and female editors focus on different coverage topics.[71] the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF). 7. Sanger wrote a letter to the Federal Bureau of Investigation.3. and cle are devoted to one public figure than a rival public Vulva) contain graphic pictures and detailed information figure.1 Coverage of topics and selection bias Reporting of child pornography images on Wikimedia Commons Research conducted by the Oxford Internet Institute has shown that the geographic distribution of article topics is Wikipedia has been criticized for allowing information of highly uneven. there may arise a systemic bias. and current events. which depicts a tion of the demography of the content (such as Feces. in sequence. in the developed world (cf previously). If we did. IWF. Yasseri contended that simple reverts or “undo” operations were not the most significant measure of counterproductive behavior at Wikipedia and relied instead on the statistical measurement of detecting “reverting/reverted pairs” or “mutually reverting edit pairs.[202] to trend in the number of editors. The English Wikipedia’s three largest conflict rates belonged to the articles George W. for example favouring certain ethnicities or majority religions. nongovernment-affiliated organization. which were related to pedophilia and one about lolicon. sometimes at great length. and wealthy enough to spare time for editing.3. He wrote in a message to the Wikimedia Foundation mailing-list that this action was “in the inter- .[205] Sanger also expressed concerns about access to the images on Wikipedia in schools.[205] That law bans photographic child pornography and cartoon images and drawings of children that are obscene under American law.[203] In April 2010. from German heavy metal band Scorpions—features a Wales noted that the unevenness of coverage is a reflec.[198] It may more specifically follow the biases of Internet culture.[204] Sanger later clarified that the images. Articles depicting arguably objectionA “selection bias” may arise when more words per arti.[196] Main category: Wikipedia objectionable content See also: Internet Watch Foundation and Wikipedia and 7.[199][200] His research examined the counterproductive work behavior of edit warring. photographs of nude children. technology. Bush. Africa is most underrepresented. The site also includes sexual content such as images and videos of masturbation and ejaculation. and were in violation of US federal obscenity law.[133] The October In December 2008.

taking over for Sue began running on a PHP wiki engine with a MySQL Gardner.[214] Wikimedia chapters.' Initiatives to involve greater diversity of contributors. We are reinforcing that paid advocacy is not welcome. In January 2006. with assets of $37.2 million and liabilities of about $2..5 Privacy One privacy concern in the case of Wikipedia is the right of a private citizen to remain a “private citizen” rather than a "public figure" in the eyes of the law. including Wikipediocracy.[208] Critics. as well as many other wiki projects. a non-profit organization which also operates Wikipedia-related projects such as Wiktionary and Wikibooks.”[217][218] The same Wall Street Journal article reported these directions of development according to an interview with spokesman Jay Walsh of Wikimedia who “said Tretikov would address that issue (paid advocacy) as a priority.[210][notes 5] It is a battle between the right to be anonymous in cyberspace and the right to be anonymous in real life ("meatspace"). and funding of the project. the present double bracket style was incorporated In May 2014. The foundation’s 2013 IRS Form 990 shows revenue of $39. new geolocation tools to find local content more easily. with the court rejecting the notion that Tron’s right to privacy or that of his parents was being violated. in confirming the permission for using individual images and other media in the project. the injunction against Wikimedia Deutschland was overturned.[213] 8.12 8 OPERATION est of encouraging this discussion to be about real philosophical/content issues. Originally. which initially required CamelCase for article hyperlinks.7 million and expenses of almost $29 million. like air. Starting in January 2002 (Phase II). better mobile support of Wikipedia. “Information. On February 9. The foundation relies on public contributions and grants to fund its mission.2 Software operations and support Wikimedia Foundation and the WikiSee also: MediaWiki media chapters Main article: Wikimedia Foundation Wikipedia is hosted and funded by the Wikimedia Foundation. 'We are really pushing toward more transparency. Wikipedia Tretikov as its new executive director.[212] 8 Operation A group of Wikipedia editors may form a WikiProject to focus their work on a specific topic area.[216] The Wall Street Journal reported on May database. noticed that many of the pornographic images deleted from Wikipedia since 2010 have reappeared.. 2014 that Tretikov’s information technology background from her years at University of California offers Wikipedia an opportunity to develop in more concentrated directions guided by her often repeated position statement that. wants to be free. local associations of users and supporters of the Wikimedia projects also participate in the promotion. a deceased hacker. A particular problem occurs in the case of an individual who is relatively unimportant and for whom there exists a Wikipedia page against her or his wishes. a transclusion system for templates. a German court ordered the German Wikipedia shut down within Germany because it stated the full name of Boris Floricic.[209] 7. this software was custom-made for Wikipedia . variables.”[217] 8.1 Wikimedia Foundation logo 1. MediaWiki is licensed under the GNU General Public License and it is used by all Wikimedia projects.[219] The software incorporates programming features such as a macro language.[215] The operation of Wikipedia depends on MediaWiki. using its associated discussion page to coordinate changes across multiple articles. aka “Tron”. and more tools for users in the second and third world are also priorities. development. for example.3 million. This is used. rather than be about me and how quickly I acted”. Walsh said. a custom-made.[211] Wikipedia has a “Volunteer Response Team” that uses the OTRS system to handle queries without having to reveal the identities of the involved parties. Wikimedia Foundation named Lila later. 2006. Wikipedia ran on UseModWiki written in Perl by Clifford Adams (Phase I). and URL redirection. free and open source wiki software platform written in PHP and built upon the MySQL database system.

8 million articles and lists on the English Wikipedia. Currently. Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software. “C” and “B” (in increasing order of quality). and assessments of articles’ importance and quality by Magnus Manske. pie-charts.[236] According to Andrew Lih.[229] The feature was turned off afterward. in preparation for producing a print version. The software regto perform simple and repetitive tasks. An anti-vandal bot tries to detect and revert vandalism quickly and automatically. originally written by Lee Daniel Crocker.[223] which is written in Java and based on Lucene library 2. and "???" for unclassified/unsure level. 13 English Wikipedia introduced an assessment scale of the quality of articles.04%) are featured lists. such as correctularly auto-updates the data.[240][241] The articles can also be rated as per “importance” as judged by a Wikiproject.99%) Start class (25. For a particular article. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand. The English Wikipedia currently has over 2. as of 3 April cles’ importance and quality [244] 2015 A "WikiProject" is a group of contributors who want to work together as a team to improve Wikipedia. followed by “Start”. “mid”.11%) Featured lists (0.48%) B class (2. a Lucene extension[221][222] was added to MediaWiki’s built-in search and Wikipedia switched from MySQL to Lucene for searching. the Stub class (54.[237] 8.04%) A class (0. and bar-chart.[234] Edits misidentified by a bot as the work of a banned editor can be restored by other editors. VisualEditor.[230][231][232] One controversial con. "featured article". One featured article per day. “top”. checking newly created pages).Quality-wise distribution of over 4.3 Automated editing If an article or list receives different ratings by two or more Wikiprojects. 8. In April 2005.05%) C class (3. after extensive beta testing. a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) extension. [238] Featured articles (0. or to start articles such as geography entries in a standard format Researcher Giacomo Poderi found that articles tend to from statistical data.73%) In 2007. Several MediaWiki extensions are installed[220] to extend the functionality of the MediaWiki software.editors. ing common misspellings and stylistic issues. on the English Wikipedia. The range of quality classes begins with “Stub” (very short pages).12%) are featured articles. and was described as “slow and buggy”.[224] In July 2013.[235] Bots on Wikipedia must be approved prior to activation. Community peer review is needed for the article to enter one of the highest quality classes: either “A”. "good article" or the highest.3. then the highest rating is used in Computer programs called bots have been used widely the table. In July 2002 (Phase III). “high”. as selected by editors.reach featured status via the intensive work of a few [242] A 2010 study found unevenness in quality tributor massively creating articles with his bot was re.03%) Good articles (0.4 Wikiprojects.1. a little more than 5000 (0. and a little less than 2000 (0. Of the about 4. designed to automatically warn editors making common editing errors (such as unmatched quotes or unmatched parenthesis).[231] Bots can also report edits from particular accounts or IP address ranges. among featured articles and concluded that the comported to create up to ten thousand articles on the Swedish [233] munity process is ineffective in assessing the quality of Wikipedia on certain days.8. was opened to public use. the current expansion of Wikipedia to millions of articles would be difficult to envision without the use of such bots. MediaWiki. and assessments of arti. a specific location or a specific kind of task (for example. There are also some bots [243] articles.[239] Articles are rated by Wikiprojects. appears on the main page of Wikipedia.0 Editorial Team has developed a table (shown below) that displays data of all rated articles by quality and importance. different Wikiprojects may assign different importance levels. as was done at the time of the MH17 jet downing incident in July 2014. The Wikipedia Version 1.000 WikiProjects and activity varies. women’s history).08%) . there are 5 importance categories: “low”.4 million articles and lists assessed as of March 2015.4 Wikiprojects. These groups often focus on a specific topic area (for example.[225][226][227][228] It was met with much rejection and criticism. The site currently uses Lucene Search 2.

29%) there were 300 in Florida and 44 in Amsterdam.[250] Low (49. eo. SSH Network tools Batch jobs Scratch hosts Lists Ganglia Upload squid Load Balancer Search host Search indexer File server Image scaler Web service Mail/IRC service 6 scalers Miscellaneous services • A-class articles file File servers Pdf • Good articles s5: dewiki s7: es. performing page rendering for all the language editions of Wikipedia.22%) mary data center to an Equinix facility in Ashburn.000.99%) 8 OPERATION 8.0 Editorial Team) is automatically updated daily by User:WP 1.[247] Requests that cannot be served from the Squid cache are sent to load-balancing servers running the Linux Virtual Server software. hu.cached in a distributed memory cache until invalidated.wikisecure planet nagios project Master Search bugzilla apple transcode blogs search M s sk file s 26 Text-Squids 36 Apache-Core/ext store HTML LoadBalancer 20 Apache-Core/ex-ES Load-Balancers LoadBalancer LoadBalancer • Featured articles Apaches ite xt ta ia h ed W ik + Amsterdam Media files LoadBalancer LoadBalancer 26 Upload-Squids 29 Upload-Squids 4 'bits' Squids 4 'bits' Squids Im • Featured lists ag e 149 Apache-Core ML ia ed M les fi HT s 3 mass storage servers Image scalers Image files Mail IRC Subversion IMAP • B-class articles Nagios Master DB Slave DB OTRS tickets Apache Text squid DNS LDAP/NIS Logging APT repositories NTP.000. See server layout diagrams on Meta-Wiki • Lists • Unassessed articles and lists [Note: The table above (prepared by the Wikipedia Version 1.000. depending on time of day. wiktionary. user).000 and 60. cles and lists on the English Wikipedia. 5 slaves s3: other wikis Network sevice • C-class articles • Start-class articles • Stub articles Overview of system architecture. which in turn pass them to one of the Apache web servers for page rendering from the database. based on a publicly available 3-month Wikipedia access trace.8 million arti.500.91%) Wikipedia currently runs on dedicated clusters of Linux High (3.[246] Further statistics. are available. Top (0. ja.000 2. etc) 26 Text-Squids s4: commons Index updates Indexer Florida s2: bg..[253] the Foundation has reached a threshold of assets which qualify its consideration under the princi- .] 8. December 2010.. .000 Internet frontend Backend 2. The web servers deliver pages as requested.5 Hardware operations and support See also: Wikimedia Foundation § Hardware Wikipedia receives between 25. Wikipedia had migrated its pri??? (34. ru Core services HT M Main cluster (wikipedia. as of 5 April allowing page rendering to be skipped entirely for most 2015[244] common page accesses. 2013.37%) By January 22. . arc Se L s7: fr.21%) servers (mainly Ubuntu).000 3. he.000 1.000 page requests per second...000 ginia.6 Internal research and operational development In accordance with growing amounts of incoming donations exceeding seven digits in 2013 as recently reported.0 bot. To increase speed further.[248][249] As of December 2009.[251][252] 1.500.000 Top High Medium Low ??? Toolserver Web host Text storage SQL Login quer ies Tool hosts re p text DB Database dumps donate page Toolserver DBs Other sites mobile lic at Databases io dataset snapshot n s1: enwiki Datab ase du mps test.[245] Page requests are first passed to a front-end layer of Squid caching servers. cs. but the bar-chart and the two pie-charts are not auto-updated.e. Vir500. In them. new data has to be entered by a Wikipedia editor (i. Medium (12.14 Lists (3.50%) Unassessed (9. rendered pages are Importance-wise distribution of over 4.

The Wikipedia project sought the switch to the Creative Commons. 2009.”[258] The fifth force in the Porter five forces analysis is defined as the “bargaining power of suppliers”.[229][255] The estimates for reinvestment by industrial organizations into internal research and development was studied by Adam Jaffe who recorded that the range of 4% to 25% annually was to be recommended. GFDL and Creative Commons. such as Wikimedia Commons.) In April 2009.[263][264][265][266] The handling of media files (e.[258] The second force is the “threat of new entrants” with competitive services and products possibly arising on the internet or the web. on-line encyclopedia. The license gained popularity among bloggers and others distributing creative works on the Web. the Free Software Foundation (FSF) released a new version of the GFDL designed specifically to allow Wikipedia to relicense its content to CC BY-SA by August 1. Other past and present community news publications on English Wikipedia include the “Wikiworld” web comic. Similar publications are the German-language Kurier. This is the first force of Porter’s five forces analysis.[257] The “five forces” are centered around the issue of “competitive rivalry” within the encyclopedia industry where Wikipedia is seen as having redefined by its “radical innovation” the parameters of effectiveness applied to conventional encyclopedia publication.[260] It covers news and events from the site.[261] The GFDL was created for software manuals that come with free software programs licensed under the GPL. with high end technology requiring the higher level of support for internal reinvestment. 9 Access to content 9.7 Internal news publications Community-produced news publications include the English Wikipedia's The Signpost. (A new version of the GFDL automatically covers Wikipedia contents.[256] At the 2013 level of contributions for Wikimedia presently documented as 45 million dollars.[262] Because the two licenses.g. In December 2002.7 Internal news publications ples of industrial organization economics to indicate the need for the re-investment of donations into the internal research and development of the Foundation. for example. not just for software manuals. which has historically largely been nullified by the Wikipedia founding principle of an open invitation to expand and edit its content expressed in its moniker of being “the encyclopedia which anyone can edit. creation of derivative works.[259] Porter’s third force is the “threat of substitute products” and it is too early to identify Google’s “Knowledge Graphs” as an effective competitor given the current dependence of “Knowledge Graphs” upon Wikipedia’s free access to its open-source services. As a “first mover”. and commercial use of content while authors retain copyright of their work. an attorney. image files) varies across language editions. following the request of the project. in part because of the lack of fair use doctrines in their home countries (e. and newsletters of specific WikiProjects like The Bugle from WikiProject Military History and the monthly newsletter from The Guild of Copy Editors. while the others have opted not to. such as the English Wikipedia. as well as major events from other Wikimedia projects. founded in 2005 by Michael Snow.[256] According to the Michael Porter five forces analysis framework for industry analysis. Some language editions. a copyleft license permitting the redistribution. presently seen as the open domain of both the global internet as a whole and the resources of public libraries world-wide.8 million and 11. There are also a number of publications from the Wikimedia Foundation and multilingual publications such as the Wikimedia Blog and This Month in Education. in November 2008. the GFDL requires the reprints of materials from Wikipedia to come with a full copy of the GFDL text. and therefore it is not seen as a limiting factor in the immediate future of the further development of Wikipedia.3 million dollars annually. Media .[254] Two of the recent projects of such internal research and development have been the creation of a Visual Editor and a largely under-utilized “Thank” tab which were developed for the purpose of ameliorating issues of editor attrition. the Creative Commons license was released: it was specifically designed for creative works in general. Wikipedia administrator and former chair of the Wikimedia Foundation board of trustees. the Wikipedia Weekly podcast. were incompatible.1 Content licensing When the project was started in 2001. This made it a poor choice for a general reference work.g. Wikipedia has largely eluded the emergence of a fast second to challenge its radical innovation and its standing as the central provider of the services which it offers through the World Wide Web.8. all text in Wikipedia was covered by the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL). the computed budget level recommended by Jaffe and Caballero for reinvestment into internal research and development is between 1.[257] The fourth force in the Porter five forces analysis is the “bargaining power of consumers” who use the services provided by Wikipedia.[257] 15 8. which have met with limited success. and the Portuguese-language Correio da Wikipédia. include non-free image files under fair use doctrine. Wikipedia and its sister projects held a community-wide referendum which decided the switch in June 2009. Wikipedia and its parent institution Wikimedia are known as “first movers” and “radical innovators” in the services provided and supported by an open-source. in Japanese copyright law).

figure substantially lower than the percentage of mobile language versions as well.) edit content using any standard web browser through a • Search engines – Some web search engines make fixed Internet connection. Since 2009.[276] The project is available concern cited by The New York Times for the “worry” is online.[279] • Semantic Web – The website DBpedia. The content of Wikipedia has been published in many forms.[273] There are German. Although Wikipedia content special use of Wikipedia content when displaying has been accessible through the mobile web since July search results: examples include Bing (via technol.[267] The Wikimedia Foundation is not a licensor of content. As of Feb 2014 it has 15. Another example is Wapedia.g.[280] Wikipedia publishes “dumps” of its contents. According to a study by Pnina Shachaf in the Journal of Documentation. extracts data from the infoboxes and category declarations of the English-language Wikipedia. ACCESS TO CONTENT books which reproduced English. an equivalent print encyclopedia would re.000. Obtaining the full contents of Wikipedia for reuse presents challenges. a articles. are Reference. but these are text-only.2. 2006 Wikipedia CD Selec.000 properties for describing them. stating that the transition of internet traffic from • Compact discs. many of which approach 50 for Schools”. This position has been successfully defended in court.[282] • Mobile apps – A variety of mobile apps provide and Answers. both online and offline. (See also Mobile access. “Only 20 percent of the readership of the Polish-language version contains nearly 240. German.[274][275] Also. Moller free.[271][272] The stating that. Erik Moller.000 items and 1. non-commercial selection from has assigned “a team of 10 software developers focused Wikipedia targeted around the UK National Cur. where volunteers answer questions from the general public. • Websites – Thousands of "mirror sites" exist that republish content from Wikipedia: two prominent ones. is a more. hand-checked. the number of editors which the online encyclopedia atand maintain its content in a mobile access • Books – There are efforts to put a select subset of tracts to edit [14] environment.000 articles.”[14] The New York Times reports that Mr.[14] The The New York Times arAn English version. begun in 2007. that also include content from other reference sources. And the shift to mobile editing has lagged even produced by Wikipedians and SOS Children. anyone can reuse or re-distribute it at no charge. tens of thousands of print on demand Bloomberg BusinessWeek reported in July 2014 that .000 English-language Wikipedia comes via mobile devices. “Wikipedia traffic for other media sites. with an accuracy of 55%. out of a total of approximately 200 employriculum and intended to be useful for much of the ees working at the Wikimedia Foundation. as of 2007 there was no dump available of Wikipedia’s images.on mobile”. which began to display Wikipedia content in a mobile-device-friendly format before Wikipedia itself did. RDF. but merely a hosting service for the contributors (and licensors) of the Wikipedia. [277][278] Wikipedia’s articles into printed book form. Creative Commons’ CC BY-SA) are shared across language editions via Wikimedia Commons repository. deputy director of the Wikimedia Foundation.for Wikipedia to effectively address attrition issues with quire roughly 20 volumes. contained about 2. including both Android and iOS devices (see Wikipedia See also: Help:Mobile access Wikipedia’s original medium was for users to read and apps). The New York Times on February 9.ticle reported the comparison statistics for mobile edits tion. One principal English-speaking world. Wikimedia has created the Wikidata project with a similar objective of storing the basic facts from each page of Wikipedia and the other WMF wikis and make it available in a queriable semantic format. 2014 quoted ogy gained from Powerset)[270] and DuckDuckGo.[281] Several languages of Wikipedia also maintain a reference desk. This is still under development. since direct cloning via a web crawler is discouraged. Wikipedia’s accommodation of varying international copyright laws regarding images has led some to observe that its photographic coverage of topics lags behind the quality of the encyclopedic text.2013. the quality of the Wikipedia reference desk is comparable to a standard library reference desk. outside of the Wikipedia website. for concern and worry. DVDs – Collections of Wikipedia desktops to mobile devices was significant and a cause articles have been published on optical discs.16 9 files covered by free content licenses (e. Russian and French Wikipedia articles have been produced by the American company Books LLC and by three Mauritian subsidiaries of the German publisher VDM.[268][269] 9.1 Mobile access access to Wikipedia on hand-held devices. a project operated by the Wikimedia Foundation.and Spanish. the Wikipedia series of CDs / DVDs percent.2 Methods of access Because Wikipedia content is distributed under an open license.

the average age of Wikipedia readers is 36. an official website for wireless devices. through the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP).17 was officially released. Many devices and applications optimise or enhance the display of Wikipedia content for mobile devices.[286] located at en.[291][292] 10 Impact The mobile version of the English Wikipedia’s main page 10.6% of market share over their next closest competitor in iOS with 15.wikipedia.[295] a good portion of which is related to academic research.[299] According to “Wikipedia Readership Survey 2011”. Simonite alleges some Wikipedians use the labyrinthine rules and guidelines to dominate others and those editors have a vested interest in keeping the status quo.wikipedia. such as geoinformation. which caters to more advanced mobile devices such as the iPhone.[293] Wikipedia has steadily gained status as a general reference website since its inception in 2001.[284] The latest version for iOS was released on April 3..[294] About 50% of search engine traffic to Wikipedia comes from Google.2 billion unique visitors. About 47% of Wikipedia readers do not realize that Wikipedia is a non-profit .[218] The latest version of the Android app for Wikipedia was released on July 23. the representatives stated that Wikimedia would be applying an all-inclusive approach to accommodate as many mobile access systems as possible in its efforts for expanding general mobile access. The New York Times reported that Wikipedia is ranked fifth globally among all websites. 2013 to similar reviews. Directly after the posted web interview. In 2009 a newer mobile service Wikipedia is extremely popular.1 Readership Google’s Android mobile apps have dominated the largest share of global smartphone shipments for 2013 with 78. scoring over four of a possible five in a poll of approximately 200. via the Wapedia service.m. 2014 to generally positive reviews. while some also incorporate additional features such as use of Wikipedia metadata (See Wikipedia:Metadata).org.. with a rough parity between genders. and a similar number of readers specifically look for Wikipedia in search engine results. Several other methods of mobile access to Wikipedia have emerged. [290] Lih alleges there is serious disagreement among existing contributors how to resolve this.[287][288] Wikipedia Zero is an initiative of the Wikimedia Foundation to expand the reach of the encyclopedia to the developing countries.[297] The Pew Internet and American Life project found that one third of US Internet users consulted Wikipedia. In June 2007 Wikipedia launched en. the largest with 1.[296] The number of readers of Wikipedia worldwide reached 365 million at the end of 2009. Several years running the number of Wikipedia editors has been falling and Tom Simonite of MIT Technology Review claims the bureaucratic structure and rules are a factor in this. Wikimedia representatives made a technical announcement concerning the number of mobile access systems in the market seeking access to Wikipedia.[283] At the time of the Tretikov appointment and her posted web interview with Sue Gardner in May 2014.”[14] In addition to logistic growth in the number of its articles.[298] In 2011 Business Insider gave Wikipedia a valuation of $4 billion if it ran advertisements. In February Lih fears for Wikipedia’s long term future while Brown fears problems with Wikipedia will remain and rival encyclopedias will not replace of the market.] Wikipedia trails just Yahoo. stating “With 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month [. Android-based devices or WebOS-based devices.000 users downloading from Google. Almost half of Wikipedia readers visit the site more than five times a month. Microsoft and Google. making market share a secondary issue. Facebook.[285] Access to Wikipedia from mobile phones was possible as early as 2004. including BlackBerry and the Windows Phone system.[289] Andrew Lih and Andrew Brown both maintain editing Wikipedia with smart phones is difficult and this discourages new potential contributors.

On September 28.[320] The first was a Golden Nica for Digital Communities of the annual Prix Ars Electronica contest. YouTube) that they no longer need explanation and are on a par with such 20th-century words as hoovering or Coca-Cola.[319] journalism. making those entries arguably as important as any ad in 10.[309][310] often without attribution. The Washington Post reported Spanish Princess of Asturias Award on International that Wikipedia had become a focal point in the 2008 US Cooperation.[308] Jimmy Wales receiving the Quadriga A Mission of Enlightenment award “Wikipedia page the latest status symbol”.[306] Content appearing on Wikipedia has also been cited as a source and referenced in some US intelligence agency reports.[325] election voted Wikipedia as the fourth-highest brand ranking. dissected and debated countless times See also: Category:Parodies of Wikipedia. 2007.2. In July 2007 Wikipedia was the focus of a 30-minute documentary on BBC Radio 4[315] which argued that.[307] In December 2008. The award was presented to Wales by David Weinberger. The second was a Judges’ Webby Award for the “community” category. and court cases. In 2007. 2007. He said that the lack of such freedom forced Wikipedia. society or social sciences. Already. the number of references to Wikipedia in popular culture is such that the word is one of a select band of 21st-century nouns that are so familiar (Google.700) grant and an invitation to present at the PAE Cyberarts Festival in Austria later that year. “the seventh most consulted website”. the scientific journal RNA Biology launched a new section for descriptions of families of RNA molecules and requires authors who contribute to the section to also submit a draft article on the RNA family for publication in Wikipedia. Reddit.1 Awards from Wikipedia.[318] Active participation also has an impact. Italian politician Franco Grillini raised a parliamentary question with the minister of cultural resources and activities about the necessity of freedom of panorama. this came with a €10.[323] In 2015.”[317] An October 2007 Reuters article. Wikipedia was awarded both the annual Erasmus Prize.2 Cultural significance Main article: Wikipedia in culture Wikipedia’s content has also been used in academic studies. books. Facebook. reported the recent phenomenon of how having a Wikipedia article vindicates one’s notability. which recognizes exceptional contributions to culture. and Facebook[314] ) in the rapid growth of online collaboration and interaction by millions of people worldwide. and Peter Gabriel.[301][302][303] The Parliament of Canada's website refers to Wikipedia’s article on same-sex marriage in the “related links” section of its “further reading” list for the Civil Marriage Act. Wikipedia received Quadriga A Mission of Enlightenment award of Werkstatt Deutschland along with Boris Tadić. Law students have been assigned to write Wikipedia articles as an exercise in clear and succinct writing for an uninitiated Wikipedia has also been used as a source in audience. the presidential entries are being edited.2. readers of brandchannel. and claimed this was hugely damaging to tourist revenues.2 Satire defining a candidate.[321] Wikipedia was also nominated for a “Best Practices” Webby award.000 (£6.[311][312][313] In 2006. with increased usage and awareness. $12. to forbid all images of modern Italian buildings and art. saying: “Type a candidate’s name into Google.[304] The encyclopedia’s assertions are increasingly used as a source by organizations such as the US federal courts and the World Intellectual Property Organization[305] – though mainly for supporting information rather than information decisive to a case. conferences. Eckart Höfling.[324] and the On September 16. and among the first results is a Wikipedia page.18 10 IMPACT organization.[316] Wikipedia won two major awards in May 2004. and several reporters have been dismissed for plagiarizing 10. MySpace. Time magazine recognized Wikipedia’s participation (along with YouTube. receiving 15% of the votes in answer to the question “Which brand had the most impact on our lives in 2006?"[322] In September 2008.[300] 10.588. titled Many parodies target Wikipedia’s openness and suscep- . each day.

an editable travel guide. which was set on a website which was a parody of Wikipedia. a dictionary project launched in December 2002. Viewers of the show tried to add the episode’s mention of the page as a section of the ac10. only Commons has had success comparable to that of Wikipedia.[333] In 2010. to visit the show’s Wikipedia article and edit it at will. as a joke about the unreliability of Wikipedia and what anyone can do to change its contents.[330] In 2008. the New Yorker website published a cartoon with this caption: “Dammit.A. Tosh. which had been made by the audience and had prompted the article to be locked from editing.3 Sister projects – Wikimedia tibility to inserted inaccuracies. In 2012 Wikivoyage.[327] Wikipedia has also spawned several sister projects.S. have you considered the pronoun war that this is going to start on your Wikipedia page?"[336] 10. and Wikidata. Law' Wikipedia Page Viewed 874 Times Today”.[331] 2013 DC Wikimedia annual meeting standing in front of the En- The Dilbert comic strip from May 8.[337] Wikiquote. but this effort was prevented by other users on the article’s talk page. with characters vandalizing or modifying the online encyclopedia project’s arti. a project for the creation of free learning materials and the provision of online learning activities.. an editable knowledge base. for citizen journalism.10. played on the perception that Wikipedia is an unreliable reference tool with a scene in which Dr. launched. Manning. a 2007 episode of the television show Scrubs. the comedic website CollegeHumor produced a video sketch named “Professor Wikipedia”.. an incompetent office manager (Michael Scott) is shown relying on a hypothetical Wikipedia article for information on negotiation tactics in order to assist him in negotiating lesser pay for an employee. most of them offensive. features cyclopædia Britannica (back left) at the US National Archives a character supporting an improbable claim by saying The most obvious economic effect of Wikipedia has been “Give me ten minutes and then check Wikipedia. a July 2006 front-page article in The Onion. is a catalogue of species. a collection of collaboratively written free textbooks and annotated texts. 2009. which are also wikis run by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikispecies. Wikimedia Commons.”[332] . Wikibooks. These other Wikimedia projects include Wiktionary. 2013.3 Sister projects – Wikimedia 19 In July 2009. On a later episode.Main article: Wikimedia project cles.[334][335] Wikipedia shown in “Weird Al” Yankovic's music video for his song "White & Nerdy" On August 23. Perry Cox reacts to a patient who says that a Wikipedia article indicates that the raw food diet reverses the effects of bone cancer by retorting that the same editor who wrote that article also wrote the Battlestar Galactica episode guide. a site devoted to free-knowledge multimedia.[326] as well as the 2010 The Onion article "'L. and Wikiversity. Wikinews.[338] Of these. he commented on the edits to the article. meaning “together we can create a reality that we all agree on— the reality we just agreed on”. Another sister project of Wikipedia. Some of the sketches were directly inspired by Wikipedia and its articles. BBC Radio 4 broadcast a comedy series called Bigipedia.[329] Publishing "My Number One Doctor".[328] The tactics he used failed. Comedian Stephen Colbert has parodied or referenced Wikipedia on numerous episodes of his show The Colbert Report and coined the related term wikiality.4 tual Wikipedia article on negotiation.[173] Another example can be found in “Wikipedia Celebrates 750 Years of American Independence”. a collection of quotations created a week after Wikimedia launched. comedian Daniel Tosh encouraged viewers of his show. which aired in April 2007. in which the fictitious Professor Wikipedia instructs a class with a medley of unverifiable and occasionally absurd A group of Wikimedians of the Wikimedia DC chapter at the statements.0. In an episode of the television comedy The Office U.

for possibly leading to professional (and.[348] One of the most successful early online encyclopedias incorporating entries by the public was h2g2. it commonly serves as a target knowledge base for the entity linking problem.g. because “free trumps quality all the time”. The user interface and part of 13 References the content of the Domesday Project were emulated on a website until 2008.[339][340][341] Nicholas Carr wrote a 2005 essay.”[342] Others dispute the notion that Scientific use In computational linguistics. In particular. wrote in Nature that the "wisdom of crowds" approach of Wikipedia will not displace top scientific journals. especially the printed versions.[344] Wikipedia presented as a tree structured list of its subtopics. which is then called “wikification”. such as Susning. however. which included text (entered on Special searches BBC Micro computers) and photographs from over 1 million contributors in the UK. In cooperation with Wikimedia foundation. professor of life writing at UEA and author of 12 See also The Short Life and Long Times of Mrs Beeton and George • Outline of Wikipedia – guide to the subject of Eliot: the Last Victorian. if you can get all that information from Wikipedia. with their rigorous peer review process. in his view. GNE. for an outline of the contents of Wikipedia. Hudong. focusing on articles which are both witty and informative. which was created by Douglas Adams. or similar efforts. Wikipedia has seen widespread use as a corpus for linguistic research. such as Encyclopedia of Life and the online wiki encyclopedias Scholarpedia and Citizendium.[347] 11 Related projects • Conflict of interest editing on Wikipedia • Democratization of knowledge • Interpedia. For instance. and covered the geography. This was the first interactive multimedia encyclopedia (and was also the first major • All pages beginning with “Wikipedia” multimedia document connected through internal links). Everything2 was created in 1998. “Wikipedia boss Lila Tretikov: 'Glasnost taught me much about freedom of information”. e. see Portal:Contents/Outlines 10. . Carr wrote: “Implicit in the ecstatic visions of Web 2. which were unable to compete with a product that is essentially free. and culture of the UK. The latter was started by Sanger in an attempt to create a reliable alternative to There is also an ongoing debate about the influence of Wikipedia.[346] Methods similar to wikification can in turn be used to find “missing” links in Wikipedia. • All pages with titles containing “Wikipedia” art. an encyclopedia which was not a wiki. • QRpedia – multilingual. superior) content producers going out of business. it has been retired. Some. mobile interface to Wikipedia A number of interactive multimedia encyclopedias incorporating entries written by the public existed long before • Wikipedia Review Wikipedia was founded. “The worry is that. what’s left for biography?" said Kathryn Hughes. I for one can't imagine anything more frightening. The h2g2 encyclopedia is rel- [1] Kiss. Retrieved August 21. Gibbs. 2014. and Baidu Baike likewise employ no formal review process. Others use more traditional peer review.20 13 the death of commercial encyclopedias.[107] Other websites centered on collaborative knowledge base development have drawn inspiration from Wikipedia. but were not wikis and neither gave full editorial privileges to public users. co-existed with Nupedia and Wikipedia early in its history. Jemima.0 is the hegemony of the amateur.[345] and to the related problem of word sense disambiguation. will entirely displace traditional publications. The first of these was the 1986 BBC Domesday Project. that criticized websites with usergenerated content. Chris Anderson. All of these projects had similarities with Wikipedia. although some like Conservapedia are not as open. Samuel (August 6. an early proposal for a collaborative Internet encyclopedia • List of online encyclopedias • Network effect • Print Wikipedia art project to visualize how big Wikipedia is. also created in January 2001.[343] REFERENCES atively light-hearted. with the majority of articles being accessible through an interactive map of the UK.[349][350] Wikipedia on the biography publishing business. The Guardian. 2014).0". information retrieval and natural language processing. Encyclopaedia Britannica. the editor-in-chief of Wired Magazine. Enciclopedia Libre. like Wikipedia. “The amorality of Web 2.

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Phoebe. Panayiotis Zaphiris. Cambridge. 31 • Listen to: • Keen. “Who Killed Wikipedia? : A hardened corps of volunteer editors is the only force protecting Wikipedia. 2008. Part 1: A Wiki is a Kind of Bus. as listed hereafter. by John Broughton. Wikipedia – The Missing Manual. lecture notes.00316. Jonathan T. John (2008). 664. 2012. • Crovitz. with Paul Kennedy. UK: Cambridge University Press. etc. Shyong (Tony) K.1177/0002764212469365. • Lih. research. ISBN 978-09562052-0-9. New York: Hyperion.2006. Siduri. Retrieved December 26. • Sheizaf Rafaeli & Yaron Ariel (2008). • Broughton. “Cultural Differences in Collaborative Authoring of Wikipedia”. “Creating. Joseph Michael Jr. Gordon. “Wikipedia’s Old-Fashioned Revolution: The online encyclopedia is fast becoming the best. 2009. The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World’s Greatest Encyclopedia. Do as I Do: Authorial Leadership in Wikipedia (PDF).5210/fm. Destroying. Good Faith Collaboration: The Culture of Wikipedia. Proc. (Book rev.2 Books Main article: List of books about Wikipedia • Ayers. Stuart Geiger. Can History be Open Source? Wikipedia and the Future of the Past. 2009).v12i4. of The August 30. L. National Public Radio. • Reagle. Chee Siang Ang (2006). • Keen. Andrew (2009).x. doi:10. Virginia.0 projects. June 16. as listed previously. 2008. WikiSym '07: Proceedings of the 2007 International Symposium on Wikis (Montreal. Massachusetts. “Does the Internet Undermine Culture?".3 Book reviews and other articles Morgan. Retrieved Retrieved December 17. Ashgate Publishing.) • The Great Book of Knowledge. 2008. pp. “Online motivational factors: Incentives for participation and contribution in Wikipedia. • O'Sullivan. quizzes. 243–267. 2008. The Cult of the Amateur. doi:10.1 (June 2006): 117–46. ISBN 0-596-52174-X. • Rosenzweig. glossaries. Doubleday/Currency. Joseph (2007). Yates. USA: the MIT Press. ISBN 978-0262-01447-2. Lam. “Assessing the Value of Cooperation in Wikipedia”. Charles. Huberman (April 2007). Web-based seminars. Wikipedia Reader’s Guide. “The Charms of Wikipedia”. ISBN 9781-4013-0371-6.) • Wilkinson. • Dalby.) • Wikiversity list of learning resources. doi:10. Weekend Edition Saturday. Matthews. How Wikipedia Works: And How You Can Be a Part of It. development and its .1083-6101. • Aaron Halfaker. Dennis M. Jilin Chen. Andrew (2009).1316663 • Reagle. Katherine Panciera. 14. Andrew (2007). applications. and Restoring Value in Wikipedia”. Wikipedia: a new community of practice?. Dan (September 24.. ISBN 0-596-51516-2. and John Riedl. slides. Bernardo A. (Substantial criticisms of Wikipedia and other web 2. American Behavioral Scientist 57 (5): The New York Review of Books. ISBN 978-0-385-52080-5. (Includes related courses. ISBN 978-0-7546-7433-7. 2014. originally broadcast January 15. (See book review by Baker. Sebastopol: Pogue Press. Canada: ACM). Missing Manual. Loren Terveen. Reid. They might also be killing it”. (2010). doi:10. 2007.1111/j.) • Postrel. November/December 2014 issue. nity”. • Priedhorsky. The NPR interview with A.” (Originally published in Wall Street Journal online – April 6. March 20.) 14. Psychological aspects of cyberspace: Theory. Retrieved December 26. Pacific Standard magazine. Cambridge. Ideas. A.14. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 12 (1): 88. “The Rise and Decline of an Open Collaboration Commu• Baker. Roy. 2007). Retrieved February 22. GROUP 2007. O'Reilly Media. Nicholson.1145/1316624.1763.) 14.” In Barak. The World and Wikipedia: How We are Editing Reality. (Originally published in The Journal of American History 93. ISBN 978-1-59327-176-3. John Riedl (2012). R. The radio documentary discusses Wikipedia’s history. text books. 2008. USA. Ben (September 2008). CBC Radio One.3. John (2008). San Francisco: No Starch Press. Andrew (June 16. First Monday 12 (4). Keen.3 Book reviews and other articles • Pfeil. Ulrike. Webpage includes a link to the archived audio program (also found here).1 Learning resources • Broughton.

2009.'s entry: Road to city’s Wikipedia page goes through a DuPont Circle bedroom”. MIT Technology Review. The New York Times Magazine. 2008. Retrieved January 14. August 14. Mike (December 2. The Washington Post. Jimmy Wales changed the world with Wikipedia. • Rosenwald. “It’s a Wiki. Wiki World”. 14. Capital • Video of TED talk by Jimmy Wales on the birth of Wikipedia • Wikipedia and why it matters – Larry Sanger’s 2002 talk at Stanford University. What will he do next? • “Is Wikipedia Cracking Up?" The Independent. (October 23. October 22. New Scientist. “Like Boiling a Frog”.0 – Now with Added Trust”. 2009. theses. and how Wikipedia articles could be auto-generated from web content • Community Performance Optimization: Making Your People Run as Smoothly as Your Site. Jim (September 20. talk presented at OOPSLA 2009 by the Wikimedia Foundation's senior software architect and former chief technology officer Brion Vibber. 2009). describing an intelligence project utilizing Wikipedia. video archive and transcript of the talk • “Intelligence in Wikipedia” Google TechTalk on YouTube. 2013. Flash required). BBC News’.C. Houston Chronicle. David (May 28. • Wikipedia topic page at The New York Times • Dee. Retrieved February 22. 2007). journal articles. “Wikipedia Rules”. 2008. • “Technological Quarterly: Brain Scan: The Freeknowledge Fundamentalist”. • Poe. 2007). February 3. 2008. Retrieved December 17. 2008. • Wikipedia collected news and commentary at The Guardian • Balke.2 Other media coverage See also: List of films about Wikipedia EXTERNAL LINKS 15 External links • Official website (Mobile) – multilingual portal (contains links to all language editions) • Wikipedia on Twitter • Wikipedia on Facebook • Wikipedia at DMOZ • Wikitrends: Wikipedia articles most visited today • “See Who’s Editing Wikipedia – Diebold. WIRED. Marshall (September 1. “Wikipedia 2. Michael S. “The Hive”. 2009). Diallo traced to 1 Police Plaza (March 2015). a Campaign”. datasets and tools about Wikipedia and wikis • Open Wikipedia Ranking . “All the News That’s Fit to Print Out”. Retrieved October 22. The Economist Web and Print. • “The Decline of Wikipedia”. 2008. Chris (May 29. the hugely popular online encyclopedia that anyone can edit. Retrieved June 5. 2013 • Edits to Wikipedia pages on Bell. The Phoenix.32 15 place within the broader scope of the trend to democratized knowledge. • Taylor. Jeff (March 2008). 2009. • Runciman. 2008. 53:58. • “Wikipedia probe into paid-for 'sockpuppet' entries”. comparing the challenges of a large community of editors with those of a large community of software developers • WikiPapers – compilation of conference papers. Garner. • Miliard. books. June 5. Broken Record (blog). Retrieved June 3. 2007). Retrieved February 22. Retrieved March 22. It also includes interviews with several key Wikipedia staff and contributors. October 21. Retrieved February 22. The Atlantic Monthly. 2005). 2008. Time. Jonathan (July 1.3. 2008. 2007. MySpace”. “Gatekeeper of D. including Kat Walsh and Sue Gardner (audio. the CIA. 2006). London Review of Books. • Audio of interview with Jimmy Wales about Wikipedia in general on the EconTalk podcast • Giles. “For Music Fans: Wikipedia.

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