In conducting the first experiment which was about the Wave Propagation in a Transmission Line Demonstrating the Effects of Losses, Attenuation and Standing Waves, we were able to be oriented and introduced practically on what we have been discussing in our lecture class regarding the Transmission Lines used as communications media. From the results obtained, the amplitude of the travelling pulse which was dependent on the amount of output voltage from the generator supplied to the transmission line demonstrator (TLD), and was determined due to the number of lights that lit up in a column. Pulse propagation on TLD was determined by the orientation of the step input, that the propagation followed the terminal point directed by the step input. When it comes to Attenuation and Dispersion, it was noted that the rate of the pulse propagation or transmission was accounted to the amount of distributed attenuation in the TLD, that as the distributed attenuation control was set at maximum level, the pulse propagation became slower. That was accounted to the effect of the attenuation on the transmission media where in the attenuation blocked the transmission of pulse from one point to another, thus resulting to a lossy line. On the other hand, the decreased in the attenuation was not only done by controlling the distributed attenuation knob, but also was accounted to the decreasing of frequency, that resulted to fewer frequency components causing less

distortion of the pulse brought by the attenuation. It was also noted that in a backward attenuation, the propagation of pulses as it was being transmitted was always dependent on where the load terminator was located, regardless of the orientation of the step input, in order for the maximum power transfer to be achieved, since the characteristic impedance of the transmission line was equal to the purely resistive load terminator. When it comes to Line Terminations, a perfectly matched transmission was accounted at the instance that the characteristic impedance and the load were equal, thus the voltage remained constant althroughout as the pulse propagated. And since the load was a purely resistive load, all of the pulse that was propagated and entered the line from the source was dissipated at the load. That kind of line transmission was also considered to be a line termination at a short circuit link, where there was already a reflected pulse that was seen and that was accounted to the zero value of the resistance while the current was at maximum value. While when pulse were terminated at an open circuit link, the pulses did not propagated back and that was accounted to the maximum value of resistance and minimum value of current, where the maximum resistance stored the pulse in the distributed inductance and capacitance and the line acted as a resistor that dissipated all the energy and none was returned back.

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