Anaerobic digestion Atmospheric pressure Biomass Black liquor A biological process in which organic material is broken down, primarily to methane and carbon dioxide. Normal air pressure at sea level, approx. 1 bar. Biological material from which energy can be extracted. A high-energy residual product resulting from the production of chemical paper pulp, which is normally recycled in the mill through burning. Carbon dioxide-free transport is carried out with vehicles run on fuels produced from renewable feedstocks, such as biomass, which results in no net addition of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The dominant component in the walls of cells in plants. Wood consists of approx. 40-50% cellulose. Activities that affect the climate, in this case, primarily greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon dioxide. A means of calculation that converts various greenhouse gases to the equivalent amount of carbon dioxide with the same greenhouse effect. Biogas compressed to approx. 200 bar. The fuel in the engine is ignited by compression in the cylinder. An engine in which the fuel self-ignites through high compression. Fossil energy Fossil fuels Gasification Fermentation Energy efficiency Esterification Electrolysis Breaking down substances using electrical current, in this case, breaking down water into hydrogen and oxygen. In this case, a measure of how great a proportion of the energy used reaches the vehicles driven wheels. A chemical process in which raw vegetable oils are converted to esters and given enhanced physical characteristics, particularly increased stability. EUCAR – European Council for Automotive Research and Development CONCAWE – Oil Companies´ European Organisation for Environment, Health and Safety JRC – Joint Research Center of the European Commission. A biological process in which material with a sugar content is broken down to ethanol and carbon dioxide. When cellulose is the feedstock, decomposition (hydrolysis) to sugar must be done first using enzymes or acids. Non-renewable energy from older geological periods, primarily oil, coal, and natural gas. Fuel for vehicles based on fossil energy, primarily oil, coal, and natural gas. A process in which organic material such as biomass is converted to synthetic gas, a mixture of hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. The synthetic gas can then be used to form various synthetic fuel components. Gasification of black liquor Black liquor from pulp mills can be gasified and used for producing synthetic vehicle fuel such as methanol, DME, or synthetic diesel. The black liquor’s energy content is replaced in the paper mill through the introduction of low grade biomass, which is burned. Long-wave radiation is prevented from leaving the Earth’s atmosphere due to greenhouse gases, which contributes to higher temperatures on the surface of the Earth. Gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect, in this case primarily carbon dioxide of fossil origins. Propulsion technology for vehicles based on two different energy converters, such as a diesel engine and an electric motor. Braking energy can be stored and returned to the electric motor. Chemical bonds of carbon and hydrogen. Treatment of plant oils or animal fat, primarily with hydrogen gas in a refining process for the production of synthetic hydrocarbons. A chemical process in which a molecule is broken down after a water molecule has been added. A fuel additive that enables the fuel to ignite through compression in a diesel engine. Biogas becomes a liquid if it is cooled to approx. -165 degrees Celsius. Methane Otto engine Renewable electricity Renewable fuels Well-to-wheel The simplest type of hydrocarbon CH4, the primary component in biogas and natural gas. An engine in which the fuel is ignited by a spark plug. Electricity produced with renewable energy, primarily hydroelectric power, biomass, or wind power. Fuels produced from renewable sources such as biomass, hydroelectric power, wind power, or solar energy. This concept means that all relevant stages have been taken into account, in other words, growing the raw material including fertilizer, harvesting the raw material, transporting it to the plant where the fuel is produced, production of the fuel, distribution to refuelling stations, and the use of the fuel in vehicles.

Greenhouse effect

Carbon dioxide-free transport

Greenhouse gases Hybrid technology


Cellulose Climate impact CO2 CO2 equivalents

Hydrocarbons Hydrogenation

Hydrolysis Ignition improver Liquid biogas

Compressed biogas Compression ignition Diesel engine