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Ajit Singh (died 15 August 1947): He was an uncle of Bhagat Singh, the well known
revolutionary. He was a very close associate of Lala Lajpat Rai, along with whom he was
arrested and deported to Mandalay. After his release he started a paper Peshwa and
founded the revolutionary Bharat Mata Society. In 1908 he escaped from India and from
1908 to 1947 he lived in various countries and worked with the Ghadar Party. On August 15,
1947 soon after his return home, he died.
Ambedkar Dr. B.R (1891-1956): He was an untouchable and throughout his life worked for
the moral and material progress of the untouchables. He was a great scholar who did M.Sc.
and DSc. from London. He was a great jurist by profession and equally a great social worker,
politician, writer and educationist. In 1924 he founded the Depressed Class- Institute and in
1927, the Samaj Samata Sangha, to propagate the gospel of social equality among
untouchables and caste Hindus. He launched a number of movements of securing equal
status for the lower castes. He was appointed the Law Minister in the interim government
and also Chairman of the Constituent Assembly’s Drafting Committee.

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Azad, Abul Kalam (1888-1958): He was born in Mecca. His father was a great mystic and- a
scholar of eminence and his Arab mother was the daughter of the Mufti of Madina. He had
traditional education and was a great scholar of Arabic, Persian, Urdu and Islamic theology
and adopted the pen-name of Azad at the age of 16. In 1909 he took to journalism and
published a number of papers such as Al-Nadwah, The Vakil, Al-Hilal, Al-Salagh. He was
elected President of the INC when only 35, the youngest to hold that office. In 1940, he was
elected a second time and continued to hold that position until June 1946. After
independence and until his death on 22 February, 1958, Azad. was Education Minister in
Nehru’s Cabinet. Azad’s famous autobiographical narrative India Wins Freedom is very
famous as well as controversial work to his credit.
Azad, Chandra Shekhar (1906-1931): One of the most famous revolutionaries from present
Uttar Pradesh. He was arrested during the non-cooperation - movement, but was flogged
for ridiculing the court during trial for telling his name as “Azad” his father’s Swatantra and
his home as “Prison”. From then he became famous as Azad. He was actively associated with
the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army and involved in a number of revolutionary and
terrorist cases such as Kakori Conspiracy, Lahore Conspiracy etc.

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Bardoli, Gopi Nath (1891-1946): Prominent nationalist leader, he actively
participated in the first Civil Disobedience Movement and was sentenced to one
year’s imprisonment. He held many high offices, connected with the municipal,
educational and Congress activities of the provinces. From 1942 to 1944 he was
kept in detention as a security prisoner under the Defence of India Rules.
Banerjee, Surendra Nath (1848-1925): He was a well known nationalist leader, a
popular journalist and a dedicated educationalist. He successfully complete for the
India Civil Services in 1869, but on technical grounds he was disqualified. However,
after a court judgement in his favour, he was inducted into the civil services, but
was-soon dismissed on flimsy grounds: After his dismissal, he plunged into the role
of public agitator fighting to redress the grievances of all those who had suffered.
He mooted the idea of holding ‘National Conference’ of representatives from
political associations all over the country. He was one of the founders of the I.N.C.
After the emergence of Mahatma Gandhi on the Indian political scene, he walked
out of the Congress in 1918.

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Besant, Annie (1846-1933). Irish by birth, she was a staunch supporter of India’s
struggle for freedom. She founded the Home Rule League in Madras in
Theosophical Society of India. She was the President of the Indian National
Congress for one term.
Bharati, Subramania (1882-1921): Eminent poet of Tamil renaissance; the title of
the Bharati was conferred on him by Raja of Ettayapuram (Tamil Nadu) when he
was only eleven (Bharati is a popular name of Saraswati, goddess- of learning);
associated with the extremists in the Congress; wrote songs in praise of gods and
notable personalities including Gandhiji and Guru Gobind Singh.
Bhave, Acharya Vinoba: A close associate of Mahatma Gandhi, he was the leader of
Sarvodaya and the Bhoodan Movements. He was also a staunch advocate of cow
protection. He was awarded Bharat Ratna Posthumously.

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Bismil, Ram Prasad (1897-1927): A martyr, he was born at Shahjahanpur, Uttar
Pradesh. He actively participated in the terrorist movement as a member of
Hindustan Socialist Republican Association Army, was arrested and sentenced to
death for participating in the Kakori Train dacoity on August 9, 1925. Composed the
famous revolutionary songs “sarfaroshi ki tamanna ab hamare dil mein hai’
dekhana hai zore kitna bazu-e-katil mein hai”.
Bose, Rash Behari (1886-1945): He was one of the great revolutionaries of the early
20th century. He came to limelight when he threw a bomb on the Viceroy’s
procession in Chandni Chowk, Delhi. After throwing the bomb, he managed to
escape from India and went to Japan. He played an important role in organising the
Indian National Army in Japan.
Banerjee, Woomesh Chandra (1844-1906): He was a successful lawyer, the first
President of Indian National Congress and the first Indian to contest election to the
British House of Commons. He was twice elected President (1885 and 1892) of the
INC and was a moderate in politics.

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Bose, Anand Mohan (1847-1906): A pioneering educationalist; social reformer and
nationalist of Bengal, he greatly strove to popularize the spread of education
among women. In 1883, he founded a national conference in Calcutta and launched
agitation to protest against the Vernacular Press Act and the Ilbert Bill. He was
President of the Madras Session of the INC (1898). During the last year of his life he
protested against the partition of Bengal.
Bose, Subhas Chandra (1897-1945): He was born at Cuttack (Orissa) and had his
higher education in Calcutta and at Cambridge. In 1920 he appeared in the ICS exam
in England and secured 4th position in order of merit. But much against the wishes
of his parents, he resigned from the ICS and returned home in July 1921. Soon after
reaching India, he joined the national movement and was detained during the Civil
Disobedience movement. He was elected President of the INC at Haripur (1938)
session and at Tripuri the following year, in the teeth of opposition of Gandhiji. In
April 1939, he left the Congress and organized the Forward Bloc and the Kisan
Sabha. In 1941,

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Chapekar, Balkrishna (1873-1899): A martyr, participated in the plot to kill Mr.
Rand, British Plague Commissioner of Poona, against whom there was great
resentment; was arrested tried and sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in
Yervada Jail, Poona on May 12, 1899.
Cama, Madame Bhikaji (1861.1936): The most well known revolution women leader
who joined V.D. Savarkar, Sardar Singh Rana etc. and organised Indian. Youth
outside India. To propagate the revolutionary ideas, she founded the Free India
Society and published Bande Mataram.
Das Chitranjan (Deshbandhu C.R.Ls) (1870-1925): He was a renowned nationalist
from Bengal and was a co-worker of Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobind Ghosh. In
1918, he was elected President of the INC. During the non-cooperation movement
he left his lucrative legal practice. His followers gave him the title of Desh Bandhu.
He was one of the founders of the Swaraj Party.

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Das, Jatindra Nath (1904-1929). One of the greatest revolutionaries, he was arrested on June
14, 1929, for complicit in the “Lahore Conspiracy Case”. Died in Lahore jail on September 13,
1929 after observing fast for 63 days.
Dayanand Saraswati (1824-1899): ‘A leading social reformer, he founded the Arya Samaj. In
his book ‘Satyartha Prakash’ he critically examined various ritualistic practices of the Hindu
religion. He fought for removal of untouchability, widow remarriage and abolition of other
evils of the Hindu Society.
Derozio, Henry Lous Vivian (1809-31). A talented Eurasian (his father was Portuguese and his
mother an Indian) and one of the pioneers of the renaissance in Bengal. He was a poet and a
lecturer of Literature and History of Hindu College, Calcutta. Derozio and his followers
popularly known as Derozions or ‘Young Bengal’ were the early harbingers of radical thought
and practice which seriously alarmed the aristocratic sections of the community. His critical
approach had the effect of liberating the minds of his young pupils and inculcating the
nationalist sentiments in them.
Desai, Mahadeva (1892-1942): Secretary to Mahatma Gandhiji, was a great non-violent
fighter of India’s struggle for independence Actively participated in the non-cooperation
disobedience movement (1930) individual satyagraha (1941) and Quit India Movement (1942).

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Dutt, Romesh Chandra (1848-1909). He was a great indologist, economist and
nationalist. He presided over the Lucknow session of the INC in 1899 and was the
author of the Economic History of British India, Indian in the Victorian Age, History
of Civilization in Ancient India etc. His work in the economic field would probably
stand out as his most outstanding contribution which deeply influenced the future
course of nationalist movement.
Ghaffar, Khan Abdul {Frontier Gandhi} (1890-1988): He was born in a village of
Peshawar district (now in Pakistan) of the erstwhile NWFP Province of British India.
While still in his teens, he joined the national movement and inculcated the ideas of
an nationalism into the minds of the Pathans. He plunged into the agitation against
the Rowlatt laws, the. Khilafat, non- cooperation and Civil Disobedience
Movements.

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More specifically, he took a leading part in all the political movements
launched by the Congress during 1930-47 and spent about 14 of these years
in jail. In 1929 he founded the Khudai Khidmatgar (literally, god’s servants) a
peace corps of dedicated workers who gave him his little Fakhr-e-Afghan (i.
e. pride of the Afghan). The aim of the new fraternity was to inculcate among
its followers the idea of service and the desire to serve their country and
their people in the name of God. Re never saw eye to eye with the fanatical
ideology of the Muslim League and was committed to secularism. He was
vehemently opposed to the partition of India. After partition, he started an
active campaign for the creation of Pakhtoonistan and was jailed a number
of times by the successive Pakistani regimes. He was popularly known as
Frontier Gandhi, Badshah Khan, Fakhr-e-Afghan, etc. He was awarded
Bharat Ratna in 1987.

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Ghosh, Aurobindo (1872-1950): He was a leading Bengal revolutionary later
turned yogi. For nearly 13 years he was in England, including at Cambridge, for
his education. He remained active in the political field for about ten years,
1901-10, particularly during the partition of Bengal, and was one of the
propounders of the programme of Swadesh and Boycott. He expressed the
view that the political freedom was “the life and breath of nation” and cubed
colonial self-government as apolitical monstrosity. In 1908-09 the
government involved him in the Maniktala bomb conspiracy case and
imprisoned him for a year, but was eventually, acquitted. In 1910, he retired to
Pondicherry, where he spent his life in meditation and spiritual pursuits:
Ghosh, Ras Behari (1845-1921): An eminent lawyer, education philanthropist
and a leading moderate leader of INC from Bengal, who ca the extremist as
‘pestilential demagogues’ and ‘irresponsible agitators’ had a professed faith
in the British sense of justice and their civilizing mission.

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Har Dayal, Lala (1884-1939): He was a great revolutionary and one of founder
of the Ghadar Party, he was author of several books, the most v known being
“Hints for Self Culture’, “Twelve Religions” and ‘Modern Li He died in March
1939, while on a lecture tour in the USA.
Hume, Allan Octavian {A.O: Hume} (1821912): He Was a British Civil Servant in
India, who after his retirement from service in 1882 worked India’s political
claims and is known as the “Father and founder of the INC” Hume was the
guiding spirit during the formative years of the INC. He had studied medicine
and surgery and was a great naturalist and botanist.
Hussain, Dr. Zakir (1897-1969): Formulated Wardha Scheme of Education
formerly Vice-Chancellor of Jamia Millia (1926-53) and later Vice Chancell
Muslim University Aligarh. Governor of Bihar (1957-62), Vice-President India
(1962-67), he was elected as President of India in 1967.

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Lajpat Rai, Lala (1865-1929): A well known freedom fighter from the Punjab, made
important contribution to national movement and social reforms. While leading a
demonstration against the Simon Commission at Lahore, he lathi-charged and
mortally wounded. He was one of the pillars of extremism in India.
Malaviya, Madan Mohan (18611946): A leading nationalist and patriot initially a
school teacher and subsequently an Advocate by profession, he withdrew from legal
practice in .1909, and kept up an abiding interest in journalism. He published a number
of weekly and dailies in Hindi and English such Hindustan, the Indian Union,
Abhyudaya (weeklies) Maryada and Kisan (monthly) and the daily, Leader in English.
He was a member of the INC since 1886. He was elected to the Imperial Council in 1921
and, was E ardent critic to the British policies. He was a devout Hindu and a founder
member of Hindu Mahasabha. He founded the Banaras Hindu University 1916 and
remained its Vice-Chancellor from 1919 to 1938.
Mehta, Ferozeshah (1845-1915): A pioneering nationalist, popularly known as the
uncrowned king of Bombay, belonging to a middle class Parsi family. He was one of
the founders of the Bombay Presidency Association and the INC. He was a typical
moderate and loyalist but a true nationalist.

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Meera Behn (1892-1982): Born as Madeleine Slade in England, she was named
Meera Behn by Mahatma Gandhi whose disciple and associate she was. She was
awarded Padma Vibhushan in 1982.
Munshi, K.M. (1887-1971): He played an active role in India’s freedom struggle and
held important public offices after independence. He was a great writer and
educationalist. He was the founder of Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan a trust for running
educational institution and publication of books on Indology.
Naidu, Mrs. Sarojini (1879-1948): A follower of Mahatma Gandhi, she took active
part in India’s freedom struggle. She was once elected President of the Indian
National Congress. She was a gifted poet of the English language and was
popularly known as the Nightingale of India. After independence she became the
first women Governor of an Indian State (U.P.).
Nehru, Motilal (1861-1931): Father of Jawaharlal Nehru, he was himself a great
patriot and freedom fighter. He was also an eminent lawyer. He was one of the
founder leaders of the Swarajist Party.

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Naoroji, Dadabhai (1825-1917): He came of a priestly Parsi family and rose to
become the grand old man of India. During his stay in England he was looked upon
as India” unofficial ambassador fighting for the cause of his country. In 1865 he
founded the London India Society in collaboration with W.C. Banerjee with the
objective to publicize Indian grievances. He was the first Indian to be elected to the
British House of Commons in- 1892 on a Liberal Party ticket. He took leading part
in founding the INC and thrice 1886, 1893 and 1906 was elected to be its President.
He vividly highlighted the economic implications of imperial rule in India and was
the high priest of the ‘Drain Theory’.
Nehru, Jawaharlal (1889-1964): World famous politician and statesman, a fluent
speaker, a staunch believer in secularism and an apostle of peace. Took active part
in the political movement of India. Prime Minister of India from 1947-64, author of
doctrine of Panchsheel, strongly oppose to regional pacts, believer in. the policy of
non-alignment. Author of International fame, his works include The Discovery of
India, Glimpses of World of History and A Bunch of Old letters.

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Pandit, Vijaya Lakshmi (1900): Sister of Jawaharlal Nehru, a prominent national leader,
was imprisoned thrice in connection with the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1932, 1941
and 1942. She played an important role as India’s representative in San Francisco during
the first meeting of the UN where she challenged the might of the British.
Pandit, Subha Rao Freedom fighter of social reformer he was the Chairman of the
reception committee of the Madras session of the INC in 1B98 and the General
Secretary of the Congress from 1913 to 1917. He was also one of the prime builders of
modern Andhra. He was also one of the four-founders.
Pal, Bipin Chandra (1858-1932): One of the famous ‘trio’ — Lal, Bal and Pal, B.C. Pal is
popularly known as the ‘father of revolutionary thought in India’. He started his
political career by joining the INC in 1886 and simultaneously published Paridasak, a
weekly, and later worked as assistant editor of Bengal Public Opinion and the Tribune.
Pal was a great exponent of Indian Swaraj outside British empire. He was opposed to
caste system and other rigid rules concerning inter-dining and inter-mixing. He was a
noted writer and a powerful speaker. His most famous work being Memories of My Life
and Times in two volumes.

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Pant—Govind Ballabh (18.87-1961): Born at Almora (U.P.) was a lawyer by profession. He
actively participated in the freedom struggle and was badly injured in Lathi charge that
followed while leading demonstration against Simon Commission (1927). He became Chief
Minister of UP in 1946 and introduced a number of agrarian and other reforms.
Subsequently he was called to the Central Government as Minister of Home Affairs.
Patel, Sardar Vallabhbhai (1875-1950): He was a brilliant Gujarati barrister of his time in
1918, he entered politics with his participation in the Kheda Satyagraha launched to
secure exemption for the cultivators from payment of land tax for the crops that had
failed. In 1922 he launched another peasant movement in Bardoli taluka of Gujarat
popularly known as the Bardoli Satyagraha. In re-cognition of his great success in
organising the later movement, Mahatma Gandhi called him ‘Sardar’. He actively
participated in all the movements launched under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.
With Independence (August 1947) Sardar Patel became independent India’s Dy. Prime
Minister, his portfolios included Home, the Indian States and Information and
Broadcasting, the crowning achievement of his political career was the integration of
some 562 princely states and domains into the Indian Union.

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Prasad, Dr. Rajendra (1884-1963): A famous Congress leader of from Bihar, he
was the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly. After the promulgation of the
Constitution he became the first President of India.
Raja, Mahendra Pratap (1876-1938): A nationalist who strenuously worked for
the freedom of his country against heavy odds during the first World War and
ultimately worked for the establishment of world peace for more than two
decades.
Rajagopalachari, C. (1878-1972): Shrewd political leader and a political thinker,
Chief Minister of Madras (1937-39), Minister Union Government (1947);
Governor of West Bengal (1947-48); the first and the last Indian Governor
General of India (1948-50); was opposed to the introduction of decimal coinage;
was opposed to the introduction of Hindi language in the south. He started a
new political party “The Swatantra Party”.

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Sarla Behn (1900-1932): Born Katherine Mary Heilmann, she was named Sarla Behn by
Mahatma Gandhi whose disciple she was. A Social worker, she set up an Ashram at
Kausani in the Kumaon in the Kumaon Hills of U.P. she has written a book entitled
Reviving our Dying Planet.
Savarkar, Vinayak Damodar (1883-1966): One of the India’s earliest revolutionaries and
Hindu Mahasabha leader; sent to England and arrested there in the Nasik Conspiracy
case; author of Indian War of Independence; awarded the honorary degree of literature
by the Poona University.
Shri Narayan Guru (1845-1928): He was a great socio-religious reformer of Kerala, who
relentlessly fought against the Brahmin domination and greatly worked for the spread
of education in Kerala. In spite of belonging to a lower caste he  installed the Shiva Idol
at Aruvippuram in 1888. The Aruvippuram Pratistha was a unique event of historical
importance because a person of the lower caste, forbidden from entering the temple
had himself consecrated the Shiva image in a temple. On the wall of the temple he
inscribed the following words “Devoid of dividing walls of caste of race, or hatred of
rival-faith, we all live here in Brotherhood”. Shree Narayan Guru soon became the
famous saint, seer philosopher, poet and social reformer for millions of people.

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Satyamurthi, S. (1887-1943): One of the best known nationalist leaders
popularly known as “Firebrand of South India”. He actively participated in the
Civil Disobedience and Quit India Movement. While in detention in connection
with the Quit India Movement, he died in prison.
Singh, Bhagat (1907-1931): Belonged to a Jat Sikh family of undivided Punjab
and was one of the leading figures of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army.
In 1928, to avenge the lathi charge on Lala Lajpat Rai, he shot dead the English
Assistant Superintendent of Police Mr. Saunders. He was the main accused in
the Lahore Conspiracy Case and was arrested after exploding bombs in the
Central Legislative Assembly. He executed in March 1931.

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Tilak, Bal Gangadhar (1856-1920): A great patriot and a pioneering radical
nationalist from Maharashtra, Tilak had an active political life of about forty
years (1880-1920). His ideas found expression in two popular journals — Kesari
in marathi (started in 1881) and its English counterpart Mahratta. To arouse the
people, he organised Ganapati and Shivaji (his coronation) festivals. He was an
unsparing critic or the moderates and an uncompromising Champion of Swaraj
from 1908, he was arrested and tried for his seditious writings in Kesari and was
sentenced to six years depuration in Mandalay. On .his release he founded the
Home Rule League. He aroused the masses to seek freedom by declaring
“Swaraj is my birth right and I will have it”. He was a scholar and a thinker. His
commentary on the Gita — the Gita Rahasya, will be monumental work.
 Singh, Udham (1899-1940). A great revolutionary leader from Punjab who to
take revenge for the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, went to London, where he
murdered Sir Michael O'DWyer on March 13, 1940. For his crime he was given the
death sentence and executed in London.

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Tagore, Rabindranath (1861-1941): One of the greatest lyric poets of the
world; writer of short stories novels, plays, won Noble Prize for literature in
1913, founded the international University Santiniketan (Bolpur) in Bengal.
Vidyasagar, Ishwar Chandra (1820-98): He was an important social reformer
and educationist from Bengal. He is known for his pioneering work in the fields
of promotion of education and widow remarriage. He is regarded as the father
of modern Bengali prose.
Waddekar, Preeti Lata (1911-1932). She was one of the bravest and greatest
women revolutionaries in the history of India’s freedom movement. On
September 24, 1932, she led an attack on the Pahartali European Club at
Chittagong after which she organised safe escape for the comrades while she
herself took potassium cyanide and died on September 24, 1932.

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