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TEACHERS NOTES: HIGHER INTERMEDIATE RED

BOOKLET 1B Why we work


CONTENTS
PAGES
2, 3
4, 5
6-8
9, 10
11, 12
13, 14
15, 16
17, 18
19-21
22, 23
24-47

1. All About You : Thinking about work.


2. About Your World: The best job in the world.
3. Real World (Listening): It doesnt feel like work.
4. Real World (Reading): Ive won!
5. Real World (Writing): To gap or not to gap
6. Finding Out ( Reading): Changing offices
7. Finding Out (Listening): What gets us out of bed in the morning?
8. Sharing Information (Writing): Short-cut to success
9. About Your World: Its a different world.
Consolidation
Teachers Extra Resources

Unit Objectives
Grammar

Vocabulary

Listening

Present perfect simple vs. present


perfect continuous
Used to + infinitive
Would + infinitive
Expressing ability
Past and present tenses (review)

Describing peoples character


Work and jobs
Sport (review)

Listen for specific information


Note main points
Listen for main ideas
Note key words
Follow talks on abstract topics

Reading

Speaking

Writing

Read actively by creating content


questions before you start
Adapt reading style and speed to a
particular reading purpose

Ask follow-up questions


Write a formal email
Give reasons for your opinions
Ask and answer questions
Retell information accurately
Respond to follow-up questions
appropriately
Speak spontaneously in response to
audience questions
Give well-developed descriptions and
explanations
Negotiate agreement
Deliver a presentation from notes
Use clear signposts to show the
organisation of a presentation

1. ALL ABOUT YOU: Thinking about work.


PAGES 26 & 27
Objectives
Vocabulary: describing peoples character
Speaking: ask follow-up questions; give reasons for your opinions

Vocabulary

Warmer: Play back to the board with different


jobs. Write a job on the board behind the learners
head and split the class into groups to elicit the word
from the learner by giving good descriptions. Award
point to the team who manages to make the learner
guess.

1a Lead-in by eliciting /pre-teaching the following


adjectives to the board: ambitious; creative;
sociable; conscientious. Elicit types of kind of job
which would suit someone with these qualities. Ask
learners if they would like to do these jobs.
Learners write down their four jobs and the
associated qualities.

b Either pair learners to compare or do a class


mingle where learners attempt to find another
learner who would like/ wouldnt like a similar job to
them.

c Pair learners to discuss how far they


agree/disagree.

2a Learners scan the text for the adjectives. Ask


learners to check with a partner before questioning
you. Allow use of dictionaries if available.
Answers: enthusiastic, organised, patient, sensitive,
sociable, talented, confident, ambitious, assertive,
energetic, charismatic, intuitive, dynamic, creative,
hardworking, determined, practical, approachable,
friendly, independent.

b With a partner learners decide on a job for each


candidate. In feedback elicit reasons for their
choices. As a class, vote on the best job choice for
each candidate.

3a/b Learners work in pairs to brainstorm


additional character adjectives and then categorise
these into positive or negative.
Optional: Elicit learners feedback by attempting an
alphabetical word race. Group learners and tell them
to pool their word lists. For each letter they need to
say how many character adjectives they think they
can name (for some letters you may get none).
Award points to the team who supplies the longest
correct list for each letter.
Example: A ambitious, aggressive, articulate B bossy,
bright C charismatic, conscientious, critical, cool D
decent, diligent, dependable etc.

Speaking

4 Focus attention on each column and add a few


points of information about your own experience.
Elicit relevant vocabulary from the class. Learners
complete the table individually.

Teachers Note: To stimulate vocabulary and


prepare learners for the interview task, complete
the table with your information on the board or
highlight on the IWB. Tell learners to interview you
about these aspects of your life. In pairs they should
write one or two questions for each section and then
interview you as a class. Tell them if they want more
information theyll need to ask you follow-up
questions. E.g. if teacher puts Taught in China in
work history, then the class can brainstorm
questions based on wh- question words (which the
teacher only answers if grammatically correct). e.g.
how long were you there? when did you go? why did
you go? where did you teach? who did you teach?
how much Chinese did you learn?

5a-c In pairs learners use the information in their


partners table to ask and answer follow-up
questions and gain more details about the others
life. Learners then suggest a future job for their
partner and discuss it, explaining why they agree or
disagree with the choice.
Monitor and take notes for feedback. Highlight good
uses of vocabulary and follow-up questions. Elicit
additional feedback by asking learners to describe
something interesting/ surprising/ similar about
their partners background and character.

Monitor for learners use / understanding of the


difference between I taught in China for two
years., Ive been teaching at Kaplan for two years.
I started teaching at Kaplan two years ago. etc.
These are grammar points which will be covered
later in the unit.

2. ABOUT YOUR WORLD The best job in the world.


PAGES 28 & 29
Objectives
Vocabulary: work and jobs
Listening: listen for specific information
Speaking: ask and answer questions

Speaking

Listening

3 Play the recording. Learners answer the questions


Warmer: Books closed. If you have an IWB search
for jobs voted worst in the world this year and write
on the board (do not show the link to the students).
If you dont have an IWB some commonly reported
worst jobs in 2012 were: lumberjack; dairy farmer;
enlisted soldier; oil rig worker; newspaper reporter;
waiter/waitress; meter reader; dishwasher; butcher;
broadcaster.
See: http://www.guardian.co.uk/money/workblog/2012/apr/12/best-worst-careers-2012lumberjack
Write them on the board and check the meaning of
each job. Ask learners to discuss in pairs what they
think the connection between them might be.

individually before checking in pairs.


N.B. As an alternative you could refer to the
authentic advert which can be found on You Tube:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SI-rsong4xs
Answers: 1 island caretaker 2 an island on the Great
Barrier Reef 3 6 months 4 AUD 4150,000 5 none
6 cleaning the pool; feeding the fish; collecting the
mail and writing a blog about island life 7 record a
video application and upload to the tourism website

Speaking

4 Do a class poll to find out who thinks it was the


1 Ask a learner to read the information aloud. Pair
learners to discuss their ideas. Elicit ideas from each
pair and vote as a class.

2 Learners look at the questions for the audio. Ask


learners to predict vocabulary from the recording
based on the lead-in and questions. In pairs learners
prepare brief definitions or each word in bold. Elicit
the meaning of the words by asking pairs to read out
their definitions for the other learners to guess the
correct word.

best job in the world. Pair learners, preferably in


opposites, to discuss the reasons why. In feedback
elicit whether anyone changed their mind after
listening to their partner.

5a Group learners. Set a time limit for them to


decide on their own best job in the world and the
relevant details of it. Ensure learners cover the same
details listed in the questions in activity 3.
Optional: Learners decide on a format for the job
advert e.g. should it be a video like this one was
originally? A radio advert? A print advert? Learners
work together to create their ad which could be
presented in writing or performed if audio/video
was the preferred choice.
4

b Look at the best job in the world ad, or relevant


adverts from other sources together. Bear in mind
that most students will not be able to work here due
to visa regulations so reading job advertisements is
not a widely held target need. Elicit the ad you
selects features and the type of information it
covers. Learners work together to create their own
adverts which could be displayed on posters.
Advert text: In 2009, the tourism board in
Queensland, Australia, launched a new campaign to
promote tourism in their area. They did it by offering
people a prize. But it wasnt an ordinary prize. The
prize was a job. Based on one of the islands in the
Great Barrier Reef, the job was for just 6 months. It
was for the position of island caretaker. And the pay
for being island caretaker for 6 months was an
amazing AUD$150,000. The work itself involved
cleaning the pool, feeling the fish, collecting the mail
and writing a blog about life on the island. And, best
of all, anyone could apply. People didnt have to
have any particular qualifications or experience. All
they had to do was record a video application and
upload it to the tourism boards website. People
then voted on their favourite video. Ben Southall
from the UK was the ultimate winner, beating over
36,000 other applicants. And Bens verdict after the
job finished? It really was the best job in the world.

6 Split the groups in half and tell the first half to


mingle around the room finding out about the other
jobs and asking questions to the part of the group
that remains. Allow enough time for learners to
mingle around the room before repeating with
learners swapping roles.

Writing

7 Learners choose their preferred job. Elicit


common conventions for application letter writing if
relevant to your class- see teachers extra resource.
You may want to adapt this to an email since it is a
more common way to apply for jobs nowadays.
Give learners time to plan and prepare their writing.
Monitor and provide support as necessary. Ask
learners to complete their letter and send it to the
relevant group.
TEACHERS EXTRA RESOURCE: WRITING A FORMAL
LETTER OR EMAIL OF APPLICATION PAGES 24-28

Speaking

8a In groups, learners review the applications they


have received. If a groups job advert didnt receive
any applications they should join up with other
groups. Groups review the applications and decide
on the order they want to interview their applicants.

b Learners work together to create some interview


questions and interview their applicants. Learners
will have to leave their own group if they are called
to interview by another group. Once all applicants
have been interviewed the group decides together
who should get the job.

3. REAL WORLD (LISTENING) It doesnt feel like work.


PAGES 30 &31
Objectives
Vocabulary: sport (review)
Grammar: present perfect simple vs. present perfect continuous
Listening: note main points
Speaking: retell information accurately; ask follow-up questions; respond to follow-up questions appropriately

Vocabulary

Warmer: If you have an IWB show a video of an


extreme video e.g.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T92Kp2BXNvo
http://www.channel4.com/programmes/xtremists/4
od#2927974
Elicit the sports which are shown in the clip or
alternatively if no IWB available, play hangman with
the word Extreme and elicit associated sports; Play a
quick game of Have you ever? Ask learners to
stand up and come into the centre of the room in a
circle. The first person asks a question that they can
answer with yes e.g. have you ever been
snowboarding? etc. and if the learners have they
stay standing up. If they havent, they sit down and
are out. Going clockwise around the circle, the next
learner creates another have you ever question
(preferably related to extreme sports) e.g. have you
everseen an extreme sports competition? and the
process repeats until only one learner is left
standing.

1a/b Open books and draw attention to the images


(in book or IWB). Pair learners to discuss the
questions and add words to the categories. Briefly
discuss each image eliciting vocabulary from pairs.
Answers: Learners own answers. Images show;
skateboarding; free running; BMX; parachuting; and
rock climbing.

Pre- Listening

2a Ask the question to the class and elicit their


responses.

b Pair learners to discuss the question.

Elicit

feedback from a few pairs.

Listening

Extension: Play Chinese whispers- preferably with a


longish message that could easily go wrong e.g.
Extreme sports arent easy to do especially if you
have many fears. Talk about how messages can get
distorted and the importance of notes in longer
messages.

3a-c This is a jigsaw listening. The easiest way to set


it up is to send half of the class outside the room for
5 minutes while you play the relevant section of the
recording. (Part 1 ends at 03.17 with this line They
do get lots of free trainers and sports clothing, as you
can imagine though! Play Part 2 from 03.17)
Before playing the recording, discuss the features of
good notes e.g. content words, key points, brevity,
notes that reflect the order and hierarchy of
information.
Ask learners to read the questions and then listen to
the interview and makes notes for each question.
6

Answers: a Part 1 Free running Part 2 sky diving


b Part 1 Sponsorship Part 2 He turned the sky diving
club into a business and receives money in the form
of membership and people doing jumps for special
occasions.
c Part 1 His friends helped him make videos and a
website to show people the sport and lots of people
saw it including a major sports brand that sponsored
him to be the face of the brand.
Part 2 He used his inheritance to set up the business.
He did a business management course and received
lots of help and advice from his friends.

4a/b Give learners time to read their notes. Pair


learners to share their half of the information and
take notes. Monitor to ensure learners are sharing
information orally and not just showing their notes.

Excerpts: The following sentences taken from the


listening:
1 Theyve taken their hobbies and turned them into
careers.
2 Ive been doing it for about five years now.
3 A lot of our listeners probably havent heard of
free-running.
4 Since then, Ive been doing a lot of TV
commercials.
5 Ive been working on it really hard over the last
three years.
6 Weve started doing lots of events.
7 Its surprising how many people have always
dreamt of doing jumps.
8 Some of the club members have formed a display
team.

5a-c Focus attention on the instructions then play

7 Teachers note: Deciding when to use present

the recording again. Learners correct or amend their


notes based on the second listening. Once finished,
as a class compare this to the accuracy of the
Chinese whispers game they played in activity 3. In

perfect simple or continuous is often a confusing


decision for learners at this level. You may want to
talk through some contrastive examples as a class
before directing learners to the grammar file. Write
the following sentences and questions on the board
or prepare for the IWB:
Which sentence
A emphasises the length of the action?
B indicates that something might not be complete?
C focuses on the result of an action?
D describes a permanent situation?

feedback for c lead in to a discussion of taking notes


on only main points for a particular purpose i.e. to
gain a general understanding, to be able share the
information. Ask learners what constitutes missing
information when note-taking during listening i.e. all
the missing details, information that is necessary to
understand the context/cotext, information that
allows you to answer questions/purpose for
listening.

Language Focus

6a Tell learners to focus on grammatical accuracy


when they are writing down what they hear. You
may want to allow them to compare with a partner.

b Learners rewrite the excerpts without


contractions.

c Pair learners to discuss everything they notice


about the sentences. To stimulate discussion you
could write the following on the board: time, in
progress, complete, results, time phrases.

1 Weve listened to the recording. Now lets do the


exercises.
2 Weve been listening to the recording for half the
lesson! We should do the exercises now.
3 The recordings been playing for about 5 minutes
now!
4 Weve been studying perfect forms since
Elementary.
5 Perfect forms have always been used in English.
Learners work in pars to discuss the sentences and
questions. Discuss the examples and alternative
explanations as a whole class.
Answers: a 2 b 3, 4 c 1 d 5
Refer learners to Grammar file 3 on page 57 and ask
them to complete the exercises.
7

Grammar File 3 Present Perfect Simple vs. Present


perfect Continuous
Practice Exercises
1 Learners work individually to complete the
sentences using the verb provided in either the
present perfect simple or continuous.
Answers: a has agreed
b have been raising
c have been preparing
d has contributed
e has not hired
f have been talking
g has designed
h have realized
i havent seen
2 Learners work individually correct the relevant
sentences. Allow pair checking.
Answers: a Ive known her for 10 years.
b He hasnt appeared in a movie for three years.
c Correct
d Have you fastened your seat belt?
e Roger has decided to take a year off between
school and university.
f Correct
g No, hes had a job for a month.
3 Learners complete the sentences using one of the
verbs provided in the correct aspect.
Answers: a have finished
b has been running
c have arranged
d has earned
e have been falling
f has settled down
g has been avoiding
h has been supplying

Using the Language

8 a/b & 9 /b Tell learners they are going to think


about making a career out of their own hobbies.
Explain that they will listen to a partner talking about
their hobby and take notes while listening to help
them make suggestions for how their partner can
turn their hobby into a career. They have to ask
follow up questions to get sufficient information.
Use an example of one of your own hobbies as a
model and elicit follow up questions from the
learners before they give you some advice for
making it into a career.
Learners work individually to prepare their own
notes about a hobby of their choice. In pairs learners
share their information and take notes and ask
follow up questions to their partner. In pairs learners
share their suggestions.

Out in the Real World

10a-c Encourage learners to think of people in their


network in this country who they could interview.
Elicit a few intended interviewees from the learners.
You may wish to elicit some example questions as a
class prior to setting this homework task.

11 a/b In the following lesson have learners mingle


around the room to find out about their classmates
interviews before comparing and contrasting the
answers to 10c.

4. Real World (READING) Ive won. PAGES 32 & 33


Objectives
Vocabulary: work and jobs
Grammar: used to + infinitive; would + infinitive
Reading: read actively by creating content questions before you start

Speaking

EXTRA TEACHERS RESOURCE Have you won


the lottery? PAGES 29-31

1a/b Following the warmer, learners discuss the


questions in pairs. Quickly review conditionals with
would. Tell them that the text theyre going to read
uses would in a different way.
Answers: Learners own answers.

Pre-reading

2 Bring up the relevant section on the IWB and


discuss a few ideas as a class. Tell students that good
readers are questioning readers. They constantly ask
themselves questions they think will be answered
and then read for them. This is one aspect of active
reading. Its also a good way of getting inside
examiners heads which is great for exams. Learners
work individually to write their own five questions.
Answers: Learners own answers. E.g. How much
money did they win? Did they get married? Did he
share the money with Emma Cox? What did he do
with the money? Does he still work for McDonalds?

Reading

3 Set an appropriate time limit for your class.


Learners read the text quickly to answer their own
questions. If their questions werent answered ask
them to think about why not e.g. did they

understand the text? Were their prediction based on


a good understanding of the topic and context?
Pair learners to compare their questions and the
information they found out. Elicit feedback from a
few pairs.

4a/b Focus on the questions and draw attention to


the fact they are looking for changes between his
past and present lifestyle.
Answers: a His life isnt very different now. He and
Emma are married, have bought a house and dont
have to work but Luke chooses to. b Quite different.
He continues to work every day and is still at
McDonalds but he married Emma and bought a
house.

5a/b Pair learners to discuss then elicit opinions as


a class.
Answers: a Learners own answers but it implies that
work is also about social networks and relationships
and about contributing to the world you live in giving
purpose and motivation.

Vocabulary

6a Learners individually match the words to


definitions before checking with a partner.
Answers: a 4 b 5 c 1 d 3 e 2

b Refer learners to the text to scan for the


collocating verbs.
Answers: work shifts; enjoy retirement; hand in
your resignation; invest/discover income; earn
wages
9

Language Focus

7a-c On the board write example sentences from


the text containing would e.g. They would get up at
5.00 am most mornings and arrive at work just in
time for the early shift.
First of all, they would resign from their jobs.
Ask learners if would has the same kind of meaning
in each sentence. (Answer: No. The first uses would
to describe a repeated action in the past the second
has a conditional meaning) Elicit the meanings from
the learners then ask them to answer questions a-c
before checking in pairs.

3 Learners read the sentences and decide if a


mistake has been made in the target forms. If so,
learners rewrite the sentence in the past simple.
Answers:
a Correct b Olivers grandfather designed the boat,
and Oliver helped him put it together.
c After a few years, he quit because his family moved
house. d Correct e What did you discuss?
f A German astronomer called William Herschel
discovered the planet Uranus in 1781.

Using the language

8 Refer learners to Grammar file 4 on page 59 and

9 You may wish to use Teachers Extra Resource:

ask them to complete the practice exercises if


necessary.

Find Someone who used to/would prior to this


activity.
Initiate a discussion of periods in life that are usually
quite different e.g. childhood/ young adulthood;
being at school/ at work; living at home/ living
abroad. Discuss briefly as a class before learners
begin writing. Learners work individually to describe
some of the changes in their life between two
periods.

Grammar File 4 Used to & Would


Practice exercises
1 Learners review the correct form of used to by
choosing the appropriate verb from a list and
completing the sentences accurately.
Answers:
a used to sponsor b use to commute
c used to manufacture d used to manage
e use to charge f used to disagree
g use to serve h use to accept
2 Learners reformulate the sentences using would if
appropriate.
Answers:
a No b When he got home every night, he would
complain to his wife about his colleagues. c No
d He would fly to New York several times a year.
e No
f She would go there every Thursday and read
stories to the residents.
g No h No
i He would to have long discussions with
housemates every evening.

Out in the real world

10a-c Set up the task so that learners can present


in the following lesson. If there is time remaining you
could send learners to the multimedia room to begin
their research. Hold a class discussion after the
presentations.

EXTRA TEACHERS RESOURCE


Find someone who would/used to Pages 32-33

10

5. Real Word (Writing) To gap or not to gap.


PAGES 34 & 35
Objectives
Grammar: expressing ability
Listening: listen for main ideas
Speaking: ask follow-up questions; speak spontaneously in response to audience questions; give reasons for your
opinions

them if theyve taken gap years and encourage them


to share any experiences. Some of them might be on
gap years and describe it differently.

Optional: Hand out 6 slips of paper to each learner.


Ask them to write the numbers 1-6 on individual
slips of paper. On the board draw up a hopscotch
grid i.e. 1 2 1 2 etc.. During feedback learners
can move forward one space on the grid for every
match they made correctly. The best listeners should
reach the top of the grid.

2 Group pairs to discuss. Elicit the advantages and

Answers: Answer A: 6 Answer B: 3 Answer C: 2


Answer D: 4 Answer E: 5 Answer F: 1

Speaking

1a/b Pair learners to discuss the questions. Ask

disadvantages to the board.

b Pair learners to share their opinions. Do a brief

Pre-Listening

3 Tell learners about what they are going to hear.


Focus them on the questions and elicit advice and
answers from the class.

Listening

class vote on how far the class agrees with each


answer. You might want to play the recording again
pausing after each section to discuss.

Language Focus

6a Learners complete the gaps without listening.


Refer them to the audioscript on page 50-51 to
check.

4 Play the recording. Learners match the Answers to


the questions in activity 3.

5a Tell learners you will now play the full recording


for them to check their answers and also note down
ideas they agree and disagree with.

Answers: 1 its great to be able to meet people and


have a bit of company 2 You cant do that if youve
arranged everything in advance 3 they are looking
for people who can help with specific projects 4 in
the past, having gap years on your CV could be a
problem 5 When I was young, I thought I wouldnt
be able to take a gap year 6 I couldnt afford to buy a
round-the-world ticket

b Refer learners to Grammar file 5 on page 60 and


ask them to do the practice exercises if necessary.
11

Grammar File 5: Ability


Practice Exercises
1 Learners complete the sentences using the correct
ability form and verb.
Answers: a can meet b cant guarantee
c was able to schedule d can purchase
e cant access f been able to reply
g be able to grow h can devote
i be able to transport
2 Learners rearrange the words in brackets into the
correct order.
Answers: a researchers succeeded in creating a
device b she was unable to participate in
c wont be able to pay back d they are unable to
predict when e be able to analyse the data f for
being able to solve difficult
3 Learners complete the sentences using
could/couldnt or managed to with one of the verbs
from the list.
Answers: a managed to negotiate
b couldnt persuade c could navigate
d couldnt observe e could understand
f managed to repair g couldnt replace

Preparation

b In their groups learners anticipate the questions


they might be asked and prepare the information
they would like to share.

c Write the selected topics on the board so the class


know which topics to prepare questions for. Tell
learners to prepare at least three questions for each
topic.

Speaking

8a-c Set up the question panel with each group


taking a turn to be asked questions.
Optional: You could set this task up by showing a clip
of a panel show e.g.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nG8kZwPNzS4
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zKfS7DKYzJw
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BA9Qkl2S8jw

TEACHERS EXTRA RESOURCE


Gap Years are Good for you PAGES 34-39

7a Group learners to select a topic to become


experts in. You may want to book time in the
multimedia room to allow learners to do a bit of
research.

12

6. FINDING OUT (READING) Changing offices PAGES 36 &37


Objectives:
Reading: adapt reading style and speed to a particular reading purpose
Speaking: give well-developed descriptions and explanations

Pre-reading

Warmer: If you have an IWB source brand images of


famous companies and elicit their names from the
learners. Alternatively, write the names of some
large companies on the board. Group learners to
imagine what the offices of these companies are like
and then which theyd most like to work in. Again if
you have an IWB you could source images of these
offices to confirm or contradict the learners ideas.
Google vs. Facebook offices
http://www.chilloutpoint.com/science_and_technol
ogy/google-office-versus-facebook-office.html
Innocent:
http://www.innocentdrinks.co.uk/us/careers
EA Games: http://insideea.com/tag/head-office/

1a-c Focus attention on the images of the offices


and pair learners to discuss the questions. Pre-teach
cubicle and ask learners how offices might differ for
ordinary employees, managers and directors. Elicit
the advantages and disadvantages to the board and
as a class decide on which is the best office scenario.
Ask learners to name the main features of an office
and elicit these to the board.

2 Pick a future date and ask learners to think about


how offices might have changed by that point. Pair
learners to discuss.

Reading

3a Ask the learners to read the question then elicit


exactly what information they need to find i.e. a
paragraph letter. Ask learners if they will need to
read the whole text (possibly but they could stop
once theyve found the paragraph they are looking
for). Ask learners what they might do if they think
theyve found the correct paragraph (i.e. read on to
confirm, go back and skim other places in the text to
make sure they have selected the correct paragraph,
re-read the task). Set time limit for skimming and
feedback by eliciting asking learners to raise their
hand when you shout out the letter of the paragraph
containing the relevant information.
Answer: Paragraph D

b Ask learners to focus on what they are reading for


this time (i.e. for details) and how they might read
differently for this purpose. You could ask learners
how much time they think theyll need to complete
this task- more or less than for task a?
Learners re-read the relevant paragraph for detail.
Compare with a partner before eliciting the
differences to the board and comparing against the
lists created in activity 1.
Answer: There are no cubicles or specific desks (this
information from paragraph C). The space is open,
not sectioned off, the restaurant and coffee bar is in
the same space as the working spaces. Employees
use different spaces for different purposes. There
are more meeting rooms including private ones in a
separate area.

13

4 Learners complete the summary by referring to


the text. Again focus on how learners might read the
text to support this task i.e. skimming and scanning
to find the correct position in the text, then careful
reading to select the correct words.
Pair learners to compare their answers before
feedback.
Answers: 1 not enough
2 people worked
3 working efficiently
4 the desks
5 cloud computing
6 from home
7 more productive
8 much happier
9 following suit

Vocabulary

5a Direct attention to paragraph C and ask learners


to read it again to define the term cloud
computing. Pair learners to come up with their own
definitions. Cambridge Learners Dictionary:
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/business
-english/cloud-computing?q=cloud+computing
the use of technology, services, software, etc. on the
internet rather than software and hardware that you
buy and install on your computer:
Google took cloud computing a step further last
October by offering free word-processing and
spreadsheet software over a browser.

window, mouse and talk about the different


meanings.
Optional: Group learners to compete against the
other half of the class for the best and most
comprehensive list of words.

Speaking

6a Ask learners to think about the class room they


are in now and the classrooms of their previous
experience. Elicit whether there is a big difference
and if so which versions they prefer.
Ask learners to skim the article again to identify the
process Rinsema went through to re-design the
office space and then follow the same process to
think about learning spaces- i.e. first he thought
about why people come into an office to work
think about why people come to a shared space to
learn? Etc.
Group learners to think about how they could
redesign learning spaces according to the ideas in
the article.
Tell learners to prepare a brief presentation with
visual aids or a poster if you have the time and
resources.

b Groups present their ideas to the class. You could


vote for the best suggestions.

b/c Learners work in pairs to discuss the questions


and prepare a list of computer terminology with
additional meanings. To lead in you could ask
learners to name elements of a computer e.g.

EXTRA TEACHERS RESOURCE:


Changing Offices Crossword pages 40-41

14

7. Finding Out (LISTENING) What gets us out of bed in the


morning? PAGES 38 & 39
Objectives
Listening: listen for main ideas; note key ideas; follow talks on abstract topics
Speaking: give reasons for your opinions; negotiate agreement

Pre-Listening

Listening

Optional: Books closed. You could lead-in to the

3 Refer learners to the form on page 39. Tell

topic by writing the time you got up this morning on


the board and asking learners to guess what the
numbers mean. The open books or write/bring up
the questions from 1a on the board and give
learners 5 minutes to mingle around the classroom
trying to find out the answers to the questions.

students theyre going to have to write down a few


words that they dont know / dont know how to
spell. Ask them what strategies they usually use if
theyre trying to note down something they hear but
they dont know how to spell e.g. an address from
the radio. Play the second half of the recording.
Answers: Examples for model 3 may vary but ideas
are given below. Model 1: 1 Affiliation 2
Achievement= strive to reach goals and experience a
sense of accomplishment 3 Power= a need to be
influential and create an impact Model 2: 1 hygiene
= a reasonable salary, a company car, good working
conditions, good relationships with co-workers. 2
motivational = achievement, recognition, the work
itself, responsibility or progress Model 3: 1 money=
knowing youll be able to achieve what you need and
potentially more 2 influence= do people listen to
you? 3 expertise = are you good at what you do? 4
independence = who makes the decisions in your
job? 5 relationships= is your enjoyment linked to the
friendships you have at work? 6 security= do you
worry about what will happen in the future or if are
unable to work? 7status= are you proud when
people find out what you do? 8 meaning &
fulfilment= do you feel like your work is making a
difference in the world?

1a Group learners to discuss the questions.


b Elicit the answer to this as a whole class.
c/d Group learners to discuss these questions. Elicit
ideas from the whole class. Encourage learners to
think about exciting situations as well as practical
reasons.

Pre-listening

2a Elicit ideas from the class. Steer the ideas away


from tangible things like alarms towards work
motivation. Elicit their ideas to the board.

b Play part 1 of the recording for learners to check


their predictions. Ask learners which items you can
tick off from the list on the board.

c Pair learners to brainstorm ideas for the remaining


content based on what theyve heard so far in part
1. As a class agree on a list of the top five things that
motivate people at work.

15

Speaking

4 As a class, discuss the question and tick off any


ideas listed from activity 2c.

5 Group learners to rank the motivational keys into


an order from most to least important. Remind
learners that in a group discussion they will have to
discuss, negotiate and agree. Monitor the
conversations for issues e.g. with turn-taking, lack
of participation, dominating, not supporting
opinions, etc. In debrief, dont pick on individuals,

but elicit features of good negotiative discussion


behaviour. Also watch out for the use of
comparatives and superlatives.
Optional: You could set this up as a pyramid
discussion beginning with pairs who must agree then
combining pairs into fours to persuade one another
or come to a new consensus. The fours become two
eights and then finally the whole class discusses.

16

8. SHARING INFORMATION (Writing) Short-cut to success


PAGES 40 & 41
Objectives
Grammar: past and present tenses (review)
Writing: write a formal email

Pre-reading

Warmer: On the board write up the following


scenarios. Pair or group learners to rank them into
the most successful to least successful.
A You are very wealthy and own five houses on
three continents. You dont have to work but you
choose to because you enjoy the challenge. You
have no family.
B You live in the town you grew up in in the same
house as your immediate family, two aunties and
your cousins. You share a room with your three
younger brothers/ sisters. You work part time at a
fast food restaurant. You have just qualified for the
World Championships in 100m freestyle and will
probably get a sponsorship deal.
C You have met the woman/man of your dreams and
are about to marry. Your family live nearby and you
are very close to them. You have a large social
network with friends in all sorts of businesses and
industries. You dont have any educational
qualifications and are unemployed.
D You have graduated from university with excellent
grades. You speak two languages fluently. You share
a flat with your best friend. You have a great
relationship with your family and friends. You cant
get a job in the field you want to work in.
E You love what you do working as a volunteer for an
NGO. You have lived in 5 different countries and met
people from all over the world and many cultures.
You never see your family and have lost contact with
most of your friends. You feel like youre making a
difference in the world.

1a Pair learners to discuss the question. Elicit if any


of the scenarios in the warmer are similar to their
ideas of success.

b Learners work individually to write their


descriptions of their future successful selves.
Monitor for correct use of tenses. Write down
slightly modified examples of sentences you noted
with mistakes. Hand out to learners and ask them to
find the mistakes and correct them.

Reading

2 Distribute or display the learners success stories


around the room for learners to find their match.

3 Write short-cut to success on the board. Tell


learners that the text will give them information
about this. Discuss the best strategy to use to find
this answer most efficiently.
Answer: having a good mentor who is more
experienced in your field and can give you help and
guidance.

Vocabulary

4a/b Focus on the instruction and again elicit


appropriate reading strategies. Learners can
compare their definition with the partner they found
in activity 2.
Answer: a A mentor can be any successful person
who has more experience than you and who can
17

give you the help and guidance you need to reach


your goals. They have the usually achieved the level
of success that you are aiming for and can act as
your very own guide. b Students own answers but
from Cambridge Learners dictionary: mentoring- to
help and give advice to someone who has less
experience that you, especially in your job. Menteesomeone who is given support and advice about
their job by a mentor (= a more experienced person
who helps them).

c Pairs work together to create lists of similar words.


Suggested answers: interviewee/interviewer;
employee/employer; abduct(or)/ abductee

Planning

5a Learners work individually to re-read their


success stories and consider possible mentors.

b Learners write a description of their ideal mentor.


Elicit useful language as a class e.g. adjectives:
supportive; patient; motivating etc. verb phrases:
should be able to; would be good if collocations: a
gifted professional; a strong motivator; a
considerable support.

Writing

6 Set the scene. Learners are looking for a mentor to


help them achieve their success goals. They have
been given the email address of their preferred
mentor but have not been introduced. Their email
should therefore be formal. Elicit the features of a
formal email and prepare an outline structure on the
board.
Learners work individually to write their emails
covering the points listed.

7a/b Pair learners to check their writing and make


corrections for a second draft.
18

9. ABOUT YOUR WORLD Its a different world.


PAGES 42 & 43
Objectives
Speaking: deliver a presentation from notes; use clear signposts to show the organisation of a
presentation

Pre-Listening

Warmer: On the board prepare the


following information in a random order.
Pair learners to match the numerical
information to the topic. They should have
two numbers for each topic. Then write
1962 & 2012 on the board and ask learners
to sort the information. (Information from
USA Labor Statistics
http://blog.nwjobs.com/careercenter/then
_and_now_employment_changes_over_the
_past_50_years.html)
1962 2012
5.5% 8.3%
unemployment rate
$1.15 $7.25
minimum wage
$5,956 $60,088
avg family income
57%
80%
no. of women with
a degree who are working
As a class briefly discuss the prospect of
working in 2012 compared to 1962 to leadin to activity 1a.

1a/b Pair learners to discuss the questions


and take notes. Remind learners to discuss
reasons for their ideas. You may want to
write some example notes onto the

whiteboard to give learners a structure e.g.


No longer popular
Why?
e.g. Physical labour
Wages/better
education
Differences in working life
e.g. 9am-5pm/Flexible hours
Why? Avoid/reduce commute times,
billable hours

2 Refer learners to the listed expressions to


discuss and order with their partner.
Combine pairs to check orders then elicit
the predicted order to the board. You
might want to elicit the function of each
phrase from the class e.g. Which phrases
would you use to introduce a list of
information? Which phrases would you use
to repeat an idea or make a link to an
earlier point? etc.
Answers: learners own answers but
possible order is:
Today, Im going to talk about
If you have any questions
Ok, Lets get started.
Firstly
As I said earlier
So, in summary

19

Listening

3a-c Tell learners to read over their notes


from activity 1 again. Play the recording for
learners to listen and check through their
notes, adding information as appropriate
and numbering the phrases from activity 2.
Answers:
Well, Lets get started.
If you have any questions
Today, Im going to talk about
Firstly
As I said earlier
So, to summarize

4a Ask learners when they might need to


give presentations and elicit study/work
situations when they would be relatively
formal and pre-planned. Tell learners that
presentations are similar to essays in that
they have a structure and which we do not
usually deviate from: intro; body;
conclusion. Signposting words/phrases
indicate the moves between these sections
and ideas in the whole presentation.
Play the recording a second time and ask
learners to organise their notes clearly.
Again draw attention to features of good
note-taking i.e. an awareness of structure
and order; all the main points; details when
significant. Allow time for rewriting.
Answers: Learners own answers but an
outline of clear note sections might be:
Intro: Work in 10years time- shift away
from physical jobs.
Body:
Reasons for this change:
More education; increased technology.

[Affecting young & old people.]


Modern business is faster, uses technology
to cope with this. Removed middle
management and administration.
People cant improve as easily because
technology has replaced some skills e.g.
typing, production lines in factories. Now
people have to work at the very bottom e.g.
stacking shelves, or at the top doing things
computers cant.
More service jobs.
Conclusion:
We have to embrace technology.

b Pair learners to compare their notes and


answer the questions. Combine pairs to
check their answers before feedback.
Answers: (1) The speaker asks a direct
question to the audience and is silent while
they consider it. The speaker uses real
person examples. (2) The speaker
summarizes the main point and indicates
appropriate reaction to the change.

Preparation

5a-c Draw attention to the topics and elicit


a few ideas about each from the class to
help them decide. You might want to book
out some time in the multimedia room for
learners research.
Learners work individually to prepare their
outline and ideas.

d Pair learners to practice their


presentations together. On the board write
up the following checklist to help learners
improve and provide peer feedback:
20

Do we know what youre going to speak


about?
Is there a clear structure?
Do you use signposting language?
Have you got example to explain your
point?
Do you summarize the main idea?
Do you speak clearly?
Can you answer follow-up questions?

presentations. You might want to group


learners to deliver their presentations.
Monitor and take notes on points a-c in
activity 7 for later feedback.

7 Learners listen to their classmates and


ask follow-up questions. Collect feedback
from the whole class and add your own
using the notes you took while monitoring.

Task

6 Focus on the while listening tasks in


activity 7 and tell learners to make sure
they have covered these points in their own

EXTRA TEACHERS RESOURCES


END OF UNIT A-Z QUIZ PAGES 42-43
WORLD OF WORK DISCUSSION PAGES 4447

21

CONSOLIDATION PAGES 44 - 46
Grammar
A
Present perfect simple and
continuous
1 Learners work individually to complete
the sentences using the verb in brackets in
the correct tense.
Answers: a wasfelt b have you been
travelling c Have you seen saw d have
been thinking Ive started e didnt work

2 Learners work individually to correct the


errors before checking in pairs.
Answers: a I was really busy before lunch
but things are much quieter now, thank
goodness. b I have been doing a computer
course, The last class is next week. c When
did you arrive? d Have you been doing this
job for long? e I have learned a lot so far.

B
Used to/ would + infinitive
3 Learners work individually to complete
the sentences using would + infinitive
where possible.
Answers: a I used to have a much more
hectic lifestyle when I was in banking. b Did
you use to travel much more in your last
job? c My father used to own his own
business. He sold it years ago. d We would
often get together for lunch but for some
reason that all stopped when Sam got his
new job. e When I lived in Sydney I would
get up incredibly early and go for a swim in
the sea before work.

Expressing ability

4 Learners correct the sentences by


changing the verbs in bold.
Answers: a In six months time we will be
able to see the results of all this hard work.
b Tom could swim much further 10 years
ago. Hes slowed down. c Were you able to
make the meeting this morning? I know you
were very busy. d I cant come this evening.
I have a dinner meeting. e Things were
simpler in the past. Everyone could forget
about work more easily- there were no
mobile phones to keep us connected to our
jobs 24 hours a day.

Vocabulary
D
Jobs
5 Learners work individually to complete
the text using the words provided. Pair
learners to compare their texts.
Answers: When I was at university, I got a
job as a waitress in a hotel restaurant. The
wages were very low, and I had to work
very long hours. It was hard work, but at
least I got a free meal at the end of each
shift. While I was at working at the hotel, I
realised that running a hotel was a very
difficult job. But I decided that that was
what I wanted to do with my life. When I
graduated from university, I decided to
apply to be a trainee hotel manager. There
were a lot of applicants, but because of my
experience working in a hotel, I got the job.
Over the years, I was promoted many times
and now I am the manager of one of the
largest five star hotels in London. My salary
is over twenty times the amount I earned in
my first hotel job. But thats not why I love
what I do. I get a lot of satisfaction from
knowing that the hotel guests enjoy their
22

stay with us. Whether they are visiting


London on business or as tourists, we
provide them with everything they could
wish for.

E
Free-time activities
6a Learners match the words to the correct
activity.
Answers: Learners own answers but
possibly:
Free-running- urban; safety gear; trainers;
built-up areas
Parachuting- parachute; countryside; safety
gear; terrifying
b Learners write down the free-time
activity associated with the remaining
words.
Answers: Answers may vary. wetsuit;
mask; sea; tank- SCUBA DIVING

23

Higher Intermediate Unit 1b Red - Teachers Extra Resources


Writing a Formal Letter or Email of application. The Best Job in the World page 28-29,
exercise 7.
Time: 15-20 mins
Preparation: Pair learners. Copy and distribute one worksheet per pair.
Method:
A. In pairs, learners read the advert and discuss the questions. Elicit feedback from a few pairs and check any
relevant vocabulary.
B. Discuss these questions as a class and elicit answers to the board.
C. Explain that the first speaker is Arnold. Model the dialogue with a learner or nominate a pair to perform
to class. Concept check vocabulary and elicit answers as a class.
D. Check the information listed in the second column and elicit anticipated information/ language/ position
for each from the class. Refer pairs to the email and allow them to check their answers in pairs. Elicit
feedback in whole class.
E. Focus attention on the prompts listed in E. Check understanding of each and highlight key vocabulary.
Learners compare language in the dialogue and email and note relevant phrases. Elicit answers to board
and highlight the different ways of giving each piece of information from the question, dialogue and
email. Highlight the more formal examples in each.
Draw attention to the conventions for beginning and ending formal letters. Remind learners to use the language
and structure modelled here when they are writing their own application letters.

Answers:
A Learners own answers.
B Key tasks: customer service, providing tourist information, guiding tourists, responding to queries on and off
line and updating online information. Skills & Experience: strong communication skills, fluent in more than one
language, ability to deal with people from a range of backgrounds, ability to communicate in online and offline
environments, previous experience in a similar area.
C He thinks his skills and experience correspond to what the employer is looking for.
D What the job is: A; Expression of thanks E; Where Arnold saw it advertised A;
How Arnold will follow-up E; The reason for writing A; Brief explanation of why Arnolds skills and experience are
relevant for this job B & C.
1. He has just finished university. Dialogue: Im just out of uni Email: As a recent graduate
2. He has good communication skills. Dialogue: My degree is in communications and I can speak three
languages! Email: excellent communication skills. With high-level qualifications in two modern European
languages as well as an award for Best Young Tour Guide I believe I am a competitive candidate.
3. He has related experience. Dialogue: And, Ive got experience. Ive been a Junior tour guide for 5 years.
Email: I believe the five years experience I have of working within the tourism industry as a Junior Tour
Guide has given me the skills and knowledge that are necessary for the job.
4. He is comfortable working with people from different backgrounds. Dialogue: Email:
5. He has web design skills. Dialogue: I know what Im doing with people from other countries. Email: I am
confident that I can interact with people of all ages and backgrounds.
6. He thinks he would do a good job. Dialogue: I can do this! Email: I believe that I can make a significant
contribution to the role of Tourism Assistant.
7. He will work hard. Dialogue: You know Im a hard worker too! / you are very conscientious Email: strong
work ethic.
24

Writing a Formal Letter or Email of application


A

Work with a partner. Read the job advert.


Does this sound like a job you would be good at? Who is best suited to the role?

Tourism Assistant
Come and work for one of the largest companies in the tourism industry! This is your chance
to start in a junior position, learn from the best and progress in your career. You will be
working in a customer-facing role providing tourist information, guides, responding to online
queries and keeping our online community up to date with events in the area.
The ideal candidate will be a strong communicator, comfortable talking to people from a range
of backgrounds, cultures and languages and preferably fluent in more than one language.
Demonstrable ability to communicate in digital environments in addition to face-to-face
situations would be highly advantageous but not essential, as would previous experience in a
similar field.
Apply in writing with a copy of your CV and details of two referees.

B
1. What are the key tasks of the role?
2. What skills and experience should the ideal candidate have?

25

Read the dialogue why does Arnold think he should apply for the job?
Have you seen this job? Its perfect for me!
Yeah, I saw it. It looks pretty good. Why do you think its perfect for you?

Well, it says it wants a junior who wants to learn and progress. Im just out of uni so Im looking for
that kind of role.

Oh yeah it also says you need to be a strong communicator.

Well, you know Im good at that! My degree is in communications and I can speak three languages!
And, Ive got experience. Ive been a Junior tour guide for 5 years. I know what Im doing with people
from other countries.

What about this demonstrable ability to communicate in digital environments?

Well, I think that means online communication like social media and responding to emails, tweets
and all of that. I can build and edit websites and my final year project was on social media for tourism
so I can talk about that if I get an interview. You know Im a hard worker too! I can do this!

Yes, you are very conscientious! Good luck I hope you get an interview!

26

D
Read the letter. Match the paragraph to the information it contains:
A
B
C
D
E

What the job is.


Expression of thanks.
Where Arnold saw it advertised.
How Arnold will follow-up.
The reason for writing.
Brief explanation of why Arnolds skills and
experience are relevant for this job.

E
Compare the dialogue and the email. Which words and phrases does Arnold use
in the dialogue and email to say:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

He has just finished university.


He has good communication skills.
He has related experience.
He is comfortable working with people from different backgrounds.
He has web design skills.
He thinks he would do a good job.
He is a hard worker.

27

Dear Sir/Madam,
[A] I am writing to apply for the position of Tourism Assistant as advertised on
www.tourismjobs.com on 23rd August 2012. As requested I am attaching a copy of my CV
and the contact details of two referees.
[B] The position is extremely attractive to me as I believe the five years experience I have
of working within the tourism industry as a Junior Tour Guide has given me the skills and
knowledge that are necessary for the job. My key strengths are a strong customer focus
and excellent communication skills. With high-level qualifications in two modern
European languages as well as an award for Best Young Tour Guide I believe I am a
competitive candidate. I am confident that I can interact with people of all ages and
backgrounds.
[C] As a recent graduate in Communication Technology I have a clear understanding of
the need for efficient administration and use of online systems such as web design, blogs
and social media. I believe that I can make a significant contribution to the role of
Tourism Assistant by combining my skills and knowledge with my enthusiasm and strong
work ethic.
[D] Please see my curriculum vitae for more information about my education and
experience and do not hesitate to contact me if you require further clarification.
[E] I thank you in advance for considering my application. I am available for interview at
your convenience and can be contacted via email or by phone on 0775674321. I look
forward to hearing from you and discussing the position in more detail.
Yours Faithfully,
Arnold Reichmann

28

Have you won the lottery?


This activity is designed as a warmer for the lesson Ive won! on pages 32-33 of the students book.
Its a quiz based activity designed to introduce the theme of the lesson.
Time: 10-15 mins
Preparation: Pair learners and distribute one quiz sheet to each. Prepare lottery envelopes. In one envelope
give students all the answers, in others, 9 answers, 8 answers, etc. There should be several students who receive
no answers. They need a sorry you havent won a prize message.

Method:
Do the quiz and then collect the results. Ask learners how they felt and elicit that it was unfair that some of them
had won the lottery. Ask if students have lotteries to win money in their country. Ask if they buy tickets, if
theyve ever won tickets, etc. Students think about what theyd do if they won a million pounds in a lottery. Elicit
ideas with reasons.

Answers:
1a
2c
3d
4c
5b
6d
7c
8a
9d
10 a

29

Have you won the lottery?


1 The Oscar winning film Slumdog Millionaire was directed by
A Danny Boyle
B Stephen Spielberg
C Martin Scorsese
D Joe Wright
2 Complete this phrase. Thats like the pot calling the kettle
A hot
B burnt
C black
D heavy

3 Whats the name of the written or spoken agreement that is enforced by law.
A pact
B will
C deed
D contract
4 It is unlikely you will find the Bedouin in which of these countries?
A Eritrea
B Morocco
C Gabon
D Yemen
5 Whats the name of the Zodiac sign that is represented by a pair of animals.
A Capricorn
B Pisces
C Libra
D Gemini
6 Former Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Anan was born in which country?
A Mali
B Togo
C Burkina Faso
D Ghana
7 The young of which of the following animals is called a cria?
A mole
B goat
C llama
D bison
8 In Hinudism they name who as the Goddess of light, beauty, good fortune and wealth?
A Lakshmi
B Rama
C Vishnu
D Shiva
30

9 How many vowel sounds are there in the English language including Diphthongs?
A5
B6
C 18
D 19
10 Which of these Queens of England reigned in the 12th Century?
A Eleanor of Aquitaine
B Anne Boleyn
C Mary Queen of Scots
D Elizabeth I

31

Find someone who would/used to


A mingle activity to practise would/used to for past habits and states. This can follow or replace
Exercise 9, page 33 Ive won!
Preparation: Photocopy a sheet, cut up the strips and give one to each student.
Method:
1 Having given each student a strip with an instruction on, tell them to transform it into a direct question
they can ask everyone in the class, e.g. Find someone who used to smoke = Did you use to smoke?
Find someone who wouldnt eat vegetables as a child = Did you (use to) eat/like vegetables when you
were a child?
2 Students mingle and ask each student their question. Encourage them to ask follow-up questions.
3 When everyone has finished speaking to each other, give students a minute or two to go through and
choose the most interesting answer they were given and to tell the class.
Find someone who

...used to hate learning English.

would sometimes pretend to be ill so they didnt have to go to school/work.

used to believe in Santa Claus.

would go to the same place on holiday every year with their parents.

wouldnt eat vegetables as a child.

wouldnt go to sleep without a light on when they were a child.

used to have a boring job?

used to be happier than they are now?

would get up early at the weekends as a child.

used to have an imaginary friend when they were young.

32

used to have more friends than they do now.

used to argue with their parents.

didnt use to like reading.

never used to watch television when they were young.

would cry or sulk if they didnt get their way.

never used to get bored as a child.

used to pick their nose.

used to have nightmares.

33

Gap years are good for you


A two-part activity where students read about four different types of gap year holiday and discuss the
merits of each.
They then debate gap years from a viewpoint that may not be their own view.
They then discuss their real attitudes towards gap years.
This activity should come at the end of pages 34-35 To gap or not to gap.
Time: 30-50 minutes
Preparation:
Photocopy and cut up a copy of PART A (Gap Year A-D) for each group of 4 students.
Photocopy and cut up a copy of PART B (Debate for each group of 4 students.
Method:
PART A:
1 After having referred back to the lessons topic (Gap years), put students into groups of four and tell
them they are going to read about four different gap year holidays.
2 Give each member of the group one of the sheets and tell them to read it individually, using dictionaries
if necessary for any unfamiliar vocabulary.
They should make note of the important details and decide what characteristics the ideal volunteer would
have, the positive and negative aspects of the holiday and if it would ever appeal to them.
3 Students then tell each other about their gap year holiday (not reading it to each other, but in
summarised form).
4 Students then try to rank them in order of preference. Ask them to then order them in two other ways,
e.g. how much difference it makes to peoples/volunteers lives/most environmentally friendly/most
likely to impress a potential employer, etc.
5 Ask for feedback and see if different groups agree there may be gender/nationality/age differences
and this is something you can talk about as justifications for their choices.
PART B:
1 Divide the class into four groups and tell them they are going to debate the usefulness of gap years.
2 Give each group a card (1-4) which will have a viewpoint on it. Tell them that this is the line their group
must take, whether they actually agree with it or not. They need to come up with arguments for that point
of view and present it to the class where other groups will challenge them.
3 Give students time to formulate their ideas and decide who is going to say what. It is important to stress
to them that all of them are required to speak in the debate. Monitor, but only give minimal help.
4 Begin the debate, making note of good/bad language use to go over later. Dont interfere too much, but
be prepared to move people on so that one person isnt talking for too long.
For an introduction into conducting different types of debate in class, look at:
http://idebate.org/about/debate/formats
5 Get some general feedback at the end and then ask pairs to say what they really think about gap years.

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PART A
Gap Year A
Be an eco-warrior in America!
Where?
Catalina Island, California, USA
What will I do there?
More than 60,000 school children come to this beautiful island each year to find out more about the
wonderful wildlife and so we are in desperate need of volunteers to help maintain nature trails and paths,
to erect and repair fences and to protect the native plant and animal species.
Hours of work: Our volunteers typically work 10 hours a day. Its hard work, but youll gain satisfaction
from helping the environment, saving species and getting very fit! Most people come for just a fortnight,
but claim it is the best two weeks they have ever had. Many come back time and time again.
Where will I stay?
There are two main campsites on the island and youll be sharing with a group of like-minded people who
love being outside and experiencing extreme weather conditions. Youll get your meals included as the
camps are very remote and far from any towns or nightlife.
How much is it?
One two-week project costs approximately 600, but there are discounts if you wish to work longer. All
the money will go towards the projects we are a non-profit organisation.
What will I get out of it?
A sense of achievement and satisfaction from helping preserve the environment.
A new circle of friends.
A new perspective on what really matters in life.
A lot of muscles you never knew you had!
A better-looking CV that will impress potential employers.

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Gap Year B
African Adventure
Where?
Kenya, Africa. Many different locations.
What will I do there?
There are a large number of projects to get involved in. You could work with children in after-school
clubs teaching sport and other subjects; you could help build and maintain local village schools,
orphanages and hospitals; you could help out in community recycling and sanitation schemes or medical
and rehabilitation programmes, or you could work with nature conservation and help protect sea life or
monkeys. If you have a skill, we can use it!
Hours of work:
Depends on the project you choose. Dont expect a normal 9-5 routine though. You may find yourself
working seven days a week or at nights, so come with an open mind.
You can choose to stay anything from a fortnight to a whole year depending on your commitment and
financial resources. Most people who come become part of the community and find it hard to leave.
Where will I stay?
Depending on the project you choose, you may find yourself sleeping in a tent, in a log cabin on a
campsite or in a local persons home. Your accommodation and food is included in your fee.
How much is it?
Your length of stay will determine how much you pay us as we need to feed and shelter you. Be safe in
the knowledge your money is not wasted, but goes towards helping the communities and environmental
products.
What will I get out of it?
Youll get close to some of the most beautiful animals in the most stunning surroundings in the world.
A chance to make a real difference to peoples lives.
A sense of achievement and satisfaction from helping people much worse off than you.
Develop your range of skills.
A great-looking CV.
Youll make friends for life with a diverse group of people.

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Gap Year C
90-day Art and Culture Trip
Where?
England, France and Italy
What will I do there?
You will travel from London to Paris to Italy, learning about each countries art and culture. You start off
learning about English literature, architecture and art by visiting some of the most wonderful buildings
and monuments in London. There will be a chance to visit Oxford and other historical places near to
London and each evening you will have the opportunity to visit some of the greatest theatres in the world.
In Paris we will take you to the Louvre and introduce you to modern painting, and the work of Picasso.
There will be lots of exposure to all the food Paris has to offer before you go to Italy for two-weeks. In
Montepulciano, Tuscany you can relax in the sun, take up courses in Italian language and cookery or use
some of the artistic skills you picked up on the course.
Then you will take part in the six-week tutorial course where you will have lessons in the art, architecture,
myths, politics, history and geography of Italy while visiting beautiful cities such as Venice, Pisa and
Rome.
Hours of work:
Work? This isnt work; this is pure relaxation (with a little bit of studying).
Where will I stay?
In some very highly-rated hotels offering an array of accommodation to suit all tastes and serving some of
the most delicious dishes known to man.
How much is it?
From 1100 to 15900, depending on how long you decide to stay. It really is value for money and the
chance of a lifetime.
What will I get out of it?
Youll see some of the greatest works of art in three of the worlds best cities.
A greater understanding of the history, traditions and culture of three influential countries.
A chance to relax and travel with like-minded people.
Brush up your foreign languages.
A chance to eat the best food available.

37

Gap Year D
Volunteer Sports Coach
Where?
Argentina or Ecuador
What will I do there?
You will teach an array of sports to disadvantaged children in Argentina or Ecuador (or both if you
prefer). You will organise coaching sessions and matches in schools and townships where children get
little contact with the outside world. If Argentina sounds like the place for you, we are looking for
coaches in: baseball, basketball, football, hockey and rugby. In Ecuador, meanwhile we need football and
tennis coaches. The children tend to be from the ages of 4-16.
Hours of work:
We ask volunteers to commit to anything from 2-12 weeks as you will be given a full induction course
into the sport youll be coaching and local orientation upon your arrival. Normal working hours are
Monday to Friday, when youll coach for about 4-6 hours a day. You may sometimes have to teach sport
at the weekends, or oversee tournaments but these will usually be free for excursions and leisure
activities.
NB: We require all volunteers to have basic conversational Spanish as the vast majority of our children do
not speak English. You should also have knowledge of the game you hope to teach and be reasonably fit
and healthy.
Where will I stay?
You will either stay with local families, giving you a chance to become fully immersed in South
American life, or on campsites with other volunteers.
How much is it?
Prices start at 690 for two weeks. Each additional week costs 130. Your money will go towards buying
these deprived children much-needed sports equipment.
What will I get out of it?
Besides helping some of the most underprivileged children in South America, you will get to see some
truly amazing countryside: rain forests, snow-capped mountains, lush valleys, South America has it all.
As part of your course, in some sports you will be able to train with professional sports stars. In Ecuador,
for example, you can play with a semi-professional team at the Universidad Catlica, a top Ecuadorian
university. Here you can learn what makes South American football the most exciting version of the game
in the world.
You will also get to meet the stars of Liga Deportiva, one of Ecuadors best teams.
Meet people who are as passionate about sport as you if not more!
Get fit, get healthy, get a suntan.

38

PART B
Gap Year Debate Viewpoint Cards

1 Gap years are a bad idea.


It is getting harder and harder for young people to find meaningful jobs nowadays,
so they need to concentrate on studying. The youth of today need to work hard at
school and get good grades so they can go straight to university and then start
earning a wage.
If they go on one of these holidays, they are wasting time and money and putting
their future happiness at risk. They should stop daydreaming and get on with life!
Without a good job, how will they get married and have children?

2 Gap years are only for rich, privileged children. These people are generally lazy and
have no ambition or any drive to get on and study.
Most people who go on gap years are not really interested in helping other people;
theyre more interested in getting a tan and putting up photos on Facebook of them
standing next to the Taj Mahal or riding a camel.
There is plenty of time later in life for travel; stop being such a spoilt brat and do
something useful like getting a job or going to college.

3 Gap years are a great way of seeing the world and unwinding after all the hard study
students do to finish secondary school. Students who go straight from school to
university to work have had no life experience.
Going on a much-deserved holiday will open their eyes to all the beautiful places out
in the world and make them realise the importance of studying hard so that they can
get jobs that allow them long holidays in exotic countries, sitting on the beach while
someone else does all the hard work.

4 Gap years are a marvellous opportunity for young people to give something back to
society. By volunteering in some of the poorest, most disadvantaged countries in the
world, gap year students transform peoples lives.
The satisfaction from seeing a small boy or girl smile simply because you have played
football with them, or helped set up a new well so they can have clean water, is
immeasurable.
When gap year students look back on their time abroad when they are old, they have a
sense of pride that they made a difference to this world.

39

Changing Offices Crossword


This activity can be done at the end of Changing Offices, pages 36-37 as revision. Each answer has two
words and the crossword uses phrases from the reading on page 36. It can also be given for homework.
Time: 10 minutes
Preparation: Photocopy one copy for each student.
Method:
1 Allow students to work in pairs if necessary, but dont allow them to use their books to find the
answers.
2 Go through the answers as a class when everyone has finished.
Answers:
ACROSS:
2 improved productivity
6 relaxed environment
8 follow suit
9 cloud computing
11 work efficiently
DOWN:
1 meeting rooms
3 happy workforce
4 brainstorm ideas
5 general manager
7 trial period
10 office space

40

Across
2. when the rate of work or number of goods made increases(8,12)
6. when the conditions you work in are not stressful (7,11)
8. to copy someone's idea and do what they do (6,4)
9. software used on the internet rather than installed on your laptop (5,9)
11. do your job effectively in an organised way (4, 11)
Down
1. you might have to go to these to hear the boss talk or to discuss ideas (7,5)
3. describes employees who are satisfied with their job and its conditions (5,9)
4. a group of people sit around and make suggestions before choosing the best one (10,5)
5. the person in charge of all or part of a company (7,7)
7. a practical test of something new to see if it works (5,6)
10. how much room you have at your desk (6,5)

41

End of Why we work unit A-Z quiz


An activity that can be given to students to do individually, in pairs or in teams at the end of the unit
Why we work. It revises vocabulary from this unit.
Preparation: Photocopy one worksheet per student.
Time: 20-30 mins
Method: Give the worksheets out and remind students that each successive question either has the next
letter of the alphabet as a starting word or the answer must begin with that letter of the alphabet.
After a set time limit, stop the activity and get students to swap their answers. Check as a class, getting
students to mark each others work and totalling up the score.
Answers:
1 assertive
2 an area with lots of buildings
3 cubicle
4a) lots of ideas/enthusiasm
b) want to do something and wont let anything stop you. Award one point per correct answer.
5 expertise
6 a feeling of pleasure because you are getting what you want out of your job/life/ etc.
7 Great Barrier Reef
8 hostelling
9 influence
10 Students own answers, e.g. swimming instructor, sailor, fisherman, diver, etc. Award one point
per correct answer.
11 keen
12 retire, resign, get fired/sacked, be made redundant. Accept any other logical answers. Award
one point per correct answer.
13 someone who gives somebody advice and guidance over a period of time
14 Students own answers. Accept any other logical answers. Award one point per correct answer.
15 obvious
16 panel
17 Accept any other logical answer. A skill is something you are good at; a qualification is a piece of
paper saying you have completed a course.
18 run
19 Accept any other logical answer. A salary is the amount of money you get each month or year
and does not change. A wage is usually calculated per hour.
20 trekking
21 unforgettable
22 voluntarily
23 workmate
24 Students own answers. Award one point per answer.
25 youth
26 Students own answers. Award one point per answer

42

1 Someone who is confident and not afraid to say what they think is.1pt
2 Describe a built-up area.
1pt
3 A small workspace with (temporary) walls or curtains around it:.
1pt
4 Describe these personal qualities:
2pts
a) dynamic
b) determined
5 If you have a high level of knowledge or skill in something, you have: 1pt
6 What is a feeling of fulfilment?
1pt
7 A huge area of coral in Australia.
1pt
8 Staying in accommodation with lots of other people, often in the same room (verb)
1pt
9 If you can make people listen to you and follow your ideas, you have .(noun)
1pt
10 Name 4 jobs connected with water.
4pts
11 A synonym of enthusiastic beginning with K
1pt
12 Name three ways you may leave your job.
3pts
13 What does a mentor do?
1pt
14 Name three qualities necessary to be a teacher.
3pts
15 Something that is clear to see, recognise or understand is:
1pt
16 A group of experts is often called a
1pt
17 What is the difference between qualifications and skills?
2pts
18 What R means to be in charge of a business?
1pt
19 What is the difference between salary and wage?
2pts
20 What T means to go on a long mountain walk?
1pt
21 What U describes something that you will always remember?
1pt
22 What is the adverb of volunteer?
1pt
23 What W is another word for colleague?
1pt
24 Name two extreme sports
2pts
25 The period of your life when you are young.
1pt
26 Name three qualities a zookeeper needs.
3pts
TOTAL: ../38

43

World of Work Discussion


This activity could be done at any point in the unit, but is designed for the end of the unit as it revises
some topics and vocabulary from the unit.
Time: 20-35 minutes (depending on how many cards you give each group)
Preparation: Photocopy and cut up enough copies of the worksheet for each group of three/four students.
Put the sets in envelopes.
Method:
1 Give each group a set of the question cards and get them to discuss them. Each student picks a card
from the envelope and reads it aloud to the group before giving his answer. The others then give their
answers/opinions.
2 Get some feedback at the end.

44

What hobby do you have that youd like to make a living out of? How possible would this
be?
Its not what you know, but who you know. Do you agree?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of a 9 to 5 job?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of being self-employed?

Have you ever lied or exaggerated the truth on your CV?

Have you ever lied or exaggerated the truth at a job interview?

Are you a spontaneous person or do you like to plan and organise things in advance?

Are you doing the job you expected to be doing when you were younger?

Whats more important to you a good salary or being recognised by your boss for your
effort?

Does what you do in your job make a difference to the world?

Have you ever phoned in sick just because you wanted a day off?

Do you get on with your colleagues? Are you friends with any of them outside of work?

45

Work is a four-letter word! What does this mean and do you agree?

If you won 1 million on the lottery, would you keep working?

Have you ever had a boss you didnt like? Why not? What did you do about it?

What skills do you have that are difficult to learn? Can you teach them to your group?

Your boss tells you that you have to work longer hours for less pay. How do you react?

If you were made redundant tomorrow, how would you feel and what would you do?

How would you feel if your husband/wife earned a lot more money than you?

Would you like to work in a foreign country? If so, where/ If not, why not?

Seeing the world is the only education you need. Do you agree?

What might make you resign from your (current) job?

How important is modern technology in your work? Could you do your job without it?

Do you do extra work in the evenings or at weekends? Is this paid or unpaid?

46

If you are a boss, have you ever had to fire anybody? If you arent, under what
circumstances would you fire somebody? Have you ever been fired?

At what age do people tend to retire in your country? When do you want to give up
working?

What do you think your teacher likes and dislikes about his/her job?

47