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SIX WEEK TRAINING

RAJASTHAN RAJYA VIDYUT PRASARAN NIGAM LTD.

(Regd. Office: Vidyut Bh

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Report
On
400 kv GSS Heerapura

Submitted by:
Sadaf Siddiqui
Order No:714
IIIrd year B.Tech
EEE Branch
Maharani Girls Engineering College
Jaipur,Rajasthan
Summer 2013

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ACKNOLEDGEMENT
I am very grateful to Mr.
(Executive
Engineer) Mrs.
(Assistant Engineer)
Mr.
& Mr. A.P.Vishnu (Assistant
Engineer) for his very useful guidance, technical & much
advantageous lectures .I would also like to express my
sincere thanks towardS L D C S e c t i o n , R RVP N L , 4 0 0
kv GSS Heerapura, Jaipur . For their coordination & support in problem solving .I am also thankful to
Mr. Praveen Khaliya (H.O.D., Electrical & Electronics
Engineering) because he encouraged me throughout the
practical training and helped to understood correctly.

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The objective or main motive of this practical


training is to getting a true practical knowledge
about the industries, that how their industrial
setups are held, how these are protected, and their
communication techniques used in industry
technologies to be made or used in the environment.
This report is presented on the basis of p
r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g acquired in 400 KV GSS
RRVPNL,Heerapura, Jaipur. This report is on with rele
vant diagrams &by their proper description &
explanation.

400 KV Grid Sub Stations, a high voltage


substation receiving electricity with minimum
transmission losses and forwarding the step
down voltage levels for further distribution to our
house holds. A training session out there will help
you understand the various devices used in
transmission, possible loses, and practical
approach of various aspects of transmission and
distribution. In spite of all my best efforts some

unintentional errors might have eluded, it is requested


to abrogated them.

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Content
1.Introduction
2.Yard equipment at 400 kv GSS
3.Power transformer
4.Bus bar
5.Circuit breaker
6.Lightning arrestor
7.Wave trap
8.Capacitive voltage transformer
9.Isolator
10.
Current transformer
11.
Earthing of system
12.
Protective relay
13.
Other equipment
14.
Transformer oil and its testing
15.
Control room
16.
Battery room
17.
Transformer repair shop
18.
Single line diagram
19.
Conclusion
20.
References

INTRODUCTION
When people talk about the electric power
industry, the focus of the conversation is usually

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on the power generation side of the business or


on the utilities. The power generation side
examines the extraction of fossil fuels,
alternative energy generation, oil spills, carbon
emissions, and nuclear power. The utilities side
focuses on the customer-oriented delivery side of
the business, from electricity bill surcharges to
outages in our electricity supply.
A third and often overlooked portion of the power
and energy industry is the transmission and
distribution space (T&D), an important cluster of
industries that include the production of
machinery, electric lines and transformers as well
as line management systems (such as "smartgrid" technology) that improve efficiency. These
are responsible for the actual delivery of the
electric powerno matter the generation source,
be it solar, gas, oil, wind or otherwiseto
commercial, private and industrial users in a
usable format. This describes the T&D space within the
energy economy and then summarizes the challenges yet
tremendous growth potential for this cluster of industries
given the aging infrastructure and rapid technological
advancement of the developing world.
Understanding Key Elements of the T&D Space
The T&D market supplies equipment, services and production
systems for energy markets. The initial stage in the process is
converting power from a generation source (coal, nuclear,
wind, etc.) into a high voltage electrical format that can be
transported using the power grid, either overhead or

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underground. This transformation occurs very close to the


source of the power generation. The second stage occurs when
this high-voltage power is stepped-down by the use of
switching gears and then controlled by using circuit breakers
and arresters to protect against surges. This medium voltage
electrical power can then be safely distributed to urban or
populated areas. The final stage involves stepping the power
down to useable voltage for the commercial or residential
customer (see Figure 1).

Figure 1: Transmission and Distribution Grid Structure


within the Power Industry

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Figure-1
(Source: U.S. Department of Energy. "Benefits of Using Mobile
Transformers and Mobile Substations for Rapidly Restoring
Electric Service: A Report to the United States Congress
Pursuant to Section 1816 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005."
2006.)

In short, while power generation relates to the installed


capacity to produce energy from an organic or natural
resource, the T&D space involves the follow up post-power
generation production as systems and grids are put in place
to transport this power to end users. While the T&D space

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does not perfectly follow typical industrial classification


systems, its primary industries can be loosely distinguished
from power generation.
Despite its name, only part of the electric power distribution
industry belongs to the T&D space and most of it to the
generation and utilities group since it includes a substantial
number of traditional utility businesses that focus exclusively
on the sale of electricity via power distribution systems
operated by others.
The T&D space is estimated to have a market share of over
$50 billion globally and can be divided into four main
segments, according to the organizational structure used by
AREVA.
Products: Manufacture of high and medium voltage
power and distribution transformers. The drivers for this
market are the aging T&D infrastructure, load growth
from sprawl, deregulation and general industrial growth.
Services: Support for the products and systems sold
throughout its lifecycle, usually contracts for repair and
maintenance. The drivers for this segment are aging
infrastructure, preventative maintenance and general
outsourcing.
Systems: Research and development of turnkey
substations, electronics for direct current substations and
systems to increase grid capacity and quality. This fast
growing market is primarily driven by an increased need

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for power electronics, network efficiency, reliability, and


new sources for renewable energy.
Automation: Products to detect failures, ruptures and
general protection arenas. This may also include systems
for substation and energy management or for remote
management for the power grid.
Sub-Station

Electric power is generated, transmitted and distributed in the


form of alternating current. The electric power produced at the
power stations is delivered to the consumers through a large
network of transmission & distribution.
The transmission network is inevitable long and high power
lines are necessary to maintain a huge block of power from
source of generation to the load centers to inter connected.
Power house for increased reliability of supply greater.
The assembly of apparatus used to change some
characteristics (e.g. voltage, ac to dc, frequency, power factor
etc.) of electric supply keeping the power constant is called a
sub-station.
Depending on the constructional feature, the high voltage
sub-stations may be further subdivided:
a) Outdoor substation.
b) Indoor substation.
c) Basement or Underground substation.

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Figure-2
400 KV G.S.S. HEERAPURA
1) It is an outdoor type substation.
2) It is primary as well as distribution substation.
3) One and half breaker scheme is applied.
FEEDERS
1) One feeder of 220kv KTPS1
2) One feeder of 400kv Bassi-I
3) One feeder of 220kv Kota(S)III
4) One feeder of 400kv Bassi-II
5) One feeder of 400kv Merta
6) One feeder of 220kv Sanganer

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At this substation following feeders are established:


TIE FEEDERS.
RADIAL FEEDERS.
TIE FEEDERS:
There are feeders as follows.
1.220 KV KOTA-JAIPUR 1st & 2nd
2. Inter- state 220KV KOTA DELHI
1. Tie from 220 KV Heerapura.
2. 220KV KTPS first & second.
3. Inter- state 400 kV Bassi- Heerapura- I & II
RADIAL FEEDERS
220 KV JAIPUR KOTA 1st & 2nd feeders

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YARD EQUIPMENT AT 400 KV GSS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Power Transformers
Bus Bar
Circuit Breakers
Isolators
Current Transformers
Capacitor Voltage Transformers (CVT) /
Potential Transformers (PT)
Insulators
Lightning Arresters
Wave Traps
Line Traps
Capacitor Banks
Earthing
Battery Room
Control & Relay Panels
Control Room

POWER TRANSFORMER
The transformer is a static apparatus, which receives
power/energy at it, one circuit and transmits it to other circuit
without changing the frequency. With this basic conception
we can use the voltages at our desired level while utilizing the
power. As, the voltage used to generate at modern power
houses at 11 KV or so and afterwards we get it step up at a
level of 33 KV, 66 KV, 132 V, 220 KV or 400 KV, 750 KV for

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transmission to minimize the distribution losses. Again we


get it step down with the help of transformer to use at our
wishes at 11 KV, 6.6 KV or even 415, 230 volts at our houses.

Figure-3: Basic transformer circuit


BASIC PARTS OF TRANSFORMER
The following are the inherent parts of a modern day
transformer:
1. Primary and secondary coils (circuit) or windings.
2. Core
3. Main Tank
4. Conservator
5. Breather
6. Radiator
7. Buchholz relay
8. Explosive vent
9. Bushings (HT & LT) (Primary or secondary)
10. Cooling fans

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11. Tap changer (on load and off load)


12. NGR (Neutral Grounding Resistance) to minimize the
earth fault current
GAS OPERATED RELAY:The relay is located in the pipe between the main tank and
conservator. In case of fault such as insulation was creating
impulse failures fall of oil level produces gases. This rises and
accumulated in the upper part of the housing consequently the
oil level falls down and the float sinks thereby tilling the
mercury switch. The conducts are closed and alarm circuit is
energized. Bachholz protection is always used in conjunction
with some other forms of electricity operated protective gears
as it can unity operate for truly internal transformer faults and
does not respond to external bushings or cable faults.
SILICA GEL BREATHER:A silica gel breather is employed as a measurement of
preveusing moisture in gress. It is connected to the
conservator tank which is filled to transformer to allow for
changes in volume due to temperature variation.
FILTER: - Filter is intended for prolonging like water acid etc
from oil. .
TRANSFORMER OIL:In transformer, the insulating oil provides an insulating
medium as well as a heat transferring medium that carry away
heat produced in the winding and iron core.
The life of the transformer depends chiefly upon the quality of
the insulating oil. So high quality insulating oil are used. It
should meet the following requirements: It should be provide good transfer of heat.
It should provide high electric strength.

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It should have low velocity.


Flash point of the oil must be high.
Also fire point should be high.

Figure-4
DESCRIPTION OF PLANT:
The three transformer are oil immersed with rating of 250
MVA & one with 315 MVA. However a synchronous loading
of 100MVA at 0.8 power factor (lag) and 18 MVA 0.8 pf (lag)
on the tertiary can also be loaded to 20MVA loading with
100MVA 0.8 pf on LV without exceeding the generated
temperature rise.
The transformer is also provided with a separate bank of
radiation, fans, and associated control equipments. The
control equipments are housed in a tank mounted miscalling.

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Figure- 5

RATING DATAS.
Type of cooling:
ONAN / ONAF/ ODAF
Capacity (MVA ):
HV:

189 / 252 / 315

IV:

189 / 252 / 315

LV:

63 / 84 / 105

VOLTS
HV: 400 KV
IV: 220 KV
LV: 33 KV
LINE AMPERES

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HV:

273 / 364 / 455

IV:

497 / 662 / 828

LV:

1104 / 1471 /1839

IMPEDANCE VOLTAGE
HV to IV 12.65% on 315 MVA Base
HV to LV 39.16 % on 315MVA Base
IV to LV

26.66 % on 315 MVA Base

YEAR OF MANUFACTURE: 1985


NUMBER OF PHASES:
Three

HV, LV, IV

FREQUENCY IN Hz :
50 Hz
Specifications:
Mass of Core & Windings:
Mass of Oil:
Total weight:
Oil in tank:

1,32,000 kg
65,150 kg
261,200 kg
73,200 kg

Oil in radiator:

8400 kg

Oil in tap changer:

83,850 kg

Transportation mass:

168,000 kg

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Unmaking height:
Unmaking mass

7760 mm
18000 Kg

Guaranteed maximum temperature rise of:


Oil

45C

Winding

50C

COOLING FANS:
Rating:

2000 m3 of air per minute.

Type:

915 mm dial GEC (India) make.

Numbers per transformer: two


Fan motor:

direct on line starts weather proof.


Squirrel cage IM 1400 W 400/440
Volt 3- , 50 Hz 720 rpm

PUMPS:
Rating:

1818 liters per minute.

Type:

a landless A to 8c sentiment.

Number of pump per transformer: one working, one standby.


Pump motor:

direct on line starts weather proof.


Squirrel cage IM

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BUS BARS
Bus Bars are the common electrical component through
which a large no. of feeders operating at same voltage have to
be connected.
If the bus bars are of rigid type (Aluminum types) the
structure heights are low and minimum clearance is required.
While in case of strain type of bus bars suitable ACSR
conductors are strung / tensioned by tension insulator discs
according to system voltages. In the widely used strain type
bus bars stringing tension is about 500 - 900 kg depending
upon the size of conductor used.
Here proper clearance would be achieved only if require
tension is achieved. Loose bus bars would effect the
clearances when it swings while over tensioning may damage
insulators. Clamps or even effect the supporting structures in
low temperature conditions.The clamping should be proper, as
loose clamp would spark under in full load condition
damaging the bus bars itself.

BUS BAR ARRANGEMENT MAY BE OF FOLLOWING


TYPES WHICH ARE BEING ADOPTED BY R.R.V.P.N.L

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The commonly used bus bar schemes at Sub Stations are:


a) Single bus bar.
b) Main and Auxiliary bus bar.
c) Double bus bar.
d) Double Main and Auxiliary bus bar
e) One and a half breaker scheme.
SINGLE BUS BAR ARRANGEMENT:
This is the simplest switching scheme in which each circuit
is provided with one circuit breaker. This arrangement
offers little security against bus bar faults and no switching
flexibility resulting into quite extensive outages of bus bar
and frequent maintenance of bus bar isolator(s). The entire
Sub Station is lost in case of a fault on the bus bar or on any
bus bar isolator and also in case of maintenance of the bus
bar. Another disadvantage of this switching scheme is that
in case of maintenance of circuit breaker, the associated
feeder has also to be shutdown.

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Figure- 6
MAIN AND AUXILIARY BUS ARRANGEMENT:
This is technically a single bus bar arrangement with an
additional bus bar called Auxiliary bus energized from
main bus bars through a bus coupler circuit, i.e., for n
number of circuits, it employs n + 1 circuit breakers. Each
circuit is connected to the main bus bar through a circuit
breaker with isolators on both sides and can be connected to
the auxiliary bus bar through an isolator. The additional
provision of bus coupler circuit (Auxiliary bus) facilitates
taking out one circuit breaker at a time for routine overhaul
and maintenance without de energizing the circuit
controlled by that breaker as that circuit then gets energized
through bus coupler breaker.
As in the case of single bus arrangement, this scheme also
suffers from the disadvantages
that in the event of a fault on the main bus bar or the
associated isolator, the entire substation is lost. This bus

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arrangement has been extensively used in 132 kV Sub


Stations. Figure- 7

DOUBLE BUS BAR ARRANGEMENT:


In this scheme, a double bus bar arrangement is provided.
Each circuit can be connected to either one of these bus
bars through respective bus bar isolator. Bus coupler
breaker is also provided so that the circuits can be switched
on from one bus to the other on load. This
scheme suffers from the disadvantage that when any circuit
breaker is taken out for maintenance, the associated feeder
has to be shutdown.
This Bus bar arrangement was generally used in earlier 220
kV sub stations.
Figure 8

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DOUBLE MAIN AND AUXILIARY BUS BAR


ARRANGEMENT:
The limitation of double bus bar scheme can be overcome
by using additional Auxiliary bus, bus coupler breaker and
Auxiliary bus isolators. The feeder is transferred to the
Auxiliary bus during maintenance of its controlling circuit
breaker without affecting the other circuits.
This Bus bar arrangement is generally used nowadays in
220 kV sub stations. Figure 9

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ONE AND A HALF BREAKER ARRANGEMENT:


In this scheme, three circuit breakers are used for
controlling two circuits which are connected between two
bus bars. Normally, both the bus bars are in service.
A fault on any one of the bus bars is cleared by opening of
the associated circuit breakers connected to the faulty bus
bar without affecting continuity of supply. Similarly, any
circuit breaker can be taken out for maintenance without
causing interruption. Load transfer is achieved through the

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breakers and, therefore, the operation is simple. However,


protective relaying is somewhat more involved as the
central (tie) breaker has to be responsive to troubles on
either feeder in the correct sequence. Besides, each element
of the bay has to be rated for carrying the currents of two
feeders to meet the requirement of various switching
operations which increases the cost. The breaker and a half
scheme is best for those substations which handle large
quantities of power and where the orientation of out going
feeders is in opposite directions. This scheme has been used
in the 400 kV substations.

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Figure10

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CIRCUIT BREAKERS
Thus circuit breakers are used for switching & protection of
various parts of power system. Circuit breaker is a piece of
equipment, which can
1) Make or break a circuit either manually or automatically
under normal condition.
2) Break a circuit automatically under fault condition
3) Make a circuit either manually or by remote control
under fault conditions.
OPERATING PRINCIPLES
A C.B. consists of fixed and moving contacts called
electrodes. Under normal operating conditions, these contacts
remain closed and will not open automatically until and unless
the system becomes faulty. When a fault occurs on any part of
the system, the trip coils of the circuit breaker get energised
and the moving contacts are pulled apart, thereby opening the
circuit.
When the contacts of the C.B. are seperated under fault
conditions, an arc is struck between them. The current is thus
able to continue until the discharge ceaeses. The production of
arc not only delays the current interruption process but it also
generates enormous heat which may cause damage to the
system or to the C.B.
It is thus necessary to extinguish the arc within the shortest
possible time so that the heat generated by it may not reach a
dangerous value.

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ARC PHENOMENON
When a short circuit occurs, a heavy current flows through the
contacts of the C.B. before they are opened by the protective
system. At the instant when the contacts begin to separate, the
contact area decreases rapidly and large fault current causes
increased current density and hence rise in temperature. The
heat produced in the medium between contacts is sufficient to
ionize the arc or vaporize and ionize the oil. The ionized air or
vapour acts as conductor and an arc is set between the
contacts. The potential difference between the contacts is
quite small and is sufficient to maintain the arc. the arc
provides a low resistance path and as a result the current in the
circuit remains uninterrupted so long as the arc persists.
During the arcing period the current flowing between the
contacts depends on the arc resistance. The greater the arc
resistance, the smaller the current that flows between the
contacts. The arc resistance depends upon:
(i) Degree of ionization.
(ii) Length of arc.
(iii) Cross section of arc.
CLASSIFICATION OF THE CIRCUIT BREAKERS:
There are several ways of classifying the circuit breakers.
However, the most general way of classification is on the
basis of medium used for arc extinction.
The medium used for arc extinction is usually oil, air, sulphur
hexafluoride (SF6) or vacuum.

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Accordingly, circuit breakers may be classified into:


They are generally classified on the basis of the medium used
for arc elimination
(i) Oil circuit breakers, which employ some insulating oil for
arc extinction.
(ii) Air-blast circuit breakers in which high pressure air blast
is used for extinguishing the arc.
(iii) Sulphur hexa fluroide C.B. in which SF6 gas is used for
arc extinction.
(iv) Vacuum C.B. in which vacuum is used for arc extinction.
SULPHUR HEXAFLOURIDE (SF6) CIRCUIT
BREAKER
In such breakers, sulphur hexaflouride (SF6) gas is used as the
arc quenching medium. The sf6 is an electro-negative gas and
has a strong tendency to absorb free electrons. The SF6 circuit
breakers have been found to be very effective for high power
and high voltage service.
CONSTRUCTION
The cylindrical large size steel tanks are mounted horizontally
parallel to each other. Each tank consists of SF6 under
pressure. The interruption is of multi break type & is placed
along the axis of each tank. The interruption assembly is
supported inside the tank by the vertical bushing, which are
mounted near the end of each tank. Gas at high pressure is
supplied to the interrupter from a gas reservoir.

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The bushing are also insulated with SF6 the conductor is in


the from of copper tube supported at both end by porcelain
shields. SF6 gas is supplied from the high pressure tanks.
Shields are provided with gasket seals to eliminate leakage of
gas from beginnings.

Figure 11
WORKING

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In the closed position of the breaker the contacts remain


surrounded by SF6 gas at a pressure of about 2.8 kg/sq cm.
When the breaker operates, the moving contact is pulled apart
and an arc is struck between the contacts. The
movement of the moving contact is synchronised with the
opening of a valve which permits SF6 gas at 14kg/sq cm
pressure from the reservoir to the arc interruption chamber.
the high pressure flow of SF6 rapidly absorbs the free
electrons in the arc path to form immobile negative ions
which are ineffective as charge carriers. The result is that the
medium between the contacts quickly builds up high dielectric
strength and causes the extinction of the arc. After
the breaker operation the valve is closed by the action of a set
of springs.
400 KV SF6 C.B. [RATINGS]: Manufacture:
Hyderabad.

BHEL

Type:

3AT3

Rated voltage:
440 KV.

Normally 420 KV, maximum

Rated frequency:
50 HZ.
Rated power frequency: voltage:
520 /610 KVp
Rated Impulse withstand voltage:
Lightning:
1425KV
Switching:
1050KV

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Rated normal current:

2000 A

Normal current rating:At 50 c ambient:

2240Amps

At 40 c ambient:

2500Amps

Short time current rating:


Rated operating duty:

40 KA for 3 sec.
0 to 0.3 sec. c-0-3min-mb.

Rated short circuit duration:

1 sec.

BREAKING CAPACITY [BASED ON SPECIFIED


DUTY CYCLE]:
(a) Capacity at rated voltage:
[440KV].

29000MVA

(b) Symmetry current:

40 KA.

(c) Asymmetry current:

51.4KA.

Making capacity:

100KA [peak]

Rated pressure of hydraulic operating (gauge): 250-350bar.


Rated pressure of SF6 gas at degree:
Weight of complete breaker:

7.5bars.
11700 Kg.

Weight of SF6 gas:

76.5Kg.

Rated trip coil voltage:

220 V. AC.

Rated closing voltage:

220 V. DC.

First poll to clear factor:

1.3

ADVANTAGES OF SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKER:


1. Due to the superior arc quenching property of SF6, such
circuit breakers have very short arching time.

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2. Since the dielectric strength of SF6 gas is 2 to 3 times that


of air, such breakers can interrupt much larger currents.
3. The SF6 circuit breakers gives noiseless operation due to its
closed gas circuit and no exhaust to the atmosphere unlike
the air blast circuit breaker.
4. The closest gas enclosure keeps the interior dry so that
there is no moisture problem.
5. There is on risk of fire in such breakers because SF6 gas is
not inflammable. There are no carbon deposits so that
tracking and insulation problems are eliminated.
6. The SF6 breakers have low maintenance cost, light
foundation requirement and minimum auxiliary equipment.
7. Since SF6 breakers are totally enclosed and sealed from
atmosphere they are particularly suitable where explosion
hazard exists e.g., coal mines.
DEMERITS OF SF6 CIRCUIT BREKER:
1. Sealing problems arise due to the type of the construction
used.
2. The presence of moisture in the system is very dangerous
to SF6
3. circuit breaker.
4. Arced Sf6 gas is poisonous & should not be let out.
5. The double pressure SF6 CB is cost liner due to complex
gas system.
6. 5. The internal parts should be cleaned thoroughly during
periodic maintenance under clean dry environment.
7. Dust of Teflon & sulfide should be removed.
8. Special facilities are needed for transporting the gas.
APPLICATIONS

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SF6 C.B. have been developed for voltages 115 KV to 230


KV, power ratings 10 MVA to 20 MVA and interrupting time
less than 3 cycles.
S.N

I.E.

O
1

MAK

TYPE

VOLTAGE

E
552

3AT3

CURRE

STC

NT
3AT3

420/520

2000A

D
40KA/S 7.5/35

A
2

552

SF6/HY

0
DO

DO

DO

DO

DO

DO

MG

FAR2

DO

3150A

DO

7/300

452

NGE

S2M42

420/610/14 2000A

DO

8/35

25

252

BHEL 3AT3

DO

7.5/35

T
3

552
B

A
6

252
B

420/520/10 DO
50

ABB

EL(V)

420/1050

0
3150

40KA/3 7/31.5
S

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Figure-12 ( 400 kV SF6 live tank circuit breakers)


LIGHTENING ARRESTORS

An electric discharge between cloud and earth, between cloud


and the charge centers of the same cloud is known as
lightening.
The earthing screens and the ground wires can well protect the
electrical system against direct lightening strokes but they fail
to provide protection against travelling waves which may
reach the terminal apparatus. The lightening arrestors or the
surge diverters provide protections against such surges.
THYRITE TYPE:
Ground wire run over the tower provides an
adequate protection against lighting and reduce the induced
electrostatic or electromagnetic voltage but such a shield is

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inadequate to protect any traveling wave, which reaches the


terminal of the electrical equipment, and such wave can cause
the following damage.

the high peak of the surge may cause a flashover in the


internal wiring thus it may spoil the insulation of the
winding .

the steep wave front may cause internal flash over


between their turns of transformer.

The stop wave front resulting into resonance and high


voltage may cause internal or external flashover
causing building up the oscillator is the electrical
operation.

Figure-13( Lightening arrestors)


Lightening arrestors are provided between the line and earth
provided the protection against traveling wave surge the
thyrite lightening arrestor are provided at GSS. This type of
LA has a basic cell made of thirties, which is a particular type
of clay, mixed with carborendum. Thirties has a particular
property of being insulator one voltage.

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At high voltage It will behave like a conducting material the


electrical resistance of thyrite depends upon the voltage each
time the voltage is made twice the resistance decrease in such
a manner as to allow an increased current of 12.5 times the
change in current is independent of rate of application voltage
and its instantaneous value.
The above law is followed by this material without any limit
on the voltage increase and after the surge has passed the
thyrite againretain its original property

A standard cell is rated for 1KV and is formed into a disc,


which is sprayed on both the sides of to give good contact
with each disc. The dimensions of the discs are stacked i.e. 16
cm in diameter and 17.5 cm thick these discs are stacked one
upon each other and they are further placed in to a porcelien
container with a suitable arrangement of gap between them.
These gaps serves as the purpose of preventing any
current flow during normal operating voltage in case of any
transients the gap are punctured. The Thyrite type arrestor will
discharge several thousands ampere without the slightest
tendency of flashover on the edges of most important of the
advance is that there is absolutely no time lag in its
performance.
400KV LIGHTNENIG ARRESTOR
manufacture: English electric company
Type:LSM

Page 39 of 72

Year:201
no of phases: one
rated voltage: 360 KV
nominal discharge current

(820s) 10KA

high current impulse(4110 s ) 100KA


long duration rating(200 s)

500KA

Sno

Ie

Make

Type

Current

Voltage

Bassi1

Wsi

Cpl

10KA

360KV

bassi2

Elpro

Alugard2 10KA

360KV

ILT1

Elpro

Alugard2 10KA

360KV

ILT2

Elpro

Alugard2 10KA

360KVh

ILT3

WSI

CDV303 10KA

398KV

ILT4

WSI

CDV03

398KV

10KA

Page 40 of 72

WAVE TRAP
Line trap also is known as Wave trap. It is used to trap the
communication signals & send PLCC room through CVT.
Rejection filters are known as the line traps consisting of a
parallel resonant circuit ( L and C in parallel) tuned to the
carrier frequency are connected in series at each and of the
protected line such a circuit offer high impedance to the flow
of carrier frequency current thus preventing the dissipation.
The carrier current used for PLC Communication have to be
prevented from entering the power equipments such as
attenuation or even complete loss of communication signals.
For this purpose wave trap or line trap are used between
transmission line and power station equipment toAvoid carrier power dissipation in the power plant reduce
cross talks with other PLC Circuits connected to the same
power station.
Ensure proper operating conditions and signal levels at the
PLC transmit receive equipment irrespective of switching
conditions of the power circuit and equipments in the
stations.

Figure-14(Wave Trap)

Page 41 of 72

CAPACITIVE VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS (CVT)


Capacitive voltage transformers are special kind of power
transformers using capacitors to step down the voltage.
DESCRIPTION:
The capacitive voltage transformer comprises of a capacitor
divider with its associated electromagnetic unit. The divider
provides an accurate proportioned voltage, while the magnetic
unit transforms this voltage, in both magnitude and phase to
convenient levels suitable for measuring, metering, protection
etc. all WSI capacitor units has metallic bellows to
compensate the volumetric expansion of oil inside. The
porcelain in multi unit stack, all the potential points are
electrically tied and suitably shielded to overcome the effect
of corona RIV etc. Capacitive voltage transformers are
available for system voltages of 33 KV to 420KV.

Figure-15

Page 42 of 72

APPLICATION:
1. Capacitive voltage transformers can be effectively as
potential sources for measuring ,metering, protection,
carrier communication and other vital functions of an
electrical network.
2. CVT are constructed in single or multi unit porcelain
housing with there associated magnetic units. For EHV
systemcuts are always supplied in multi unit
construction.
3. In case of EHV cuts the multi unit system has many
advantage easy to transport and storing, convenience in
handling.
RATING OF CVT
Voltage:

22/sqrt 3 KV

Total o/p: 500MVA


Operating voltage: 400/sqrt 3 max.
Voltage factor: 1.5/30 sec.
Test voltage:

630 KV for 1 min

Impulse withstands voltage: 1.2/ 50 s. 1425KV max.


Frequency :

50Hz

High frequency capacitance: 4400pF


Primary capacitance:

4657pF

Secondary capacitance: 80000 pF

Page 43 of 72

S Ie
no
1

Make

Bassi Wsi/cve/42
0

Ratio Burden
400

/1425
2

Bassi Wsi/cve/42
2
0

Bus
1

Wsi/cve/42
0

400

Bus
2

Wsi/cve/42
0
/1425

80000p
f

200,200 3p,3p,0.
,
5

80000p
f

100
400

/1425
4

200,200 3p,3p,0.
,
5

Sec cap

100

/1425
3

Class

200,200 3p,3p,0.
,
5

80000p
f

100
400

200,200 3p,3p,0.
,
5
100

80000p
f

Page 44 of 72

ISOLATORS
Isolators which are also called disconnect switches or air
break switches after the assembly as per drawings on the
leveled structures the adjustment of connecting pipes, moving
and fixed contacts is done so that all the three phase of the
isolator close and open simultaneously and there is a full
surface contact between moving and fixed contacts. Such
switches are generally used on both sides of equipment in
order that repairs and replacement of the equipment can be
made without any danger. They should never be opened until
the equipment in the same circuit has been turned off and
should always be closed before the equipment is turned on.
The adjustment of the tendon pipes leveling of post
insulator, stop holts in the fixed contacts etc. is done for
smooth operation of insulator. Following type of insulator
are being used in R.S.E.Ba) Isolator without earth blades.
b) Isolator with earth blade.
c) Tendon isolator.
Isolators are file with earthing blades as an integral part of it.
They may be isolators with single ear thing blades or two
earthling blades on either side of it. The isolators used at 220
KV GSS,Bharatpur have single earthing blades either side of
it.They must only be opened or closed when current is zero.
Isolators are classified into following categories.
1. Bus isolator

Page 45 of 72

2. Line isolator
3. Transformer isolating switch

Figure-16 (400 kv isolator)


SPECIFICATIONS (air break isolator):-

SPECMO

CC-141036

Page 46 of 72

Type
Voltage
Rated AMPS
Short Time AMPS
Impulse Voltage
DC Voltage
Auxiliary Voltage
Mech Term Load
Motor Voltage
Type

MAIN/ MGB
420 KV
2000 A
40 KA/S
1425 KV
220 V
220 VDC
160 KG
415 VAC
RC-500MCR

Page 47 of 72

INSULATORS
The insulators for the overhead lines provide insulation to
the power conductors from the ground so that currents from
conductors do not flow to earth through supports. The
insulators are connected to the cross arm of supporting
structure and the power conductors passes through the
clamp of the insulator. The insulators provide necessary
insulation between line conductors and supports and thus
prevent any leakage current from conductors to earth. In
general, the insulators should have the following desirable
properties:
1. High mechanical strength in order to withstand conductor
load, wind load etc.
2. High electrical resistance of insulator material in order to
avoid leakage currents to earth.
3. High relative permittivity of insulator material in order that
dielectric strength is high.
4. The insulator material should be non porous, free from
impurities and cracks otherwise the permitivity will be
lowered.
5. High ratio of puncture strength to flash over.
These insulators are generally made of glazed porcelain or
toughened glass. Poly come type insulators [solid core] are
also being supplied in place of hast insulators if available
indigenously. The design of the insulator is such that the
stress due to contraction and expansion in any part of the
insulator does not lead to any defect. It is desirable not to

Page 48 of 72

allow porcelain to come in direct contact with a hard metal


screw thread.
TYPES OF INSULATORS:
There are three types of insulators used for overhead lines:
1. Pin type- pin type insulator consists of a single or
multiple shells adapted to be mounted on a spindle to be
fixed to the cross arm of the supporting structure.
When the upper most shell is wet due to rain the lower
shells are dry and provide sufficient leakage resistance.
These are used for transmission and distribution of electric
power at voltage up to voltage 33KV. Beyond operating
voltage of 33KV the pin type insulators thus become too
bulky and hence uneconomical.

Figure-17
2. Suspension type- suspension type insulators consist of a
number of porcelain disc connected in series by metal
links in the form of a string. Its working voltage is 66KV.
Each disc is designed for low voltage for 11KV.

Page 49 of 72

Figure-18
3. Strain insulator- the strain insulators are exactly identical
in shape with the suspension insulators. These strings are
placed in the horizontal plane rather than the vertical
plane. These insulators are used where line is subjected
to greater tension. For low voltage lines (<11kV) shackle
insulators are used as strain insulator.

Figure-19
CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Page 50 of 72

These transformers are used with low range ammeter to


measure currents in high voltage alternating current
circuits where it is not practicable to connect instruments
and meters directly to lines. In addition to insulating the
instrument from the high voltage line, they step down the
current in the known ratio. The current (or series)
transformers has a primary coil of 1 or more turns of
thick wires connected in series with the line whose
current is to be measured. The secondary consist of a
large number of turns of fine wire and is connected
across the ammeter terminals (usually of 5 amp bracket
should be removed or 1 amp range)

Figure-20
Current transformers are used extensively for measuring
current and monitoring the operation of the power grid.

Page 51 of 72

Along with voltage leads, revenue-grade CTs drive the


electrical utility's watt-hour meter on virtually every
building with three-phase service and single-phase
services greater than 200 amps.
The CT is typically described by its current ratio from
primary to secondary. Often, multiple CTs are installed
as a "stack" for various uses. For example, protection
devices and revenue metering may use separate CTs to
provide isolation between metering and protection
circuits, and allows current transformers and different
characteristics (accuracy, overload performance) to be
used for the devices.
The accuracy of a CT is directly related to a number of
factors including:
Burden
Burden class/saturation class
Rating factor
Load
External electromagnetic fields
Temperature and
Physical configuration.
The selected tap, for multi-ratio CTs

Page 52 of 72

1
2
3

EARTHING OF THE SYSTEM:


The provision of an earthling system for an electric system is
necessary by the following reason.
In the event of over voltage on the system due to lightening
discharge or other system fault. These parts of equipment,
which are normally dead, as for as voltage, are concerned
do not attain dangerously high potential.
In a three phase, circuit the neutral of the system is earthed
in order to stabilize the potential of circuit with respect to
earth.
The resistance of earthling system is depending on
Shape and material of earth electrode used.
Depth in the soil
Specific resistance of soil surrounding in the neighborhood
of system electrodes.
PROCEDURE OF EARTHING:
Technical consideration the current carrying path should have
enough capacity to deal with more faults current. The
resistance of earth and current path should be low enough to
prevent voltage rise between earth and neutral. The earth
electrode must be driven into the ground to a sufficient depth
to as to obtain lower value of earth resistance. To sufficient
lowered earth resistance a number of electrodes are inserted in
the earth to a depth they are connected together to form a
mesh. The resistance of earth should be for the mesh in
generally inserted in the earth at 0.5m depths the several point
of mesh then connected to earth electrode or ground
conduction. The earth electrode is metal plate copper is used
for earth plate.
Neutral Earthing:

Page 53 of 72

Neutral earthing of power transformer all power system


operates with grounded neutral. Grounding of neutral offers
several advantages the neutral point of generator transformer
is connected to earth directly or through a reactance in some
cases the neutral points is earthed through an adjustable
reactor of reactance matched with the line. The earthling is
one of the most important feature of system design for
switchgear protection neutral grounding is important because:
1
2
3

The earth fault protection is based on the method of


neutral earthling.
The neutral earthling is associated switchgear.
The neutral earthling is provided for the purpose of
protection arcing grounds unbalanced voltages with
respect to protection from lightening and for
improvement of system.

PROTECTIVE RELAYS

Page 54 of 72

A Protective relay is a device that detects the fault and


initiates the operation of the circuit breaker to isolate the
defective element from the rest of the system.
The relays detect the abnormal condition in the electrical
circuits by constantly measuring the electrical quantities i.e.
voltage, current, frequency, phase angle which are different
under normal and fault conditions. Having detected the fault,
the relay operates to close the trip circuit of the breaker, which
results in opening of the breaker and disconnection of the
faulty circuit.

Relay circuit connections can be divided in three parts:


1.) Primary winding of a C.T. that is connected in series with
the line to be protected.
2.) Secondary winding of C.T. and the relay operating coil.
3.)Third part is the tripping circuit, which may be either a.c.
or d.c. . It consists of a source of a supply, the trip coil of a
circuit breaker and the relays stationary contacts.

Page 55 of 72

When a short circuit occurs at point F on the transmission


line the current increases to enormous value. This results in a
heavy current flow through the relay coil, causing the relay to
operate by closing its contacts. This in turn closes the trip
circuit of the breaker, making the C.B. open and isolating the
family section from the rest of the system. In this way, the
relay ensures the safety of the circuit equipment
from damage and normal working of the healthy portion of
the system.

Figure-21
Basic qualities that a protective relay must possess are:
1.) Selectivity
2.) Speed
3.) Sensitivity

Page 56 of 72

4.) Reliability
5.) Simplicity
6.) Economy
DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS
A differential relay is one that operates when the phasor
difference of two or more similar electrical quantities exceeds
a predetermined value.
Thus the current differential relay is one that compares the
current entering and current leaving the section. Under normal
operating conditions, the two currents are equal but as soon as
fault occurs, this condition is no longer applied.
The difference between the incoming and outgoing currents is
arranged to flow through the operating coil of the relay. If this
differential current is equal to or greater than the pick up
value, the relay will operate and open the C.B. to isolate the
faulty section.
BUCHHOLZ RELAY
It is a gas-actuated relay installed in oil immersed
transformers for protection against all kinds of faults. it is
used to give an alarm in case of incipient (i.e. slow
developing)faults in the transformer and to disconnect the
transformer from the supply in the event of severe internal
faults. it is usually installed in the pipe connecting the
conservator to the main tank. It is a universal practice to use
BUCHHOLZ relay on all such oil immersed transformers
having ratings in excess of 750kVA.
CONSTRUCTION

Page 57 of 72

It takes the form of a domed vessel pipe between the main


tank and the conservator. The device has two elements. the
upper element consists of a mercury type switch attached to a
float. The lower element contains a mercury switch mounted
on a hinged type flap located in the direct path of the flow of
oil from the transformer to the conservator the upper element
closes an alarm circuit during incipient faults whereas the
lower element is arranged to trip the circuit breaker in case of
server internal faults.

Figure- 22(Buchholz relay)


OPERATION
The operation of Buchholz relay is as follows:
(i)In case of incipient faults within the transformer, the heat
due to fault causes the decomposition of some transformer oil
in the main tank the products of decomposition contain more
than 70% of hydrogen gas. the hydrogen gas being light tries
to go into the conservator and in the process gets entrapped in
the upper part of the relay chamber. when a pre determined

Page 58 of 72

amount of gas gets accumulated, it exerts sufficient pressure


on the float to cause it tilt and close the contacts of the
mercury switch attached tom it.
This completes the alarm circuits to to sound an alarm.
(ii)If a serious fault occurs in the transformer, enormous
amount of gas is generated in the main tank. The oil in the
main tank rushes to the conservator via the Buchholz relay
and in doing so tilts the flap to close the contacts of the
mercury switch. This completes the trip circuit to open
the circuit breaker controlling the transformer.
ADVANTAGES
(i) It is the simplest form of transformer protection.
(ii) It detects the incipient faults at a stage much earlier than
possible with
other forms of protection.
DISADVANTAGES
(i) It can only be used with oil immersed transformers
equipped with conservator tanks.
(ii) The device can detect only faults below oil level in the
transformer. therefore separate protection is needed for
connecting cables.
Other Equipment
BUS COUPLERS
It is used to equalize the load on both Bus bars.
DISTURBANCE RECORDER
It records the distance& fault on graph with voltage w.r.t time.
EVENT LOGGER
it monitors as well as provides the details as a printed material.

Page 59 of 72

These details may contain the sequence of operation, switching time, closing
time etc.
ON LOAD TAP CHANGER (OLTC)
In this method a number of tappings are provided on the secondary of the
transformer. The voltage drop in the line is supplied by changing the secondary
emf of the transformer through the adjustment of its number of turns by using
transition resistor which are placed in between each tapping.
In supply system, tap changing has to be performed on load so that here is no
interruption to supply. By using transition resister therefore shut down is not
required.

Figure -23
NO LOAD TAP CHANGER (NLTC)
in this we change the tap manually for which we have to shut down the
transformer.When the load increases the voltage across the primary drops but
the secondary voltage can be kept at the previous value by placing the movable
arm on to a higher stud. Whenever a tapping is to be changed in this type of
transformer, the load is kept off and hence the name off load tap-changing
transformer.

SYNCHRONOSCOPE

Page 60 of 72

A synchronoscope is used to determine the correct instance of closing the switch


with connect the new supply to bus bar the correct instance of synchronizing is
indicated when bus bar and incoming voltage
* are equal in magnitude
* are equal in phase
* have the same frequency
the phase sequence is same

Page 61 of 72

TRANSFORMER OIL & ITS TESTING


The prime function of oil is to convey the heat from the core
and winding to the tank where it can be dissipated. Besides
these, the oil provides additional insulation between primary
and secondary windings. So, the oil must be completely free
from dirt, moisture and other un-wanted solid matter. The oil
used in the transformer is natural mineral oil and should
undergo the following tests if required:
BREAKDOWN VOLTAGE:
The voltage at which the oil breaks down when subjected
to an electric field.
FLASH POINT:
The temperature, at which the oil gives off so many vapors,
when mixed with air forms an ignitable mixture and gives a
momentary flash with small pilot flame.
For checking above values, various tests are done. These are
categorized as:
1. Physical test.
2. Chemical test.
3. Electrical test.

Page 62 of 72

The results must be close to standard results that are followsS.N


1.

TYPE OF TEST
Density (gm/cubic cm.)at

2.

27C

.85 to .89

3.

Flash point

>125C

4.

B.D.V Test K.V (rms.)

5.

Tan delta at 90C

6.

Water content (PPM.)

STD.
RESULTS

>50 KV
< 20%
25(max.)above 145KV

Gas contents (PPM.)


(a) Hydrogen

100 to150

(b) Methane

50 to 70

(c) Ethane

30 to 50

(d) Ethylene

100 to 150

(e) Acetylene

20 to 30

(f) Carbon dioxide


(h) Carbon mono-oxide

3000 to 3500
200 to300

Page 63 of 72

CONTROL ROOM
To remote control of power switch gear requires the provision
of suitable control plates located at a suitable point remote
from immediate vicinity of CBs and other equipments.
CONTROL PANEL

The diagram made on the control panel is known as mimic


diagram.
COLOUR CODING
* 33KV GREEN
* 132 KV BLACK
* 220KV BROWN
* 440 VOLTS VOILET/INDIGO
* 110 VOLTS ORANGE

At "GSS HEERAPURA" the separate control room provided


for remote protection of 400KV switch yards transformer
incoming feeder, outing feeders. Bus bar has their own control
plant in their control rooms. The control panel carrier the
appropriate relays. Necessary meters indicating lamp control
switches and fuses. There are meters for reading purpose. A
circuit concerning the panel is shown on the panel with
standard co lour.
On each panel a control switch is provided for remote
operation of circuit breaker. There are two indicators which
show that weather circuit breaker is closed or open. A control
switch for each insulator is also provided. The position
indicator of isolator is also done with the help of single lamp
and indicator. The colour of signal lamps are as follows :RED:- For circuit breaker or isolator is close option

Page 64 of 72

GREEN:-For CB or isolator in open position.


In addition to used indication an alarm is also providing for
indicating abnormal condition when any protective relay or
tripping relay has operated. Its constants energies on auxiliary
alarm. Relay which on operation completes the alarm belt
circuit.
Synchronizing:There is a hinged Synchronizing panel mounted at the end of
control panel. Before coupling any incoming feeders to the
bus bar. It just be Synchronized with switches. When the
synchronous copy shows zero we close the circuit breaker.
Synchronoscope:Synchronoscope is used to determine the correct instant of
closing the switch which connect the new supply to bus bar.
The correct instant of synchronizing when bus bar incoming
voltage.
a. Are in phase
b. Are equal in magnitude
c. Are in some phase sequence
d. Having same frequency
e. The voltage can be checked by voltmeter the function of
synchronoscope is to indicate the difference in phase and
frequency.
Energy Meter:These are fitted on different panel to record transmitted
energy and recorded in energy hours. For this purpose MWH
meter have been provided.

Page 65 of 72

Watt Meter:This is mounted on each feeder panel to record import or


export power.
Frequency Power:Provided to each feeder to measure frequency which analog or
digital.
Volt Meter :Provided on each panel or the purpose of indication of
voltage.
Ammeter:These are used to indication the line current.
MVAR Meter:Provided for indicating power factor of import and export.
Maximum Indicator Demand :Chief requirement of these indicators to record the minimum
power factor taken by feeder during a particular period. This
record the average power successive predetermined period.

BATTERY ROOM
There is a battery sexton or battery room which has 55
batteries of 2 volt each for 132KV section and 110 batteries

Page 66 of 72

for 220KV section. Therefore D.C. power available is for


functioning of the control panels. A battery charger to charge
the battery.
Various parts of lead acid batteries:o Plates
o Separators
o Electrolyte
o Container
o Terminal port
o Vent plugs
Charging of batteries:Initial charging-:
It is the first charging given to batteries by which the positive
plates are converted to lead peroxide, where as the ve
plates will converted to spongy lead.
Also in a fully charged battery the electrolyte specific gravity
will be at its highest venue or 1.2 and its terminal voltage will
be 24 volts
Discharging:When a fully charged battery delivers its energy out by
meeting a load the lead peroxide of the +ve plates slowly gets
converted to lead sulphate and the spongy lead of the ve
plates also gets converted into lead sulphate during this time
the specific gravity of the electrolyte also decreases the value
around 1.00 and the terminal voltage also decreases from its
initial to a lower value which may be around 1.85 or 1.8.
Transformer Repair Shop
SCOPE:

Page 67 of 72

This specification covers assessment and estimation for


repairs involved in complete repairs, testing, delivery and safe
custody of 3150 KVA, 5000 KVA & 8000 KVA rating of
33/11 KV copper wound power transformers of various
makes, types and capacities lying damaged at various
sites/circles stores of the
REPAIR WORK:
The repair work shall involve, opening of transformers cover,
draining of oil, de-tanking of core and coil assembly, cleaning,
washing of dust and dirt from all parts including core, tank
and cooling tubes radiators etc. joint inspection for
estimate, replacement of defective parts, providing locking
arrangement as per enclosed drawing on all valves & plugs,
assembly, stage inspection, re-tanking, filling fresh oil, oil
filtration, marking and painting etc. and testing the repaired
transformers for all the routine tests and heat run test as per
IS:2026/1977 with latest amendments.
REPLACEMENT OF PARTS:
This will involve removal of damaged parts requiring
replacement, supply of parts such as HV & LV leg coils,
bushings, gaskets, breather, oil level gauge, tapping switch, oil
drain and filter valves, cover bolts, plug cap and screws,
transformer oil etc., fittings, fixings and making connections
complete in all respect for satisfactory operations after repairs
in normal working conditions.
WINDINGS:
The damage winding requiring replacement shall be replaced
by windings identical to the original one in respect of cross

Page 68 of 72

section of conductor, No. of turns, diameter of coils,


insulation material etc. and that all coil assemblies of
identical voltage rating shall be interchangeable so that field
repairs of the windings can be made readily without special
equipment. The coils shall be supported, between adjacent
section by insulations, spacers and the barriers,
bracings and other insulation used in the assembly of the
windings and shall be arranged to ensure free circulation of
the oil and reduce hot spots in the winding.

Figure-24
(Transformer repair
shop)
Single Line Diagrams:
a) This diagram indicates the proposed bus bar arrangement
and relative positions of various equipments. There are
numerous variations of bus bar arrangement.

Page 69 of 72

b) The choice of a particular arrangement depends on various


factors viz. System voltage, position of the substation in the
system, flexibility, expected reliability of power supply and
cost.
c) The following technical consideration must be borne in
mind while deciding upon any one arrangement.
i. Simplicity is the key note of a dependable system
ii. Maintenance should be easy with minimum
interruption of supply
iii. Safety to the operating personnel
iv. Alternative arrangement should be available in the
event of an outage on any of the equipments or
sections of sub station
v. The layout should not hinder for expansion and/or
augmentation at a later date, to meet the future load
growth
vi. The installation should be as economical as possible
keeping in view of the requirements and continuity of
supply

Page 70 of 72

CONCLUSION
A technician needs to have not just theoretical but practical as well
and so every student is supposed to undergo a practical training
session after III year where I have imbibed the knowledge about
transmission, distribution, generation and maintenance with
economical issues related to it.

Page 71 of 72

During our 45 days training session we were acquainted with


the repairing of the transformers and also the testing of oil which is
a major component of transformer.
At last I would like to say that practical training taken at
400KV GSS has broadened my knowledge and has widened my
thinking as a professional.

Page 72 of 72