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Inifctrsitg
jfbitiatt.
MANUAL
OF
SPHERICAL AND PRACTICAL
ASTRONOMY:
EMBRACING
THE GENERAL PROBLEMS OF SPHERICAL ASTRONOMY. THE SPECIAL APPLICATIONS TO NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY, AND THE THEORY AND USE OF FIXED AND PORTABLE ASTRONOMICAL INSTRUMENTS.
WITH AN APPENDIX ON THE METHOD OP LEAST SOUAKES.
BY
WILLIAM CHAUVENET,
Of
MATHEMATICS AND ASTRONOMY IX WASHINGTON
O1OYXBUTT, lAUfT LOOT*
VOL.
RTH
I.
Kntored, according to Act of Congress, in the year 183, by
J. B.
UPPINCOTT &
t
CO.
la the Perk's
Office of
the Dn*ti u
Court of the United States for the Eaaterr
Disttict of Pennsylvania.
Copyright, 1891, by
CATHABINK
<
n\i \hNi:i, WIDOW,
AND CHILDREN OF WILLIAM CHAUVKNKT, DKCEASKD
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
XII.
PAOE
DETERMINATION OF THE OBLIQUITY OF THE ECLIPTIC AND THE ABSOLUTE RIGHT ASCENSIONS AND DECLINATIONS OF STARS BY OBSERVATION 658
Obliquity of the ecliptic
659
Equinoctial points, and absolute right ascension and declination of the fixed
stars
665
CHAPTER
Constants of refraction
XIII.
671
DETERMINATION OF ASTRONOMICAL CONSTANTS BY OBSERVATION
Constant of solar parallax Constant of lunar parallax
of the planets Constant of aberration and heliocentric parallax of fixed stars Constant of nutation
671
673
680
687
688
Mean semidiameters
698
701
Constant of precession Motion of the sun in space
703
SPHERICAL ASTRONOMY.
CHAPTER
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE
I.
SPHERICAL AND RECTANGULAR
COORDINATES.
1. FKOM whatever point of space an observer be supposed fa view the heavenly bodies, they will appear to him as if situated upon the surface of a sphere of which his eye is the centre. If, without changing his position, he directs his eye successively to the several bodies, he may learn their relative directions, but cannot determine either their distances from himself or from each other. The position of an observer on the surface of the earth is.
however, constantly changing, in consequence, 1st, of the diuiv* nal motion, or the rotation of the earth on its axis 2d, of the annual motion, or the motion of the earth in its orbit around
;
the sun.
The changes produced by the diurnal motion, in the apparent relative positions or directions of the heavenly bodies, are different for observers on different parts of the earth's surface, and can be subjected to computation only by introducing the
elements of the observer's position, such as his latitude and
longitude.
resulting from the .annual motion of the earth, as well as from 'the proper motions of the celestial bodies themselves, may be separately considered, and the directions
But the changes
of all the known celestial bodies, as they would be seen from the centre of the earth at any givon time, may be computed * "
VOL.
I.
2
17
18
THE CELEftTIAL SPMBKK.
according to the laws which have been found to govern the motions of these bodies, from data furnished by long series of The complete investigation of these changes and observations.
their laws belongs to Physical Astronomy, and requires the consideration of the distances and magnitudes as well as of the direc
tions of the bodies
Spherical
composing the system.
Astronomy treats specially of the directions of the heavenly bodies; and in this branch, therefore, these bodies are at any given instant regarded as situated upon the surface of a sphere of an indefinite radius described about an assumed
centre.
Tt embraces, therefore, not/ only the problems which arise from the diurnal motion, but also such as arise from the annual motion so far as this affects the apparent positions of the heavenly bodies upon the celestial sphere, or their directions from the assumed centre.
SPHERICAL COORDINATES.
be expressed by the angles which a line drawn to it from the centre of the sphere, or point of observation, makes with certain fixed linos of reference. But,
2.
The
direction of a point
may
since such angles are directly
measured by arcs on the surface
is
of the sphere, the simplest method
to assign the position in
which the point appears when projected upon the surface of the sphere. For this purpose, a great circle of the sphere, supposed to be given in position, is assumed as a prhnitii'e circle of reference, and all points of the surface are referred to this circle by a
system of secondaries or great circles perpendicular to the primiThe position tive and, consequently, passing through its poles. of a point on the surface will then be expressed by two spherical coordinates: namely, 1st, the distance of the point from the primitive circle, measured on a secondary 2d, the distance inter cepted 011 the primitive between this secondary and some given
;
point of the primitive assumed as the origin of coordinates. shall have different systems of coordinates, according to
We
the circle adopted as a primitive circle and the point assumed as the origin.
3.
First system of coordinates.
system, the primitive circle is circle of the sphere whose plane touches the surface of the
and azimuth. In this the horizon, which is that great
Altitude
SPHERICAL COORDINATES.
19
The plane of the horizon may be conearth at the observer.* ceived as that which sensibly coincides with the surface of a
fluid at rest.
The
of the
vertical line
is
of the horizon at the observer.
a straight line perpendicular to the plane It coincides with the direction
plumb
line,
or the simple
pendulum
at rest.
The two
points in which this line, infinitely produced, meets the sphere, are the zenith and nadir, the first above, the second below the
horizon.
The
all pass zenith and nadir, and their planes, which are called through the rertical planes^ intersect in the vertical line.
zenith and nadir are the poles of the horizon. Secondaries to the horizon arc vertical circle*. They
Small circles parallel to the horizon are called almucantars, or
parallels of altitude.
is that vortical circle whose plane passes the axis of the earth and, consequently, coincides with throitgh The intersection of this the plane of the terrestrial meridian.
The* celestial meridian
plane with the plane of the horizon is the meridian line, and the points in which this line meets the sphere are the worth and soufh
points of the horizon,
being respectively north and south of the
plane of the equator. 'The prime cerfical is the vertical circle which is perpendicular The line in which its plane intersects the to the meridian. plane of the horizon is the east and west liite^ and the points in
which
this line
meets the sphere are the
east
and
trest
points of
the horizon.
The north and south
prime
vertical,
and the
points of the horizon are the poles of the east and west points are the poles of the
meridian.
* In this definition of the horizon
we consider
the plane tangent to the earth's
;
that surface as sensibly coinciding with ft parallel plane passed through the centre is, we consider the radius of the celestial sphere to be infinite, and the radius of the
In general, any number of parallel planes at finite disearth to be relatively zero. tances must, be regarded as marking out upon the infinite sphere the same great circle, indeed, since in the celestial sphere we consider only direction, abstracted from dis
planes
same direction that is, all parallel lines or must be regarded as intersecting the surface of the sphere in the same The point of the surface of the sphere in which a point or the same great circle. number of parallel lines are conceived to meet is called the vanishing point of those lines and, in like manner, the great circle in which a number of parallel planes are
tance, all lines or planes having the
;
conceived to meet
may
be called the vatiixhing
circle
of those planes.
20
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE.
The
altitude
of a point of the celestial sphere
is
its
distance
from the horizon measured on a vertical circle, and its azimuth is the arc of the horizon intercepted between this vertical circle and any point of the horizon assumed as an origin. The origin from which azimuths are reckoned is arbitrary so also is the direction in which they are reckoned; but astronomers usually
;
take the south point of the horizon as the origin, and reckon to 360 towards the right hand, from that is, completely around the horizon in the direction expressed by writing the cardinal points of the horizon in the order 8.W. N. E.
;
We
may, therefore, also define azimuth as the angle which the vertical plane makes with the plane of the meridian. Navigators, however, usually reckon the azimuth from the
north or south points, according as they are in north or south latitude, and towards the east or west, according as the point
of the sphere considered is east or west of the meridian: so that the azimuth never exceeds 180. Thus, an azimuth which is
expressed according to the first method simply by 200 would be expressed by a navigator in north latitude by N. 20 E., and by a navigator in south latitude by 8. 100 E., the letter prefixed
denoting the origin, and the letter affixed denoting the direction in which the azimuth is reckoned, or whether the point considered is east or west of the meridian. When the point considered is in the horizon, it is often
referred to the east or west points, and its distance from the nearest of these points is called its amplitude. Thus, a point in
the horizon
of
whose azimuth is 110 is said to have an amplitude N. Since by the diurnal motion the observer's horizon is ma<le
W.
20
change its position in the heavens, the coordinates, altitude and azimuth, are continually changing. Their values, therefore, will depend not only upon the observer's position on the earth, but upon the time reckoned at his meridian.
to
zenith distance,
Instead of the altitude of a point, we frequently employ its which is the arc of the vertical circle between the
point
and the
zenith.
The
altitude
and zenith distance
h,
are,
therefore, complements of each other. shall hereafter denote altitude by
We
zenith distance by
.
azimuth by A.
We
C 
shall
have then
h
00
A
nr:
90
C
SPHERICAL COORDINATES.
The value of for a point below the horizon will be greater than 1)0, and the corresponding value of A, found by the for 90 mula h so that a negative altitude will be negative will express the depression of a point below the horizon. Thus,
=
,
:
a depression of 10
4.
will be expressed
by h
=
10, or
 100 o
In Second system, of coordinates. Declination and hour anylc. this system, the primitive circle is the celestial equator, or that
great circle of the sphere whose plane is perpendicular to the axis of the earth and, consequently, coincides with the plane of the terrestrial equator. This circle is also sometimes called the
equinoctial.
The
of the plane of the equator. the celestial sphere is called
in
diurnal motion of the earth does not change the position The axis of the earth produced to
t\\e
axis of the heavens: the points
which
it
meets the sphere are the north and south poles of
the equator, or the poles of the heavens. Secondaries to the equator are called
also
circles of declination, and Since the plane of the celestial meridian passes through the axis of the equator, it is also a secondary to the equator, and therefore also a circle of declination.
hour
circles.
Parallels of declination are small circles parallel to the equator.
The
declination
equator measured on a
the angle at cither pole
of a point of the sphere is its distance from the circle of declination, and its hour angle is
between this circle of declination and the meridian. The hour angle is measured by the arc of the equator intercepted between the circle of declination and the meridian. As the meridian and equator intersect in two points, it is necessary to distinguish which of these points is taken as the origin of hour angles, and also to know in what direction the arc which measures the hour angle is reckoned. Astronomers reckon from that point of the equator which is on the meridian above the horizon, towards the west, that is, in the direction cf the to apparent diurnal motion of the celestial sphere, and from or from 0* to 24*, allowing 15 to each hour. 360,
Of
these coordinates, the declination
is
not changed by the
diurnal motion, while the hour angle depends only on the time at the meridian of the observer, or (which is the same thing) on All the the position of his meridian in the celestial sphere.
observers on the same meridian at the same instant will, for the have eume star, reckon the same declination and hour angle.
We
22
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE.
is
is
thus introduced coordinates of which one of the observer's position and the other
latitude.
wholly independent independent of his
shall denote declination by r), and north declination will be distinguished by prefixing to its numerical value the sign 4 and south declination by the sign
,
We
or
it
shall sometimes make use of the polar distance of a point, distance from one of the poles of the equator. If we denote by P, the north polar distance will be found by the formula
its
We
P =.
arid the
90
~
south polar distance by the formula
p ^
90
4
,?
The hour angle will generally be denoted by /. It is to be observed that as the hour angle of a celestial body is continually increasing in consequence of the diurnal motion, it may be COIN ceived as having values greater than 3(30, or 24'', or greater tlmn any given multiple of 3HO. Such an hour angle may be regarded as expressing the time elapsed since some given passage of the body over the meridian. l>ut it is usual, when values greater than 360 result from any calculation, to deduct 3ti(>. Again, since hour angles reckoned towards the west are always positive, hourangles reckoned towards the east must have the negative sign so that an hour angle of 300, or 20\ may alsc> be 4\ 60, or expressed by
:
o. Third system of coordinates. Declination and right ascension. In this system, the primitive plane is still the equator, and the first coordinate is the same as in the second system, namely, the
The second coordinate is also measured on the but from an origin which is not affected by the diurnal equator, motion. Any point of the celestial equator might be assumed as the origin; but that which is most naturally indicated is
declination.
the vernal
necessary.
equinox, to define which some preliminaries are
the great circle of the celestial sphere in which move in consequence of the earth's motion in
The
ecliptic is
the sun appears to
its orbit.
position of the ecliptic is not absolutely fixed in space; but, according to the definition just given, its position at any instant coincides with that of the great circle in which thu
The
SPHERICAL COOB DIXATES.
23
aim appears to be moving at that instant. Its annual change is, however, very small, and its daily change altogether insensible. The obliquity of the ecliptic is the angle which it makes with
the equator.
The points where the ecliptic and equator intersect are called the equinoctial points, or the equinoxes ; and that diameter of the sphere in which their planes intersect is the line of equinoxes. The vernal equinox is the point through which the sun ascends
from the southern to the northern side of the equator; and the autumnal equinox is that through which the sun descends from the northern to the southern side of the equator.
The
!K)
or soM/rew, are the points of the ecliptic from the equinoxes. They are distinguished as the northsolstitial points,
ern and southern, or the
summer and winter
is
solstices.
The
equinoctial colure is the circle of declination
through the equinoxes. The solstitial colure nation which passes through the solstices.
which passes the circle of decliarc
The equinoxes
the poles of the solstitial colure. By the annual motion of the earth, its axis is carried very nearly parallel to itself, so that the plane of the equator, which is always at right angles to the axis, is very nearly a fixed plane
of the celestial sphere. The axis is, however, subject to small of direction, the effect of which is to change the changes
position of the intersection of the equator and the ecliptic, and hence, also, the position of the equinoxes. In expressing the
positions of stars, referred to the vernal equinox, at any given instant, the actual position of the equinox at the instant is
understood, unless otherwise stated. The right ascension of a point of the sphere is the arc of the equator intercepted between its circle of declination and the
vernal equinox, and
is
ward from
to
360,
or, in time,
reckoned from the vernal equinox from 0* to 24*.
east
The point of observation being supposed
at the centre if the
earth, neither the declination nor the right ascension will be affected by the diurnal motion: so that these coordinates are
wholly independent of the observer's position on the surface of Their values, therefore, vary only with the time, the earth. and are given in the ephernerides as functions of the time reckoned at some assumed meridian. We shall generally denote right ascension by a. As its value reckoned towards the east is positive, a negative value resulting
24
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE.
from any calculation would be interpreted as signifying an arc of the equator reckoned from the vernal equinox towards the west. Thus, a point whoso right ascension is 300, or 20*, may also be regarded as in right ascension 60, or 4* but such
;
negative values are generally avoided by adding 360, or 24*. Again, in continuing to reckon eastward we may arrive at
values of the right ascension greater than 24*, or greater than but in such cases we have only to reject 24*, 48*, etc. 48*, etc.
;
to obtain values
which express the same thing.
lanyi
6.
tude.
Fourth systew of coordinates. Celestial latitude and In this system the ecliptic is taken as the primitive
are called
circles
circle,
and the secondaries by which points of the sphere are referred
to
it
of
latitude.
Parallels of latitude are small
circles parallel to the ecliptic.
The
ecliptic
latitude
measured on a
of a point of the sphere is its distance from the circle of latitude, and its longitude is the
arc of the ecliptic intercepted between this circle of latitude and The longitude is reckoned eastward from the vernal equinox.
to 360. The longitude is sometimes expressed in sign*, degrees, &c., a sign being equal to 30, or onetwelfth of the
ecliptic.
These coordinates are
It is
also
independent of the diurnal motion.
evident, however, that the system of declination and right ascension will be generally more convenient, since it is more
directly related to
our
first
and second systems, which involve
the observer's position.
by /9; longitude by L Posion the same side of the ecliptic /3 belong as the north pole; negative values, to those on the opposite side. In connection with this system we may here define the nonagesimal, which is that point of the ecliptic which is at the greatest That vertical altitude above the horizon at any given time. circle of the observer which is perpendicular to the ecliptic meets
shall denote celestial latitude
tive values of
We
to points
it is
in the
nonagesimal
;
also a circle of latitude
and, being a secondary to the ecliptic, it it is the great circle which passes
:
through the observer's zenith and the pole of the ecliptic.
7.
Coordinates of the observer's position.
W"e have next to ex
press the position of the observer on the surface of the earth, according to the different systems of coordinates. This will be
SPHERICAL COORDINATES.
2/>
done by referring his zenith to the primitive manner as in the ease of any other point.
circle in the
same
In the first system, the primitive circle being the horizon, of which the zenith is the pole, the altitude of the zenith is always 90, and its azimuth is indeterminate. In the second system, the declination of the zenith is the same as the terrestrial latitude of the observer, and its hour angle is
zero.
The
declination of the zenith of a place
is
called the
geographical latitude, or simply the latitude, and will be hereafter denoted by y. North latitudes will have the sign south ;
+
latitudes, the sign In the third system, the declination of the zenith
.
is,
as before,
the latitude of the observer, and its right ascension as the hour angle of the vernal equinox.
is
the
same
same
In the fourth system, the celestial latitude of the zenith is the as the zenith distance of the nonagesimal, and its celestial
is
the longitude of the nonagesimal. from the definitions which have been given, that the problem of determining the latitude of a place by astro
longitude
It is evident,
nomical observation
is
the same as that of determining the
declination of the zenith; and the problem of finding the longitude may be resolved into that of determining the right
ascension of the meridian at a time
when
meridian
is
also given, since the longitude
that of the prime is the are of the
is,
equator intercepted between the two meridians, and quently, the difference of their right ascensions.
H.
conse
The preceding
definitions are exemplified in the following
figures.
Fig. 1 is a stcreographie projection of the sphere upon the plane of the horizon,
ihc projecting point being the nadir. Since the planes of the equator and horizon are
both perpendicular to that of the meridian,
their intersection is also perpendicular to
and hence the equator WQE passes through the east and west points of the
it
;
horizon.
All
vertical
circles
passing
through the projecting point will be projected into straight lines, as the meridian NZS, the prime vertical WZE, and the
vertical
circle
ZOH drawn
through
ny point
of the surface
26 of the sphere.
in the first
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE.
have then, according to the notation adopted system of coordinates,
h
C
We
~ the altitude of the point = = the zenith distance "
rrr
OH,
OJ8T,
A
the azimuth
the angle
u
SH,
or
SZH.
If the declination circle
POD be drawn, we have, in
O
the second
system of coordinates,
3
^ the declination of
=

OD,
PO,
P
t
the polar distance u " the hour angle
ZPD,
or
=
QD.
system of
If
Fis the vernal equinox, we have,
ft
in the third
coordinates,
_
the declination of
O

OD,
FZ), or
a

the right ascension the angle VPD.
In this figure is also drawn the six hour circle EPW, or the declination circle passing through the east and west points of the The angle ZFW, or the arc QW, being 00, the hour horizon.
angle of a point on this circle
6*
is
cither
+
6 or
7'
6 7', that
is,
either
or 18*. Fig. 2
is

2.
a repetition of the preceding figure, with the addition of the ecliptic and the circles related
to
it.
pole,
C VT represents the ecliptic, P its P'OL a circle of latitude. Hence we
f
have, in our third system of coordinates,
,3
the celestial latitude of
>
^
u
OL, VL,
A
= the angle VP L.
1
longitude
We
eolure,
have also
VPthe
equinoctial colure,
(Circle
P PAB
f
the solstitial
P'ZdF
the vertical
therefore perpendicular to the ecliptic at G. is its zenith distance, nonagesimal;
passing through P', which is The point G is the
ZG
VG its
ZG
is
the celestial latitude and
VG the celestial
1
longitude or longitude of the
;
zenith.
Finally,
we
v
have, in both Fig.
the
and Fig.
2,
geographical ^ ZQ = 90  PZ = PN
latitude of the observer
SPHERICAL COORDINATES.
27
is always equal to the altiFor an observer in south latitude, tho tude of the north pole. north pole is below the horizon, and its altitude is a negative quantity: so that the definition of latitude as the altitude of the
Hence the
latitude of the observer
perfectly general if we give south latitudes the The south latitude of an observer considered negative sign. of its sign is equal to the altitude of the south independently
north pole
is
pole above his horizon, the elevation of one pole being always equal to tho depression of the other.
9. Numerical The equator, upon expression of hour angles. which hour angles are measured, may be conceived to be divided into 24 equal parts, each of which is the measure of one hour, and is equivalent to ^ of 3(50, or to 15. The hour is divided sexagesimally into minutes and seconds of time, distinguished from minutes and seconds of arc by the letters and instead of the accents and ". We shall have, then,
'" *
'
1*
= 15
1
^ 15'
V
= 15"
in time into its equivalent in 15 and change the denominations * "' * into arc, multiply by ' " "; and to convert arc into time, divide by 15 and change
'
To convert an angle expressed
readily find ways to abridge these operations in practice. It is well to observe, for this purpose, that from the above equalities we also have,
*.
into
/l
"4
The expert computer
will
]^4
1'=r4
and that we may therefore convert degrees and minutes of arc and into into time by multiplying by 4 and changing
'
'"
*
;
reciprocally.
TRANSFORMATION OP SPHERICAL COORDINATES.
10. Given the altitude (h) and azimuth (A) of a star, or of any point of the sphere, and the latitude (<p) of the observer, to find the declinaIn other words, tion (d) and hour angle (t) of the star or the point.
to transform the coordinates of the first
system into those of the
second.
solved by a direct application of the formula? of Spherical Trigonometry to the triangle POZ, Fig. 1, in which, being the given star or point, we have three parts given,
is
This problem
THE CELESTIAL
namely,
S
ZO the zenith distance or complement of the given PZO the supplement of the given azimuth, and PZtliv complement of the given latitude; from which we can find PO
altitude,
and
the polar distance or complement of the required declination, the required hour angle. But, to avoid the trouble of and supplements, the formulae are adapted taking complements
ZPO
so as to express the declination and hour angle directly in terms >f the altitude, azimuth, and latitude. arly as possible how the formulae of Spherical Trigonometry are thus converted into formuhe of Spherical Astronomy, let us first cons ' imv
To
as
<'l<
i
sider a spherical triangle ABC, Fig. 3, in which there are given the angle A, and the sides b and e*, to
find the angle and the side a. The general relations between these five quantities are [Sph. Trig.
B
Art. 114]*
cos u  cos c cos b
sin a cos
sin n sin

sin c sin b cos
A
\
B B
sin r cos h
cos c sin b cos
^in h sin
A A
V
)
(
^V,
j
Now, comparing the
Fig.
1,
triangle
ABC
with
tin
triangle
PZO
of
we have
a
.
ZO
90 90
h *
B = ZPO 
= PO  90 t
Substituting these values in the above equations,
sin d
sin
we
obtain
(\
)
cos o cos
t t
= cos
</>
sin
h
cos
<p
cos h cos
cos
/i
A
A
^1
<f
sin h
+ sin
^>
cos
(2
j
cos
<J
sin
cos A sin
(3;
which are the required expressions of 8 and
If the
in
terms of h and A.
zenith distance
sin $
(J)
of the star
cos
is
given, the equations
will
be
= sin
^= cos
f cos
<p
C
y>
sin C cos
cos d cos
cos
<J
<
cos C
+
sin c sin
cos
A A
(4)
(5)
sin
t~
sin C sin JL
(6)
Since, in Spherical Astronomy, we consider arcs and angle* whose values may exceed 180, it becomes necessary, in general.
*
The references
to
Trigonometry are
to the 5th edition of the author's
 Treatise
on Plane and Spherical Trigonometry."
SPHERICAL COORDINATfeS.
to
29
determine such arcs and angles by both the sine and the cosine, in order to fix the quadrant in which their values are to be taken. It has been shown in Spherical Trigonometry that
the yctteral triangle, or that in which values are admitted greater than 180, there are two solutions of the
is removed and triangle in every case, but that the ambiguity one of these solutions excluded when, in addition to the other data, the sign of the sine ov cosine of one of the required parts is
fc
when we consider
'
given." [Sph. Trig. Art. 118.] In our present problem the sign of cos 8 is given, since it is necessarily positive; for d is always numerically less than 00, that is, between the limits +90 and
90.
(5),
is
ft
Hence
sin
t
and
has the sign of the second member of (2) 01 the sign of the second member of (3) or (6), and
cos
/
i
to be taken in the also falls
quadrant required by these two signs. Since between the limits +90 and  90, or between O c
/?,
and 180, cos
sin
t
or sin
,
is
has the sign of sin
A;
positive, and therefore that is, when A 180
by
(3)
or
t
(6;
<
we have
<
3
180, and when
A>180 we
have
>180,
conditions which
also follow directly from the nature of our problem, since tht star is west or east of the meridian 180 or according as
A<
A
> 180. The formula (1) or (4) fully determines 8, which will always be taken less than 90, positive or negative according to the sign of its sine.*
To adapt
tation, let
the equations
tit
and
M be
m
m
(4), (5),
and
(6) for
logarithmic compu
assumed
to satisfy the conditions [PI.
Trig. Art. 174],
sin
M sin
cos
M
C cos
A
\
^ cos C
/
:
the three equations
may
then be written as follows
  in

sin d
sin
(
<p
M
A
cos
ft
cos
t t
m
cos d sin
= sin
cos (^
T sin
M
)
)
^ v
)
(8)
If
we
eliminate
m
from these equations, the solution takes the
:
following convenient form
this
* There are, however, special problems in which it is convenient to depart from general method, and to admit declinations greater than 90, as will be seen
hereafter
30
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE.
tan
tan
M ~ tan
t
C cos
A

=
tan
A
sin
J7

tan d
in the
= tan (^ M
cos (y
M)
)
cos
use of which, we must observe to take / greater or less than 180 according as A is greater or less than 180, since the \our angle and the azimuth must fall on the same side of the
meridian.
EXAMPLE.
a certain star
In the latitude y
6t>
38
=
42' 30",
(9)
A
58' 53", there are given for 300 10' 30" ; required S and /,
The computation by
J/^
f
may be arranged
as follows:*
38
53
14
58'
6"
41.98
rog tan ; log COH A log tan
0.4320906
9.7012595
OJL333561
J/)
9~47fc26Pifl
log tan
log sin
A
nO.2356026
9.9060828
J/)
39
M
/
M
/
J/~
/^
4048.98
55
31
log tan (0 log cos
log sec (0
0.0144141
304
8
26.49
46.56
9.7577077
/i9.17f>0i >10
f
log tan
wO.1659995
f>~
log tan A
Converting the hour angle into time, we have
t2Q
h
19 m
41*. 766.
11. The angle POZ, Fig. 1, between the vertical circle and the declination circle of a star, is frequently called the parattactu'
<M(fle<
and
,
will
data
A, and
here be denoted by </. To find we have the equations y>,
sin C
si?i
its
value from tho
cos d cos q
oos d sin
__
</
y
)
COH C cos cos
<p
<f>
cos
sin
A
4
\
(
J
which may be solved
in the
following torn)
T
:
/ sin F= sin / cos A _ cos
nos u v^r Y ;:5 ^ cos q >s cos 6 sin q

cos
.4
../ cos (^ ~j v^/o ^ V^
) F)
*'
(ID
^cos
^
<p
sin
A
or in the following
:
g sin *r\u (J COS
rt
G
fr :^AZi
~ sin
SVQ COS
(f 
*
y
<p
^^ <f
(r 
rrxc ^l COS /I
(
COS d COS y cos
<?
cos
jr
C
(12)
sin
//
= cos
sin
A
or again in the following:
* In this work the
letter n prefixed to u
is to
logarithm indicates that the number to
which
it
corresponds
have the negative sign.
SPHERICAL 00ORDIXATES.
tan
31
@ = tan
tan
<?
sec
A
V
(13)
6')
tan q
A
cos Gr
cos (C
and, in the use of the last form, it is to be observed that q is to be taken greater or less than 180 according as A is greater or legs than 180, as is evident from the preceding forms.
12. If, in a
declination
is
given latitude, the azimuth of a star of known given, its hour angle and zenith distance may be
found as follows.
cos
t
We have
sin
<p
sin
t
cot
A
<p
cos cos
cos C sin y
~
<p
tan d
d
sin C cos
is
A =. sin
The
solution of the
first
of these
b sin
effected
<p
by the equations
B
sin
b cos
.
.
B
_
t)
cot
cos
A
tp
sin (
n B
L
tan d
b
and that of the second by
c sin c cos
C
sin
<p <p
C= cos
C)~
,
cos
A
sm (C
.
frt
sin d c
13. Finally, if from the given altitude and azimuth we wish to find the declination, hour angle, and pimillactit* angle at the same time, it will be convenient to use dauss's Equations, which
for the triangle
ABC,
a sin
I
Fig.
3,

arc
cos
J
cos
i
cos
sin
\
a cos
<i
J
J
sin
sin i a cos
J
C) (B (B f C ) (B (B ~ 1
)
(b
(/>
c) cos
{ j
A
cos
sin
sin
i
J
f c) sin
r) cos
c) sin
A
A
.,
(6
(/> f
J
J
)
J
A
Trig. Art.
/>
which are
116] 90
after
y>,
to
bo solved
in the usual
manner [Sph.
A,
(y?),
substituting the values  90 fj, B <, C </.

A ^180
=
r,
c~
14.
latitude
6r*'m> <Ae declination (3)
to
That
is,
and hour anylc (t) of a #fa/*, a^w/ /A find the zenith distance (g) and azimuth (A) of the star. to transform the coordinates of the second system into
first.
those of the
We
take the same general equations
(21)
of Spherical Trigo
nometry which have been employed
in the solution of the pre
THK CELESTIAL SPHEKK.
ceding problem, Art. 10; but we
1
now suppose
the letters A, B,
C
,
in Fig. 8, to represent respectively the pole, the zenith,
and
the star, so that
we
substitute
A
c
.= t
a^:
y
= 90
and the equations become
cos C
sin C cos sin
<f>
sin d
+ cos
(
y?
cos d cos
t
\
sin C sin
A A
_=
cos ^ sin
sin
'
y>
cos d cos
cos d sin
t
t
v
)
(I4j
which express and A directly in terms of the data. Adapting these for logarithmic computation, we have
m
tit
in
cos
cos
M
4
M sin
/n
d
t
cos d cos
cos
(y>
Jf j
Jf)
f
sin C eo>
sin C sin .1
= cos d sin
/M sin (<p
in
which
:
m
is
Eliminating m,
formulae
a positive number. we deduce the following simple and accurate
tantf
cos
t
t
tan 4
tan
sin
cos Jf
tan C ^r
where
is
to be taken greater or less than 180 or less than 180. greater
is 1.
A
according as
t
EXAMPLE
d certain
In latitude
~
<p
3H
58' 53", there are
/
star,
d^
(1H)

8
3V
46"..%,
:
20*
19'"
41.766
;
given for required
A and
.
By
we have
log tan A log cos /
wO.1760310
9.7577677
w0.4182<>33
^
M
38 68 / 63 r/
14 40 48.98
log tan
t
flO.
1659996
log tan
M
M}
log cos
lop;
M
A
9.9866859
If ) 0.0939172
MA~
C
63 39 41.98
log tan (9
0.1333661
cosec (0
300 10 30
69 42 30
log cos
A
9.7012695
0.432096<i
log tan
*0.2356026
~
log tan C
SPHERICAL COOEDINAim
$2
For
verification
we can use
sin
*
the equation
sin
A
= cos 3
sin
t
ft
log bin
log sin
:
.1
9.9721748
^9367621
9.9089869
log cos log sin
9.9951697 9.9187672
9.9089869
t
EXAMPLE 4rti, J44
2.
in latitude
if
 48
4";
32',
there are given for a
.
6' 0",
We
b
find ^L
= 241
t^lT""25
its
53' 33".2, ^=126
below the horizon, and
36
25' 6".6.
required ^4 and 25' 6".6; the star negative altitude, or depression,
is
is
If the zenith distance of the
same
star
is
to
it
puted on the same night at a given place, done by the following method. In the
substitute
eo
t
be frequently comwill be most readily
equation of (14)
first
1
2 sin*
i t
then
we have
cos C
~~
cow
(<p
^
<5)
2
cos
<p
COM
<5
sin*
{
t
where <f ^ d signifies either <f o or d  y, and if d > ^ the laner form is to be used. Subtracting both members from unity, we
obtain
sin 2 i C ^^
in* *
Now
then
(y
r <J>
+ cos ^
rj
cow
<J
sin 2 i
t
let
m
/?
V COH ^ cos
.
we have
sin
ICthai
and hence, by taking an auxiliary TV such
tan
,r j!v =r
m
sin
we have
sin } C ^^

(IT)
COH
N
sin i
sin iV
The second form for sin J^ will be more when sin jVis greater than cos N. The quantities m and n will be constant
nation does not vary.
15. If the parailactic angle
VOL.
I.
precise than the
first
so long as the decli
<y
(Art. 11)
and the zenith distance
3
34
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE.
3,
; are required from the data from the equations
cos C
sin C cos # sin ^> cos sin C sin # .=: cos ^ sin
and
CO13
t,
they
fl
may be found
=
= sin y sin $ +
tf
cos
sin
cos cos
t
cos
<J
(18)
?
which are adapted for logarithms as follows
n sin
n cos
^V
7
= cos ^ cos
71
t
JV^sin y
cos C
sin C cos
= n sin (5 + JV) = cos (d + N)
cos
<p
(19)
sin C sin
or,
sin
<
eliminating
/t,
thus
:
tan
.
r
=cot
tan
<p
cos
sin
t
tan I sin q =. *
tan C cos q
t
N
(20) ^ }
~ cot
sin (a
(<J
+N)
f JV)
When this last form is employed in the case of a star which has been observed above the horizon, tan is known to be posiThis tive, and there is no ambiguity in the determination of 7. form is, therefore, the most convenient in practice.
A, and q are all required from the data have, by Gauss's equations,
If
,
d,
t,
and
<p,
we
sin J C sin J
(A
f q)
f tf)
sin J C cos J (jl
= sin = cos
J t
}
t
cos J
(<p
f d)
cos J C sin j (4 cos i C cos i (A
16.
q) = sin i
sin i (^ 5) sin J (^ f )
(21)
q)
cos J
cos }
(?>
d)
When the altitude, azimuth, and parallactic angle of known
stars are to
Fig. 4.
same
much
be frequently computed at the place, the labor of computation is diminished by an auxiliary table pre
pared for the latitude of the place according to formulae proposed by Gauss. A specimen of such a table computed for the latitude of the Altona Observatory will be found in "Schumacher's Hiilfstafeln, neu
The requisite herausg.,v. Warnstorff." deduced as follows formulae are readily Let the declination circle through the object 0, Fig. 4, be produced to intersect the horizon in F. By the diurnal motion
:
SPHERICAL COORDINATES.
the point
35
F changes
but
its
position
its position on the horizon with the time ; depends only on the time or the hour angle
ZPO, and
not upon the declination of 0.
t.
The elements of the
position of sive values of
F may therefore be previously computed for succesin the triangle
if
have 180 Pti=
We
&
we
find
tan
==
PF8, rightangled we put p; and B  PF~ 90, r  180 F8,
y tan
t.
at
#,
FPS=^t,
 PFS.
sin
&
sin
tan
B
=. cot
y>
cos
f,
cot Y
B
tan
t
We have
and
if
now
in the triangle
r
HOF,
rightangled at H,
A
B + d=OF, we put
a .=
= 7/FO,
FS ^ ^L
)
<*)
^ 0#,
HF^HS
(/?
a,
we
find
tan u
sin
h
= cos p tan = sin ^ sin
tan 7
+ (/? +
<*ot
A
or,
H+
tan A
M
M.
= tan ? sin
To find fTOF
the parallactic angle
qPOZ, we have
y sec/
f
in the triangle
=
^
+^
In the Gaussian table for Altona as given in the "Hiilfttafeln" we find five columns, which give for the argument /, the quantities 21,
B, log
<>os y,
log sin
the
names log
C, log
A and log J, respectively.
sin
f,
log cot
f,
the last three under
With
the aid
of this table, then, the labor of finding any one of the quantities A, A, q is reduced to the addition of two logarithms,
namely:
tan u
4
= C tan (B + = ft + M
G
d}
A == Z> sin
tan q
= E sec (B +
u
(
+
<J)
d)
The
found thus.
formulae for the inverse problem (of Art. 10) may also be be the intersection of the equator and the Let
vertical circle
Y~ ZGQ; tan & ~ sin
through 0, and put then we readily find
<p
B
v?
~
HG,
DG,
sin
i&
QG,
y
tan A,
tan
B = cot
cos A,
cot y
5 tan
which are of the same
change of A for
of the point
<?,
t.
forjn as those given above, with the exHence the same table gives also the elements
by entering with the argument "azimuth," exthen have t pressed in time, instead of the hour angle.
We
=
36
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE.
if
DQ, and
triangle
sin $
\ve
here put
u=D6r = 2l
tan
table,
sin d
t<
<,
we have from
the
GDO
= sin ^ Sin (h
C tan
M
(h
B)
= cosy tan (A
jB)
or,
employing the notation of the
tan M =.
*
= 3,
B)
tan ^
= Z> sin (A = E sec (^
star,
2?)
7?)
17.
*ix
To find
circle.
the zenith distance
and azimuth of a
t
when on
thr
hour
Since in this case
~ 6*
cot
90, the
triangle
PZO.
Fig. 4, is rightangled at P,
COR
and gives immediately
ZO ^ cos TZ cos PO
PZO =^s\nPZ rot PO
cot
or, since
PZO
cos C
180
<p
4,
and cot
PZO A=
A
=
in
sin
tf
cot
cos ^ tan d
But if the star is on the six hour circle we must put ^18*=^ 270 and PZO A
case
cot
east of the meridiaa
180
;
hence for
thih
A = f COR
cr
tan ^
A
tions (14),
more general solution, however, is obtained from the 1, whence by putting cos t ~ 0, sin t =
eos C =*
sin C cos sin
<p ^>
eqntt
sin d
sin ^
\
A =
vl
cos
V
)
(22)
sin C sin
^^
cos d
the lower sign in the last equation being used east of the meridian.
when
the star
IP
EXAMPLE.
6
=
16
31 ; 20 ;/
Required the zenith distance and azimuth of Sirius, when on the six hour circle east of the meri,
dian at the Cape of
log ( cos
Good Hope, f


33
=.
56 ; 3".
wSf.9816870
We find
cos #) .~ log sin
<p
sin
A
/I
log
(
sin ^)
log sin C cos
9.3728204
A =r "2g"
log sin
^
r
log sin log sin
SP
= ^
9.9872302
sin ^ ^r log cos C
C
=
9.9944568
9.2007309
="86 5V 66"
SPHERICAL COORDINATES.
18.
T<>
37
star
at
its
Jind the hour angle, azimuth, and zenith distance of a given In this case the vertical circle greatest elongation.
XS, Fig. 5, is tangent to the diurnal circle, HA, of the star, and is, therefore, perpendicular
to the declination circle PS.
The
right
PZS gives,
therefore,
tan
cos
t
(f
tan
n
COS d COS
(28)
<f>
cos C
= sin d sin
(f
are nearly equal, each of the quantities cos t, sin 4, and cos will be nearly equal to unity, and a more accurate solution for that case will then be as follows
If d
if
:
and
Subtract the square of each from unity
;
then
V")
we have
('>
sn 2
cos 2 cos 2 y
1
tan ^
tau* a
2
sin
(fJ
4
s n
'
cos 2
2
<5
sin
(rJ
+ sO
8i n
<p
(''
cos y
sin 8 d sin
2
cos2
cr
sin 2
sin (A 4 ^) sin
(^5
sin
2
<J
Hence
shall
sin
if
we put
sin
((J
cp)l
have
k
.
1
cos
cos ^ sin d
19.
(i
A
=
cos
distance,
sinC
=
sin d
To find
the
hour angle, zenith
vertical of
and parallactic
angle of
giren star on the
prime In this case, the point
a given
place.
in Fig. 1
being in the
circle
WZE,
the angle
PZO is
90, and the right triangle
<an
COP
<J
PZO gives
\
tan y
1
sin
em
=

cos
88
If ^
is
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE.
hut
little less
than
^>,
and, as in the preceding article, solution as follows
:
the star will be near the zenith, we shall obtain a more accurate
Put
k
j/[sin
(<p f
d) sin (^
<J)]
then
k
sin
t
.
r
sin
<p
cos d
sin C
~
k
sin
<p
cos? =. *
k
r
cos $
(26) y v
We
may
also
deduce the following convenient and accurate
is
formulae for the case where the star's declination
to the latitude [see Sph. Trig. Arts. 60, 61, 62]
:
nearly equal
ttnC=
tan (45
If 3
i q)
(27)
Uan
i
= y'[tan
(?
+
*)
tan
J
O
is,
>
{?,
these values
become imaginary; that
%
the star can
not cross the prime vertical.
EXAMPLE.
star
Required the hour angle and zenith distance of the 12 Cawnn Venaticvnnn (<?=+ 39 5' 20") when on the prime
4
vertical of Cincinnati (y
39
5 ; 54 /r ).
J
^ ^
^ + =
J
<j
0'
34"
(^ (?
J
d)
78 11 14
d)
J
= ^) =
^)
0'
17"
39 5 37
log sin
(<p
6.21705 9.99070
log sin (?
+
d)
log tan log tan
(^
d) 5.91602
Hy +
9.90982
2)6.22635
log tan
i
i f
f
2)6.00620
log tan J C
i f
8.11318
8.00810
t
= 44' 36".6 = 29' 13".2 = 0* 5* 56.8B
1
C
= =
34' 37".3
1
9'
14".6
20.
7b /wrf
the horizon.
PHN,
90
r
the amplitude and hour angle of a given star when in If the star is at H, Fig. 1, we have in the triangle 7 180 9, rightangled at A
,
JETJV
= 90
<J;
and
if
a.
the amplitude
PN= HPN = WH denoted
is
t,PH^
a,
by
we have
This triangle
sin a
gives,, therefore,
<p
sec
rr
sin d
<p
cos
f
tan
tan ^
SPHERICAL COORDINATES.
21.
89
Given the Hour angle (t)ofa star, to find its right ascension (a). Transformation from our second system of coordinates to the
third.
=
There must evidently be given also the position of the meridian with reference to the origin of right ascensions. Suppose then in Fig. 1 we know the right ascension of the meridian, or VQ 0, then we have VD VQ >Q, that is,
=
a=
Conversely, if
t
a and
are
known, we have
The methods of
hereafter.
finding
at a
given time will be considered
22. Given the zenith distance of a known star at a given place, k find the star's hour angle, azimuth, and parallactic angle. In this case there are given in the triangle POZ, Fig. 1, the
three
sides
the angles formula for
ZO = ZPO ,
,
t,
PZO =
PO =
90 180

8,
PZ =
90
 p,
to find
A, and
POZ^q.
The
computing an angle
6, c, is
B
of a spherical triangle
ABC,
whose
sides are
either
/ *i" <*
\
sin i
B
B
B
=J
\
sin
)
sin
(
 <0
\
/
\
'
a
sin c
cos
1
=J \
(
\
sin s 8in (*
(.s
6)
sin sin
a sin c
or
tan
}
=J
\
~
(
sin
(
\
fO
(s
~c
6)
)
ain s sin
}
/
have then only to suppose in which s c).  (a f b to represent one of the angles of our astronomical triangle, and to substitute the above corresponding values of the sides, to obtain the required solution. This substitution will be carried out hereafter in those cases
=
+
We
B
where the problem
23.
is
practically applied.
Given
the declination (d)
and
the right ascension (a)
of a
star,
and
tude
the obliquity
().)
of
the ecliptic
to find the latitude (/9) (e),
and
the longi
Transformation from the third system of coof the star. ordinates to the fourth.
The
solution of this
problem
is
similar to that of Art. 10.
40
THE CELESTIAL SPHEKK.
will be more apparent if we here represent the sphere projected on the plane of the equator as in Fig. 6, where VBUCis
The analogy of the two
the equator,
P its
P
pole;
1
its
pole,
and consequently
VA U the ecliptic, CP'PB the
colure; POD, P'OL, circles of declination and latitude drawn through the
solstitial
star 0.
circles
make
Since the angle which two great with each other is equal to angle in the triangle
measured
by
PP' = e* and since the CD and PP'O by AL, we have
PP'O,
90
^,
the angular distance of their poles,
we have P'PO\*
PP'O
P'PO.
90
+
a,
P'0< 90
P0<
PP'
A
90
which, substituted respectively for
,
AD
sin
D
A
ft,
0,
in
the general equations (3), Art. 10, give
^
x
~ cos
~
sin
s
sin
c7
sin
s
cos ^ sin a
cos
<?
cos cos
/* /5
sin /
e
sin 3
cos
=
+
cos
sin
<7
(29)
cos S cos
which are the required formulae of transformation. for logarithmic computation, we have
Adapting
m m
cos
cos
sin
cos
sin
M
ft
4
M _. sin 3
~.
cos
<?
sin a
e)
e)
ft /S
sin A
cos x
= m sin (Jf = m cos (Jf = cos 5 cos a
is
(30)
tn
wnich
m is a positive number.
more convenient form
obtained by substituting
A
still
cos
by which we find
SPHERICAL COORDINATES.
k sin
41
\
I
k
k'
cosM =
A
M ~ tan

9
sin a
tfsin
= cas(Jf
cos
cos (3f
cos ^
M cot
(
f
\
x
/Q.J
tan
cos
/?
sin A tan
Jf
e)
)
l'
sin A

\
EXAMPLE.
Given
<J,
a,
and
s
as below, to find
ft
and L
t
Com
putation by (31).
*:=
e
16
27 31 .72 = log k sin Jf w9.4681562 tan log 9.0577093 log sin a r= log A cos 3f ,!/ 68 45' 4l".87
= =
22' 35".45
6
33 29 .30
23
log sin log tan (Jf log tan /5
/>
n8.0897286
Q
17
1.4114658
,9
=
n9.5011944
35' 37".51

M
e
=
c*
Verification.
=
92 13 13 .59
9.5590070 0.9394396
0.4984466
17' 43".91
log cos /9 sin A n8.0689234 log cos d sin a 9.0397224
"
,
log oos Jf log cot
iOflf
e
cos (If v
cos
M
^
OT Q fivQvfiin ny uy ^ ulu
*
fo^rcoH
(M
e)
= log
/
log
^'
A'
cos
A
sin / //8.5882080
=
359
Tables for facilitating the above transformation, based upon same method as that employed in Art. 16, are given in tho A mcrican Ephemeris* and Berlin Jahrbuch. The formula then^ \vned may be obtained from Fig. (>, in which the points JPand </ are used precisely as in Fig. 4 of Art. 16.
the
24. If we denote the angle at the star, or P'OP, by 00 the solution of the preceding problem by Gauss's Equations
E.
is
cos (45
C.QS
i ft)
Bin 1 (J0
(45
} /5)
cos 1
(E + A) = cos [45
A)
+ A)
Hiii
[45
J
(e
)] sin
(45
+ Ja)
sin (45 ih (45
}/9)sin J (J
= sin [45
i(e
J
l/?)cosi(J
x)=cos[45
+ *)] cos (45 + J a) i + ^)] cos(45 f Ja) (e <J)]sin (45 + Ja)
(e
angle at the star is required when the Gaussian Equations have not been employed, we have from the triangle 1 OP x/  90 POP', Fig. <i, putting E,
25. If the
P

42
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE.
cos 3
cos
ft
sin
= cos =
sin
c
cos d
+
sin c sin d sin
Sin e cos a
or,
adapted for logarithms,
?i
1
cos
ZV
N = sin = cos
=
e sin
a
(33)
cos
/S
cos
/5
cos y =. n cos (JV sin r sin e cos a t
26.
(Tiron the latitude
(ft)
obliquity
of the
ecliptic (e), to
and longitude (X) of a star, and the find the declination and right ascensivn
of the
star.
By
the process already employed,
Fig.
6,
we
derive from the triangle
PP'O,
for this case,
sin d
cos d sin a
cos
6
cos
= = =
cose sin
sin sin
/3
/?
+ +
sin
s
cos
ft
/5
sin x
cos
s
cos
sin /
/
(34)
cos p cos
which,
it will
changing a
the sign of
for sin
e.
with
e,
be observed, may be obtained from (29) by inter/, and d with $ and at the same time changing sin e that is, putting for e, and, consequently,
For logarithmic computation, we have
m sin M = sin m cos 3f =: cos sin A sin d ~ m sin (Af + cos 9 sin a = m cos (M
/? ft
c)
(35)
COS
COS a
= COS
f
e)
ft
COS
^
or the following, analogous to (31)
A
:
sin
M = tan
Jlf
k cos
V
sin
a
9 k cos a
tan
cos ^ sin
<J
= sin = cos (M + = cos M cot = sin a tan Af +
I
e)
/I
(
ft
(36)
c)
COS
ForveriJicatUM:
^j^
(M
COS
27. Tlio single at the star,
POP', being denoted,
as in Art. 24,
RECTANGULAR COORDINATES.
43
by 90
Equations
sin (45 sin (45
E, the solution of this problem by the Gaussian
is
i $) sin }
i
<J)
(E +
a)
= sin [45
i (e
+
+
is
)] sin
)]
(45+ J A)
(37)
cos(45
eos (45
28.
i 5) sin i (JB
J
<J)
But
= sin [45 cos (E a) = cos [45 if the angle y = 90
a)
}
cos J (J0
+ a) == cos [45* i (e
} (e
)]
cos (45+ J A) cos (45+ i A)
i (e
)] sin
(45+ J A)
when
the
J?
required
Gaussian Equations have not been employed, we have directly
cos d cos y cos <J sin jy
or,
= cos = sin
n
sin
e
e
cos
cos
ft
sin e sin
ft
sin A
A
adapted for logarithms,
jRT=
sin e sin A
e
fi)
n cos ^V=: cos
cos
tf
cos y
cos
29.
tf
= n cos (JV + sin y = sin cos
A
(38)
For
the sun,
/?
desired, put
find
=
we may, except when extreme
if in (34)
precision
is
0,
and the preceding formula then assume very
simple forms.
Thus,
we put
sin
ft
=
0,
cos B
=
1,
we
sin ^
sin e sin A
e
= cos cos d cos a = cos
cos d sin a
sin A
A
whence
if
any two of the four quantities
,
a,
A, e
are given,
we
can deduce the other two.
RECTANGULAR COORDINATES.
30.
By means
of spherical coordinates
we have
only a
pletely,
star's direction.
To
define
its
position in
expressed space com
another element is necessary, namely, its distance. In Spherical Astronomy we consider this element of distance only so far as may be necessary in determining the changes of
apparent direction of a star resulting from a change in the point from which it is viewed. For this purpose the rectangular coordinates of analytical geometry may be employed. Three planes of reference are taken at right angles to each
other, their
common
intersection, or origin, being the point of
44
observation
:
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE.
and the star's distances from these planes are and z respectively. These coordinates are respectively parallel to the three axes (or mutual intersections of the planes, taken two and two), and hence these axes are called, respectively, the axis of #, the axife of y, and the axis of z. The planes are distinguished by the axes they contain, as "the
denoted by
x, y,
The coplane of xy" the "plane of xs" the "plane of yz." ordinates may be conceived to be measured on the axes to
which they belong, from the origin, in two opposite directions, distinguished by the algebraic signs of plus and minus, so that
the numerical values of the coordinates of a star, together with their algebraic signs, fully determine the position of the star in
space without ambiguity. Of the eight solid angles formed by the planes of reference, that in which a star is placed will always be known by the signs of the three coordinates, and in one only of these angles will
This angle is usually called the first plus. the investigations of a problem, we may, if simplify angk. we choose, assume all the points considered to lie in the first
the three signs
all
be
To
angle, and then treat the equations obtained for this simplest case as entirely general; for, by the principles of analytical geometry, negative values of the coordinates which satisfy such
equations also satisfy a geometrical construction in which these coordinates are drawn in the negative direction.
polar coordinates of analytical geometry (of three dimenapplied to astronomy are nothing more than the sions) coordinates we have already treated of, combined sfherical
The
when
ft
with the element distance; and the formulae of transformation ;>m rectangular to polar coordinates are nothing more than
the values of the rectangular coordinates in terms of the distance and the spherical coordinates. For the convenience of reference, we shall here recapitulate these formulae, with special
reference to our several systems of spherical coordinates.
81.
We
shall find
LEMMA.
of
its
it useful to premise the following The distance of a point in space from the plane of any
its
great circle of the celestial sphere is equal to
the sphere multiplied by the
distance
from
the centre
cosme of
pole of that circle;
and
its
distance from
angular distance from the the axis of the circle is equal to
its
from the centre of distance from the pole. angular
distance
the sphere multiplied
by
the sine
of
//*
RECTANGULAR COORDINATES.
For,
let
45
AB>
Fig.
7,
be the given great
circle orthographiits
cally projected
upon a plane passing through
axis
OP and
its polo. The disthe given point C; tance of the point C from the plane of the great circle is the perpendicular CD; CE
P
distance from the axis; CO its distance from the centre of the sphere and
is
its
;
the angle the pole.
COP
the angular distance from The truth of the Lemma is,
therefore, obvious
from the
figure.
values of the rectangular coordinates in our several systems may be found as follows Altitude and azimuth. First system. Let the primitive plane,
32.
:
The
or that of the horizon, be the plane of xy; that of the meridian, the plane of xz; that of the prime vertical, the plane of yz. The meridian line is then the axis of /:; the east and west lino, the axis of y; and the vertical line, the axis of z. Positive will be reckoned from the origin towards the south, positive
j
//
towards the west, and positive z towards the zenith.
angle,
The
fi,*1
or angle of positive values, is therefore the southwest Let quarter of the hemisphere above the plane of the horizon.
the Z> Fig. 8, be the zenith, S the south point, west point of the horizon. These points are
W
Fig. a.
of reference
star
respectively the poles of the three great circles if, then, A is the position of a
;
on the surface of the sphere as seen from the centre of the earth, and if we put
A
A J
azimuth
its
altitude of the star "
.._
AH,
tiH,
distance from the centre of the sphere
we have immediately, by
.r =_
the preceding
Lemma,
z
J cos AS,
y = J cos A
\Vj
J cos AZ,
which, by considering the right triangles AIIS,
AHW,
become
")
x
= J cos A cow A = J cos A sin A y
z =: J sin h
i
)
(39)
These equations determine the rectangular coordinates
,//,,
46
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE.
the polar coordinates J,
A,
when
x, y,
A
i/
are given.
Conversely,
for the first
if
and z are given, we may
tan
find J, ^,
and
A;
two
equations give
A
=~ x
and then we have
J
sin
A
ft
=
==
cos
J.
4 cos
sin
A
first
whence J and
equations,
A.
Or, by adding the squares of the
two
we have
J cos h
= = =
2
i/i' P"y*
whence
tan h
and the sum of the squares of the three equations gives
J
Second system. Declination and hour angle. Let the plane of the equator be the plane of xy; that of the meridian, the plane of xz; that of the six hour circle, the plane of yz. In the prenow denote the north pole, S that point of ceding figure, let
Z
is on the meridian above the horizon and from which hour angles arc reckoned, T7the west point. Positive x will be reckoned towards &, positive y towards the west, If then A is the place of a star on positive z towards the north. the sphere as seen from the centre, and we put
the equator which
= the star's declination = AH, " = hour angle = SH, u J = distance from the centre,
d
t
and denote the rectangular coordinates
in this case
by x^y^z^
"j
we have
X
tf
= J COS d CO8 = J cos d sin / = J sin d
1
/
t
>
J
(40)
Third system. Declination and right ascension. Let the plane of the equator be the plane of xy; that of the equinoctial colure,
the plane of xz; that of the
solstitial colure, the
plane of yz.
RECTANGULAR COORDINATES.
47
The
axis of x is the intersection of the planes of the equator and equinoctial cblure, positive towards the vernal equinox the axis of y is the intersection of the planes of the equator and solstitial colure, positive towards that point whose right ascension is +90 and the axis of z is the axis of the equator, positive
;
;
towards the north.
If then, in Fig. 8, is the north pole, a star in the first angle, projected upon the vernal equinox, the celestial sphere, and we put
Z
W
A
= declination of the sta* = = right ascension " = WH, A = distance from the centre,
d
a
while x", y", z ff denote the rectangular coordinates,
'
we have
tf'A
cos
A W.
x"
y"
= J cos AS,
2"
= J cos AZ,
^
which become
= J cos d cos a = A cos sin a y" 2" = J sin
<J
V
(41)
J
Fourth system. Celestial latitude and longitude. Let the plane of the ecliptic be the plane of xy ; the plane of the circle of latitude passing through the equinoctial points, the plane of xz ; the plane of the circle of latitude passing through the solstitial
The positive axis of x is here also the points, the plane of yz. line from the centre towards the vernal equinox ; the straight
positive axis of y is the straight line from the centre towards the north solstitial point, or that whose longitude is +90 ; and the positive axis of z is the straight line from the centre towards
the north pole of the ecliptic. now denotes the north pole of the ecliptic, If then, in Fig. 8, the vernal equinox, A the star's place on the sphere, and
Z
W
we put
ft
A
J
~ AH, latitude of the star = longitude of the star = 1/7/, = distance of tho from the centre,
.star
system,
and x'", y'", 2'", denote the rectangular coordinates for we have
.r'"
this
a!"
= J cos = J cos y"' = J sin
ft ft
cos ^
sin A
^
I
)
(42)
ft
48
THE CELESTIAL SPHERK.
TRANSFORMATION OP RECTANGULAR COORDINATES.
83.
For the purposes of Spherical Astronomy, only the most
simple cases of the general transformations treated of in analyWe mostly consider but two cases : tical geometry are necessary.
First.
TrmixformatioH of rectangular coordinates
the
to
a new
origin,
without chaw/iny
system of spherical coordinates. The general planes of reference which have heen used in this chapter may he supposed to be drawn through any point in space
without changing their directions, and therefore without changing the great circles of the infinite celestial sphere which repreWe thus repeat the same system of spherical coordisent them.
nates with various origins and different systems of rectangular coordinates, the planes of reference, however, remaining always parallel to the planes of the primitive system.
The transformation from one system of rectangular cooHinates to a parallel system
is
evidently effected
liy
the formula!
in
which rr p y r z arc the coordinates of a point in the primitive system r2 yv z2 the coordinates of the same point in the new system and er, 6, c are the coordinates of the new origin taken
l
;
,
5
in the first system.
As we have shown how
of #2
t/2 ,
to express the values of
xl9 yv zl and
22 in terms of the spherical coordinates, we have only , to substitute these values in the preceding formulae to obtain the
general relations between the spherical coordinates corresponding to the two origins. This is, indeed, the most general method of determining the effect of parallax, as will appear hereafter.
Second..
Transformation
of rectangular
co
ordinates
when
the system
of spherical coordi*
nates is changed but the origin is unchanged. This amounts to changing the directions of
the axes.
The. cases
are chiefly those in which the
which occur in practice two systems
Suppose
system
;
have one plane
in
common.
first
this
9,
plane is that of xz, and let the axes of x and z in the
OA\ OZ, Fig.
be
RiXTAXGULAK COORDINATES.
40
OZ
19
the axes of x l and ^ 1 in the
projection of a point in space let x AS, z OB, xl = V
=
=
AB
new system. Let A be the upon the common plane; and The distance of th* z, 0# r
point from the
common
plane being unchanged,
we have
The axis of y may be regarded as an axis of revolution about which the planes ofyx and yz revolve in passing from the first to the second system and if u denotes the angular measure of this revolution, or u XOX^ ZOZ^ BABV we readily derive from the figure the equation
=
;
=
=
x
or,
sec u
u,
t
=x
t
zt tan u
multiplying by cos
arid
# = # cos u z z = x tan u +
t
sin
u
2j
sec w
or,
substituting in this the preceding value of x,
z
= x, sin w f z
first to
t
cos w
Thus, to pass from the
formulae
the second system,
t
we have
}
the
x
z
=x
t
eosw
ti
sin
u
y=9t
And
ease,
= x, sin + 2
to the
t
cos M
[
J
(44)
to pass
from the second
first,
we
t/
obtain with the same
xl
^1
=
=
x
V
cos u
+ z sin
^
3fi=
x
{
sin wf*;
(45)
As an example, let us apply these to transforming from our second system of spherical coordinates to the first that is, from declination and hour angle to altitude and azimuth. The meridian is the common plane ; the axis of z in the system of declination and hour angle is the axis of the equator, and the axis of *! in the system of altitude and azimuth is the vertical line the angle between these axes is the complement of the latitude, or it 90 Substituting this value of u in (44), and also the p. values of x, y, z, x l9 y l9 * M given by (39) and (40), we have, after
;
;
=
omitting the
VOL.
I.
common
factor J,
4
SO
cos A cos
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE.
cos h sin
Bin
A A
A
sin
<f
cos d cos
sin
t
t
cos f sin d
sin
cos cos
<f>
cos d cos
f
^
sin
which agree with
tance
is
(14).
We
see that
when
left
out of view
(as it
must
the element of disnecessarily be when the
origin is not changed), the transformation by means of rectangular coordinates leads to the same forms as the direct application
of Spherical Trigonometry. With regard to the entire generality of these formulae in their application to angles of all possible magnitudes, see Sph. Trig. Chap. IV.
DIFFERENTIAL VARIATIONS OF COORDINATES.
34. It is often necessary in practical astronomy to determine effect given variations of the data will produce in the quan
what
tities
computed from them.
Where
the formulae of computa
tion are derived directly from a spherical triangle, we can employ for this purpose the equations of finite differences [Sph. Trig.
Chap. VL] if we wish to obtain rigorously exact relations, or the simpler differential equations if the variations considered are extremely small. As the latter case is very frequent, I shall
deduce here the most useful differential formulae, assuming well known the fundamental ones [Sph. Trig. Art. 153],
da
cos
cos
as.
C (tb
db
cos
C da
+
cos
cos
f
B dc Adc
r sin b sin
tfA
")
cos
B da
these
sin
A db
= sin c sin A dB dc = sin a sin B dC
>
(46)
)
From
we
obtain the following by eliminating da:

cos a sin
C db C db
cos a sin
sin
B
dr.
+
B
dc
B dc = sin c cos B dA
:
= sin b cos C dA + sin a <?B
f
)
)
sin
a
dC
and by eliminating db from these
sin
a sin
= cos b dA + cos a dB + dC
from
(47),
(48)
If
we
eliminate
dA
we
find
cos b sin
C db
cos c sin
B dc =
sin c cos
B dB
by
sin b cos
C dC
by
its
the terms of which being divided either equivalent sin c sin B, we obtain
cot b db
cot c dc
sin b sin C, or
= cot B dB
cot
C dC
(49)
DIFFERENTIALS OF COORDINATES.
35.
.51
take the spherical triangle formed by the zenith, the pole, and a star, Art. 10, and put
As an example,
A
C
then the
first
= 180 =q
cos q dZ
sin q
A
a
c
= 90
d
= 90
y
equations of (46) and (47) give
dZ
dd
cos d dt
=
+ sin q sin C dA + + cos # sin Z dA sin
{
cos
sin
t d<p
t d<p
)
)
which determine the errors
d<J
and
<ft
in the values of S
computed according to the formulae (4), (5), and <p are affected by the small errors rf, dA,
In a similar
and t and (6), when A, and d<p respectively.
,
manner we obtain
cos q dd
sin
{
d%
sin
sin q cos #
rftf
f
cos cos C sin
ZdA=
#
<&$
f cos q cos 5 dt
A dp A d<p
")
)
which determine the errors d and cLl in the values of and A computed by (14\ when 3, t, and <p are affected by the small errors dd, dt, and dtp respectively.
36. As a second example, take the triangle formed by the pole of the equator, the pole of the ecliptic, and a star, Art. 23. Denoting the angle at the star by 7, we find
d3
{
.
cos
cos
ft
dl
= sin
= =
v)
sin T) cos ti da dd f cos y cos d da y
dS
sin
>l
dt ds
)
)
+
sin
fi
cos
/*
and reciprocally,
COS
<J
dd da
cos
sin
ij
d$
d/3
f sin ^ co<*
/? r/A
f
sin a de
)
j
iy
+
^
cos
iy
cos
y5
c&
sin ^ cos a
^
rfe
52
TIME.
CHAPTER
TIME
II.
USE OF THE EPHEMEK1S
INTERPOLATION
STAR
CATALOGUES.
TRANSIT. The instant when any point of the celestial sphere is on the meridian of an observer is designated as the also the meridian passage, transit of that point over the meridian
37.
;
In one complete revolution of the sphere about its axis, every point of it is twice on the meridian, at points which are 180 distant in right ascension. It is therefore
and
culmination.
necessary to distinguish between the two transits. The meridian is bisected at the polos of the equator: the transit over that half of the meridian which contains the observer's zenith is the
that over the half of the meriupper transit, or culmination dian which contains the nadir is the lower transit, or culmina;
tion.
0*
;
At
the upper transit of a point
transit, its
its
hour angle
is
zero, or
at the lower
hour angle
is 12*.
38.
The motion of the
earth about
its
axis
is
perfectly uni
If, then, the axis of the earth preserved precisely the same direction in space, the apparent diurnal motion of the celestial sphere would also be perfectly uniform, and the inter
form.
vals
between the successive transits of any assumed point of the sphere would be perfectly equal. The effect of changes in the position of the earth's axis upon the transit of stars is most perceptible in the case of stars near the vanishing points of the obtain a measure axis, that is, near the poles of the heavens.
We
of time sensibly uniform by employing the successive transits of a point of the equator. The point most naturally indicated is the vernal equinox (also called the First point of Aries, and denoted by the symbol for Aries, T).
the interval of time between two successive (upper) transits of the true vernal equinox over the same meridian.
39.
A sidereal
effect
day
is
The
of precession and nutation upon the time of transit
TIMK.
53
of the vernal equinox is so nearly the same at two successive transits, that sidereal days thus defined are sensibly equal. (See
Chapter
XL
Art. 411.)
The
sidereal time at
equinox at that instant, from 0* to 24*.
any instant is the hour angle of the vernaj reckoned from the meridian westward
is
When
HP is
this instant is
on the meridian, the sidereal time sometimes called sidereal noon.
40.
A solar day is the
transits of the
solar
upper
The
interval of time between two successive sun over the same meridian. time at any instant is the hour angle of the sun at
that instant.
motion about the sun from west sun appears to have a like motion among the stars, or to be constantly increasing its right ascension and hence a solar day is longer than a sidereal day.
In consequence of the earth's
to east, the
;
If the sun changed its right 41. Apparent and mean solar time. ascension uniformly, solar days, though not equal to sidereal days, would still be equal to each other. But the sun's motion in right
ascenrflon is not uniform,
1st.
and
this for
two reasons
:
The sun does not move
were
so that, even
in the equator, but in the ecliptic, the sun's motion in the ecliptic uniform, its
equal changes of longitude would not produce equal changes of right ascension; 2d. The sun's motion in the ecliptic is not uniform.
obtain a uniform measure of time depending on the sun's fictitious sun, which motion, the following method is adopted. we shall call the first mean sun, is supposed to move uniformly at
To
A
true sun.
such a rate as to return to the perigee at the same time with the Another fictitious sun, which we shall call the second
which is often called simply the mean sun), is supmove uniformly in the equator at the same rate as the first mean sun in the ecliptic, and to return to the vernal equinox itt the same time with it. Then the time denoted by this second
THCMH sun (and
posed to
mean sun is perfectly uniform in its increase, and is called mean time. The time which is denoted by the true sun is called the true or, more commonly, the apparent time. The instant of transit of the true sun is called apparent noon, and
the instant of transit of the second
mean sun
is
called mean noon.
54
TIME.
The equation of time is the difference between apparent and mean time or, in other words, it is the difference between the hour angles of the true sun and the second mean sun. The
;
greatest difference
is
about
is
16"*
The equation of time
ascension of the second
also the difference
between the right
The right sun. to the preceding is, according definitions, equal to the longitude of the first mean sun, or, as it is commonly called, the sun's mean longitude. To compute the
ascensions of the true sun and the second
mean
mean sun
equation of time, therefore, we must know how to find the longitude of the first mean sun and this is deduced from a knowledge
;
of the true sun's 'apparent motion in the ecliptic, which belongs Here it suffices us that its value is to Physical Astronomy.
given for each day of the year in the Ephemeris, or Nautical
Almanac.
*
day (apparent or mean) \s conceived by astronomers to commence at noon (apparent or mean), and is divided into twentyfour hours, numbered succesto 24. sively from Astronomical time (apparent or mean) is, then, the hour angle of the sun (apparent or mean), reckoned on the equator ivestward throughout its entire circumference from 0* to 24*.
42. Astronomical time.
The
solar
43.
Civil time.
For the common purposes of
life, it is
more
convenient to begin the day at midnight, that is on the meridian at its lower transit
is,
when
the sun
day is divided into two periods of twelve hours each, from midnight to noon, marked A.M. (Ante Meridiem), namely, and from noon to midnight, marked P.M. (Post Meridiem)
civil
The
The civil day begins of the same date. This remark day is the only precept that need be given for the conversion of one of these kinds of time into the other.
44.
To convert
civil into
astronomical time.
12* before the astronomical
EXAMPLES.
Ast. T.
May
10,
3,
15*=
Civ. T.
May
11, 3*
3, 7*
1, 8*
Ast. T. Jan.
7*=
Civ. T. Jan.
Ast
T. Aug. 31, 20*=: Civ T. Sept.
A.M. P.M. A.M.
TIME.
45.
.55
Time at different meridians. The hour angle of the sun at meridian is called the local (solar) time at that meridian. any The hour angle of the sun at the Greenwich meridian at the same instant is the corresponding Greenwich time. This time we shall have constant occasion to use, both because longitude* in this country and England are reckoned from the Greenwich meridian, and because the American and British Nautical
Almanacs are computed for Greenwich time.* The difference between the local time at any meridian and the Greenwich time is equal to the longitude of that meridian from
Greenwich, expressed in time, observing that 1*~15. The difference between the local times of any two
meridians
equal to the difference of longitude of those meridians.
is
In comparing the corresponding times at two
dif
ferent meridians, the most easterly meridian may be distinguished as that at which the time is greatest that is, latest.
;
'
v
v
<;
If then PJf, Fig. 10, is any meridian (referred to the celestial the Greenwich meridian, PS the declination circle sphere),
PG
through the sun, and
if
we put
9
= GPS, = the Greenwich limo = the local time = MP8 L = the west longitude of the meridian PM = GrPM,
T T
we have
==
JT
_
IJJ
If the given meridian were east of Greenwich, as PM' we T TQ but we prefer to use should have its east longitude 7 T in all cases, observing that east 7 the general formula
,
\
L
longitudes are
to
be regarded as negative.
In the formula
always westward
;
are supposed to be reckoned from their respective meridians, and from 0* to
(54),
7'
and
T
24* that is, Q and Tare the astronomical times, which should, of course, be used in all astronomical computations. As in almost every computation of practical astronomy we are dependent for some of the data upon the pphemeris, and these
* What we have to say respecting the Greenwich time is, however, equally applicable to the time at any other meridian for which the ephemerig may be computed.
T
56
TIME.
are commonly given for Greenwich, it is generally the first step in such a computation to deduce an exact or, at least, an apvalue of the Greenwich astronomical time. It need proximate hardly be added that the Greenwich time should never be other
wise expressed than astronomically.*
EXAMPLES.
1.
9* 3 W 10
In Longitude 76
32'
W.
the local
time
?
is
1856 April
1,
A.M.
;
what
is
the Greenwich time
21*
Local Ast. T. March 31,
f Longitude Greenwich T. April 1,
2.
3*
6
10'
5
8
249
is
18
21,
In Long. 105 15' E. the local time what is the Greenwich time ?
Local Ast. T. Aug. 21,
* 4*
August
4A 8*
P.M
;
Longitude Greenwich T. Aug.
3.
7 20,
1
21
2
Long. 175
30, 7* 52'".
80'
W.
Loe. T. Sept. 30, 8* 10" A.M.
1, 7*
= G.
T.
Sept.
4.
Long. 165
0'
E. Loc. T. Feb.
11" P.M.
= G.
T. Jan.
31, 20*
5.
11.
30' E. Loc. T.
Long. 64
June
1,
0*
M. (Noon)
= G.
M. T.
May
46.
81, 19* 42*.
In nautical practice the observer is provided with a chrois regulated to Greenwich time, before sailing, Its error on Greenat a place whose longitude is well known. wich time is carefully determined, as well as its daily gain or loss, that is, its rate, so that at any subsequent time the Green
nometer which
wich time
of sailing.
may be known from
its
the indication of the chronometer
corrected for
error and the accumulated rate since the date
As, however, the chronometer has usually only 12*
marked on the dial, it is necessary to distinguish whether it This is always readily indicates A.M. or P.M. at Greenwich. done by means of the observer's approximate longitude and local
* On this account, chronometers intended for nautical and astronomical purposes should always be marked from 0* to 24*, instead of from 0* to 12* as is now nsuul that navigators have not insisted upon this point, It is surprising
TIME.
time.
trate it
57
it
As
this is a daily operation at sea,
may be
well to
illus
by a few examples.
1.
In the approximate longitude
gust 3, on G. T. 6 m 10*
the Greenwich Chronometer
;
what
is
W. about 3* P.M. on Aumarks 8A ll m 7*, and is fast the Greenwich astronomical time ?
5*
3, 3*
Approx. Local T. Aug.
"
Gr. Chronom.
8 A 11"
7f
Longitude,
+
5
8
Correction,
3, 8
6 4
10
Approx. G. T. Aug. 3,
2.
Gr. Ast. T. Aug.
57
In Long. 10* E. about l h A.M. on Dec. 7, the Greenwich Chronometer marks 3A 14 W 13'.5, and is fast 25m 18*. 7 what is
;
theG. T.?
Approx. Local T. Dec. Long. Approx. G. T. Dec.
3.
6,
6,
13*
Gr. Chronom.
3* 14 13.5
10
3
Correction,
G. A. T. Dec.
25
6, 2 48
18
.7
54. 8
Tn Long. 9* 12m W. about 2* A.M. on Feb. 13, the Gr. Chron. marks 10* 27 m 13*.3, and is slow 30 m 30.3 what w the G. T.?
;
Approx. Local T. Feb. u Long.
Approx. G. T. Feb.
12,
12, 14*
Gr.
Chronom.
10* 37 m 13.3
+9
~23
Correction,
+
SO
7
30.3
G. A. T. Feb. 12, 23
4&6
of
The computation of the approximate Greenwich time may,
course, be performed mentally.
47.
The formula
(54),
L= T
T
T, is true
not only
when
T
a
and
and T express the hour angles of any point whatever of the sphere at the two meridians whose difference of longitude is L. This is evident from Fig. 10, where S may be any point of the sphere.
48.
solar times, but also whatever, or, in general, when
T are
when they
are any kinds of time
To convert
the
apparent time at a given meridian into the mean
apparent time.
time, or the
mean
into 1he
If
A
we have
or
E
M = the mean time, = the corresponding apparent time.
=. the equation of time,
M=A + E
A
= JfrJ?
58
in
TIME.
which
E
is
to
b<i
additive to apparent time.
regarded as a positive quantity when it is The value of is to he taken from the
E
Nautical
Almanac
for the
Greenwich instant corresponding
to
the given local time. If apparent time is given, find the Qr. from page I of the month in the apparent time and take
E
Nautical Almanac; if mean time is given, find the Qr. time and take from page II of the month.
mean
E
In longitude 60 W., 1856 May 24, P.M., apparent time what is the mean time ?
1.
;
EXAMPLE
3*
12 m 10'
We have first
Local time
May
21,
3* 12 TO 10
Longitude, Gr. app. time
400
7
May
24,
12
10
for the Gr. time, May 24, 7* 12 m must, therefore, find 10*, or 7*.21. By the Nautical Almanac for 1856, we have at  3"' 25*.48, and the Greenwich noon May 24 hourly apparent
We
E
=
E
difference
+
0*.224.
Hence
at the given
7.21
time
E= 
3* 25'.43
+ 0.224 X
is
=
8"
3" 23.81
and the required mean time
M = 3* 12" 10
3* 23.81 == 3*
46M9.
EXAMPLE 2. In longitude 60 W., 1856 May mean time what is the apparent time ?
;
24,
3*8M6M9
Gr.
E
at
mean time, May 24, 7* R 4GM9 (== 7M5) m 25'.41 mean noon May 24 == Hourly
:J
diff.
= 0'.224
7.16
Correction for
7M 5
= _+_JL60
23.81
.#=" 3
1.60
and hence
J/=3*
8 W 46'.19 3
E=:+
A
23.81
10 .00
= &" 12
the equation of time is not a uniformly varying quantity, it not quite accurate to compute its correction as above, by multiplying the given hourly difference by the number of hours in
is
As
the Greenwich time, for that process assumes that this hourly The variations in the difference is the same for each hour.
hourly difference
are,
however, so small that
it is
only
when
TIME.
59
extreme precision
after.
is
more exact method of
required that recourse must be had to the interpolation which will be given here
49.
To determine
the relative length
of the solar and sidereal unit
of
time.
According to BESSEL, the length of the tropical year (which is the interval between two successive passages of the sun through the mean vernal equinox) is 365.24222 mean solar days;* and since in this time the mean sun has described the whole arc of the equator included between the two positions of the equinox, it has made one transit less over any given meridian than the vernal equinox so that we have
;
366.24222 sidereal days
= 365.24222 mean solar days
.
whence we deduce
1 sid.
day J
24222 = !I sol
3fi5
366.24222
day == 0.99726957 J
sol.
dav
or
24* sid. time
= 23* 56
=
TO
4'.091 solar time
Also,
1 sol.
Ofic 9J.999
day J
time
?2^
Bjd
.
365.24222
day *
sid.
= 1.00273791
time
sid.
day J
or
24*
sol.
= 24* 3 m 56.55S
366.24222
If
we put
=1()0273791
365.24222
and denote by /an
interval of
lent interval of sidereal time,
K
mean solar time, by /' we always have
/
the equiva
I
=  = I  (1 u
f
= /+ .00273791 7 /' .00273043 7' 1)7' =
1)
u.
\
.
f
I
(55 )
Tables are given in the Nautical Almanacs to save the labor of computing these equations. In some of these tables, for each
solar interval
given the equivalent sidereal interval reciprocally in others there arc given the correction to be added to /to find /' (i.e. the correction .00273791 /),
there
is
/'
= //, and
/
:
the text
* The length of the tropical year is not absolutely constant. The value given is for the year 1800 Its decrease in 100 years is about O'.G (Art. 407).
in
60
be subtracted from /' to find / (i.e. the correction .0027304&7'). The latter form is the most conve
and the correction
nient,
to
and is adopted in the American Ephemeris.
The
correction
(re
(
frequently called the acceleration of the fixed stars The daily acceleration is 3m 56*.555. to the sun). latively
a
1)
is
*
J
50.
To convert
the
mean
solar
time at a given meridian into the
inrresponding sidereal time.
D the mean sun, V the vernal equinox, and if we put T ^ DQ ~ the mean solar time,
t)ir_
r
\
In Fig.
1,
page
25, if
PQ is the given
meridian,
VQ the equator,
Q~
the sidereal time,
V~
we have
the right ascension of the meridian, the right ascension of the mean sun,
(56)
wich mean noon. It is, however, there called the " Sidereal Time," because at mean noon the second mean sun is on the meridian, and its right ascension is also the right ascension of
the meridian, or the sidereal time. is uniBut this quantity m at the rate of 3 56*.555 in 24 mean solar formly increasing*
The right ascension of the mean sun, or V, American Ephemeris, on page II of the month,
is
given in the
for each Green
V
hours, or of 9'.8565 in one
mean
hour.
To
find its value at the
7
given time 7\
we may
first
;
find the
Greenwich mean time 7 y by
applying the longitude
Q
then, if
we put
V ~ the value of Fat Gr. mean noon, = the " sidereal time" the ephemeris for the given date,
in
\vo
have
V= F + 9.8505 X
in
Ta
TQ must be expressed in hours and decimal parts. It seen that 9*.8565 is the acceleration of sidereal time on easily solar time in one solar hour, and therefore the term 9*.8565 X T is the correction to add to T to reduce it from a solar to a sidewhich
\s
(t
tt
real interval.
This term
is
identical with
(f*
\)TQ
as given
by
* The sidereal time
is
the R.A. of the
at. mean noon is equal to the true R.A. of the mean sun, or it mean sun referred to the true equinox, and therefore involves the
nutation, so that its rate of increase is not, strictly, uniform.
for
But
it is
autiiciently so
24 hours
to
be so regarded in
all practical
computations.
See Chapter XI.
TIMK.
the preceding article, if
in seconds, since
61
T
Q
in tho latter expression
h
expressed
we have
0.00273791
3600'
^1
the
We may then write (56) in the following form, putting west longitude of the given meridian, and 7^ T + L\
h
L)
(57
1
The term
ican
7
(/*
1)
(7
+
L)
is
Ephemcris
for converting
"Mean
given in the tables of the Amerinto Sidereal Time," aw!
L, entering the table with the argument T or by entering successively with the arguments T and and adding the corrections found, observing to give the correction
may be found by
+ L
for the longitude the negative sign when the longitude is east. If no tables are at hand, the direct computation of this term wil
f
be more convenient under the form 9*.8565
X
r
l\.
EXAMPLE 1. In Longitude 165 what is the sidereal time ? The Greenwich time is May 17,
be arranged as follows
:
W.
8*;
1856
May
17, 4*
A.M.;
and the computation may
Local Ast. Time At Gr. Noon May
Correction of
17,
T= F :
)
16*
0" <K
3 41 28 .32
Vn
for o*
..K86fl5
X
8
^
e=
^^~
54 m 25.7 41
8
90 ~
In Longitude 25 17' E. 1856 March 13, about an observation is noted by a Greenwich chronometer P.M., which gives 7* 51'" 12*.3 and is slow 3wi 13*.4; what is the local
EXAMPLE
30"*
2.
9A
sidereal time
?
Gr.
mean
date,
March
18,
7*
1
Longitude,
E.
T
March
Tabular corr, for
18,

9
35
25
1
33.7
K =28
12.26
17.94
7* 54" 2.V.7
~
9
9=
2
3.90
r
$
EX.AMPLE
3.
TIME.
4 7*. 3
mean
In Longitude 7* 25m 12' E. 1856 March 13, 15" la local astronomical time ; what is the sidereal time ?
T = 13* F =23
Tabular corr. for Tab. corr. for long.
13* 15* 47'.3 25 m 12'.
7*
15~47'.3
= + = = 12
25 12.26
2 10 .73
1
18 .14
41 57 .15
into the
51.
To convert
the
apparent solar time at a given meridian
48,
sidereal time at that meridian.
Find the mean time by Art.
Art. 50.
and then the
sidereal time
by
more directly, to the given apparent time add the true suns For if in Fig. 1 we take ascension. as the true sun, we right
Or,
D
have
VQ,
R. A. of true sun, apparent solar time, is the sum of these two. the sidereal time,
DQ
VD
and
The right ascension of the true sun is called in the Ephemeris the "sun's apparent right ascension," and is there given for each
apparent noon.
for
It is
it
not a uniformly increasing quantity; but
many purposes will be sufficiently accurate to consider the hourly increase given in the Ephemeris as constant for 24*, and
to add to the app. K. A. of the Ephemeris the correction found by multiplying the hourly difference by the number of hours in the Greenwich time.
EXAMPLE. In Longitude 98 W. 1856 June app. time what is the sidereal time ?
;
3,
4* 10"'
P.M.
Gr. app. date June 3, 10* 42*
(=
10*.7)
Local app.
t.
= 4*
== 4
10 m
0*.
Hourly
diff.
= 10'.271
O's App. B. A. App. noon Juno 3
Corr.
46 22
1
.04
= 10'.271
= Sidereal time =8
X
10.7
49.90
58 11 .94
52.
To convert
the sidereal time at
a given meridian
into the
mean
time at that meridian.
First method. the Greenwich mean time is also given, as is frequently the case, we have only to find as in Art. 50 to in the Ephemeris the correction for the by adding given
When
V
F
Greenwich time taken from the table "Mean into Sidereal Time," and then we have, by transposing equation (56),
T=
(">
V
TIMK
In Longitude 165 W., the Greenwich 1856 May 17, 37 the local sidereal time 19* being what is the local mean time ?
63
EXAMPLE.
mean time
41'" 57'.89,
',
T
Corr. ibr 3*

3*
41 28'.32
V
V=
The longitude being
Second method.
11*
T
= ^ 3 = 19 = 16
f
41
29 .57
57.89
57 .89
.00
41
W., the
local date is
May
16.
When
(57),
the Greenwich
all
we can
find
7 from
7
mean time is not given, the other quantities in that equation
being known.
We find
or, in
a
more convenient form
for use,
i
'/= e
in

r
_
1
1
i
(0
is
_ r + L)
u
(58)
which the term multiplied by
the retardation of
mean
time on sidereal in the interval
table "Sidereal into table first with the
V
It is
\
\
Mean Time."
argument
L, and is given in the convenient to enter the
ment
//,
r and then with the arguand to subtract the two corrections from V^ ob
serving that the correction for the longitude becomes additive if the longitude is east.
EXAMPLE.
time
is
In Longitude 165
W.
1856
May
16, the sidereal
19* 41'n 57'.89;
what
is
the
mean
16,
local
time?
57.S9
Table,
" Sidereal into
( I
Mean Time"
= 19* 41 F = 3 37 May e F = 16 4 Corr. for 16* 4* 26.13 = 2 " = 11* longitude
I
31.76
26 .13
38 .00
48 .13
r^Te
o
(Too
53. The following method of converting the sidereal into the mean time is preferred by some. In the last column of page III of the month in the American Naut. Aim. is given the "Mean Time of Sidereal 0V This quantity, which we may denote by V, is the number of hours the mean SUP. is west of the vernal
84
equinox, and
is
TIME.
merely the difference between
24'*
and the mean
sun's right ascension. The hour angle of the mean sun at any instant is then the hour angle of the vernal equinox increased
first
at that instant. To find this value of V, we by the value of reduce the Almanac value to the given meridian by correcting it for the longitude by the table for converting sidereal into mean time; then reduce it to the given sidereal time (which is the elapsed sidereal time since the transit of the vernal equinox over the given meridian) by further correcting it by the We then have the mean time T by same table for this time the formula
.
V
T=0
It is
+ V
24*
it will
exceed necessary to observe, however, that if increase our date by one day; and in that case
;
+
V
V
should be taken from the Almanac for a date one day less than the given date that is, we must in every case take that value which belongs to the Greenwich transit of the vernal equinox immediately preceding that over the given meridian.
EXAMPLE.
Same
as in Art. 52.
8
May
15,
== 19* 41 57'.89
TV
^

20
23
3 .88
Corr. for long. IP Corr. for 19* 41
W.
f>8
16
1
48
.13
^
8
13.64
.00
T
54.
To find
1,
the
hour angle of a star* at a
for the star at 0,
given,
time at a given
meridian.
In Fig.
is, if
we have
DQ = VQ
VD\
that
we put
:=z_
a
t
then
If
t
= the right ascension of the star. " " " = the hour angle ^6 a
this
the sidereal time,
(59)
t
a exceeds 0,
which
will express the
formula will give a negative value of hour angle east of the meridian: in that
case, if
we
*
increase
by
24'
1
before subtracting a,
we
shall find
We
shall use "star," for brevity, to denote
any
celestial
body.
HOUR ANGLES.
the value of
dian.
I
6fi
reckoned in the usual manner, west of the meri
this formula, then, we have first to convert the time into the sidereal time, from which we then subtract given the right ascension of the star, increasing the sidereal time by 24* when necessary; the remainder is the required hour angle west of the meridian. In the case of the sun, however, the apparent time is at once the required hour angle, and we only have to apply to the given
According to
mean time
the equation of time.
In Longitude 165 W. 1856 May 16, 16* Om 0" mean time, find the hour angles of the sun, the moon, Jupiter, and
EXAMPLE.
the star Fomalhaut.
The Greenwich mean date is 1856 May 17, 3*, and the local = 19* 41" 57'.89. time is (see Example 1, Art. 50) For the Greenwich date we find from the Naut. Aim. the equation of time J, and the right ascensions a of the moon, Jupiter,
sidereal
1
and Fomalhaut, as below
:
E= +
0'sf
T=16>
0"
3
0'
49.85
49.85
57'.89
Q/s
QL'S t
= 16 3 6 = 19* 41" a = 7 = 19 34
1
57 .52
0.37
= 13 50 21.35 = ~5~51 36 .54 = 19* 41 57 .89 Fomalh. a = 22 49 40.18 = 20 52 17.71 Fomalh.
J's a
3>'s t

9=
19* 41~ 57'.89
t
had been given at first, we should have hour angle of the sun by subtracting its apparent right found the ascension as in the case of any other body.
If the sidereal time
55.
Given
the
hour angle of a star at a given meridian on a given
day,
mean time. By transposing the formula
to find the local
(59),
we have
a
(60)
6=t+
to
so that, the right ascension of the star being given, we have only add it to the given hour angle to obtain the local, sidereal time, whence the mean time is found by Art. 52. When the sum t a
+
must, of course, deduct 24\ If the body is the the given hour angle is at once the apparent time, sun, 'however, whence the mean time as before. But if the body is the moon VOL. L 6
24*,
exceeds
we
66
or a planet,
its
TIME.
right ascension can be found from the Ephetneris If then the Greenthe Greenwich time.
only
when we know
wich time is not given, we must find an approximate value of the local time by formula (60), using for a a value taken for a Greenwich time as nearly estimated as possible from this local time deduce a more exact value of the Greenwich time, with which a more exact value of a may be found and so repeating as
;
;
often as
maybe necessary to reach the required degree of precision. EXAMPLE 1. In Longitude 165 W. 1856 May 16, the hour angle of Fomalhaut is 20 A 52'" 17'.71; what is the mean time?
t
May
16,
Pomalh. a
= 20* 52" 17'.71 = 22 49 40.18 = 19 41 57 .89
T
16* O w
0*.
whence the mean time
7'
is
found to be
EXAMPLE 2. In Longitude 165 W. 1856 May 16, the moon's hour angle is 5 51 Mt 36*.54, and the Greenwich date is given May 17, 3*; what is the mean time?
t
For
May
May
17,
3\
= = 13
5*
51* 36'.54
50
41
41
21.35
57.89
17, 3*,
= 3 T = 16
V
0^19
57.89
.00
EXAMPLE
hour angle
3.
is
In Longitude 30 E. 1856 August 10, the moon's 4 10 53*. 2; what is the mean time?
A
/rt
For a first approximation, we observe that the moon passes the meridian on August 10 at about l h mean time (Am. Eph. page IV of the month), and when it is west of the meridian 4 the mean time is about 4A later, or 11*, from which subtracting the longitude 2* we have, as a rough value of the Greenwich time
fc
Aug.
10, 9*.
We
then have
/

4*
11
For Aug.
Aug.
10, 9*,
= 16 29 6 = 2 0~^0
a
10,
9,
1st approx. value
V= T=
9
11
18
22
is
Hence the more exact Greenwich date with this we now repeat
:
Aug.
10, 9*
22m and
;
HOUR ANGLES.
t
67
4*
=
10* 53'.2
For Aug.
"
10, 9*
22"
a '= 16
29 26.8
= 20
"
40 20.0
18
2d approx. value
V= 9 T = 11
8.1
22 11.9
us
A third approximation, T=ll 22m 12.32.
h
setting out from this value of T, gives
of the meridian passage not only of the the planets is given in the Ephemeris. This quantity is nothing more than the arc of the equator intercepted between the mean sun and the moon's or planet's
declination circle.
If
56. The mean time moon but of each of
we
denote
it
by M, we may regard
M
as
the equation between mean time and the lunar or planetary time, these terms being used instead of "hour angle of the moon" or
"hour angle of a planet," just as we use "solar time" to signify "hour angle of the sun." This quantity Jlf is given in the Ephemeris for the instant when the lunar or planetary time is 0*, and
its variation in 1* of such time is also given in the adjacent column. If, then, when the moon's or a planet's hour angle at a we take out from the Almanac the value of /, given meridian
M
for the corresponding
mean time
T by
simply adding M
Greenwich value of
to
t
/,
we
shall find the
;
that
is,
T=t+M
This
is,
(61)
problem of the preand neither requires a previous knowledge of the ceding vlreenwich mean time nor introduces the sidereal time. But the Almanac values of are not given to seconds; and therefore we can use (61) only for making our first approximation to T after which we proceed as in the last article. The Greenwich value of / with which we take oiit^M is equal to t + L, denoting by L the longitude of the given meridian (to be taken with the negative sign when east), and the required value of is
article,
in fact, the direct solution of the
M
7
,
M
Almanac value increased by the hourly diff. multiplied by in hours. As the hourly (lift of in the case of the moon {< + L) is itself variable, we should use that value of it which corresponds to the middle of the interval t + L; that is, we should first correct
the
1
,
M
the hourly in hours.
difF.
by the product of
its
hourly change into J
(t
+ L)
18
EPHEMERIS.
EXAMPLE.
t
Same
as
Example
:=
3,
Art. 55.
We have
t^
4*1053'.2
7
+i = 2*
10* 53'.2
Diff.
2M8
At Gr. trans. Hour.
Corrected Hourly
^
~
J". 17
Variation of H.D. in 1*5"
Diff.
= :F7l8~
AtGr. trans. Aug.lU,J/=^ == 218 X 2.18 _J01_
T
1
6 30 4 45
22
^ 11
+
8.2
which agrees within 4* with the true value. Taking it as a first approximation, and proceeding as ii* Art. 55, a second approximation gives 11* 22" 12M9.
T^
THE EPHEMERIS, OK NAUTICAL ALMANAC. already had occasion to refer to the Ephemcris hut we propose here to treat more particularly of its arrangement and use. The Astronomical Epheineris expresses in numbers the actual state of the celestial sphere at given instants of time that is,
57.
We have
;
;
it
gives for such instants the numerical values of the coordinates of the principal celestial bodies, referred to circles whose
positions are independent of the diurnal motion of the earth, as declination and right ascension, latitude and longitude; together with the elements of position of the circles of re
ference themselves.
tion of the observer
gives the effects of changes of posithe coordinates, or, rather, numbers upon from which such changes can be readily computed (namely,
It also
the parallax, which will be fully considered hereafter), the apparent angular magnitude of the sun, moon, and planets, and, "in general, all those phenomena which depend on the time; that
is,
which may be regarded simply as functions of the time. The American Ephemeris is composed of two parts, the first computed for the meridian of Greenwich, in conformity with the
British Nautical Almanac, especially for the use of navigators ; the second computed for the meridian of Washington for the
convenience of American astronomers.
The French Ephemeris,
;
La Connaissance des Temps, is computed for the meridian of Paris the German, Berliner Astronomisches Jahrbuch, for the meridian
of Berlin.
in advance.
All these works are published annually several years
In what follows, we assume the Ephemeris to be computed for the Greenwich meridian, and, consequently, that it contains the right ascensions, declinations, equation of time, &c. for given equidistant instants of Greenwich time.
58.
EPHEMERIS,
69
ties for
Before we can find from it the values of any of these quantia given local time, we must find the corresponding Green46).
wich time (Arts. 45,
instants for
When
this
time
which the required quantity is
is
exactly one of the put down in the Epheis
meris, nothing more as there put down.
falls
But when,
necessary than to transcribe the quantity as is mostly the case, the time
between two of the times in the Ephemeris, we must obtain To facilitate this interthe required quantity by interpolation. polation, the Ephemeris contains the rate of change, or difference
of each of the quantities in some unit of time. To use the difference columns with advantage, the Greenwich time should be expressed in that unit of time for which the difference is given thus, when the difference is for one hour, our time must be expressed in hours and decimal parts of an
:
hour
;
when
the difference
expressed in
59. Simple
is for one minute, the time should ba minutes and decimal parts, &c.
In the greater number of cases in exact to obtain the required quantities practice, sufficiently by simple interpolation; that is, by assuming that the differences
interpolation.
it is
of the quantities are proportional to the differences of the times,
which
equivalent to assuming that the differences given in the Ephemeris are constant. This, however, is never the case; but
is
the error arising from the assumption will be smaller the less the interval between the times in the Ephemeris ; hence, those
quantities which vary most irregularly, as the moon's right ascension and declination, are given for every hour of Greenwich time ; others, as the moon's parallax and semidiameter, for
every twelfth hour, or for noon and midnight; others, as the sun's right ascension, &c., for each noon ; others, as the right
ascensions and declinations of the fixed stars, for every tenth day of the year. Thus, for example, the greatest errors in the right ascensions and declinations found from the American Ephe*
meris by simple interpolation are nearly as follows
:
TO
EPHEMER1S.
To
given,
illustrate
we add
simple interpolation the following
when
the Greenwich time
is
EXAMPLES.
For the Greenwich mean time 1856 March 30, 17 A II" 12', find the following quantities from the American Ephemeris:
1
the Equation of time, the Right Ascension, Declination, Horizontal Parallax, and Semidiameter of the Sun, the Moon, and
Jupiter.
1.
The Equation of
time.
The
Gr. T.
= March 30,
17* ll w .2
= March
17.19
30,
17M87.
(Page II) Eat mean noon
Corr. for
17M9
= ^
f
4 m 27'.11
X.D.
0.763
13.11
E=^
+"4~"l4~00
~
13.11
NOTE. Observe to mark E always with the sign which denotes how it is to be If increasing, the H. D. (hourly difference) should havt applied to apparent time. the same sign as ; otherwise, the contrary sign.
E
2.
Sun's R. A. and Dec.
a at 0* (P. II.) Corr. for 17M87
= 0* = +
36MO.78
2
H. D.
f
9.094
36.29
17.07
17.187
a=,
39
156.29
=+3 =+ Corr. for 17M87 d = + 4
<J
at 0*
57' 21".9
H.D.
58".15 17.187
999.4
16 39
14
.4
1 .3
3.
Moon's E. A. and Dee.
a at 17*
=
20* 18* 9.80
Diff.
Corr. for 11*.2 ==
= ^ at 17* =
a
Corr. for ll w .2 =r
9
+
25
3'
27 .97
.77
20 18 37
10".9
=
TT)
+
25
1 32 .7
1
38
.2
92.68
4.
Moon's HOT. Par.
TT
(=
and Semid.
.3 .4
at 12*
Corr. for 5*.2
TT
= 58' 44".l = + 11 = 58 55
(=
S).
H. D,
2".17
_
5.2
11.28
EPHEMERIS.
71
:.<iff.
S at
12*
=
16' 2".0
in 12* ==
Corr. for 5*.2
=+
+
7".l
3
5
,1
8=16
5.
.1
Jupiter's R. A.
and Dec.
H. D.
= 2S 29" 49'.95 = + 37.38 Corr. for 17M87 a = 23 30 27^33
a at 0*
dsit
+
2.175
17.187
37.38
0*
Corr. for
17M87
= = 3 =
4
22' 45".6
H, D.
+
13".74 17.187
236.1
+
4
8 56
.1
1849.5
6. Jupiter's Hor. Par. and Semid. At the bottom of page 231, find for the nearest date March 31, without interpolation ;
we
TT
= 1".5
S
= 15".7
it
NOTE.
It
may
when
the body is
be observed that we mark hourly moving northward, and mnius when
differences of declination plus, is moving southward.
Ill
the above
we have
carried the computation to the utmost
degree of precision ever necessary in simple interpolation.
60.
To find
the right ascension
of
the
/Y.s
transit over a gicen
instant.
meridian,
and declination of the sun at the, time and also the equation of time at
same
When
the sun
is
wich apparent time
the Or. App. T. is When the date, by a number of hours equal to the longitude. sun is on a meridian in east longitude, the Gr. App. T. is before
in west longitude, the Greenprecisely equal to the longitude, that is, after the noon of the same date with the local
on a meridian
is
the noon of the
hours equal to the longitude.
by a number of Hence, to obtain the sun's right ascension and declination and the equation of time for apparent noon at any meridian, take these quantities from the Ephemeris
same date
as the local date,
of the month) for Greenwich Apparent Noon of the as the local date, and apply a correction equal to the difference multiplied by the number of hours in the lonhourly gitude, observing to add or subtract this correction, according ad the numbers in the Ephemeris may indicate, for a time before or
(page
I
same date
after
noon.
?
EPHEMERIS.
20,
EXAMPLE 1. Longitude 167 31' W. 1856 March Noon, iind Q's R. A., O's Dec., and Eq. of T.
Longitude
a
App,
= f
at.
11* 10'* 4
=
1
4
11M7
H. D.
Corr. for
+
App. 1P.17
0*
=
0* O m 20' 94
=+
+
+
;
9.098
41.02
11.17
a=
d at
2
2'
2.56
16".5
1 .4
f 101.62
H. D.
Corr. for
= + 11 + d = + 13~17 E at App. 0* = + 7 31'.57 Corr. for f 11M7 = 8.48 = + 7 23 .09 E
11M7
.9
App.
0*=
+ 59".21
+
11.17
.
+
H. D.
661.4
0.759
+
11.17
8^48
EXAMPLE
2.
Longitude 167
f
31 ; E.
1856 March 20,
App
Noon, find Q's R.A.,
Longitude
s
Dec., and Eq. of T.
=
11* 10"1
4'=
1
11M7
II.
a at App. 0* r= Corr. for 11M7
0* O w 20.94
= a = 23 58
+
2'
D.
41 .62
+ ~
"
9.098
11.17
39.32
16".5
1
101.82
d at
App. 0*=r
* d
Corr. for
11M7 =
H. D.
+ 59".21
11.17
11
.4 .9
=
8 44
661.4
E at App. 0* =
Corr. for
11.17
= + E= + 7
local time
+7 31.57
8.48
H. D.
 OV759
11.17
40
.05
+
8.48
61.
To find
the
mean
of
the
moon's or a planets
transit
ocer a given meridian. This is the same as the
We can, however, obtain the required time directly is 0*. from the Ephemeris, with sufficient accuracy for many purposes,
dian
example the sun crosses the equator between the times of its transits and the Greenwich meridians. The case must be noted, as it is a freThe same cane can occur on September quent occasion of error among navigators.
this
problem of Art. 55, in the special case where the hour angle of the moon or planet at the given meri
* In
)ver the local
22 or 28.
EPHEMERIS.
.
TS
and
On page IV of the month (Am. Ephem. by simple interpolator British Naut. Aim.) we find the mean time of transit of the moon over the Greenwich meridian on each day. This mean
time is nothing more than the hour angle of the mean sun at the instant, or the difference of the right ascensions of the moon and the mean sun and if this difference did not change, the
;
mean
time of moon's transit would be the same for all meridians but as the moon's right ascension increases more rapidly than the sun's, the moon is apparently retarded from
local
;
The difference between two successive times transit to transit. of transit given in the Ephemeris is the retardation of the moon in passing over 24* of longitude, and the hourly difference given is the retardation in passing from the Greenwich meridian to the meridian 1* from that of Greenwich. Hence, to find the
time of the moon's transit on a given day, take the time of meridian passage from the Ephemeris for the same date (astronomical account) and apply a correction equal to the hourly difference multiplied by the longitude in hours; adding the
local
correction
when the longitude is west, subtracting it when east. The same method applies to planets whose mean times of transit
Ephemeris
us in the case of the
are given in the
moon.
;
EXAMPLE.
local
Longitude 130 time of moon's transit.
25' E. 1856
March 22
H. D.
required
Gr. Merid. Passage March 22, 18*. 2 m .7  13.8 8\7 Corr. for Long.
=
+
1*59
8.7
Local M. T. of transit
=
12 48.9
13.8
62.
c.,
To find
the
moon's or a *plane(s right ascension, declination,
transit over
at the time of
a given meridian.
article,
Find the
local
time of transit by the preceding
deduce
the Greenwich time, and take out the required quantities from the Ephemeris for this time. This is the usual nautical method,
and
tions of the
accurate enough even for the moon, as meridian observamoon at sea are not susceptible of great precision. For greater precision, find the local time by Art. 55 for t 0*,
is
=
and thence the Greenwich time.
Chapter VII.
See also Moon Culminations,
The differences 63. INTERPOLATION BY SECOND DIFFERENCES. between the successive values of the quantities given in the
74
EPHEMERIS.
ences; the differences
Ephemeris as functions of the time, are called the first differbetween these successive differences are
called the second differences; the differences of the second differences are called the third differences, &c. In simple interpolation
we assume
the
first
the function to vary uniformly
;
that
is,
we
regard
difference as constant, neglecting the second difference, which is, consequently, assumed to be zero. In interpolation by second differences we take into account the variation in the
but we assume its variations to be constant; the second differences to be constant and the is, third differences to be zero. When the American Ephemeris is employed, we can take the second differences into account in a very simple manner. In this work, the difference given for a unit of time is always the difference belonging to the instant of Greenwich time against which it stands, and it expresses, therefore, the rate at which the function is changing at that instant. This difference, which we may here call the first difference, varies with the Greenwich time, and (the second difference being constant) it varies uniformly, so that its value for any intermediate time may be found by simple interpolation, using the second differences as first differences. Now, in computing a correction for a given interval of Greenwich time, we should employ the mean, or average value, of the first difference for the interval, and this mean va\ue, when we regard the second differences as constant, is that which belongs to the middle of the interval. Hence, to take into account the second differences, we have only to observe
first
difference,
that
we assume
the very simple rule employ that (interpolated) value of the first difference which corresponds to the r/tiddle of the interval for which the
correction is to be computed.
EXAMPLE. For the Greenwich time 1856 March find the moon's declination.
March
2,
2,
12* 29m 36*.
12*(rf)
=
27 10'41".8
f
Diff.
1"
=
+
4".814
f .047
2d
Diff.
= + 0".189
0.26
Corr. for 29
6
2 23 .9
Corr. for 2d
diff.
<*=
27
817.1)
+
'+
4.861
+
0.047
29.6
143.89
Here the
interval for
"diff. for 1
WI
"
increases 0".189 in 1*; the half of the
is to
which the correction
be computed
is
14m
48'^
EPHEMERIS.
75
0\25; we therefore find the value of the first difference at 12* 14m 48*, by adding to its value taken for 12* the quantity 0".189
X
0.25,
and then proceed
is
ple suffices to illustrate the
as in simple interpolation. This exammethod in all cases where the first
given in the Ephemeris for the time against which In using the British Nautical Almanac and other works of the same kind, interpolation by second differences may be performed by the general interpolation formula heredifference
stands.
it
after given.
64.
To find
the
Greenwich time corresponding
gicen day.
to
a given right ascen*
sion of the
moon on a
Let T'
~ the
Greenwich time corresponding
a',
to the given right
to
ascension
T
Att
= the Greenwich
hour preceding T' and corresponding
the right ascension a, the diff. of R. A. in 1* at the time T,
then
we
have, approximately,
t
rtii
(JL
___ ~~~ rji ~~
QL
AO
To
correct for second differences,
we have how
only to find
&
a
=
diff.
of K.A. in l ro for the middle instant of the interval T'
T,
and then we have, accurately,
These formulae give
65.
T
'
1
T
of
in
minutes of time.
To find
the distance
the
moon from a
gicen object at
a gicen
Greenwich
time.
In the American Ephemeris and the British Nautical Alma* nac, the "lunar distances" are given at every 3d hour of Greenwich time, together with the proportional logarithms of the differences between the successive distances.
The proportional logarithm of an angle expressed
&c. is the logarithm of the quotient of 3* divided
in hours,
;
by the angle
that of an angle expressed in degrees, &c. is the logarithm of the quotient of 3 divided by the angle. Thus, if is the angle, in hours,
A
76
EPHEMERIS.
P
or, if
L.
4 = log log 3* A
^=rlog~ A
Iog3
log
4
A
is
in degrees, P. L.
log
^4
The angle
whether
is
A
is
in
always supposed to be reduced to seconds seconds of time or of arc, we have
P. L.
;
so that,
A=
log 10800
log
A
Tables of such logarithms are given in works on Navigation. now we wish to interpolate a value of a lunar distance for a t which falls between the two times of the time Ephemeris
If
Tand
T+ T+ 3\ we
it
are to
compute the correction
for the interval
if
/
and apply
J
J'
to the distance given for the
time T; and
we
put
=the
= the difference in the interval
by simple
interpolation,
difference of the distances in the Ephemeris,
t,
we
shall have,
1
or,
by logarithms,
Ipg J'
= log + log J
t
log 3*
or,
supposing
J, J',
and
t
all
reduced to seconds,
t
log J'
= log
P. L. J
(62)
Subtracting both
members of
P. L. J'
this
t
from log 10800, we have
J
(63
)
= P.L. + P. L.
which is computed by the tables above mentioned. By (62), however, only the common logarithmic table is required. But the first differences of the lunar distance cannot be assumed If "as constant when the intervals of time are as great as 3*.
we put
P. L. J
=Q
we observe
meris
is
that Q is variable, and the value given in the Epheto be regarded as its value at the middle instant of the If then interval to which it belongs.
= the value of Q for the middle of the interval &Q = the increase of Q in 3* (found from the successive values
(X
t,
in the
Ephemeris),
EPHEMERIS.
7?
we hare
(M)
in
which
t
is
in hours
and decimal
parts.
We
find then, with
regard to second differences,
log J'
= log*
Q'
star
24'.
EXAMPLE. Find the distance d of the moon's centre from the Pomalhaut at the Greenwich time 1856 March 30, 13* 20m
t
Here !T= 12,
Ephomeris
:
= 1* 20* 24 = 1.34
36
17' 53" 40 28
1* 6
;
~** = 0.28
;
and from the
March
30, 12* (d)
J'
Q,
.2993
,0011
A#,
+ .0041
At
13* 20* 24
d
=
35 37 25
',
.2982
_ +
.28
.0011
log*,
3.6834
log J', 3.3852
66.
tance
To find the Greenwich on a given day.
time corresponding
to
a given lunar dis
We find in the Ephemeris for the given day the two distances difference bebetween which the given one falls; and if J' difference of the tween the first of these and the given one, J distances in the Ephemeris, we find the interval /, to be added to the preceding Greenwich time, by simple interpolation, from the* formula
=
'*7
or
log
*
= log J' f P. L. J = log
logf
J' 4
Q
i
f
(65)
,
and, with regard to second differences, the true interval, the formula
by
= log J'+0'
first
(66)
article.
where
Q
1
has the value given in the preceding
f
But
of L
(65),
to find
To
find an approximate value Q by (64) avoid this double computation, it is usual to find I by
1
we must
and to give a correction to reduce it to which is computed as follows. We have from
t
in a small table
(64), (65),
and
(66)
78
EPHBMERIS.
By
of the
the theory of logarithms,
we
have,
M being the modulus
2
common
log
system,
x
= M[(x
1)
J
(x
I)
+ &c.]
so that
or,
neglecting the square and higher powers of the small fraction
t
V
~T'
10g*'_l
This, substituted above, gives
g*:=W
O
J/X3*
by which a table
Y
.(0
2JTX3*
*
t is readily computed giving the value of V L the correction of t found by (65)], with the arguments [or / are In this formula t and /' supposed to be expressed in hours;
Aand
and
seconds we must multiply the second be effected if we multiply each of the t that is, reduce them each to minutes, factors t and S h by 60, .434294 the formula so that if we substitute the value of
to obtain
t'
t
in
member by 3600
;
this will
M

becomes
"
in
which
/
is
expressed in minutes, and
/'
t
in seconds.
EXAMPLE. 1856 March 30, the distance of the moon and Fomalhaut is 35 37' 25" what is the Greenwich time ?
;
March
Ap.
(?r.
30, 12*
/=.
1
0*
0' (</)
= 36
17'
53"
Q=
J'
.2993
20 30
d =35J7_2_5 log
J'
= 8.8852
^,3.6845
A=+41
time
=T^2(T3G
4~0~2*
logt
True Gr. time
=13
20 24
* Or from the "Table showing the correction required on account of the second
differences of the moon's motion in finding the Greenwich time corresponding to a corrected lunar distance/' which is given in the American Ephemeris, and is also
included in the Tables for Correcting Lunar Distances given in Vol.
II.
of this work.
INTERPOLATION IN GENERAL.
79
INTERPOLATION BY DIFFERENCES OF ANY ORDER.
the exact value of any quantity is required from the Kphemeris, recourse must be had to the general interpolation formula which are demonstrated in analytical works. These
07.
When
enable us to determine intermediate values of a function from
tabulated values
variable on
corresponding to equidistant values of the In the Ephemeris the data are in most cases to be regarded as functions of the time considered
which they depend.
as the variable or argument.
tc., express equidistant values n F, JF", F", F' &c., corresponding values of the given function and let the differences of the first, second, and following orders be formed, as expressed in the following T,
Let
T+WJ T+2w, T+8w,
;
;
of the variable
,
table
:
The
is,
differences are to be found
each
number
is
by subtracting downwards, that subtracted from the number below it, and the
proper algebraic sign must be prefixed. The differences of any order are formed from those of the preceding order in the same
manner
tions.
as the first differences are
formed from the given func
even differences (2d, 4th, &c.) fall in the same lines with the argument and function the odd differences (1st, 3d, &c.)
;
The
between the
lines.
Now, denoting the value of the function corresponding to a value of the argument T+ nw by F (n \ we have, from algebra,
("2) (n8)
&c
1.2
in
1.2.3
1.2.3.4
nth power of a binomial.
which the
coefficients are those of the
80
INTERPOLATION IN (iEMCKAL.
In this formula the interpolation sets out from the first of the given functions, and the differences used are the first of their
If n be taken successively equal to 0, 1, 2, 3, respective orders. f we shall obtain the functions jF, F', F", and in&c., , &c.,
F"
termediate values are found by using fractional values of n. We usually apply the formula only to interpolating between the function from which we set out and the next following one, in
To find the proper value of r? is less than unity. in each case, let t denote the value of the argument for which we wish to interpolate a value of the function then
which case n
T+
:
nw
that
is,
=
t
n
=w
n
is
the value of
t
reduced to a fraction of the interval w.
EXAMPLE. Suppose the moon's right ascension had been given in the Ephemeris for every twelfth hour as follows
:
6th DIff
'
1866 March
6,
0*
"
6,
12
6,
" " "
6,
12
7,
7,
12
5, 6*.
Required the moon's right ascension for March
Here
T= March
5, 0*,
t
= Q\ = 12*, n = ~^ = i;
10
and
if
we
denote the coefficients of we have
a
a, 6, c,
rf,
e in (68)
by A,
J3, 0,
D, E.
= + 28 m 47'.04,
36.97,
4.79,
A
=n
= B.
3
J,
Aa = +
Bb
14
23.52
4
.62
6=
c==+
B=A.G
J,
=+
+

'
T ff ,
Cc ==
.30
4==+
1.74,
D=C. n
5
3
T g , DcJ
=
0.07
e ia +3**',ja=
0.02
12
J'g E. A. 1856
March
5,
6*
F = 22
50 .74
INTERPOLATION.
wjiich agrees precisely with the value given in the
81
American
Ephemeris.
68.
The formula
(68)
may
also be written as follows
:
(38
,
Thus, in the preceding example,
we should have
n4
5
=

+

0.46
n
3
4
(+
(+
1.74
+
0.46)
= =
1 .38
n
3
2
_
4'.79
1.38)
1 .71
w
1
n=
i
(+
28*47'.04
+ 9'.67) = + 14" 28'.35
58TO 28'.39,
and adding this last quantity, 14* obtain the same value as before, or
69.
28*.35, to 21*
we
22* 12
wl
56'.74.
A more
deduced from
convenient formula, for most purposes, may be (68), if we use not only values of the functions
;
following that from which we set out, but also preceding values that is, also values corresponding to the arguments T w,

T 2w, &c. schedule
:
We
then form a table according to the following
3d
Diff.
4th
Diff.
5th
Diff.
6th
Diff.
f
c"
I
82
IXTEllPOLATION.
According to the formula (68), if we set out from the function Fj we employ the differences denoted in this table by a', 6', c", &c., and hence for the argument T + nw we find the value of J?() by the formula
1.2
1.2.8
1.2.3.4
But we have
V
c
ff
=b +
f
c'
==c +d'
&c.
d"= d'
&c.
= c'+d + + t" = d + + +f = d +
e'
<!
e'
2e'
+ /'
in
which
6',
e", &c. are expressed in
terms of the differences
drawn in the table under the function from which we set out. These immediately values substituted in the formula give
that lie on each side of a horizontal line
1.2.3.4
in
^ &c
V
;
which the law of the
coefficients is that
one new factor
is
introduced into the numerator alternately after and before the other factors, observing always that the factors decrease by unity
from
original formula
factor in the denominator, as in the denotes the order of difference. (68), The interpolation by this formula is rendered somewhat more
left to right.
The new
accurate by using, instead of the last difference, the mean of the two values that lie nearest the horizontal line drawn under the
middle function thus, if we stop at the fourth difference, we use a mean between d and d' instead of d. We thus take into account a part of the term involving the fifth difference.
:
EXAMPLE. Find the moon's right ascension for 1856 March 5, 6 A , employing the values given in the Epheineris for every twelfth hour. This is the same as the example under Art. 67,
where it is worked by the primitive formula (68). But here we take from the Ephemeris three values preceding that for March 5, 0\ and three values following it, and form our table as follows:
INTERPOLATION.
1866 March
3,
12*
"
"
4,
4,
12
"
6,
12
"
"
6,
6,
12
Drawing a horizontal
line
under the function from which we
set out, the differences required in the formula (69) stand next to this line, alternately below and above it.
F
a'
21*58* 28.39
=
+
28"
~
47.04,
it
/

+
14
23 .52
J's R. A. 1856
March
5, 6*
=
jp>
= 22
12
56.74
69*. If in (69)
we
substitute the values
a'
a
:=
t
+
b
/I
tf,
+
&C.
we
find
+
in
_.
1
.2
1.2.3
(i
+ 4c
.
(TO)
which the law of the coefficients is that one new introduced into the numerator alternately before and
still
factor
is
after the
other factors, observing
that the factors decrease* by unity
from left to right. The differences employed are those which lie on .each side of the horizontal line drawn immediately above the function from which we set out.
84
INTERPOLATION.
If in the preceding formulae
we employ a
negative value of
n less than unity, we shall obtain a value of the function between and in that case (70) is more convergent than (69). In 1^ and
F
general, if
we
set out
from that function which
is
nearest to the
required one, we shall always have values of n numerically less and than J, and we should prefer (69) for values of n between
+ J,
and
(70) for values of
n between
and
J.
we take the mean of the two formulas (69) and (70), denote the means of the odd differences that lie above and and below the horizontal lines of the table, by letters without ac70. If
cents, that
is, if
we put
a
we have
= *(, +
<!'),
c
=*
(c,
+ <0 *c2.8.4
2.3
The
quantities a,
c,
&c.
may be
inserted in the table,
and
will
thus complete the row of differences standing in the same line with tbe function from whicli we set out.
The law of the
odd difference
is
coefficients in (71) is that the coefficient of
any
dif
obtained from that of the preceding odd
ference by introducing two factors, one at the beginning and
the other at the end of the line of factors, observing as before that these factors are respectively greater and less by unity than
those next to
which they are placed; and the coefficients of the even differences are obtained from the next preceding even
follow the
differences in the
same manner. The factors same law as in the other formulae.
in the
denominator
EXAMPLE. Find the moon's right ascension for 1856 March 5, 6*, from the values given in the Ephemeris for noon and midnight
The
table will be as below:
INTERPOLATION.
Drawing two lines, one above and the other below the function from which we set out, and then tilling the blanks by the means of the odd differences above and below these lines (which means are here inserted in brackets), we have presented in the same line all the differences required in the formula (71) and we then have
;
,t
^
+
29
6.71,
A=
B
.=
n
Aa
F= 21*5828.39 = + 14 33 .36
4.92 0.05
0.02
0.01
39
.34,
1
Bb= 
r
=+
=+
0.79,
('=
.1.
=
1

,'
g,
./
3.16,
/)= B.
.
^ ^^
=+
,.
t=
.54,
E ^ C ^I=i
F
= 22
12
56 .75
agreeing within O'.Ol with the value found in the preceding HANSEN has given a table for facilitating the use of this article. x
formula.
71.
(See his Tables de
la
Lune).
Another form, considered by Bessel as more accurate than of the preceding, is found by employing the odd differences any that fall next below the horizontal line drawn below the function from which we set out, and the means of the even differences
that fall next
above and next below
b.
this line.
Thus,
&c.
if
we put

ft
(b
+
6'),
d.=*l(d
+
<*'),
86
INTERPOLATION.
and combine these with the expressions
J
^
=
J (tf
_
.}
6),
ie'=Kd'0,*c.
J
we deduce
I*
=6
<',
=
c/
J
e',
&c.
which substituted
in (69)
give
.
2
.
:j
.
4
'
To
line
facilitate
the application of this formula, draw a horizontal
sets out,
under the function from which the interpolation
and another over the next following function; these lines will embrace the odd differences #/, 6'', &c. If we then insert in the blank spaces between these lines the means of the even differences that fall above and below them, we shall have presented in a row all the differences to be employed in the formula.
EXAMPLE. Find the right ascension of the moon's second limb at the instant of its transit over the meridian whose longitude is 4* 42TO 19* west from Greenwich, on May 15, 1851. The right ascensions of the moon's bright limb at the instant
upper and lower transits over the Greenwich meridian, are " given in the Ephemeris, under the head of Moon Culminations/' The argument iu this case is the longitude, and the intervals of The value for any meridian is therefore the argument are 12*. to be obtained by interpolation, taking for n the quotient obtained by dividing the given longitude (in hours) by 12*. We take from the British Nautical Almanac the following
of
its
values
:
3d
Diff.
4th
Diff.
5th Dift
2.62
K58
f1.42]
1.25
6.45
INTERPOLATION.
87
For interpolation by formula (72) we draw a horizontal line below the function from which we set out, and one above the next following function. These lines enclose the odd differences regularly occurring in the table. Inserting in the blanks in the columns of even differences the means of the numbers above and below, all the differences to be employed in the formula stand in
the
a!
same
line,
namely
:
= + 1725.97, 6 =
'
=
4.20,
<f
:=
will
As n is here not a simple fraction, the computation most conveniently performed by logarithms, as follows
4*
be
:
42* 19
12*
= 16939* = 43200
log
A
= log n
log 4.2288878 log 4.6354837
== 9.5934041
n
,1
=
0.39210651
1:=:
0.60789
1.6079
w n
_j:^_ 0.10789
2=
n
+ 1 = + 1.3921
(^)
(a')
9.5934041
3.2370332
8304373
11 15.835 Increase of R. A. R. A. Greenwich Culm. =^ 16* 9 m 39.89Q
=
R. A. on given meridian
= 16* 20"
1
55 f .725
is facilitated
The use of BESSEL'S formula of
table in
interpolation
bj *
A,
jB,
which the values of the coefficients above denoted 1 y with the (7, /), &c., and also their logarithms, are given
argument n.
72.
is
When a value of the functicn Interpolation into the middle. sought corresponding to a value of the argument which ia a
88
INTERPOLATION.
function
is
is,
mean between two values for which the when n = J, we have by (72), since n
FO
=
given, that
0,
= /* +
'
'

JA
4 T fc
<*
A
or, since
F+
known
^  (JFf
")
JF'),

i
[>o
~
3 r * [<*
(/o

which
is
as the
formula for
interpolating into the middle.
,
,
the third differences are constant, rf / &c. are zero. and the rule for interpolating into the middle between two functions
is
When
simply
:
From
the
mean of
the two functions subtract one
eighth the
tions.
mean of the second differences which stand against the funcInterpolation by this rule is correct to third differences
inclusive.
The formula (73) is especially convenient in computing tables. Values of the function to be tabulated are directly computed for values of the argument differing by 2 m w then interpolating a value into the middle between each two of these, the arguments
;
w again interpolating into the middle between each two of the resulting series, we obtain a series with argu~ ments differing by 2 m 2 w and so on, until the interval of the m ~ m w or w. argument is reduced to 2
now differ by
; ;
2m
~l
EXAMPLE. Find the moon's right ascension for 1856 March 5, 6*, from the values of the Ephemeris for noon and midnight. This is the same as the example of Art. 69 but, as 6* is the middle instant between noon and midnight, the result will be obtained by the formula (73) in the following simple manner. We have from the table in Art 69
;
b
d
=+
2'.79,
s
Tg
d
= =
88M6
0.52
$(F +
38.68
38 .68
= 22 X = F = 22
F')
12" 51.91
+4.83
12 56 .74
73. In case we have to interpolate between thfc last two values of a given series, we may consider the series in inverse order, the arguments being T, &c., T being the last argument. The signs of the odd differences will then be changed, and, taking the last differences in the several columns as a, 6, <% d,
Tw, T2w,
kc.,
the interpolation will be effected by (68).
INTERPOLATION.
74.
89
to the
The
interpolation formulas
arranged according
powers of
the fractional
When between two of the given series, it is often convenient to employ the formula arranged according to the powers of n. Performing the multiplications of the factors indicated in (68), and arranging the
terms,
part of the argument. several values of the function are to be inserted
we
obtain
f**
= F+n(a
lb
+ lc\<1 +
le
Ac.)
(c
Id+
J e
 4o.)
+ &c
Art. 07.
.........
same manner, we have
4 c
(74)
where the differences are obtained according
Transforming
F*>
(71) in the
to the schedule in
= F + n (a
f

+
;,
 &c.)
+ Ac
where the differences
.........
a, c,
e,
(75)
dif
are the
mean
ferences in the line of the function
75. Derivatives of
F of the schedule Art.
When
derivatives
interpolated odd
69.
a tabulated function.
is
the analytical ex
may be directly given, found by successive differentiation but when this expression is not known, or when it is very complicated, we may obtain values of the derivatives, for particular values of the variable, from the
pression of a function
its
;
tabulated values of the functions
by means of
their differences.
Denoting the argument by
T + mo, its
corresponding function
90
INTERPOLATION.
by/(2'+ ni0), the successive derivatives of this function corresponding to the same value of the argument will be denoted
by f'(T+mv), f(T), f"(T),
its
f"(T+nw\ f'"(T +
c.,
mo), &c., and f(T\ will denote the values of the function and
7
0. derivatives corresponding to the argument J , or when n if we regard nw as the variable, we shall have, by MacHence,
=
laurin's
Theorem,
=/(r) + /'(I*) nw+f"(T)
Comparing the
coefficients of the several
(74),
+
&c.
powers of n
in
thig
formula with those in
we have
f(T)=
f'(
w
(<i Jfcf
he
\d
+ ic&c.)
&c.)
T)
=1 bc+\ldle +
(
.
=l(
i/r
&c.
&c
.......
<+ A
&c.)
(76^
the differences being taken as in Art. 67. Still more convenient expressions are found by comparing Maclaurin's Theorem with (75); namely:
~
w (flj
&c.
&c.
(77)
the differences being found according to the schedule in Art. 69, jirnl the odd differences, #, c', e, &c., being interpolated means.
STAR CATALOGUES.
91
The preceding
formulae determine the derivatives for the value
To find them for any other value, we have. Maelaurin's Formula with reference to nw, by differentiating
argument.
T of the
f'(T
+
nw)
^f(T) +f"(T)
.
nw
+
kf"(T).
nW +
f
&o.
(78)
c.
in
which we may substitute the values of f(T},f (T\
Iii
from
ob
(76) or (77).
like
manner, by successive differentiations of
nw)
(78)
we
tain
/"
/'"
(T+
&c.
=f"
(T) +f'"(T). nw
(T).
&c.
(T+nw)=f"(T) +/
+ nw +
J/ (T).
&c.
1
*
nW +
&c.
immediate application of (76) or (77) is the compu76. tation of the differences in a unit of time of the functions in the Ephemeris; for this difference is nothing more than the first
derivative, denoted above by the symbol /'. EXAMPLE. Find the difference of the moon's right ascension in one minute for 1856 March 5, 0'*.
An
We
c
have in Art.
0*.79, e
=+
=
70, for
T
0*.54,
and w
= March = 12 = 720'*.
A
5, 0*,
a
=
29*
6'.71,
Hence, by the
first
equation of
(77),
Q
f'(T)
=^
(29 6.71
0.13
0.02)
= 2.425S
Jahrbuch
for 1830
On
interpolation, consult also
EXCKE
in the
and 1837.
STAR CATALOGUES.
77. The Nautical Almanac gives the position of only a small number of stars. The positions of others are to be found in
These are lists of stars arranged in the Catalogues of stars. the order of their right ascensions, with the data from which their apparent right ascensions and declinations may be obtained for any given date. The right ascension and declination of the socalled fixed stars are, in fact, ever changing: 1st, by precession, nutation,
and aberration (hereafter to be specially treated of), which are not changes in the absolute position of the stars, but are either changes in the circles to which the stars are referred by spherical coordinates (precession and nutation), or apparent changes arising froi^i the observer's motion (aberration); 2d, by the
92
STAR CATALOGUES.
is
proper motion of the stars themselves, which the star's absolute position.
a real change of
In the catalogues, the stars are referred to a mean equator
and a mean equinox at some assumed epoch. The place of a star so referred at any time is called its mean place at that time that of a star referred to the true equator and true equinox, that in which the star appears to the observer in its true place its apparent place. The mean place at any time will be motion, found from that of the catalogue simply by applying the precession and the proper motion for the interval of time from the epoch of the catalogue. The true place will then be found by correcting the mean place for nutation and finally the apparent place will be found by correcting the true place for aber; ;
;
ration.
To
facilitate the application
of these corrections, BESSEL proTie
posed the following very simple arrangement.
that if
a
,
showed
d
= the =
star's
mean
right asc.
and
dec. at the beginning of the
a,
d r
year, the apparent right asc. and dec. at a timo r of that year, the time from the beginning of the year expressed in decimal
parts of a year,
ft,
p'
= tho annual
a
d
proper motion of the star in right
asc.
and
dec.
respectively,
then,
= a + TH + Aa + Bb + = * +Tii'+Aa' + Bb' +
9
r <?,
Cc
Cc'
+ Dd + E + Dd'
d are functions of the star's right ascension and declination, and may, therefore, be computed for each star and given with it in the catalogue; A, J3, C, D, are functions of the sun's longitude, the moon's longitude, the longitude of the moon's ascending node, and the obliquity of the ecliptic, all of which depend on the time, so that 4, jB, C, D, may be regarded simply as functions of the time, and given in is a the Nautical Almanac for the given year and day; small correction, usually neglected, as it can never exvery
in
which
a, 6,
rf,
#', 6', c',
E
E
E
ceed 0".05.
r If the catalogue does not give the constants a, 6, e, d, a', 6', c be computed, for the year 1850, by the following d', they may
,
formulae (see Chap. XT. p. 648)
:
STAR CATALOGUES.
a = 46".077
b
c
</
98
= cos a tan = cos a sec
+
<J
<?
20".056 sin a tan
ti
a'
= 20".05f> cos a
=^
sin a sin a sin
b
f
</
= tan
=. sin a sec
3
d'
r cos =. cos a sin 5
iii which e = obliquity of the ecliptic. what are usually called the independent
Or we may resort to constants, and dispense
with the
,
6,
c',
rf,
#/, 6', c', rf'
altogether, proceeding then by
the formula
__
,7

tt i
n
{&
_j_
)
tan
<?

'
,j
o _j_
T/JL
_j_i
COM
d f
^ cos (G
+
)
+
f h sin (# A cos (H
+ a) sec d + a) sin a
1
^ j
'
the independent constants /, #, (r, /^, //, / being given in the Ephemeris, together with the value of r for the given date,
expressed decimally. It should be observed that the constants
are
l
,
6, c,
rf,
a', 6', c',
rf
not absolutely constant, since they depend on the right ascension and declination, which are slowly changing: unless, therefore, the catalogue which contains them gives also their
variations, or unless the time to
which we wish
it
to reduce
is
not
very remote from the epoch of the catalogue, able to use the independent constants.
may be
prefer
In forming the products Aa^ Bit, &c., attention must of course be paid to the algebraic signs of the factors. The signs of A, <7, are, in the Ephemerides, prefixed to their logarithms; and the signs of a, 6, e, &c. are in some catalogues (as that of the British Association) also prefixed to their logarithms; but
,
D
1
shall here, as
elsewhere in this work,
mark only
the logarithm*
of
iteyatire factors, prefixing to
them
the letter n.
It
should be remarked,
also, that
the B. A. C.* gives tho
8377
stars, distributed in all
* B. A. C.
Brttish Association Catalogue, containing
;
parts of the heavens
less
a very useful work, but not of the highest degree of precision. The Greenwich Catalogues, published from time to time, are more reliable, though
For the places of certain fundamental stars, see BESSEL'S comprehensive. Tabula Rcgtomotitarm and its continuation by WOLFEHS and ZECII.
LALANDE'S Histoire Celeste contains nearly 60,000 stars, most of which are embraced in a catalogue published by the British Association, reduced, under th<T The Konigsberg Observadirection of F. Baily, from the original work of Lalande.
tions
embrace the
series
known
as BESSEL'S ZONES, the most extensive series of
The original observations are given observations of small stars yet published. withj data for their reduction, but an important part of them is given in WEIBSE'S Po*i\ 15 et +16 twnes Mediae Stellarum fixarum in Zonis Regiomontanis a BESSELIO inter
declin. observat.,
See also STRUVK'S Catal
containing nearly 32,000 stars. generalis, and the catalogues of ARGELANT>F,R. RUMKF.R.
94
STAR CATALOGUES.
north polar distance instead of the declination, or ;TO <J ; 90 and, since it decreases when 3 increases, the corrections change their sign. This has been provided for by changing the signs of
=
Moreover, in this catadenote BESSEL'S c, d, c', d and vice versa; and logue, to correspond with this, the A, B, C, of the British Almanac denote BESSEL'S C, D, A, B. The same inversion also exists in the American Ephemeris prior to the year 1865, but in the volume for 1865 the original notation is restored.
f/',
',
6',
<?',
d
f
in the catalogue itself.
a, 6, a', &'
f
,
D
EXAMPLE.
of
a
Taliri for
is
This star
Jan.
1,
Find the apparent right ascension and declination June 15, 1865, from Argolander's Catalogue. Argel. 108 whence we take for
:
;
1830.
Mean
R. A.
Aim. prec Prop, motion
=+ ^ f
1,
3*.
.
428
/ 005 J
= 4* 20 ^J
=4
H _2
10.43
Mean
Decl. =r 4 16
9'
36".0
+
0.155
10.586
7".90
.

1 17 /
35
=
+
f
4 30 .65
14
6 .65
Jan.
1805, o
28
AQ =r
16
We
next take the logarithms
Corr. of
a
,
Aa
=
Corr. of 6V An'
=
f 2MO.>,
f 4". 80,
lib
.=.
f
(I.OG7,
Cc
Cc'
0.044,
0".26,
Dd
=
K802
^'
^=
8".02,
/>(/'=
 2".22
We have
The
Jan.
1,
also from the catalogue /i fraction of a year for June 15, 1865,
1865,
<x
=+
is
0*.005,
r
= 0.46
rJ
//';
O'MT. and hence
16
14' 6".66
^
4*
28

10.686
Sum
June
t
of corr.
ofa
T/J
=
==
\^ +
Sum
of corr. of
_
0.824
.002
4.
r//
fl
~
=
f
16
5 .70
.08
.77
13,
1865
a = 4 28 TT All
14
78. When the greatest precision is rec^nired, we should conIder the change in the star's place even in a fraction of a day, <id therefore also the change while the star is passing from one
[
ieridian to another; also the secular variation
f
'
<
and the changes
t...
!
zi,
SANTINI
;
and the published observations of the principal observatories.
See
also a list of catalogues in the introduction to the B. A. 0.
THE EARTH.
in the preqession
it is
95
ther,
and in the logarithms of the constants. Furbe observed that the annual precession of the catalogues is for a mean year of 365** 5\8. But for a fuller consideration of this subject see Chapter XI.
to
CHAPTER
III.
FIGURE AND DIMENSIONS OF THE EARTH.
79.
THE
on
apparent positions of those heavenly bodies which are
\vithin measurable distances
from the earth are different for ob
servers
before
we can compare
different parts of the earth's surface, and, therefore, observations taken in different places we
must have some knowledge of the form and dimensions of the earth. I must refer the reader to geodetical works for the methods by which the exact dimensions of the earth have been obtained, and shall here assume such of the results as I shall
have occasion hereafter to apply.
is very nearly that of an oblate spheroid, an ellipsoid generated by the revolution of an ellipse is, about its minor axis. The section made by a plane through the earth's axis is nearly an ellipse, of which the major axis is the equatorial and the minor axis the polar diameter of the earth. Accurate geodetical measurements have shown that there are small deviations from the regular ellipsoid; but it is sufficient for the purposes of astronomy to assume all the meridians to be
The
figure of the earth
that
ellipses with the mean dimensions deduced made in various parts of the earth.
from
all
the measures
ellipse.
Fig. 11, be one of the elliptical meridians of f the polar the diameter of the equator, earth, or axis of the earth, C the centre, j? a focus of the diameter, * Let
80.
Let
EPQP',
the
EQ
PP
f
a = the semimajor axis, or equatorial radius, CE, = CP, b = the semiminor axis, or polar radius,
c
e
=the =the
compression of the earth,
eccentricity of the meridian.
KEDUCTlON OF LATITUDE.
By the
compression
is
meant the difference of the equatorial and polar radii expressed in parts
of the equatorial radius as unity, or
c
Fig. 11.
=a
6
6 = t
1
a
a
The eccentricity of the meridian IP the distance of either focus from
the centre, also expressed in parts of the equatorial radius, or, in
Fig. 11.
=
But, since
CF CE
PC*
1
PF= CE, we have,
CF'
1
PF  PC*
2
CE*
that
is,
CE*
'
/J
or
e
=
c
(81)
the most reliable measures, BESSEL deduced the most probable form of the spheroid, or that which
By
a combination of
all
most nearly represents
in different parts
all
the observations that have been
made
of the world.
He
found*
*
~ a
or
c
298 1528
299.1528
=
299.1528
whence, by
(81),
e
= .0816967
log
log e =i 8.912205
y(\
ee)
= 9.9985458
* Attronomische Mchnchten, No. 438.
See also Fiicke's Tables of the dinieneioni
f the terrestrial spheroid in the Jahrbuch for 1852.
KKDUCTION OF LATITUDE.
97
The
a
b
absolute lengths of the semiaxes, according to BESSEL, are,
= 6377897.15 metres = 6974532.34 yds. = 3962.802 miles = 3949.555 = 6356078.96 " = 6951218.06
<k
81.
earth.
To find
the reduction
of
the latitude
for
tht
compression of the
Let A, Fig. 11, be a point on the surface of the earth; .4 7* the tangent to the meridian at that point A 0, perpendicular to A T> the normal to the earth's surface at A. plane touching the earth's surface at A is the plane of the horizon at that point
;
A
(Art.
3),
and therefore
A 0, which
represents the vertical line line does not coincide with the radius, except at the equator and the poles. If we produce CIS, OA, and CA to meet the celestial
perpendicular to that plane, of the observer at A. This vertical
is
respectively, the angle ZO'E* is the declination of the zenith, or (Art. 7) the geographical latitude, and Zis the geographical zenith ; the angle Z'CE* is the declination
sphere in
J?',
JZ,
and
Z
f
of the geocentric zenith
latitude;
and ZAZ' = CAO
Z
1
,
called the geocentric or reduced is called the reduction of the latitude.
is
and
It is evident that the geocentric is phical latitude.
always less than the geogra
Now,
if
we
take the axes of the ellipse as the axes of coordi
nates, the centre being the origin, and denote by x the abscissa, and by y the ordinate of any point of the curve, by a and b the
semimajor and semiminor axes respectively, the equation of
the ellipse
is
If we put
<p
= the geographical latitude,
s= the geocentric
$'
we
have, since
<p
is
the angle which the normal
makes with the
HXIS of abscissae,
tan
SP
=
=
x
dx
dy
and from the triangle
A CB,
tan
'
<p
VOL.
I.
7
98
REDUCTION OF LATITUDE.
Differentiating the equation of the ellipse,
?.
we have
_
<P
*!
x
or
tan
CP'
a*
dy
e2 )
=
b*
tan
a2
= (1
between
tan
<P
(82)
which determines the
relation
<p
and
y>'.
or the reduction of the latitude, To find the difference <p <p', we have recourse to the general development in series of an
equation of the form
'tan
x
= p tan y
} (f sin
which [PL Trig. Art. 254]
is
x
iu
y
= q sin 2y +
_
4y
f &c.
which
P+l
(82),
Applying ing by sin
*
in
this to the
V to reduce the terms of the
8in
8
development of
we
find, after divid
series to seconds,
sin
~ *' = ~
ft
hfr
i
___
^
^~
l
^ ~ &c
"
(88)
which
_ p __ p+l
*
l** +
2e'
Employing BESSEL'S value of e, we

find
^
sin 1"
= 690".65
2 sin 1"
=

__
VM6
and, the subsequent terms being insensible,
p
/
'
= (390".G5 bin 2^
1".16 sin 4?>
(88*)
by which
Its <p readily computed for given values of <p. (f value will be found in our Table III. Vol. II. for any given
is
value off.
EXAMPLE; Find the reduced latitude when by (83), or Table III.,
1
(p
= 35. We find
9
_ j ^ 648".25 =
^'^
34
10'
48".25
and hence the Deduced or geocentric
latitude
49' ll".75
RADIUS OF THE EAfcTH.
82.
'
'99
To find
the radios
of
the terrestrial
spheroid for a given
=
latitude.
Lot
p
= the radius for the latitude ^
p
AC.
We
have
= i/ & +
<p,
y*
To express x and y
the ellipse and
for
in
terms of
we have from
the equation of
its differential
equation, after substituting 1
&

:*
tan
from which hy a simple elimination
we
e
2
find
a cos
siir
i
(1
e*)
a
and hence
J
hy which the value of
p,
he computed. The logarithm of /> may putting a = 1, is given in our Table III. Vol. II. But the logarithm of /> may be more conveniently found by a
If in (84)
series.
we
substitute
e*^=
~ i (1 /'
1
cos
we
find,
putting a
=
1,
Now
if (PI. Trig. Art. 260)
we have an
2
expression of the form
T

'H
+m
2m
cos C)
(A)
100
KADIU6 OF THE BARTM.
have, if
we
M = the modulus of the
Ttf/ 3f I
common system
of logaV
rithms,
v log Jf
i
=
m
COH
C
~
+
.
   w* cos

2C
1
w* cos 3(7 h &c.
(JB)
I
by which we may develop the logarithms of the numerator and denominator of the above radical.
Hence we
log p
find
= log
1 J/
+
M
I "
(m
w') cos 2^>
2
\
I *
cos 4
*
3
cos 6^>
Ac.
in
which we have put
for brevity
m=
I/
1+/
2 2
1f/

2 e ) and computing the Restoring the value of / ~ ^ (I numerical values of the coefficients, we find
log p
= 9.9992747 +
by ENCKE
0.0007271 cos
2?
0.0000018 cos 4y>
(86}
as given
in the
Jahrbuch
for 1852.
i
The values of p and y* may also be determined under another form which will hereafter be found useful. We have in Fig. 11, p sin y> ' y, p cos <p f = r, or
=
/>
sin c'
,
= =
a
(1
~

2
tf'
")
sin
a cos
v
cos <p *
which may be put under a simple form by introducing an auxiliary
^
so that
1
/>
/>
= sin ^ = a (1 / = a cos cos
sin
*
f
<?

sin
')
5
sin
v>
see
4
V
(87)
<p
v sec
4
J
We can
also
deduce from these,
/>
sin (v (^
^') /)
cos (?
?')
= = a cos 4
i Q>& sin 2^> 860
4
1
NORMAL.
Hence,
also, the following:
101
cos
/
cos (y
/
.
To Jind
ike length
of the normal terminating in the axis, for a
iceH latitude.
Putting
N
the normal
= AO (Fig. 11),
a
j/(l
e* sin*
we have evidently
/
cos cos
?'
tf>
^)
article,
or,
<?mp loyiug the auxiliary
^
of the preceding
a sec
4,
N
84.
To find
the distance
from
by
the centre
to
the
intersection
of
the
normal with
the axis.
Denoting
this distance
when
\
a
=
ai (so that
i
denotes the distance
1),
we have
in Fig. 11,
ai
=
CO
and, from the triangle
ai
or,
ACO,
/) ^^
y>
(y p ^ =  sincos

by
(88),
ae* sin
,
<P
.
e l sin 2 ^>)
v
^^
.
sm
.
T r sec 4
^, v
(91) > v
85.
7b
//?rf /Ae
radius of curvature of the terrestrial meridian for a
this radius
yiven latitude.
Denoting
by R, we have, from the
dif
ferential calculus,
where we employ the notation D^y, D? y to denote the and second differential coefficients of y relatively to x. have from the equation of the ellipse
'
tirst
We
JL
y
a*
102
DEVIATIONS OF THE PLUMB LINE.
whence
+*)* K _ (ay f^
2 Observing that 6* (1 of x and y in terms of <p
=
f
2
),
we find, by substituting
the value?
(p. 99),
REXAMPLE.
Greenwich,
find
<p
Find the radius of curvature
for the latitude of
= 51
28' 38".2, taking a
= 6377397
metres.
We
R
= 6373850 metres.
86. Abnormal deviations of the plumb line. Granting the geo* metrical figure of the earth to be that of an ellipsoid of revolution whose dimensions, taking the mean level of the sea, are us
given in Art. 80,
line at
it
must not be inferred that the
direction of the
plumb any point of the surface always coincides precisely with the normal of the ellipsoid. It would do so, indeed, if the
earth were an exact ellipsoid neous matter, or if, originally
composed of perfectly homogehomogeneous and plastic, it has
assumed
its
attraction of gravitation
present form solely under the influence of the combined with the rotation on its axis.
But experience has shown* that the plumb line mostly deviates from the normal to the regular ellipsoid, not only towards the north or south, but also towards the cast or west so that the apparent zenith as indicated by the plumb line differs from the true zenith corresponding to the normal both in declination and These deviations are due to local irregularities right ascension. both in the figure and the density of the earth. Their amount is, however, very small, seldom reaching more than 3" of arc in
:
any direction.
In order to eliminate the influence of these deviations at a
given place, observations are made at a number of places as nearly as possible symmetrically situated around it, and, assuming the dimensions of the general ellipsoid to be as we have
given them, the direction of the plumb line at the given place is deduced from its direction at each of the assumed places (by
U.S. Coast Survey Report for 1853. p. 14*.
REDUCTION TO THE CENTRE OF THE EARTH.
108
the aid of the geodetic measures of its distance and direction from each) or, which is the same thing, the latitude and longitude of the place are deduced from those of each of the assumed
;
places
:
then the
mean
of
all
the resulting latitudes
is
the geodetic
latitude, and the mean of all the resulting longitudes \st\\Qgeodetw These quantities, then, correspond as longitude, of the place. nearly as possible to the true normal of the regular ellipsoid the geodetic latitude being the angle which this normal makes with the plane of the equator, and the geodetic longitude being the angle which the meridian plane containing this normal
;
makes with the plane of the
tude
it
first
meridian.
The geodetic
lati
is
identical with the geographical latitude as
we have
defined
in Art. 81.
astronomical latitude of a place is the declination of the apparent zenith indicated by the actual plumb line ; but, unless
The
when
It
the contrary is stated, it will be hereafter understood to be identical with the geographical or geodetic latitude.
has recently been attempted to show that the earth differs r sensibly from an ellipsoid of revolution;* but no f iiiotioa of
this
the
kind can be safely made until the anomalous deviations of plumb line above noticed have been eliminated from the
discussion.
CHAPTER
IV.
REDUCTION OF OBSERVATIONS TO THE CENTRE OF THE EARTH.
87.
THE
which the
stars
places of stars given in the Ephemerides are those in would be seen by an observer at the centre of
the earth, and are called geocentric, or true, places. Those observed from the surface of the earth are called observed, or apparent,
places. It must
be remarked, however, that the geocentric places of the Ephemeris are also called apparent places when it is intended
* See Astr. Nach. No. 1303.
104
PARALLAX.
to distinguish them from mean places, a distinction which will be considered hereafter (Chap. XI.). It will also be noticed that we frequently use the terms true and apparent as relative terms only as, for example, in treating of the effect of parallax, the place of a star as seen from the centre of the earth may be called true, and that in which it would be seen from the surface of the earth were there no atmosphere, may in relation to the former be called apparent; but in considering the effect of refraction, the star's place as it would be seen from the surface of the earth were there no atmosphere may be called true, and the place as affected by the redaction may in relation to the former be called apparent and
; ;
milarly in other cases.
PARALLAX.
88. The parallax of a star is, in general, the difference of the directions of the straight lines drawn to the star from two different \ a difference of direction of two straight lines being points.
;
simply the angle contained between them, we may also define parallax as the angle at the star contained by the lines drawn to the two points from which it is supposed to be viewed. In astronomy we frequently use the term parallax to express the difference of altitude or of zenith distance of a star seen from the surface and the centre of the earth respectively; and, in order to express parallax in respect to other coordi" nates, proper quality ing terms are added, as parallax in decliv
nation," &c.
Assuming
(at first)
the earth to be a sphere, let A, Fig. 12, be the position of the observer on its surface, Cthe centre, CAZ the vertical line, and S a
star within a
the centre.
at J.,
AH
measurable distance CS from f a tangent to the surface
,
and CH,
parallel to
it,
drawn through
the centre, may each be regarded as lying in the plane of the celestial horizon (note,
p. 19).
The true or geocentric altitude of the star above the celestial horizon is then
is
the angle
SAH'.
the angle SCH, and the apparent altitude In this case the directions of the star from
C
and from
A
are
compared with each other by referring them to two
PARALLAX.
lines
106
which have a common direction, i.e. parallel lines. But a more direct method of comparison is obtained by referring still them to one and the same straight line, as CAZ, Z being the We then call ZCS the true and ZAS the apparent zenith.
zenith distance, and these are evidently the complements of the true and apparent altitudes respectively.
In the figure
we have
at
once
ZASZCS = ASC
the parallax in zenith distance or altitude is the angle at the star subtended by the radius of the earth. When the star
that
is,
the radius, being at right angles to subtends the greatest possible angle at the star for the same AH', distance, and this maximum angle is called the horizontal parallax.
is
in the horizon, as at
H
f
,
The
equatorial horizontal parallax of a star is the
maximum
angle
subtended at the star by the equatorial radios of the earth.
89.
To find
the equatorial horizontal
parallax of a star at a given
distance from the centre of the earth.
Let
it
J a
~ the equatorial horizontal parallax, = the given distance of the star from the earth's centre, = the equatorial radius of the earth,
triangle
we have from the
equatorial radius,
CAH*
? J
in Fig.
12,
if
CA
is
the
sin *
(93)
The value of x given in the Ephemeris is always that which is given by this formula when for J we employ the distance of the
star at the instant for
which the parallax
is
given.
To find the parallax regarded as a sphere.
90.
in altitude or zenith distance, the eai
'A
being
Let
C =. the true zenith distance
C'
= ZCS (Fig. 12), = the apparent zenith distance = ZAS,
106
PARALLAX.
triangle
The
SAC
gives,
observing
that
the
angk &4 C
sin
p
asT
or.
a =j=
sin *
sin;?
= sin
(C'
C)
= sin x sin
C'
If
we put
h
A'
= the true altitude, = the apparent altitude,
h')
then
it
follows also that
sin
p
= sin (h
= sin x cos
A'
(95)
Except in the case of the moon, the parallax is so small that we may consider n and p to be proportional to their sines fl'l. Trig. Art. 55] and then we have
;
v
K
sin
C'
TT
cos
'
h'
(96)
J
Since
'
when
'
= 90
we have
sin
= 1, and when
0, sin
is
follows that the parallax is a maximum wliti: the >lar in the horizon, and zero when the star is in the zeiuth.
0, it
EXAMPLE.
= 64
43',
Given the apparent zenith distance of Venus, 20'' 0; find the and the horizontal parallax n
=
geocentric zenith distance.
C'
= 64 p= : = 64
log*
43' 0"0
1.3010 9.9563
1.2573
log sin
?
18.1
\ogp
4241.9
is
given, to compute the parallax, we may first use this true zenith distance as the apparent, n sin and find an approximate value of p by the formula p
;
When
the true zenith distance
then, taking the approximate value of
'
= + P> we compute a
more exact value of p by the formula
is
This second (94) or (96). in all cases except that of the approximation unnecessary moon, and the parallax of the moon is so great that it becomes
necessary to take into account the true figure of the earth, as in the following more general investigation of the subject.
vertical line of the observer does not pass
consequence of the spheroidal figure of the earth, the through the centre, and therefore the geocentric' zenith distance cannot be directly
91. In
PARALLAX.
101
referred to this line. If, however, we refer it to the radius drawn from the place of observation (or CAZ f Fig. 11), the zenith distance is that measured from the geocentric zenith of the place; whereas it is desirable to use the geographical zenith. Hence
,
here consider the geocentric zenith distance to be the angle which the straight line drawn from the centre of the earth to the star makes with the straight line drawn through the centre of the earth parallel to the vertical line of the observer. These two
shall
we
vertical lines are conceived to
meet the celestial sphere in the the geographical zenith, which is the point, namely, common vanishing point of all lines perpendicular to the plane
same
of the horizon.
distanced will be
Thus both the
measured upon the
true and the apparent zenith celestial sphere from the
pole of the horizon. The azimuth of a star
is, in general, the angle which a vertical the star makes with the plane of the meriplane passing through dian. When such a vertical plane is drawn through the centre
it does not coincide with that drawn at the place of observation, since, by definition (Art. 3), the vertical plane passes through the vertical line, and the vertical lines are not coincident.
of the earth,
Hence we
shall
have
to consider a parallax in azimuth as well as
in zenith distance. 92.
To find
the
when
is
the geocentric zenith distance
parallax of a star in zenith distance and azimuth and azimuth are given, and the earth
regarded as a spheroid.* Let the star be referred to three coordinate planes at right angles to each other the first, the plane of the horizon of the
:
observer; the second, the plane of the meridian; the third, the plane of the prime vertical. Let the axis of x be the meridian
line,
or intersection of the plane of the meridian and the plane
;
of the horizon; the axis of y, the east and west line the axis of the vertical line. Let the positive axis of x be towards the
,
axis of
south; the positive axis of 2, towards the zenith.
J'
j/,
towards the west; the positive
Let
is
= the distance of the star from the origin, which = =
the place of observation, the apparent zenith distance of the star, " " " azimuth the
f
A'
apparent
* The investigation which follows the method itself is due.
is
nearly the same as that of OLBERS, to
wbom
108
f f
PARALLAX.
star in this system,
x /, z denoting the coordinates of the we have, by (39),
then,
a/
\f
Z*
J' sin
'
cos A'
=
J' sin C* sin
A'
=: J' COS
?
Again, let the star be referred by rectangular coordinates to another system of planes parallel to the former, the origin no\> being the centre of the earth. In the celestial sphere these
planes
still
represent the horizon, the meridian, and the prime
vertical.
If then in this system
we put
= the distance of the star from the origin, = the true zenith distance of the star, u " A = the true azimuth
J
C
and denote the coordinates of the and z, we have, as before,
star in this
system by
x^ y,
x
= J sin C cos A = J sin f sin A y z = J cos C
a, 6,
<?,
Now,
a
the coordinates of the place of observation in this last
system, being denoted
by
we have
c
= p sin (y
/
/)
b
=
==
p cos (y
4
/)
in which of the place of y> ' observation, and y' is the geocentric latitude, y y being the reduction of the latitude, Art. 81 and the formula of transforma;
= the earth's radius for the latitude
second system to the
first
tion
from
this
are (Art. 33)
2
x
ar,
x*
= yf + a =x a
C
y=yf6
M*
=y
6
^
=2 + c =r c
^')
"
whence, substituting the above values of the coordinates,
J' sin
C'
cos A'
sin A'
J' sin
J'
C'
cos
C'
= J sin cos A = J sin C sin A = ^ cos C
p sin (y
cos
V
/
(97)
(?>
?')
j
which are the general relations between the true and apparent zenith distances and azimuths. All the quantities in the second members being given, the first two equations determine J'sin ', and A ' and then from this value of J'sin ', and that of J x cos ? ' f are determined. given by the third equation, A and
;
PARALLAX.
109
But
it
is
instead of J.
= 1, we have
and hence,
if
convenient to introduce the horizontal parallax For, if we put the equatorial radius of the earth
sin
JT
.=
1
J
we
divide the equations (97)
by
J>
and put
""T
we have
/ sin
/sin
C'
C'
cos A'
sin
/ cos f
= sin cos A A' = sin C sin 4 ~ cos C
p sin
sin
TT
sin (^
p')
\
I
/' ?r
(98)
cos (^
^')
j
and ' and obtain expressions for the difference between f between .4 and A , that is, for the parallax in zenith distance and azimuth, multiply the first equation of (98) by sin A, the
second by cos A, and subtract the first product from the second again, multiply the first by cos A, the second by sin A, and add
the products:
;
To
we
find
/sin
f sin
C'
C'
sin (A*
p sin r sin (<p A) /) sin cos (A' A) == sin C sin r sin (<p p
=
A
r
\
<p )
cos
vl
/
'
A\ the second by Multiplying the first of these by sin J (^' and adding the products, we find, after dividing cos J (^' yl), the sum by cos J (A 1  .4),
. ,
.
.
.
/ sin
:'
=.
sin :
p sin * sin
,
 cos i (A' f
;
A)
f?os J (^4'
 A)
'.
which with the third equation of If we assume f such that
tan r
(98) will
determine
= tan (?
^^ sin C
,
cos
cos
/)
v ^(A' f A)
}
.
<AA
(100)
J
(.4'
^4)
:
we have
the following equations for determining J"
/ sin C' / cos C'
= cos C
p sin
;r cos (^ p sin r cos (y
y>')
tan y
)
vO
(99),
/
give
which, by the process employed
in
deducing
/ sin
(C'
C)
=
=
1
p sin
p sin
R
cos (y
/) /)
~
f COM (:'
O
JT
COH (^
^
COS Y
(102)
110
PARALLAX..
By
by
multiplying the
),
cos J ('
first of these by sin J (' ), the second and adding the products, we find, after dividing
sin f=l _ P
* c <>s
O
?') cos [* (>'
(C'
+
C)
cos p cos J
C)
or multiplying by
j'
J,
=j
/>
cos
Q  ?') cos [j
cos r cos J (?
(:'
+
C)
r]
The equations
azimuth
;
(99)
determine
rigorously the
parallax
in
then (100) and (102) determine the parallax in zenith distance, and (103) the distance of the star from the observer. The relation between J and J' may be expressed under a more simple form. By multiplying the first of the equations (101) by
cos
7%
the second by sin
7%
the difference of the products gives
sin
C'
r)
93.
The preceding
formulae
may be developed
sin (^
?>')
in series.
Put
_
then (99) become
f)
sin
ft
sin
/ sin f sin
whence
C'
C'
sin (A' cos (A*
A}  m sin C sin C (1 A)
sin
=
A
m
4

cos .4)
tonM'X)
and therefore
= ^n
1
j4
m
cos
[PI. Trig. Art. 258],
1
A'
A
being

in seconds,
m A' A =
To develop

sin
/ V
4
2 sin 1"
+
'
r
3 sin 1"
^ + to.
J V (106)
^ in series,
we take
f
tan r
= tan
.
(
f

,.
cos L [A
cos
?')

+
^ J
J
(A
;
f
(A'
sin
^1)
^= tan
(^>
/)
[cos
.4
A
tan J (A'
A)]
whence, by interchanging arcs and tangents according to the
PARALLAX.
formulae tan" 1 y y Trijr. Arts. 209, 213],
r
Ill
=
3
i
Z/
+
&c
?
*
au x ~~ x
+ i^ +
&
^ O _ /) co8 J
f
V (?
^ /)V sin ":
TT
sin 2
A sin 1" h
&<
2 Bin C
where the second term of the series is multiplied by sin 1 are supposed to be expressed in seconds. because p and <p <p Again, if \ve put
^ sin
TT
eos
cos Y
we
find
from
(102)
tan
C
r
_ =
:)
A^^L
,
(108;
whence,
'
C being in seconds,
f
~ m
^ '"" *J +  Hln ~ ^HJv 4. ~ sm C~f) ^ ^ 2 sin 1" ^ 3 sin 1" sin 1"
the equations (102),
c
/
^
^j
'
Adding the squares of
we have
whence [equations (A) and
log J'
(JB),
Art. 82]
n* C 8
= log J ~ Jf
w cos (:
r +
)
2(:
^"
r)
+ &c
(110)
where Jf
94.
the modulus of
common
logarithms.
The second term of
;
ciable effect
so that
we may
r
the series (107) is of wholly inappreconsider as exact the formula
_
(p
~
y/)
COS
.1
(111)
and the rigorous formulae (105) and (108) may be readily computed under the following form Put
:
.
Bjn
$
,
=m
8
cos
A
,
=^
o sin
TT
sin
(o>
c>')
cos
A
(112)
sin C
then
'
^) = ^~
1
= tan
>
sin #
tan (45
+
J #)
tan
112
CAKAI.LAX.
Put
sii
cos
then
tan
^r tan
#'
(C
~
(US)
#')tan (C
sn
tan (45
+
.]
y )/
EXAMPLE.
320
18.',
Iii
latitude
30',
f 38
jr
C
20
and
= 58' 37".2, to
59', given for
the moon,
A~
find the parallax in
azimuth and zenith distance. We have (Table III.) for <p =r= 38 59', <p <p* IV 15", log p 9.999428: hence by (111) r8'39".3 and Cr 29 v21' with which we proceed by (112) and (113) as follows: 20".7;
=
=
log /> sin IF log cos (0 log sec y log cos
8.231179
0')
9.999998
0.000001
(C}')
9.940313
8.171491
8L1 71680
'=
61' 1".6, log sin
&
log tan #' log tan (45 log tan (C
log tan
(C'
+
y)
C)
0.006446
9.760087 7.928072
C
= 29'
7". 79
=
It is evident that
29
69' 7". 79
we may, without
and cos f y?')
omit the factors cos
If
(<p
in the
a sacrifice of accuracy, computation of sin &'<
we
neglect the compression of the earth in this example, find hy (94) C' 29/ 17 "9, which is 10" in error. C
we
=
the parallax of a star in zenith distance and azimuth apparent zenith distance and azimuth are given, the earth being regarded as a spheroid. ' If we multiply the first of the equations (101) by cos and the
95.
To find
when
fhe
second by sin
',
the difference of the products gives
sn *
cos
~
cos
an
C
~
for which, since cos
unity,
we may
and cos f are each nearly equal to (<p <p') take, without sensible error,
sin (C'
C)
=^ p sin * sin (C
'
(114!
PARALLAX.
in
118
which f has the value found by racy by the formula
Y
(111), or,
with sufficient accu(115j
= (y
f
<p
)
cos A'
Again,
if
we
multiply the
first
of the equations (98) by sin A'
and the second by cos A', the difference of the products gives
* 11
sn
to
C
^
^ (116)
compute which, of the parallax
'
must
,
first be found by subtracting the value found by (114), from the given value of "
In latitude <p 38 59', given for the moon A' =* '  29 59' 7".79, n 58' 37 /; .2, to find the 320 17' 45".09, parallax in zenith distance and azimuth.
EXAMPLE.
=
=
=
We
have, as in the example Art. 94, <p cos A' 8' 39".3, 9.999428, r (ip <p'}

=
=
<p
'
= 11' 15", log r = 29 50 28 "5
f '
/
:
and hence, by (114) and
log p sin * log sin (:'
(116),
8.231179
r)
C)
log p sin
log sin
?r
8.23118
<*')
9.696879
7.928058
29' 7".79
log sin (#
.4'
7.51488
log sin
('
C'
C
C
= =
n9.80538
0.30766
log coscc :
log sin (A'
29
30' 0"
A) n5.85910
A'
^^^14".91
^=320
agreeing with the given values of Art. 94.
96.
18' 0"
For
the planets or the sun,
:
the following formulae are always
sufficiently precise
C'
C
=
A'
A
= pn sin
/>
sin (C'
Y)
(y
'
/)
sin A' cosec
C'
and
=^ ^ sin f ', and 4 X most cases we may take ^1 0. The quantity pn is frequently called the reduced parallax, and
in
=
TT (1 />)^ the reduction of the equatorial parallax for the />;r given latitude ; and a table for this reduction is given in some collections. This reduction is, indeed, sensibly the same as the correction given in our Table XIII, which will be explained more particularly hereafter. Calling the tabular correction ATT, we shall have, with sufficient accuracy for most purposes,
pit
=
TT
A?r
VOL.
I.
8
114
1MHALLAX.
97. The preceding methods of computing the parallax enable us to pass directly from the geocentric to the apparent azimuth and zenith distance. There is, however, an indirect method
which is sometimes more convenient. This consists in reducing both the geocentric and the apparent coordinates to the point in
which
the vertical line
of the observer intersects
the axis
of the earth.
I
shall briefly designate this point as the point (Fig. 11). "We may suppose the point to be assumed as the centre of
the celestial sphere and at the same time as the centre of an imaginary terrestrial sphere described with a radius equal to the
OA (Fig. 11). Since the point is in the vertical line of the observer, the azimuth at this point is the same as the apparent azimuth. If, therefore, the geocentric coordinates are first reduced to the point 0, we shall then avoid the parallax in
normal
azimuth, and the parallax in zenith distance will be found by the simple formula for the earth regarded as a sphere, taking the
normal as
radius.
is
Since the point
in the axis of the celestial sphere, the
straight line drawn from it to the star lies in the plane of the declination circle of the star ; the place of the star, therefore, as seen from the point 0, differs from its geocentric place only in
have then only to decimation, and not in right ascension. find the reduction of the declination and of the zenith distance
to the point 0.
Fig. 13.
We
To reduce the declination to the point 0. Let PP', Fig. 13, be the earth's axis C the centre the point in which the vertical line or normal of an observer in the given latitude <p meets the
1st.
;
;
axis;
S
the star.
We
have found for
CO
the
expression (Art. 84)
CO
in
= ai
which a and
I
is
the equatorial radius of the eartn,
e*
=
sn
sn
Let
= the star's geocentric distance J, = the star's distance from the point d = the geocentric declination d = the declination reduced to the point
J
t
= = = 90 = 90
SO,
SO,
PCS,
POS
PARALLAX.
then,
115
drawing
SB perpendicular
to the axis, the right triangles
SOB and SOB give
J 4 cos #
t
=
J cos
$
)
which determine
4
Jt
and
<J
r
From
tf)
these
we deduce
)
<J
J, cos (*,
l
sin (3 t
rr=
m
cos 3
*)
= J
+
ai sin
(119)
j
which determine J and the reduction of the declination.
divide these by J, and put
If
we
/
which it denotes, they become
in
t
= *
sin
TT
j
as before, the equatorial horizontal parallax,
sin r cos 3
*
/
whence
t t
sin
(^
(
t
)
i
f
cos
#)
= 4
1
i
sin
K
sin #
tan
(
o
o) ~~~
.
sin
TT
cos d
or in series [PI. Trig. Art. 257],
i
rt f)
sin  cos d
sin 1"
^z;
^
(i sin r)
2
sin 2 ^
Ssinl"
^
.
f
&C
But
since the second term of the series involves ?
e
4
,
and conse
2 by the small factor sin ;r, quently the term is wholly inappreciable even for the moon; and, as the first term cannot exceed 25" in any case, we shall obtain ex
and
this is further multiplied
treme accuracy by the simple formula
f\
S
=
i
* cos ^
(120)
The value of
was used
4
A
is
found from
(119),
by the same process as
in finding J' in (103), to
be
sin i
J.
=J
i
^ 1
f i
^ 4
,
*
sin
(A
JT
^+
'
'*)

}
V
I
cos
*('.)/
l
or,
on account of the small difterence between d and
/J
t
5,
= J (1 4
i
sin * sin
<*)
(121)
116
PARALLAX.
8
l
 d is so small, it may be accurately computed with of four decimal places, and it will be convenient to logarithms
As
substitute for
i
the form
f
= A sin
l/(l
<p
in
which
2
<?
sin 2
<p)
The value of
table with the
log
argument
A may then <p
be taken from the following the geographical latitude
We
forms
:
shall
then compute 8
dt
l
S and
J,
under the following
d
= J (1 Jj
rr
l
A
TT
sin
<p
cos d
sin
TT
f
A
sin
^
sin d)
}
022)
If the value of
has been found as below,
we may
take
~
f),
d
&^
sin
^ cos
tf
2rf.
To find
u.
the
parallax
in
zenith distance
for
the point 0.
Let
Fig.
ZAO, Fig. 14, be the vertical line of the observer at ^ The normal AO terminating in the axis being denoted by N, we have, by (90),
e*
sn'
<p
But
if in (84)
we
write
^
sin
4
y for
2
4
sin 2
{?,
we have
e
sin
2
^>)
and
a
this value is sufficiently accurate for the If then tation of the parallax in all cases.
compu
we
=
put
1,
we have
PARALLAX.
Lit
N=~ P
If
now
the star
S we draw SB
C4
'
in the vertical plane passing through the line perpendicular to OZ, and put
ZO and
= the zenith distance at = the apparent zenith
ASB give
*
cos
dist.
= SOZ = SAZ
the triangles
OSS,
r
C'
=J
t
cose,)
i
J' sin
Jj sin f t
>
Dividing these equations by J v and putting
a
they become
T =^ J
f
i
1
Bin
1= =
i
/'A
/i cos C /, sin C'
= cos d = sin C
= sin
=
1

sin
t
t
from which we deduce
/t /t
sin (C
1
Ct )
f
7r
t
sin C 4
TT,
cos (C
Ct )
sin
sin
cos C t
_
tan (p
_f =
}
^
sin C t
ff
1
sin
cos
and
in series,
Or, rigorously,
sin
?V
tan
(C'
Ct )
= sin K cos C = tan # tan (45 +
<
I
t

J #)
tan
C,
)
To
find
7Tj
we have
sin
TT,
=
1
/o J,
=
/>
1
J (1
j
4
sin
sin
TT
sin
<p
sin
x
or
p(l
+ 4 sin
TT
sin
^ sin
(127)
^)
118
PARALLAX.
this very precise expression of T^ will
But
it
seldom be required
:
will generally suffice to take
sin
77.
=.
sin n
P
;
or
which will be found to give the correct value of 7r even for the moon, within 0".2 in every case. Where this degree of accul5
racy
suffices,
we may employ
>T
a table containing the correction
for reducing
to
ir
l9
computed by the formula
Table XIII., Vol. II., gives this correction with the arguments TT and the geographical latitude if. Taking the correction from this table, therefore, we have
nt
3d.
the
=*+
A*
(128)
To compute
the
parallax in zenith distance for the point
when
apparent zenith distance is given.
first
Multiplying the
cos
',
equation of (123) by sin
find
',
the second by
and subtracting, we
in (:'
:,)
=
M
sin
:'
or
sin (C'
C,)
= sin r^
in
C'
(129)
it* we denote the apparent altitude by h! and the altitude reduced to the point by A n this equation becomes
sin (A t
/*')
^= sin
^
cos
A'
(130)
EXAMPLE.
t
In Latitude
1'

14 39' 86".85, geocentric declination S angle and the equatorial horizontal parallax ;r 58' 37".2, to 24".54, find the apparent zenith distance and azimuth.
= 341
<p
38
59',
given the moon's hour
=
=+
The geocentric zenith distance and azimuth, computed from by Art, 14, are = 29 30', A = 320 18', which are the values employed in our example in Art. 94. To compute
these data
PARALLAX.
119
first
tion to the point
by the method of the present article, we by (122), us follows:
For ^ . 88
is
reduce the declina
59'
= 3517".2
39' 24".54
log
A

7.8250
log
3.5462
ai
= 14 _s=
$
log sin <p log cos d
9.7987 9.9856
*)
14 .31
log (a,
1.1555
*1
=1439'38".85
and t 341 V 36".85, the computation of the zenith distance and azimuth by Art. 14 gives for the
With
point
this value of 8 l
=
Ct
= 29
29' 47".67
A,
= 320
as
17' 45".09
found in Art. 94, should be, since the azimuth at the point and at the observer are identical. We find from Table XIII. ATT == 4".6, and hence *,= 58' 37".2 + 4".6 58' 41".8; and then, by (126),
l
and
this value of
A
is
precisely the
same
A
f
as
it
=
*
= 51' 5"
log sin log cos
log sin
TT,
8.23232
9.93971
8.17203
C,
r
= 2d C = r = 29
Cf
t
29' 47".67
log tan * 8.17208 tan (45 \ *) 0.00645 log tan C, 9J52M log
+
29 20 .03
59'
log tan
(:'
C 4 ) 7.93111
7".70
If we agreeing with the value found in Art. 94 within 0",09. had computed ^ by (127), the agreement would have been exact.
98.
To find
its
when
The
the parallax of a star in right ascension and declination geocentric right ascension and declination are given. investigation of this problem is similar to that of Art. 92.
be referred by rectangular coordinates to three planes passing through the centre of the earth the first, the
Let the
star
:
plane of the equator the second, that of the equinoctial colure ; the third, that of the solstitial colure. Let the axis of # be the
;
drawn through the equinoctial points, positive towards the vernal equinox the axis of ^, the intersection of
straight line
;
120
PARALLAX.
the plane of the solstitial colure and that of the equator, positive towards that point of the equator whose right ascension is 90
;
the axis of
z,
the axis of the heavens, positive towards the north.
Let
= tho star's geocentric right ascension, u " 8 = declination, u " J = distance,
a
then the coordinates of the star are
X
z
= J COS d COS a = J cos d sin a y
J sin
tf
let the star be referred to another sys.tem of planes The vanishto the first, the origin being the observer. parallel circles of these planes in the celestial sphere are still the ing
Again,
equator, the equinoctial colure,
a'
mid the
solstitial colure.
Let
^= J' =
= the star's observed right ascension,
"
"
"
declination,
distance from the observer,
where by observed right ascension and declination we now mean the values which differ from the geocentric values by the parallax depending on the position of the observer on the surface of The coordinates of the star in this system will be the earth.
r
JC
=
J' COS
'
COS a
sin a!
y'
j' cos
tf
z
f
= A' sin &
= the
right ascension of the observer's
.Vow, if
0=the
<p'
sidereal time
=
=
P
meridian at the instant of observation, the reduced latitude of the place of observation, the radius of the etirth for this latitude,
are the
<J,
then 0, ^', and
/>
entirely analogous to a,
polar coordinates of the observer, and J of the star, so that the rectanfirst
gular coordinates of the observer, taken in the
system, are
a
b
= ^ cos = p cos c = p sin
tp'
<p*
sin
PARALLAX.
121
to the other
z'
and
for transformation
x'
from one system
y'
we have
=x
tf
a,
=y
o
b,
=z
/
COS
p' sin
c.
Hence
J'
COS
COS
sin
a'
J'
cos
J' sin
# #
a'
= J COS = J cos
~
J sin
COS a
^ sin a
f?
p COS cos /?
"j
V
j
(181)
p sin p'
or,
dividing by
J,
and putting
J J
'
as before
/=
/ cos ^ / cos # / sin if
cos
a'
S
in7T=
TT
TT
1
J
<p*
= cos # cos a
= cos d sin
a
p sin
p sin
/
cos
cos
cos
"j
sin a'
= sin
p' sin
V
J
(132*)
#
sin
?r
sin p'
From
the
r
first
two of these equations we deduce
/ cos d / COS $
sin (a'
COS (a'

= p sin = COS a)
a)
TT
cos
<p*
sin (a
rr
0)
<f>'
d
p sin
COS
COS (a
0)
Multiplying the
cos J (a ;
cos J (a
7
a),
a),
first of these by sin (a' a), the second by and adding the products, we find, after dividing by
/cos
t= cos 5 ten *
cos i
(a'
a)
Put
tan = oo.
<p'
cos J
( .'
(a'
a)
,+^ A
p
+ .)ei
(184>
then
we
have, for determining
5',
/ sin
<5'
/
whence
cos
#
= sin d = cos d
p sin * sin p sin
K
sin
/ / cot Y
*\
l )
/ sin
(tf
d)
=
air
/o
/'^
sin
sin
/
sin
/ cos (^
<5) 7
=1
/
J
p sin * sin r
wo
p'
__.
^ sin
( 136 >
to(<r)
sin (^
^)
y v (187)
The equations
(133) determine, rigorously, the parallax in right
122
ascension, or a'
PARALLAX.
a
;
(136) the parallax in declination, or d'
J'.
d;
and
(137) determines
99.
To
obtain the developments in series, put
m
then from (133)
=
sin
TT
cos
CP'
cos
we have
(a v
f
'
a) '
N
=
*)
=
1
m
sin ( a
^7 m cos (a
2
"') <~
0)
0)
N
(138) v
/IQQN
whence
a
a
m sin
T
(a

m
1
sin 2 (a
,
Y77
^
(
&C.
^
(139)
Putting
_
we have from
(136)
P sin
TT
sin
sin
whence
2 (a y) (a *~ ^ = n sinSET + n* sin 2Binl" r


)
is the hour angle of the star east of 100. The quantity a the meridian. According to the usual practice, we shall reckon
the hour angle towards the west, and denote
it
by
tf,
or put
t~
and then we
shall write (138)
and
(140) as follows
sin
t
t
:
tan (a
a')
=
1
1
/i
m
cos
n cos (p
fl)
The rigorous computation will be conveniently performed by the following formulae:
PARALLAX*
123
t
tan (a
= m cos = sin n cos cos COS d = tan tan (45 + #) tan tan cos i fa tan r =
sin
#
f>
?'
t
a')
}
c/
a')
COS
[t+
J (a
_
(142)
a')]
...
sin #'
=. n cos (j
'

N
^)
= p sin
+
TT
sin
f
d cos (r ^
d) y
tan (^
O = tan d
tan ( 45
* ^')
tan (r
~
<0
101. Except for the moon, the first terms of the series (139) and (141) will suffice, and we may use the following approxi
mations :
ct
a
,
=
pn cos
'
f
<p
sin.f
cos d
(1433
<p'
tan
= tan f cost
y
on sin
si
sin/'
If the star
Y
~
<p
f
,
is
on the meridian, we have
d
/
=
0,
and hence
and
y
= P* sin
d'
(?'
5)
it is
Since in the meridian
that
'
we have
the
=
C
<p
5,
found by (108) and
d found by
easily seen (140) will then
be numerically equal, or
cally equal to
parallax in zenith distance is numerithe parallax in declination when the star is on the meri%
dian.
102.
To find the parallax of a
observed right ascension
first
7
star in right ascension
and
declination,
when
its
and
declination are given.
Multiplying the
by
cos
a and
,
.
equation of (132) by sin a', the second subtracting one product from the other, we find
.
m (a
V
,
N
a')
= p sin
TT
cos
<f>'
sin
(0 ^
a') *
COS d
In like manner, from (135)
we deduce
124
/
sin (/
vx
)
=
/*
PARALLAX.
sin
TT
sin <f sin (^
;

f)
sin p
We have
angle
;
here
a' equal to the apparent or observed hour
and hence, putting
the confutation
may be made under
(o
a')
the following form
sin
1
:
Bin
= p sin = tan
~
'
TT
cos
y?'
t
COS d
<p'
cos
tan
$
(a
 
a')
7
(144)
a')]
COS p'
.
.
} (a
.
sin (^
p sin
TT
sin
<p
sin
ff)
sin y
a' we employ 5' for 8. The computation of a a' thus found is sufficiently exact for the compuvalue of a tation of f and 8 S'. With the computed value of S d' we then find d and correct the computation of a a'.
In the
first
Suppose that on a certain day at the Greenwich Observatory the right ascension and declination of the moon were observed to be
'
EXAMPLE.
8
= 7* 41" 20.436 ^ 15 50' 27".66
ll*17 m
O'.02

when the
sidereal time
was
^=
*
and the moon's equatorial horizontal parallax was
= 56' 57".5 = 51
:
Required the geocentric right ascension and declination.
We
P
have for Greenwich
r=.

?'
11' 13".6 ?
is
j = 51
<p
28' 38".2,
17' 24".G, log
p
= 9.9991134.
and hence (Table III.') The com
putation Jby (144)
then as follows
PARALLAX.
126
103.
will
For all bodies except the moon, the second computation never affect the result in a sensible degree, and we may use
:
the following approximations
f>n
cos
<p'
sin
f
COS
d'
tan
tan
*
<p'
cos f
__
sin
(145)
For the sun, planets, and comets, it is frequently more convenient to use the geocentric distance of the body instead of the
parallax, or, at least, to deduce the parallax from the distance, This distance is always expressed in the latter being given. of the sun's mean distance as unity. If we put parts
TT
O
=
the sun's
moan
J
= the sun's mean distance from the earth,
is
equatorial horizontal parallax,
we
have, whatever unit
employed
in
expressing J, J
a
^o
,
and
a,
sin
TT
=J
126
PARALLAX.
whence
sin
R
=
J
sin
and when we take J
sin
=
TT
1,
= sinJ

7rft
2.
or *
=
irft

,,,
.
AX
J
(146)
According to ENCKE'S determination
TT
O
= 8".57116
log
TT
O
= 0.93304
EXAMPLE. DONATI'S comet was observed by Mr. JAMES FERUSON at Washington, 1858 Oct. 13, 6* 26W 21M mean time, and its observed right ascension and declination when corrected
for refraction
were
a'
#
= 236 = T
48'
0".5
36' 52".8
The logarithm
= 9.7444.
We
of the comet's distance from the earth was log J Required the geocentric place. have for Washington y =^ 38 53' 39".3, whence, by Table
9.7955. HI., log p cos <p' 9.8917, logp sin <p' mean into sidereal time (Art. 50), we find
= 19* 55m 16'.98.
Converting the
Hence, by (145) and
(146),
^
= f 10".3
Hence, for the geocentric place of the comet,
a
= 236
48' 11".2
d
=
r 36' 42".5
Formulae similar to the and longitude. We
104. Parallax in latitude
and
longitude.
tibove obtain for the parallax in latitude
REFRACTION.
127
arid <p' (which are the right ascension have only to substitute for and declination of the geocentric zenith) the corresponding longitude and latitude of the geocentric zenith (which will be found by Art. 23), and put A and /3 in the place of a and 8. Thus, if I and b are the longitude and latitude of the geocentric zenith, the equations (143) give for all objects except the moon.
pn cos b sin
cos
(/
ft
tan r
=
tan 6
(147)
sin
ft
sin (r
sin
In the same manner, the equations (131)
may be made
to
express the general relations between the geocentric and the apparent longitude and latitude, and for the moon we can
employ
(142),
observing to substitute respectively
for *,
a',
A',
<J,
(T,
',
0,
J,
<?'
the quantities
',
,
b
In
all
the formulfe,
of the earth,
when we choose to neglect the compression we have only to put <p = <p' and p = 1.
REFRACTION.
General laws of refraction. The path of a ray of light is a straight line so long as the ray is passing through a medium of uniform density, or through a vacuum. But when a ray passes
105.
is
obliquely from one bent or refracted.
is
medium
;
The ray before
into another of different density, it it enters the second medium
called the incident ray
after it enters the second
medium
it is
called the refracted ray ; and the difference between the directions of the incident and refracted rays is called the refraction.
normal is drawn to the surface of the refracting medium where the incident ray meets it, the angle which the incident ray makes with this normal is called the angle of incidence, the angle which the refracted ray makes with the normal is the angle of refraction, and the refraction is the difference of these two angles.
If a
at the point
128
RKFK ACTION.
if
Thus,
SA,
Fig. 15,
is the angle of incidence, CANis the of refraction and if CA he produced angle backwards in the direction AS', SAS' is the
;
SAM
is an incident ray upon the surface of a refracting medium, the refracted the normal to the surface at A, ray,
MN
AC
refraction.
An
observer whose eye
is
at
any point of the line
AC will
receive the
ray as if it had come directly to his eye without refraction in the direction S'AC, which is therefore called the apparent
direction of the ray.
Now,
1st.
it
is
shown
in
Optics that this refraction takes place
:
according to the following general laws
a ray of light falls upon a surface (of any form), which separates two media of different densities, the plane which
When
contains the incident ray and the normal drawn to the surface at the point of incidence contains the refracted ray also.
is
When the ray passes from a rarer to a denser medium, it in general refracted towards the normal, so that the angle of refraction is less than the angle of incidence; and when the ray2d.
passes from a denser to a rarer medium, it is refracted from the normal, so that the angle of refraction is greater than the angle
of incidence.
incidence, the sine of this bears a constant ratio to the sine of the corresponding angle angle of refraction, so long as the densities of the two media are
3d.
Whatever may be the angle of
If a ray passes out of a vacuum into a given medium, number expressing this constant ratio is called the index of This index is always an improper refraction for that medium.
constant.
the
being equal to the sine of the angle of incidence divided the sine of the angle of refraction. by 4th. When the ray passes from one medium into another, the
fraction,
sines of the angles of incidence and refraction are reciprocally proportional to the indices of refraction of the two media.
106. Astronomical refraction. The rays of light from a star in to the observer must pass through the atmosphere which coming
surrounds the earth. If the space between the star and the upper limit of the atmosphere be regarded as a vacuum, or as filled with a medium which exerts no sensible effect upon the
KJfiFK ACTION.
direction of a ray of light, the path of the ray will be at first a straight line; but upon entering the atmosphere its direction
According to the second law above stated, the the denser, the ray will be bent towards the which in this case is a line drawn from the centre of the normal, earth to the surface of the atmosphere at the point of incidence. The atmosphere, however, is not of uniform density, but is most dense near the surface of the earth, and gradually decreases in density to its upper limit, where it is supposed to be of such extreme tenuity that its first eftect upon a ray of light may be
will
be changed.
new medium being
considered ds infinitesimal.
The ray
is
therefore continually pass
ing from a rarer into a denser medium, and hence its direction is continually changed, so that its path becomes a curve which
is
The
concave towards the earth. last direction of the
ray, or that
which
it
has
when
it
reaches the eye, is that of a tangent to its curved path at this point; and the difference of the direction of the ray before en.
tering the atmosphere and this last direction nomical refraction, or simply the refraction.
is
called the astro
Thus, Fig. 1C, the ray Se from a star, entering the atmosphere at e, is bent into the curve ecA Fig. 16. which reaches the observer at A in the direction of the tangent S'A drawn to the curve at A. If CAZ
the vertical line of the observer, or normal at A, by the first law of the preceding article, the vertical plane of the observer which conis
tains
the
contain
tangent the whole
the incident ray tion increases the apparent altitude of a star, but does not affect its azi
AS* must also curve Ae and Hence refracSe.
muth.
The angle S'AZ is the
nith distance of the star.
apparent
ze
is strictly the angle which a straight line drawn from the star to the point A
The
true
zenith distance*
*
By true
zenith distance
effect of refraction)
mean
we here (and so long as we are considering only tht that which differs from the apparent zenith distance only
by the refraction.
VOL.
I.
9
130
REFRACTION.
makes with the
vertical line. Such a line would not coincide with the ray Se; but in consequence of the small amount of the refraction, if the line Se be produced it will meet the vertical
line
AZ
which
very
this
at a point so little elevated above that the angle line will make with the vertical will differ produced
A
from the true zenith distance. Thus, if the produced be supposed to meet the vertical in 6', the difference line Se between the zenith distances measured at b and at A is the parallax of the star for the height Ab', and this difference can be
little
r
appreciable only in the case of the moon. It is therefore usual to assume Se as identical with the ray that would dome to the observer directly from the star if there were no atmosphere. The only case in which the error of this assumption is appreciable will be considered in the Chapter
107.
on Eclipses.
who may wish
For the convenience of the reader Tables of Refraction. to avail himself of the refraction tables without
regard to the theory by which they are computed, I shall first explain the arrangement and use of those which are given at
the end of this work.
Since the amount of the refraction depends upon the density of the atmosphere, and this density varies with the pressure and the temperature, which are indicated by the barometer and the
thermometer, the tables give the refraction for a mean state of the atmosphere; and when the true refraction is required, supplementary tables are employed which give the correction of the
mean
refraction depending upon the observed height of the barometer and thermometer. TABLE I. gives the refraction when the barometer stands at 80 inches and the thermometer (Fahrenheit's) at 50. If we
put
then
= the refraction, z = the apparent zenith distance, C = the true zenith distance, C = * + r
r
Where
great accuracy
I.
is
not required,
it suffices
*
to take r
is
'
mid to add it to z. (The resulting that zenith distance which we have heretofore denoted by
the discussion of parallax.) apparent zenith distance z.
directly from TABLE
in
The argument of
this table is the
REFRACTION.
131
is
TABLE
II. is
BESSEL'S Refraction Table,* which
generally
regarded as the most reliable of all the tables heretofore conof this table the refraction is regarded In Column structed.
A
as a function of the apparent zenith distance
z,
and the adopted
form of this function
is
r
a,fi
A
Y* tan z
which a varies slowly with the zenith distance, and its logais therefore readily taken from the table with the argument z. The exponents A and \ differ sensibly from unity only for great zenith distances, and also vary slowly; their values are therefore readily found from the table.
in
rithm
The
factor
/9
depends upon the barometer.
The
actual pres
sure indicated by the barometer depends not only upon the height of the column, but also upon its temperature. It is, therefore, put under the form.
p
= BT
1
and log B and Jog T are given in the supplementary tables with the arguments u height of the barometer/ and "height of the attached thermometer," respectively so that we have
;
log
ft
= log B + log
T
Finally, log f is given directly in the supplementary table with the argument u external thermometer." This thermometer must be so exposed as to indicate truly the temperature of the atmo
sphere at the place of observation. In Column B of the table the refraction
function of the true zenith distance
r
regarded as a under the form expressed
is
= o'/9^Vtan C
and log a', A', and /' are given in the table with the argument f; and f being found as before. /9 and Column Column A will be used when z is given to find
;
B,
when is given to find z. Column C is intended for
the computation of differential re
fraction, or the difference of refraction corresponding to small
*
From
hie Aitronomische Untersuchunpcn, Vol.
I.
132
REFRACTION.
differences of zenith distance,
and
will
be explained hereafter
(Miorometric Observations, Vol.
II.).
These tables extend only to 85 of zenith distance, beyond which no refraction table can be relied upon. There occur at times anomalous deviations of the refraction from the tabular value at all zenith distances; and these are most sensible at
great zenith distances. Fortunately, almost all valuable astronomical observations can be made at zenith distances less than
arc justified
and within this last limit we 85, and indeed less than 80 in placing the greatest reliance in by experience BESSEL'S Table. In an extreme case, where an observation is made within 5 of the horizon, we can compute an approximate
;
value of the refraction by the aid of the following supplementary table, which is based upon actual observations made by
ARGELANDER.*
the refraction whose logarithm is given in this table, the refraction for a given State of the air will be found by the formula
If
call
we
R
EXAMPLE
30' 0",
78 apparent zenith distance z 0.4 F., ExAttached Therm. Barom. 29.770 inches,
1.
Given
the
=
ternal
Therm.
2.0 F.
Table
1
We find from
log a
II.,
Col. A, for 78
30',
i
.74981
A
= 1.0032
= 1.0328
and from the tables
for
barometer and thermometer,
* Tabulx Rtgiomontantt, p, 589.
RBFKACTION.
log
log
log
133
B
ft
= + 0.00253 r= + 0.00127
=r.
log r
= + 0.04545
+
0.00380
Hence the
refraction
is
computed
as follows
:
1.74981 log a = = log = + 0.00381 log r = log r ^ + 0.04694 0.69154 log tan z = 10".53 log r = 2.49210 r = 310".53 =
A
*
log p
ft* A
5'
The
78
true zenith distance
35' 10".53.
is,
therefore, 78
30'
0"
+
5'
10".53
=
Given the true zenith distance 10".53, Barom. 29.770 inches, Attached Therm. 2.0 F. External Therm. We find from Table II., Col. B, for 78 35' 10",
2.
EXAMPLE
=

78
35'
0.4
F.,
log
a'
= 1.74680
B
ft
A'
= 0.9967
log r
X
= 1.0261
as before,
and from the
tables for barometer
and thermometer,
log log
log
= + 0.00253 T= + 0.00127 = + 0.00380
= + 0.04545
The
refraction
is
then computed as follows:
= log ft* = + 0.00379 log r = log r = + 0.04663 = 0.69489 log tan = 2.49211 10".53 r = 310".53" = log
A' log ft
A'
log*e=
A
'
1.74680
C
5'
r
and the apparent zenith distance
is
therefore 78
30'.
EXAMPLE
3.
Given z
= 87
30',
barometer and thermometer
as in the preceding examples. By the supplementary table
above given,
log
R
A
*
A = 1.0298 = 1.2624
A
log
ft
= 4 0.00380
+
0.04545
18'26".e
log p
log r
= 2.98269 = + 0.00391
r=
log r =*
r^
logr
=
+ 0.05738
3.04398
134
It is
REFRACTION.
important in
that the barometer
all cases where great precision is required and thermometer be carefully verified, to see
that they give true indications. The zero points of thermometers are liable to change after a certain time, and inequalities in the bore of the tube are not uncommon. special investi
A
gation of every thermometer
applied in any meter has not been allowed for in adjusting the scale, taken into account by the observer in each reading.
therefore, necessary before it is If the capillarity of the barodelicate research.
is,
it
must be
within V or 2", very expeditiously, by taking
We
may
obtain the true refraction for any state of the air the mean refrac
tion from Table I. and correcting it by Table XIV. A, and Table XIV. B. The mode of using this table is obvious from its arrangement. Thus, in Example 1 we find
from Table
"
I.,
Mean
for "
refr.
XIV. A, XIV. B,
Barom. Therm.
29.77, Corr.
2.
True
refr.
= = =+ =

4'

38".9
2
.
32
.
"5'
9"7
which agrees with BESSEL'S value within 1".5. For greater accuracy, the height of the barometer should be reduced to the temperature 32 F., which is the standard assumed in these tables. The corrected height of the barometer in this example is 29.85, and the corresponding correction of the refraction would then be 1"; consequently the true refraction would be 5' 10", which is only 0".5 in error. These tables furnish good approximations even at great
zenith distances.
18' 24".
Thus,
we
find
by them, in Example
3,
r
INVESTIGATION OF THE REFRACTION FORMULA. In this investigation we may, without sensible error, consider the earth as a sphere, and the atmosphere as composed of an infinite
108.
concentric spherical strata, whose common centre is the centre of the earth, each of which is of uniform density, and within which the path of a ray of light is a straight line. Let 6 ,
number of
f
a point of observation on Fig. 16, be the centre of the earth, the vertical line Aa', a'b', b'c', &c. the vertical the surface; thicknesses of the concentric strata; Se a ray of lyht from a star
A
CAZ
;
Sj
meeting the atmosphere
at the point
e,
and successively
re
REFRACTION.
135
The last fracted in the directions ed, dc, &c. to the point A. direction of the ray is aA, which, when the number of strata is
supposed to be infinite, becomes a tangent to the curve ecA at A, and consequently AaS' is the apparent direction of the star. Let The the normals Ge Cd, c. be drawn to the successive strata.
9
angle Sef is the first angle of incidence, the angle Crd the first anglo of refraction. At any intermediate point between e and A,
as
c,
we have now
t
Ccd, the
supplement of the angle of incidence, and
(?,
Ccb, the angle of refraction.
If
for
any point, as
in the path of the ray,
we put
= the anglo of incidence, / = the angle of refraction, = the index of refraction for the stratum ahovo
fi
e,
"
ft.'
*'
"
below
c,
then, Art. 105,
^=
sin/
ik
<L
p.
(148)
If
we put
q
q'
r
i
= the normal Cc to the upper of the two strata, " = lower Cb " = the angle of incidence the lower stratum,
'
in
=^ 180
 Cbc,
the rectilinear triangle Cbc gives
sin sin
'
q
/
cf
which, with the above proportion, gives
q
/JL
sin
i
=q
r
/jf
sin
i'
an equation which shows that the product of the normal to any stratum by its index of refraction and the sine of the angle of
incidence
is
is
a constant product for
z
the same for any two consecutive strata; that If then we put all the strata.
is, it
a
^
~ the index of refraction of the air at the observer,
is
= the normal at the observer, or radius of the earth,
the angle of incidence at the observer,
the apparent zenith distance,
we
have, since z
qn
sin
i
=
a/i
sin z
(149)
186
ni \vhich the
REFRACTION.
second
member
(148)
is
constant for the same values of
z
and
//
.
Now, we have from
tan
i (i
/)
=
^
it.
;
 tan
} (i
+/)
f
//
But
i
into the next
/is the refraction of the ray in passing from one stratum and supposing, as we do, that the densities of the
;
;
strata vary by infinitesimal increments, i /is the differential of the refraction and we may, therefore, write \ dr for tan \ (i /) and d^ for p.' and tan i for // ; consequently, also, 2// for pf /*,
+
tan J
(i
+/) hence we have
:
dr
=
of
tan
i
(150)
which
is
the
differential equation
the refraction.
both p and i are variable, we cannot integrate this unless we can express i as a function of p. This equation we could do by means of (149) if the relation between q and p were given, that is, if the law of the decrease of density of the air for increasing heights above the surface of the earth were known. This, however, is unknown, and we are obliged to make an hypothesis respecting this law, and ultimately to test the validity of the hypothesis by comparing the refractions computed by the resulting formula with those obtained by direct
But, as
observation.
I shall first consider the hypothesis of BOUQUBR, both on account of the simplicity of the resulting formula and of its historical interest.*
109. First hypothesis.
crease of density
tion index
p
is
Let it be assumed that the law of desuch that some constant power of the refracreciprocally proportional to the normal q, an
is
hypothesis expressed by the equation
the first, because it leads to the simple I shall consider but two hypotheses formula of BRADLEY, which, though imperfect, is often useful as an approximate expression of the refraction; the second, because the tables formed from it by
:
*
appeared to be the most correct and in greatest accordance with observation, although on theoretical grounds even the hypothesis of BESSEL is open For a review of the labors of astronomers and physicists upon this to objection.
BESSEL have thus
far
difficult subject, from the earliest times to the present, see Die Attronomische Strahlen* brtchung in ikrer historischen Entwickclung dargesttllt, von DR. C. BRUHSS. Leipzig,
1861,
'FIRST
HYPOTHESIS.
187
'"f
which with
(149) gives
sin
or, logarithmically,
i
(1H)
=
.
I
~

sin z
(152)
\Pol
log
sm
is
i
= n log + *g /flin*\
i
,
i
IJL
I
^"
I
where the
last
term
constant.
di
By
p
differentiation, therefore,
= n dp
i
tan
which with (150) gives
,
dr
= di n
and, integrating,
To determine
the constant (7, the integral is to be taken from the upper limit of the atmosphere to the surface of the earth. and if we put # the value of t at that At the upper limit r ;
=
=
limit,
we have
At the lower
refraction,
limit the value of r is the
i
and
= x:
whole atmospheric
hence
Eliminating the constant,
we have
r
= '=*
=
(153)
1 in (152), since the density have, by putting p. of the air at the upper limit is to be taken as zero,
To find #, we
sin
*
= sin z
**

,  JN
(154)
Having then found
//
at the surface of the earth
and suitably
138
REFRACTION.
n,
determined
equations
we
find
# by
(154),
and then
r
by
(153).
:
The two
.._,
may
be expressed in a single formula thus
If = r
n\_
.
sin
_i/sin^\
\
/V
1
(155)
/J
which
to the
is
known
formula
first
as SIMPSON'S formula, but is in fact equivalent by BOUQUER in 1729 in a memoir on
given
refraction
which gained the prize of the French Academy.
From
(154)
we
find
sin #
sin z
_
n
/*
Bin s f sin
#
n
/i
+
1
whence
tan
i (s
*)
= ^~^4 tan
/V
+
} (z
+
*)
]
and, reducing by (153),
If we are content to equivalent to BRADLEY'S formula. the refraction approximately by our formula, we can represent
which
is
,
write this in the form
r
= g tan (z
fr)
with BRADLEY, that for a mean state of the air 50 Fahr. corresponding to the barometer 29.6 and thermometer we can express the observed refractions, very nearly, by taking
and we
shall find,
g
= 57".036,
/
8.
110. But, as we wish our formula to represent, if possible, the actual constitution of the atmosphere, let us endeavor to test the
In order to correspond with the hypothesis upon which it rests. real state of nature, it is necessary, that the constitution of the atmoshould not only agree with the sphere ivhich the hypothesis involves observed refraction, but also with the height of the barometer, and with the observed diminution of heat as the altitude of the observer above the
earth's surface increases.
discussion of the formula will be more simple if we substitute the density of the air in the place of the index of refrac
The
tion.
Put
t\
fi
=z
the density of the air at the surface of the earth, the density of the air at any point above the surface,
FIRST HYPOTHESIS.
139
is
The
relation
between d and p, according to Optics,
2
expressed by
(157)
/i
l
=
kd
in
which 4
ing to the
a constant determined by experiment. experiments of BIOT,
A;
is
Accord
4k
Since k
is
^ 0.000588768
square will be inappreciable,
so small that
its
we may
(158)
take
11
= (I
+4A<J>*
= + Zkd
1
and, consequently,
and
(156) becomes,
still
2 neglecting A
,
tan
If
r =.
nk\ tan
z
(
;
we denote
the horizontal refraction, or that for z
n
= 90, by r
u,
this
formula gives
tan
2
r
* x nk\ cot
i
n
r
2
n
or
tan
r
and, putting the small arc

n
ru for its tangent,
We
thermometer
can find S from the observed state of the barometer and at the surface of the earth, so that in order to com
pute the horizontal refraction by this formula, for the purpose of comparing it with the observed horizontal refraction, we have only to determine the value of n. Let
x
^>
= the height of any assumed point in the atmosphere above
the surface of the earth,
ity, respectively, at
air,
Vi 9 = the density and pressure of tho
and the force of grav
<J
,
pQ
,
gQ
= the same
that point, quantities at the earth's surface.
140
BBFKACTION.
elevation greater than
JT
At an
air
by an infinitesimal distance
<fo,
the pressure
p
is
diminished by dp.
The weight of a eoluipn of
:
whose height is dx, density (J, and gravity #, is expressed by gddx, and this is equal to the decrement of the pressure hence
the equation
dp
=
gddx
By
the law of gravity,
we have
and hence
dp
=
(a
dx
+ *)
Now,
in the hypothesis
under consideration, we have
or,
neglecting the square of
A',
^fi
I
= l2
=2(n
*
which gives
d
(^Ti)
Hence
dp
Integrating,
= 2g a(n
(162)
no constant being necessary, since p and d vanish together. To compare this with the observed pressure pw let
I
= the height
upon by sure^;
of a column of air of the density
the gravity
</
which acted
will be in equilibrium with the pres
in other words, let
I
of the density d9 which
this definition,
be the height of a homogeneous atmosphere would exert the pressure /> Then, by
.
FIRST HYPOTHESIS.
141
which with
(162) gives
#>
=(.+ l)f
*
*
(164)
At
,
the surface of the earth, where
this equation gives
l
p becomes p^ and
9 becomes
=
(n+l)^WL
/
(165)
whence
and this reduces the expression of the horizontal refraction (160) to
Taking
spends to the
as the unit of density the value of d which corre. barometer 0.76 metres and thermometer C.,
we
have, according to BIOT,
4 kd
= 0.000588768
homowhich would produce the pressure OT .76 of geneous atmosphere the barometer when the temperature is C. and this height is to that of the barometric column as the density of mercury is to w that of the air. According to REGNAULT, for Barom. O .76 and Therm. C., mercury is 10517.3 times as heavy as air: hence we have
I
The constant
for this state of the air is the height of a
;
I
= 0~ 76 X
10517.3
= 7998M5
For a we
shall here use the
mean
radius of the earth, since
we
have supposed the earth to be spherical, or
a
= 6366738 metres
(167)
which gives
 = 0.00125545
Substituting these values in (166), 1" to reduce to seconds,
r
we
find, after
dividing by
sin
= 1824" = 30' 24"
we
should have
But, according to ARGELANDER'S observations,
142
REFRACTION.
C., ru
forBarom. Om .76 and Therm.
= 37' 31"; and the hypothesis
by more than 7'.
*
therefore gives the horizontal refraction too small
111.
The hypothesis can be
it
tested
further by examining
whether
represents the law of decreasing temperatures for increasing heights in the atmosphere. In the first place, we observe that in this hypothesis the densities of the strata of the atmo<
sphere decrease in arithmetical progression when the altitudes increase in arithmetical progression. For, since x is very small in compari
son with
,
we have very
nearly
a f x
and hence
or,
by
(165),
(168)
which shows that equal increments of x correspond to equal decrements of <J. This last equation also gives for the upper limit of the atmo2 1\ that is, in this hypothesis the height of 0, x sphere, where d that of a homogeneous atmosphere of the same the atmosphere is double
=
=
pressure.
Again, we have, by
(164), (165),
and
(168),
!A^L = 1_
Po *
ao
21
V (169) ;
The
function
$
Pifl
expresses the law of heat of the strata of the
let r
atmosphere.
earth, r the
were
r
be the temperature at the surface of the temperature at the height x. If the temperature in both cases, we should have
*
For
A
but when the temperature diminished in the ratio 1 +
is
e
=.
(170)
changed from
r
)
:
r to r the density ia
(r
1, c
being a constant which
SECOND HYPOTHESIS.
is
143
known trom experiment;
so that the true relation between
is
the pressures and densities at different temperatures by the known formula
expressed
whence
n$
TQjft
which combined with
(169) gives
* =r2fe(r
T)
and hence equal increments of x correspond to equal decrements of r. Hence, in this hypothesis, the heat of the strata of the atmosphere decreases
as
their density in arithmetical progression.
The
value of
1
.
e,
according to
RUDBERG and REGNAULT,
to a height
is
very nearly
metres, in
Hence we must ascend
~r
&t o
21
= 58.6
2t
i
J
order to experience a decrease of temperature of 1 C. But, according to the observations of GAY LUSSAC in his celebrated
balloon ascension at Paris (in the year 1804), the decrease of temperature was 40. 25 C. for a height of 6980 metres, or 1 C. for 173 metres, so that in the hypothesis under consideration
the height i altogether too small, or the decrease of temperature is too rapid. This hypothesis, therefore, is not sustained either the observed refraction or by the observed law of the decrease by
of temperature.
Second hypothesis. Before proposing a new hypothesis, us determine the relation between the height and the density of the air at that height, when the atmosphere is assumed to be
112.
let
throughout of the same temperature, in which case we should have the condition (170). Resuming the differential equation
(161),
dp
=
9l>
addl!L\
\a
+ xl
put
a
+ \
144
in
KKFRACTION.
s is a
which
new
variable very nearly proportional to x
t
We
then have
dp
=
g<fl&ds
which with the supposition
(170) gives
H
P
Integrating,
Po
ft
which the logarithm is Napierian. determined so that p becomes /> when s
in
=
The constant being
0,
we have
and therefore
i
log
^
=
^
<
(75
=~
=
*ft
ft
I
where
I
has the value (163).
<
Hence,
C
e
being the Napierian base,
(172)
 ft
which
is
*
T
the expression of the law of decreasing densities upon the supposition of a uniform temperature. In our first hypothesis the temperatures decrease, but nevertheless too rapidly.
We
must, then,
frame an
hypothesis between that
and
the hypothesis of
a uniform temperature.
Now,
in our first hypothesis
we have by
(169),
within term
involving the second and higher powers of s,
P^l ~~
Po*
21
and
in the hypothesis of a uniform temperature,
The
arithmetical
mean between
these would be
8KCOND HYPOTHESIS.
but, as
146
reason for assuming exactly the arithmetical mean, BESSEL proposes to take
we have no
A being a
refractions.
new
constant
to be
determined so as
to satisfy the
observed
This equation, which
we
shall adopt as
our seconu
hypothesis, expresses the
ratures, since,
by
(171),
it
assumed law of decreasing tempeamounts to assuming
e (r
1
+
rf )
= r*
(174)
and it follows that in this hypothesis the temperatures will not decrease in arithmetical progression with increasing heights, though they will do so very nearly for the smaller values of s,
that
is,
near the earth's surface.
the supposition (173) with the equation
Now, combining
\ve
dp^.have
dp
=
<7o*V*
eh
.
a
^L
s^jeh
=
0,
Integrating and determining the constant so that for s
p
becomes pQJ we have
a*
fc
~A~
P*^
which with (173) gives*
at
O
__
....
..
J>
00
",
A
"*"
"t*
I
(C"
*
1
""""
1
'
)
T "T" n
is
still
Inasmuch
law of the densities thus expressed hypothetical, we may simplify the exponent of e. For
as the
if
A
is
much
greater than
e
'*
I
(as is afterwards
shown),
we may
in this ex
ponent put
1   
as
and we
shall
have as the expression
of our hypothesis
= a.T*" = 4< r*f'7'
* DBSSEL.
VOL.
I.
(176)
Fundamenta Astronomies,
p. 28.
10
A 46
HEFRACTION.
this
By comparing
differs
with
(172),
we
see that this
new
hypothesis
an *
from that of a uniform temperature by the correction
e.
A
applied to the exponent of
Putting, for brevity,
we have
d
=d
Q
e~
(177)
in
which ft is constant. This expression of the density is to be introduced into the differential equation of the refraction (150J.
Now, by
(149), in
which q
^^
ajjL
==
a
+
==
.
.
sin
t
sinz ~
*
(a
+
^ (1
j?)j*
x we have
y
s)
fi Q
sinz
p
whence
tan
i
=
sin
i
_
i)
(1
s) sin z
wn
(1
s) sin z
,J
cos a z

/
1
~ \+
led
(2s
* 2 ) sin 2 z
1
From
the equation ff
=1+4
~
/*
we deduce
1
and
if
we
introduce as a constant the quantity
(178)
w (which for Barom. O .76 and Therm.
0.
is
a
= 0.000294211)
We might neglect the square
of
A,
and consequently,
also, that of
SECOND HYPOTHESIS.
a,
147
with hardly appreciable error, and then this expression would
become simply a
y
,
but for greater accuracy
we
can retain the
j
denominator, employing its mean value, as it varies within very For its greatest value, when S narrow limits. <J is 1,
=
and its least value, when between these values is 1
dii
d =
a.
0,
is
=
,
=
1
2a,
and the mean
Hence we
a
dft
shall take
In the denominator of the value of tan
stitute
f
we have
also to sub
Therefore, substituting in (150),
dr=
  we have
s)
a sin s (1

i
,
1
(1
o) [cos
s
2a(
1
~  + (2s
\
'
f
s') sin' z]
*
'o
or,
by
(177),
,
(IT
=:
(1
2
a,3
sin z (\
s) e~~**ds
a) [cos
.:
2
(1
e*)
+ (2s
1 5 2 ) sin
*
*]
In the integration of this equation we may change the sign of the second member, since our object is only to obtain the
* numerical value of r. It is apparent that if we put 1 for 1 in the numerator of this expression, and also neglect the term 8 s sin* 2 in the denominator, the error will be almost or quite insensible; but, not to reject terms without examination, let us
develop the expression into
radical in the
series.
For
this purpose,
put the
,
denominator under the form v'y2
[cos*
1
s*sin a
in
which
y
=
s
2a (1
e~*)
s
"
+
2s sin 2
;:]*
Then
A
_
1
/
'
~~
s'ain
(yI>7in^l
=
1
!/
~7
y
x x/ 1 ^
\
^
,
a*
sn's
2y
148
REFRACTION.
y
w
y,
Hence, restoring the value of
<*
we have
e~
ft
sin z
'ds
(1
a) [cos* z
2
2a (1
2
e~*)
+ 25 sin
1
jTji
1
[cos
8
2a (1
(1
*"**)
+ $ 5 sin
^]
(1
Ac
...........
[cos
)
*
2a
<?*)
+
2ssin'*]i
(179)
We
.hall hereafter
is
show
ment
insensible.
that the second term of this developConfining ourselves for the present to the
first term, let us, after the variable s f such that

method of LAPLACE, introduce the new
sm a z
then this term takes the form
dr
=
(1
r
2 a) [cos z f 2s' sin
z']
1
(181)
in
the
which we have yet to reduce the numerator to a function of new variable 5'. Now, by Lagrange's Theorem* when
I. Art. 181. For the convenience of add the following demonstration of this theorem. It is proposed to develop the function u=fy in a series of ascending powers of x, x and y being connected by the equation
* See PEIRCE'S Curves and Functions, Vol.
I
the reader, however,
and the functions /and being given. If from this equation y could be found as an fy, the development could explicit function of x and substituted in the equation u be effected at once by Maclaurin's Theorem, according to which we should have
= "o f DM* f /V
where MO
It is
,
,
n
r^; + 1,6
+ / V% ~o* *..
I
+
71
&c

0. * />,MO &c. denote the values of n and its successive derivatives when proposed to find the values of the derivatives without recourse to the elimination of y, as this elimination is often impracticable. For brevity, put Y ^y ; then the
=
=
derivatives of
y
relatively to r
= + *F
I
And
/
are
SECOND HYPOTHESIS.
149
S
= + ay$
8
r
we have
fa
=ftf+~
[>'. Dfs' ]
+
l 2)
functions whatever, and Z), JD2 &c. the successive derivatives of the functions to which they are
fn
,
which/ and y denote any
prefixed.
Hence, by putting
this
theorem gives
whence, eliminating
Multiplying this by
x,
D,y
Dyu,
it
gives
Dx
uYD u
t
(a)
The derivative
of this equation relatively to
t
is
This
is a general theorem, whatever function u is of y, and consequently, also, whatever function />( u is of?/. We may then substitute in it the function Y n t u for 7>r u,
D
und we shall have
Dx [ l/)
cation of (6),
t
u]
= D,
[
r
x are, by the successive appli
Now, the successive derivatives of
making n
=
(a) relatively to
1, 2, 8,
&c.,
But when x
=
0,
we have y
/,
F
0/,
and hence
where the subscript
since
t
letter of the
# is omitted in the second members as unnecessary,
These values substituted in Maclaurin's Theorem
is
now
the only variable.
:
give Lagrange's Theorem
150
.REFRACTION.
sin's
in* 1.2.3sine ;
D
1
[(1
*
 ')
("'1 J
1.2.3...n8in"
&c.
(182)
But we have
in the
numerator of (181)
and hence, differentiating
(181),
we
find
(1
(182)
and substituting the
result in
aft
8\n
2
flt ""'
,
a) [cos z
+
1
2
H
sin* z
$' sin*
*]*
I

1.2 sin 4 *
+ &c.
To
this series,
(1
I
effect the differentiations
we
expressed in the several terms of take the general expression
1) e
_ e "')" e *' = ( ^ +
(n +
l)fi*'_
~* 9
'
ne n
ft
,'
+ 2jJt^
where the upper sign is to be used when n is even, and the lower sign when n is odd. Differentiating this n times "successively, we have
SECOND "HYPOTHESIS.
151
.
.
by means of which, making n reduce (183) to the following form
dr .=
(1
a/9
sinks'
2
__
tt
)
[cos z
+
2
_
$'
=1
:
.
2
.
3
.
successively,
we
sin 2 *]i I
(e"'+
*'*
sin 2 z
( V
2e**''e*''\
.
1.2.3 8in^

'
+
We
&c.

(184)
have now to integrate the terms of this series, after having multiplied each by the factor without the brackets. The inte0, grals are to be taken from the surface of the earth, where 5
=
to the
mal
upper limit of the atmosphere that is, q being the norto any stratum (Art. 108), they are to be taken between the
;
a H, fj~a and q being the height of the atmo^ Now, this height is not known but since at the upper sphere. limit the density is zero and beyond this limit the ray suffers
limits
;
+
H
s1.
finity.
no refraction to infinity, we can without error take the integrals oo a and q i.e. between s between the limits q and But we may make the upper limit of s also equal to in
=
,
=
For, by (176),
ft
will not differ greatly
from
y,
and conse
quently will be a very large number, nearly equal to 800, as
find
we
from
(167); '
hence for
s
= l we have in (172) 8 = v
'

(2.718.. )
which
be sensibly equal to zero, and consequently the same oo as we should find by taking $ Hence the integrals may be taken between the limits s and s oo consequently, oo and s' also, according to (180), between the limits s' Now, as every term of the series will be of the form
will
= =
.
= =
. .
;
.
ft
sin 2
2
dtfe**'
_
==
,
2
[cos
2+2$'
sin 2 2]*
[cot c
+ 2s']J
(
JLoO
)
multiplied by constants, we have only to integrate this general form. Let i be a new variable, such that
cot2 z
+
2s'
=
(186)
152
REFRACTION.
then (185) becomes
the integral of which
is
to be taken
from
t
=
'
:T
to
*'
<
(187)
f (186) for s
= oo
.
= QO
,
which are the
If,
limits given
by
=
and
therefore,
we denote by
^ (n)
a function such that
/
f~dte= **
jp
or
(n)
= e*^# e~"
(188)
the integral of (185) will
become
f ^o
'* >da "" M
^
'
sn 2
".=y?/f.iff *
(189)
Substituting this value in (184), making successively n &c., we find the following expression of the refraction:
=
1, 2, 3,
4(3)
a
2 * (2)
+ &c.
which, since
(190)
we have
i
in general
T + H2
_i_
x
^ ~
**
TTT.1
+
_i_
*

SECOND HYPOTHESIS.
can also be written as follows
:*
afcrxfi
+
r v^
**
sin 1 2
"'*
V/2/J 1
*
sin 4
0S
"
e
^v ' 4(3)
4 aft ~
(191)
1.2.3
sin6 *
+ &c.
113.
The only remaining
therefore
difficulty is to
determine the func
tion 4{w), (188). cot z and
In the case of the horizontal refraction, where also T 0, this function becomes
independent of (n), and reduces to the wellknown integralf
(192)
* LAPLACE, Mtcanique
Cfleste, Vol.
IV.
however, stands
in the place of the
is
p. 186 (BOWDITCH'S Translation); where, more general symbol /? here employed. This
form of the refraction
restre*,
due
to
KB AMP, Analyse
des refraction.* astronomiques ft ter
Strasbourg, 1799. f This useful definite integral
dt e
may be
readily obtained
as follows.
Put k
/* QO
I
M.
*
Then, since the definite integral is independent of the variable,
'
we
ft
also
have
k=
,
and, multiplying these expressions together,
the order of integration being arbitrary
Let
v
(for in integrating,
= tu
;
whence dv
t
=
t
du
:
regarding v as variable,
/*oo
IB
regarded as constant)
/
thei
we hare
/oo
/*oo
W
'tt
=/o
whtnoe
2TrT^j
==}(tai
 Iao  taII ~ IO)!=
?
154
REFRACTION.
where n
in
=
3.1415926
refraction
is
The expression for the horizontal therefore found at once by putting \\/n for (n)
every term of (191), and sin z
=
^
1,
namely:
8*
i.T
(193)
1.2.3
&o.
T, that is, for great zenith distances, we obtain the value of the integral in (188) by a series of may have ascending powers of T.
For small values of
We
/o
(
dte"= /QO
r
/QO
f*f
tltf."
Jo
is
I
Argiven by (192).
(194)
The
first
is
integral of the second
member
The
second
T
C
^o
dte
"

1.2
1.2.3
=
T
T
+  3^1.25 1.2.37 + &c.
8
1
T*
1
T
T
.
.
(195) V
Another development
for the
cessive application of the follows:*
same case is obtained by the suemethod of integration by parts, aa
"
=
t
e"
+
z
*
By
the formula Jxdy
dt,
t'itlt,
I
xy
Jydx, making always
ac
= e"~ M
,
and dy succes
4
dt,
&c.
SECOND HYPOTHESIS.
155
.3
3.5
3.5.7
whence, by introducing the
limits,
As
the denominators increase, these series finally become convergent for all values of T; but they are convenient only for
small values.
For the greater values of T, a development according to the descending powers may he obtained, also by the method of integration by parts, as follows:* We have
= _.!., _4 J /* 2t p
= 1
__
e
"
,
H
2t
 e"H
1
.
ti
l.Z .Zfdt
1
e
_
2
2
f
2*J
t*
Hence
2T
1. 8. 5.
..
(2nl)l
I
1.8.5. ..(**
(2Z^
2^
+ I)/" A
"^ r
f
7"^
U
}
The sum of a number
of consecutive terms of this series
is
But alternately greater and less than the value of the integral. since the factors of the numerators increase, the series will at
last become divergent for any value of T. Nevertheless, if we at any term, the sum of all the remaining terms will be less than stop
this
tli,e
term
;
for if
we
take the
sum
of
is
all
the terms in the brackets,
sum
of the remaining terms
*
By
the formula
i
fx dy
l
= xy
fy
&*>
making always dy
=
t
di e
~~ **
,
and x
successively
=1
1 ~ 8
* y &c.
156
REFRACTION.
integral in this expression is evidently less than the product
The
of the integral
JT
multiplied
QO
,
r JL
t* n
+
by the
greatest value of e*' between the limits T'and
this greatest value is e is always numerically less than
and
n
.
Hence the above remainder
which expression is nothing more than the last term of the series (when multiplied by the factor without the brackets), taken with a contrary sign. Hence, if we do not continue the summation
until the terms begin to increase, but stop at some sufficiently small term, the error of the result will always be less than this term.
Finally, the integral
may be
tinued fraction, as was
shown by LAPLACE.
developed in the form of a conPutting for brevity
* o
2T\
27"
(22V
(27V
(198)
and denoting the successive derivatives of u relatively we have tirst ,, M,, &c.,
to 7' by
1 l
__
27*
w,
_
.
(22V
(27")
1
or
= 2T
(200)
Differentiating this equation, successively,
we have
ua
= 2TM, + 2w
u4
or, in general,
= 2TM. + 6,
&c.
ft
having any value in the series
1
.
2
.
3
.
4
.
.
.
&c.
SECOND HYPOTHESIS.
1ST
Hence we derive
2n
or,
putting
\2/
n
By
(200)
we have
or
i
/
V
t
But from
(202),
by making n successively
wfl
1, 2, 3, &c.,
we have
2
'
2
/^
\2 /
u.
w
&c.,
which successively substituted in (203) give
1
'
1
+ &c.
1 ,
(204)
This can be employed for all values of 7 but when k exceeds J it will be more convenient to employ (195) or (196). The successive approximating fractions of (204) are
1
1
1
+ 2* 1 + 3*
1
1
+
6*
5*
1
+
+
3*
1
+ 9* + 8** ^ + 10* + 15*'
ixn
th and, in general, denoting the n approximating fraction
by ~,
158
a*
bn
=a
n
\
bn
\
+ +
(n
1) /to*
1)
A'6 tt
2
(n
_2
the preceding methods, then, the function ^(n) can be table containing the logarithm computed for any value of T.
By
A
to 10, is given by BESSEL (Fandamenta Astronomic?, pp. 36, 37), being an extension of that first constructed by KRAMP. By the aid of this table the computation of the refraction is greatly facilitated.
all
of this function for
values of JTfrom
Let us now examine the second term of (179.) This term will have its greatest value in the horizontal refraction, when z = 90, in which case it reduces to
114.
Moreover, the most sensible part of the integral corresponds to s, and therefore, since a is also very small, wr 2a (1 e~ fts ) =. 2a/9&. The integral thus becomes may put
small values of
Now we
have, by integrating
by
parts,
/
and hence
/
I
C
JQ
Putting
/?5
=r
2
,
this
becomes, by
(192),
Hence the term becomes
o(3
4 o/9)
SECOND HYPOTHESIS.
159
116865.8 toises* = 227775J Taking BESSEL'S value of h metres, and the value of l~ 7998.15 metres (p. 141), we find by 768.57. Substituting this and a = 0.000294211 (p. 140), (176) ft
=
=
the value of the above expression, reduced to seconds of arc by dividing by sin 1", is found to be only 0".72, which in the horizontal refraction
This term, therefore, can be insignificant. neglected (and consequently also all the subsequent terms), and the formula (191) may be regarded as the rigorous expression of
is
the refraction.
115. In order to compute the refraction by (191), it only 'Demains to determine the constants a and ft. The constant a might be found from (178) by employing the value of k determined by BIOT by direct experiment upon the refractive power of atmospheric air, but in order that the formula may represent as nearly as possible the observed refractions, BESSEL preferred to determine both a and ft from observations. f
Now, a depends upon
observation, and
is,
the density of the air at the place of therefore, a function of the pressure and
which involves I, also depends upon the therft, mometer, since by the definition of I it must vary with the temThe constants must, then, be determined for some perature. assumed normal state of the air, and we must have the means of deducing their values for any other given state. Let
temperature; and
p9
TO

the assumed normal pressure,
"
"
p
r
c?
= the observed pressure,

temperature,
"
"
= the normal density corresponding to p
the density correspond ing to
temperature,
Q
and
TO
,
3
p and
r;
* Fundamenta Astronomic, p. 40. f It should be observed that the assumed expression of the density (177) may Thus, if we put represent various hypotheses, according to the form given to /?. 3
= a we have the ,
form (172) which expresses the hypothesis of a uniform tem
We may therefore readily examine how far that hypothesis is in error in perature. the horizontal refraction; for by taking the reciprocal of (107) we have in this case d . 796.53, and hence with a 0.000294211 we find, by taking fifteen terms of the
series (193), r 39' 64". 6, which corresponds to Barom. Om 70, and Therm. C. This is. 2' 23". 5 greater than the value given by ARGELANDKR'S Observations (p. 141). Our first hypothesis gave a result too small by more than 7', and hence a true hypo.
=
thesis
must be intermediate between
these, as
we have already shown from
a
con
ItiO
REFRACTION.
then
we have by
(171)
in
the expansion for
the coefficient of expansion ot atmospheric air, or 1 of the thermometer. If the thermometer is we have, according to BESSEL,* Centigrade,
e is
e
which
= 0.0036438
a
is
From
density,
(178)
it
follows that
if
sensibly proportional to the
and hence
a
we
put
a,
= the value of a for the normal density d
any given
a
we
have, for
state of the air,
_
1
o 
P
P*
I
+'(**)
use the heights of the barometric these heights arc reduced to the same temiolumn, provided perature of the mercury and of the scales.
in
which
for
p and /> we may
Again,
J
if
the height of a homogeneous atmosphere of the temperature
r
0f
and any given pressure,
/
then the height
is r, is
for the
same
pressure,
when the temperature
(206)
'
= (D[I +
(*TO)]
The normal
state of the air
adopted by BESSEL in the determi
nation of the constants, so as to represent BRADLEY'S observations, made at the Greenwich Observatory in the years 1750
was a mean state corresponding inches, and thermometer .50 Fahrenheit for this state he found
1762,
to the
~ 10
barometer 29.6 Centigrade; and
aw
= 0.000278953
side rat ion of the law of temperatures.
At the same time, we see that the hypothesis of a uniform temperature is nearer to the truth than the first hypothesis, and we are HO far justified in adhering to the form rf \f ? with the modification of substituting a corrected value of 3.
*This ralue, determined by BESSEL, from the observations of stars, differs slightly from the value ^fj more recently determined by Rr Duetto and REONAULT by direct experiments upon the refractive power of the air.
SECOND HYPOTHESIS.
or,
lt)l
dividing by sin 1",
a
=57".538
and
h
= 116865.8 toises = 227775.7 metres.
1 Q
For the constant
at the
normal temperature 50
F.,
BESSEL
employed
/
= 4226.05 toises = 8236.73 metres.*
Since the strata of the atmosphere are supposed to be parallel tc
the earth's surface, BESSEL employed for a the radius of curvature of the meridian for the latitude of Greenwich (the observations of Bradley being taken in the meridian), and, in accordance with the compression of the earth assumed at the time when
this investigation
was made, he took
a
= 6372970 metres.
5
Hence we have
A =*i.
These values of a and
fa
= 745.747
being substituted for a and ft in is found to be only about 1' too which is hardly greater than the probable error of the great, observed horizontal refraction. At zenith distances less than 85, however, BESSEL afterwards found that the refraction computed with these values of the constants required to be multi(193), the horizontal refraction
plied by the factor 1.003282 in order to represent the observations.
Konigsberg
the preceding formulae, then, the values of the con/3 can be found for any state of the air, as given by the barometer and thermometer at the place of observation, and then the true refraction might be directly computed by (191).
116.
By
stants
a and
But, as this computation would be too troublesome in practice, the mean refraction is computed for the assumed normal values
of a and
*
&
and given
in the refraction tables.
From
this
mean
p. 143,
According to the later determination of REGNAULT which we have used on
/
we should have
8286.1 metres.
The
difference does not affect the value of
BKSSGL'B tables, which are constructed to represent actual observations. VUL,
162
refraction
REFRACTION.
we must deduce
the true refraction in any case by
applying proper corrections depending upon the observed state of the barometer and thermometer. For facility of logarithmic computation, BESSEL adopted the form
in which r is the tabular refraction corresponding to /> and r and r is the refraction corresponding to the observed p and r. Let us see what interpretation must be giv'en to the exponents A and L If the pressure remained p the refraction corresponding to the temperature r would be
, ,
r
+ 7r
(r
~
TO)
+
rf7'^ri~
+
&c

or,
with sufficient precision,
sure
In like manner, if the temperature were constant, and the presis increased by the quantity p p^ the refraction would
become nearly
Hence, when both pressure and temperature vary,
very nearly,
we
shall have,
Now, putting^
in (207)
under the form
1
+

9
,
and develop
ing by the binomial theorem,
r
we have

r
1
1
+
(p
 PQ + Ac.
]
j
X
1
{
MrT.) + &c. J
we must have
.dr
(209)
Therefore, neglecting the smaller terms,
e r
SECOND HYPOTHESIS.
ro
163
determine which
we
are
now
to find the derivatives of (191)
relatively to
p and
r.
Put
(210)
and
</ t
=^
we
~x
(1)>
?2
==:
2^(2),
</ 3
= 3*^(3),
*
&c., or in general
qn
then, if
^n
+(n)
.
(211)
.
also put
Q=x
ihe
e
q l f I 2
^
tf"~
2aj
#a
H
~
1.2
n
"" n;r
7*
+
&c.
(212)
formula (191) becomes
(1
)r=
Bin's
JI. Q
/j
(213)
in
which, since the variations of
i^ X
1
OL
in (191) are sensibly the
^ame as those of a, we
may
regard
a
as constant.
Differenr,
tiating this, observing that varies only with r, we have
Q
varies with both
p and
while $
dr
(1
a)
i/p
sin 2 z
12 dQ \/ * p dp
fn differentiating
,
it
will
be convenient to regard
/9,
it
,
as a func
ioH of the
two variables x and
/?.
ng only with
We have,
?
r//>
the quantities q l9 y2 &c. varyft
since
does not vary with
p
y
= !.*?
rf.r
(215)
{/p
ind since both x and
9
vary with
r,
dr
dx
dr
d&
dr
From
(212)
we
fiud
164
REFRACTION.
in
which
,t
+
J? ,
2q, f
j^
"
Sgr.
+ Ac.
(218)
Also,
fn
which we have generally, by
(211),
~
<//?
'
dT
^
But by
(200), in
which
*/
~
i^(w),
we have
and by
(187)
'
*T.
L
**=!.
dp ~~2p
whence
dq JL
dp
T ~ T> q ^
ft
n
a
2/3
Substituting the values of this expression for n
(219),
=
1, 2, 3,
&c. in
we have
The
<?*,
first
~
42a
,
series in this expression &c. are developed in series,
a4 H &c.
= =
Q'.
The second, whei
becomes
<*
x'
1
v
SECOND HYPOTHESIS.
166
and hence
We
have, further, from (210) and the values of a,
article,
/,
and
in the
preceding
dx
dp
X
a
da __ X ~~ a dp
dl
'
a __ X
p
a
'
p
dp
dr
__
~
dp
dl
dr
=
__ ~~
/
_ dr
~
_
,
__
>
dx
_____
._..
x dp x da _ __ __ __ I
.
____.
/
.
</T
a
dr
j
dr
_
2h
h
/
l

Substituting these values in (215) and (216), and then substituting
in (214),
we
find*
2
1
i
dr
a),
(1 ^
=
sm
.
,
/
,
'dp
'>

These formulae are to be computed with the normal values of a, and p, and for the different zenith distances, after which j9, r, A and A are computed by (209). The values of A and ^ thus found are given in Table II.
,
117. Finally, in tabulating the
r
formula
(207),
BESSEL puts
(222)
= a tan z
(where a and
preceding
^
_ _____
/9
no longer Yiave the same
signification as in the
articles).
it.
* BESSEL, Fundamenta Astronomic,
p.
P.4.
166
REFRACTION.
true refraction then takes the form
r
The
= ap A r* tanz
(223)
The quantity here denoted by ft is the ratio of the observed and normal heights of the barometer, both being reduced to the same temperature of the mercury and of their scales. First, to correct for the temperature of the scale, let b \ b (r \ or //'"> denote the observed reading of the barometer scale according as it is graduated in Paris lines, English inches, or French metres. The standard
(l
temperatures of the Paris line is 13 Reaumur, of the English inch 62 Fahrenheit, and of the French metre Centigrade that is, the graduations of the several scales indicate true heights only
;
when
the attached thermometers indicate these temperatures The expansion of brass from the freezing point to respectively. the boiling point is .0018782 of its length at the freezing point. If then the reading of the attached thermometer is denoted
according as it is Reaumur's, Fahrenheit's, or the Centigrade, the true height observed will be (putting s
either
by
r',/', or
c',
0.0018782)
80
1
80
180
or
6
<0.?0J^
80
+ 13s
7
b
U.jL<fL 180 + 305
+
r',
*
'
ft
().
100
(224 ' ) v
where the multipliers
to
1
&c. evidently reduce the reading
what
it
would have been
and the
if
the observed temperature had been
13, &c. further reduce
that of freezing,
divisors 1 H
these to the respective temperatures of graduation, quently give the true heights.
and conse
This true height of the mercury will be proportional to the pressure only when the temperature of the mercury is constant. must, therefore, reduce the height to what it would be if the temperature were equal to the adopted normal temperature, which 10 C. Now, mercury is in our table 8 Reaumur 50 F.
We
=
=
expands

of
its
volume
at the freezing point of ^vater,
when
SECOND HYPOTHESIS.
its
167
temperature
if*
raised from that point to the boiling point of
water. Hence, putting q
to the
=
55.5'
r,
the above heights will be reduced
normal temperature by multiplying them respectively by
the factors
80
+ Sq
180
180
+
ISq
100
100
+/'
+ 10 q + c'q
;
(225)
The normal height of the barometer adopted by BESSEL was 29.6 inches of Bradley's instrument, or 333.28 Paris lines but it after* wards appeared that this instrument gave the heights too small
by
a Paris line, so that the normal height in the tables
is
333.78
Paris lines, at the adopted normal temperature of 8 R. Reducing this to the standard temperature of the Paris line 13 R., we
=
have
= 333.78
80
+
135
6 (0
(226)
In comparing this with the observed heights, the
and
6 (m)
must
be reduced to lines by observing that one English inch 11.2595 Paris lines, and one metre 443.296 Paris lines. Making this
=
=

reduction, the value of
{)
is
found by dividing the product
of (224) and (225) by (226). The result may then be separated into two factors, one of which depends upon the observed height of the barometric column, and the other upon the attached ther
mometer
;
so that if
we put
333.78
,,,,
80
+
8s 80
11.2595
333.78
__
'
180
'
~80~+ 8s
'
180
+
30s
(227)
(m)
443.296
'
80_+J8^
80
333.78
+
+ +
*s
100 f 10 g 100
and
'"
 80 +
SO 4
r s
"""
'
180
(/'
32)^ ~~ 100 +c's
32) q
_
r '?
180
(/'
100~+
c'q
we
shall
have

ft
BT, or
log
/3
= log B + log T
(228)
168
REFRACTION.
quantity r would be computed directly under the form
Y
The
l+*(rr )
If r
were at once the freezing point and the normal temperature
for e is properly the expansion of the air for each ; of the thermometer above the freezing point, the density degree of the air at this point being taken as the unit of density. But if the normal temperature is denoted by r , that of the freezing
of the tables
point by rw the observed
by
r,
we
shall
have
an expression which, if we neglect the square of will be reduced to the above more simple one by dividing the numerator and BESSEL adopted for TO the value denominator by 1 + e(r T ). 50 F. by BRADLEY'S thermometer; but as this thermometer was found to give 1.25 too much, the normal value of the tables i 48. 75 F. Hence, if r,/, or c denote the temperature indir,, cated by the external thermometer, according as it is Reaumur, Kahr., or Cent, we have*
,
t
=
r ~~
180
+ 16.75 X 0.36438 180 + frX 0.36438
180 f 16.75
X
0.36438
180
180
+(/
32)
x
0.36438
(229)
+
16.75
180 f f c
X 0.36438 X 0.36438
The
tables constructed according to these formulae give the
7
values of log S, log T , and log f, with the arguments barometer, attached thermometer, and external thermometer respectively,
and the computation of the true refraction is rendered extremely An example has already been given in Art. 107. simple.
118. In the preceding discussion we have omitted any constate of the atmosphere. The
* Tabulte Regiomontanm,
p.
,
sideration of the hygrometric
LXII.
REFRACTION.
refractive
16ft
mospheric
power of aqueous vapor is greater than that of atair of the same density, but under the same pressure its density is less than that of air and LAPLACE has shown that " the refractive power of vapor is in a great degree comgreater pensated by its diminished density."*
;
119. Refraction table with the argument true zenith distance. When the true zenith distance is given, we may still find the refraction
from the usual
tables, or Col.
is
A of
Table
II.,
where the
the argument, by successive apthe table with instead of ;?, we proximations. For, entering shall obtain an approximate value of r, which, subtracted from will give an approximate value of z; with this a more exact value of r can be found, and a second value of z, and so on, until
apparent zenith distance z
,
computed values of r and z exactly satisfy the equation z =But it is more convenient to obtain the refraction directly For this purpose Col. B of Table II. gives with the argument the quantities a', A', /', which are entirely analogous to the a, A, and A, so that the refraction is computed under the form
the
r.
.
r
=
a,'p
A
'r* tan C
(230)
where
ft
and p have the same values as before.
The
and x determined as to
values of a', A\ and A' are deduced from those of a, A, after the latter have been tabulated. They are to be so
satisfy the equations
A
a/?'V
tan z
s
="
=C
<*'/2^V
tan C A JP 'Y* tan :
x'
(231)
(232)
and this for any values of ft and p. Let (z) denote the value of z when ft 1 that is, when the which corresponds to 1, p
:
;
refraction
is
at
its
mean
tabular value.
The value of (z) may be
found by successive approximations from Col. A., as above exLet (a), (A), (A), and (r) denote the corresponding plained. We have values of a, A, A, r.
(r)
= (a) tan
(*) (2)
=
a'
tan
'
^c
tt
tan C
whence, by
(232),
*
Mc.
Cfl.
Book X.
1TO
REFRACTION.
*==(*)
a'
tan ; (,M>*'
~ 1)
But, taking Napierian logarithms,
l(ft* r x)
we have
= A'lft + Vl r
.
1
and hence,
e
being the Napierian base,
pA'yV
=
e
A'lfi
f A'ly
+
(' 10
+ X ty + &c
where, as /? and f differ but little from unity, the higher power? of A'lft + XI? niay be omitted. Hence
r
= CO(r)[A'tf + J'Jy]
x/r
=L_ 7 (a'
Now, taking .the logarithm of (231), we have
/(a tan
2:)
+
.47/9 f
tan C)
+
/l'Z/9
f
A'//
The
first
member
(z)
;
is
a function of
z,
function of
for,
denoting this
y
first
which we may develop as a member by/?, and putting
=
(r)lA'lft
+ Vlr]
we have
z
= ^) +
fz
?/,
and hence

=/ [(5) + y] =/ (0 +
y
+
Ac,
where we may also neglect the higher powers of y. But since f(z) is what/? becomes when z (z), and consequently A (.4), / we have (/),
=
/(*)
rf/(j)
_
'
[() tan ()]
+
(X)
I ft
+ (A)
J
r
tan (g)] ~" dl[(a)
_ ~
d
[(a) tan
Q)]
d()
Hence we have
fz
d ()
(a) tan (z)
d
_ J__ ~
(r)
'
d(r)
(z}
d(z)
=
I
[(a) tan (*)]
[a'
I
tan C]
+ (A) + (A) *r + A'lft + r
Z/9
x' Z
IX
/P
+/
/
r]
or,
since (a) tan
(z)
= a' tan
J,
INFRACTION.
171
Since this
(lie
ia
to be satisfied for indeterminate values of
//3
coefficients of
and
If in the
/3 and two members must be equal;
;,
and therefore
^
(233)
and also
All the quantities in the second members of these formulae of Table II., and thus Column 13 be found from Column be formed.*
A
may may
If
we put
A'^a'/^V'
we
shall
now
find the refraction under the
r
form
:=
A'
tan C
120.
nation.
To find
the refraction
of a star in right ascension and
decli
declination d and hour angle t of the star being given, together with the latitude <p of the place of observation, we first compute the true zenith distance and the paral lactic angle q
The
by
(20).
The
refraction will be expressed
r
under the form
=
k'
tan C
in
which
The
latitude
tion acts only in the vertical circle),
and azimuth being here constant (since refracwe have from (50), by putI
* See also BKSSKL, Astronomischt Untersuchunyen, Vol
p 159
172
ting
d<p
REFRACTION.
=
0,
dA
=
0,
/
k' tan
,
rf/
=
rfa,
(a
= star's
(234) },
//
right ascension),
A'
tan
C
cos q
</
COS
k'
tan C sin
which are readily computed, since the logarithms of tan cos and tan sin g will already have been found in computing by The value of log *' will be found from Table II. Column (20). B, with the argument The values of dd and da thus found are those which are to be algebraically added to the apparent declination and right ascension to free them from the effect of refraction. The mean value of k f is about 57", which may be employed
.
when a very
precise result
is
not required.
DIP OF THE HORIZON.
The dip of the horizon is the angle of depression of the sea horizon below the true horizon, arising from the elevisible vation of the eye of the observer above the level of the sea.
121.
Let CZ, Fig.
Flg * 17
*
17,
be the vertical line of an observer at A, whose height above the level of the sea is A B. The plane of the true horizon of the observer at
at
A
is
a plane
right
3).
(Art.
angles to the vertical line Let a vertical plane be
be passed through CZ, and let the intersection of this plane with the
BTD
A H its
tal
earth's surface regarded as a sphere, intersection with the horizon
Draw TH' in this plane, plane. tangent to the circular section of the
earth at T.
A
Disregarding for the pre
sent the effect of the atmosphere, 7* will be the most distant point of the surface visible from A. If we now conceive the vertical plane to revolve about CZ as an axis,
AH will generate the
will
plane of the celestial horizon, while AH' will generate the surface of a cone touching the earth in the small circle called the visible horizon; and the angle
HAH
1
be the dip of the horizon.
DIP OF THE HORIZON.
122.
tion.
178
To find
the dip
of
the horizon, neglecting the atmospheric refrac
Let
x
a
= the height of the eye = AB, ~ the radius of the earth, D = the dip of the horizon.
CAT,
.
We have
in the triangle
ACT = HAH'
r
Z>,
and hence
^ tanD^
AT
By
geometry,
we have
'
= VAB
X AD = Vx (2a + x)
whence
As x
is
always very small compared with
is
a,
the square of the
fraction
altogether inappreciable: so that
we may take
simply
tan
D=
~
(235)
123.
To find
the dip
of the horizon, having regard
light
to the
atmospheric
T, Pig. 18,
refraction.
to the eye at
The curved path of a ray of A, is the same as
from the point
that
of a ray from A to T\ and this is a portion of the whole path of a ray (aa from a star S) which passes
through the point A, and
to the earth's surface at
is
tangent
T.
The
direction in which the observer at
sees the point is that of the to the curved path at A, or tangent
A
T
AH'\
angle
HAH
the true dip
f
,
is
therefore the
It is also
and is less than that found in the preceding article. evident that the most distant visible point of the earth's
174
surface
is
PIP OF THE HORIZON.
more remote from the observer than
it
would be
if
the earth had no atmosphere. Now, recurring to the investigation of the refraction in Art.
f is the complement of that the angle the angle of incidence of the ray at the point A, there denoted by i; and it was there shown that if y, //, and i are respectively
108,
we observe
HAH
the normal, the index of refraction, and the angle of incidence for u point elevated above the earth's surface, while a, /JG and z
,
are the
same
quantities at the surface,
we have
q
fj.
sin
i
=a
z
/Jt
sin z
But
in the present case
we have
= 90
;
and hence, putting
i
D'
q
= the true dip = 90
== a f
x
we have
Din
t
"*"
COS AJ
 "'
.
I
M
a
+x
A
"T""
~~~~
I
M
,v>
\
a
1
Developing and neglecting the square of
coB/>'
as before,
=
J/l.
(236)
which would suffice to determine D' when // and p have been obtained from the observed densities of the air at the observer and at the level of the sea. But, as is small, it is more convenient to determine it from its sine; and we may also introduce the density of the air directly into the formula by putting
D
1
(Art. 110),
M
\
1
Substituting the value of a from (178), namely,
__2H
we may
give this the form
DIP OP
THE HORIZON.
175
by neglecting the square of the second term,
gives/
OK
Hence,
still
neglecting the higher powers of a and , as well ad
their product,
we have
(237)
which agrees with the
formula
given
by
LAPLACE, Mfc
C$1.
altitude of a few feet, the difference of pressure will not sensibly uft'ect the value of jD', and may be disregarded, especially since a very precise determination of the dip is not possible unless we know the density of the air at the risible horizon,
Book X. For an
which cannot usually be observed. We may, however, assume the temperature of the water to be that of the lowest
,
stratum of the air, and, denoting this by r while r denotes the temperature of the air at the height of the eye, we have [making p
=p
Q
in (171)], approximately,
in
which
for Fahrenheit's
thermometer
s
= 0.002024.
Hence
where
'
D
is
the dip, computed by (235),
when
the refraction
is
neglected, the sine of so small an angle being put for its tan= If we substitute the values a 0.00027895, sin gent. sin 1", and e this formula becomes 0.002024,
=
D
=
D
176
DIP OF THK HORIZON.
I)'
= D 34021 (Tr D
D
D)
in
which
term,
D
it
is
in seconds.
last
will
is expressed in minutes in the If be sufficiently accurate to take
(238)
This will give D' = 2) when r r as it should do, since in tnat case the atmosphere is supposed to be of uniform density from the level of the sea to the height of the observer. If ~ In extreme cases, where r is much JJ. ^ ~o* we have /)'
,
=
>
0, or negative, and the visible greater than ru we may have D' horizon will appear above the level of the eye, a phenomenon I know of no observations sufficiently occasionally observed. precise to determine whether this simple formula, deduced front
,
<
considerations, accurately represents the observed dip in every case.
theoretical
however, we wish to compute the value of D' for a of the atmosphere without reference to the actually observed temperatures, we may proceed as follows : In the equation above found,
124.
If,
mean
state
cosD'^ .
we may
substitute the value
~
a
+x
hypothesis as to the law of decrease of density of the strata of the atmosphere, Art. 109. This hypothesis will
which
is
our
first
serve our present purpose, provided n is so determined as to represent the actually observed mean horizontal refraction.
We
have, then,
COB
V=
X
,
and developing, neglecting the higher powers of
OF THIS HORIZON.
~~
177
~"
'
/T+l
a
or
To determine
n,
we have by
(160),
reducing r to seconds.
W __ ~~(r
8
sittl")
where, for Barora.
the
0"*.76,
Therm. 10C., which nearly represent
mean
state of the
have 4k <J
atmosphere == 0.00056795, and r
= 34' 30"
at the surface of the earth,
we
dif
(which
is
about the
mean of
the determinations of the horizontal refraction by
ferent astronomers);
and hence we find
n
= 5.639,
D'
J
*
\n
+1
= 0.9216 = 1
.0784D
0. 0.0784
=D
(239)
The
DELAMBRE'S value which was derived from a large number of observations .07876, upon the terrestrial refraction at different seasons of the year To compute directly, we have
coefficient .0784 agrees very nearly with
D
f
sin 1"
* a
If x is in feet,
we must
take a in
feet.
a
= 20888625 feet, and reducing the constant
&'
Taking the mean value
coefficient of
we have
= 58".82 i/x in
feet.
(240)
Table XL, VolVOL.
TI. f is
computed by
this formula.
17S
125.
object
DISTANCE OF THE HORIZON.
of the sea horizon, and the distance of an The small portion of known height just visible in the horizon. 7L4, Fig. 19, of the curved path of a ray of
To find
the distance
Flg< 19 '
light,
may be
regarded as the arc of a circle;
seen from A,
is,
and then the refraction' elevates A as seen from T as much as it elevates T as seen from A. Drawing the tangent TP, the observer at T would see the point A at P; and if the chord TA were drawn, the angle PTA would be the refraction of A. This refraction, being the same as that of T as by (239), equal to .0784 D. In the triangle
so nearly a right single (with the small elevations TPA, of the eye here considered) that if we put
TAP is
x
t
= AP
= a tan D X
.1568o;
we may
take as a sufficient approximation
Xi
= TAx
tan
PTA
2:r,
0784
tanD
But we have a tan 2 D
=
and hence
l
x
Putting
d
= the distance of the sea horizon,
we have
or, nearly,
d
If
\/2a (x
+ x,) =
/8l86ax
x
is
given in
feet,
we
shall find
d in statute miles by dividing
article,
this value
by
5280.
Taking a as in the preceding
we
find
= 1.317
5280
and, therefore,
d
(in statute miles)
= 1.317 \/x in feet
A'B'
(241}
If an observer at
A
f
at the height
= x'
sees the object
A, whose height
is x,
in the horizon,
he must be in the curve da*
DIP OF THE SEA.
scribed
T.
179
by the ray from A which touches the earth's surface at The distance of A from Twill be = 1.317 i/P, and hence
1
A to A' will be 1.317 (Vx V~x'\ a rather rough approximation, but yet quite as accurate as the nature of the problem requires ; for the anomathe whole distance from
=
+
The above
is
lous
variations
errors than those resulting
of the horizontal refraction produce greater from the formula. By means of this
formula the navigator approaching the land may take advantage of the first appearance of a mountain of known height, to determine the position of the ship. For this purpose the formula
(241)
is
eye
;"
tabulated with the argument " height of the object or and the sum of the two distances given in the table, cor
responding to the height of the object and of the eye respectively, is the required distance of the object from the observer.
To find the dip of the sea at a given distance from the observer. the dip of the sea is here understood the apparent depression of any point of the surface of the water nearer than the
126.
By
Let T, Fiff. 20, be such a and A the position of the observer. point, Let TA' be a ray of light from 7] tangent to the earth's surface at T meeting the vertical line of the observer in A Put
visible horizon.
7
,
Fiff
20
f
.
D" ^
d
jr
= the height of the observer's eye in feet = AB
as seen from .4, the dip of the distance of Tin statute miles,
T
9
x' =. A'B.
We
have, by (241),
1.317
and the dip of
T, as seen
from
A',
is,
therefore,
by
(240),
= 58".82 i/F = 44".66 d.
Now, supposing the chords TA, TA
at
A
to be drawn, the dip of T exceeds that at A' by the angle ATA', very nearly; and
1
we have
nearly
=
~~
l
TA'
=~
x
~ af
sin I"
5280 d sin 1"
180
SEMIDIAMETERS.
whence
5280 d sin 1"
f Substituting the value of x in terms of
rf,
D"
= 22".14 d + 39".07
miles).
'
(x being in feet and d in statute
(242)
If
d
is
given in sea miles,
== 25".65
miles).
rf
we
69 A
find,
by exchanging d
for
o\*
rf,
D"
+
88".78
(x being in feet and d in sea
(243
is The value of given in nautical works in a small table with the arguments x and </. The formula (243) is very nearly the same as that adopted by BOWDITCH in the Practical Navigator.
D
n
127.
At
sea the altitude of a star
is
obtained by measuring
its
angular distance above the visible horizon, which generally appears as a welldefined line. The observed altitude then
exceeds the apparent altitude by the dip, remembering that by
apparent altitude we mean the altitude referred to the true horizon, or the complement of the apparent zenith distance. Thus, h' being the observed altitude, h the apparent altitude,
or,
when
the star has been referred to a point nearer than the
h
visible horizon,
=  D"
h'
SEMIDIAMETERS OF CELESTIAL BODIE&
128. In order to obtain by observation the position of the centre of a celestial body which has a welldefined disc, we observe the position of some point of the limb and deduce that
of the centre by a suitable application of the angular semidiameter of the body.
I shall here consider only the case of a spherical body. The apparent outline of a planet, whether spherical or spheroidal, and whether fully or partially illuminated by the sun, will be
SEMIDIAMETKRS.
discussed in connection with
181
the
theory of occultations in
Chapter X.
The angular semidiameter of a spherical body is the angle subtended at the place of observation by the radius of the disc. I shall here call it simply the semidiameter, and distinguish the
linear semidiameter as the radius.
Let 0, Pig.
the earth, server on
A
its
be the centre of the position of an ob21,
Fig.
2U
surface,
M the
centre
of the observed body;
tangents to
its
surface,
OB, AB', drawn from
and A.
The
volved about as an axis will describe a cone touching the spherical body in the small circle described
OM
triangle
OBM
re
by the point B, and this circle is the disc whose angular, semidiameter at
is
MOB. Put
S
S'
J,
= the geocentric semidiameter, MOB,
the apparent somidiameter,
MAB\
body from the centre of
J' =_ the distances of the centre of the
a
a'
= the radius of
the earth and the place of observation respectively, the equatorial radius of the earth,
the body,
then the right triangles
OMB,
a'
AMB
1
give
(244D
J
But
if
TT
J'
= the equatorial horizontal parallax of the body,
BUI n
we
have, Art. 89,
=
a
J
and hence
sin
&
=
rt
sin
TT
sin S'
=
J'
sin
S
(245)
or,
with sufficient precision in most cases,
o!
j
"a"*
**~J
(246)
182
SEMIDIAMETERS.
geocentric semidiameter and the horizontal parallax have
The
therefore a constant ratio
=a
a
'
.
For the moon, we have
=.=
0.272950
(247)
a
as derived from the Greenwich observations and adopted by
HANSEN
If the
(Tables de la Lune, p. 39).
from him is nearly the same as from the centre of the earth, and hence the geocentric is frequently called the horizontal semidiameter
body
is
in the horizon of the observer, its distance
;
but this designation is not exact, as the latter is somewhat greater than the former. In the case of the moon the difference is
between 0".l and 0".2.
If the
less
See Table XII.
body
its
than
the zenith, its distance from the observer Is geocentric distance by a radius of the earth, and the
is in
apparent semidiameter has then its greatest value. The apparent semidiameter at a given place on the earth's surface is computed by the second equation of (245) or (24G), in
which the value of
is
that found
by
(104)
;
so that, putting ^
'
the true (geocentric) zenith distance of the body, rent zenith distance (affected by parallax), A
'
=
= the appaazimuth,
its
<p
<p
the reduction of the latitude,
Y
.
we
have, (by (111)
and
^
(104),
=
__
(<p
.
^')cos^l
sin(:'
sin (C
r) Y)
I
'
(248)
129. This last formula
is
for
computing the difference
rigorous, but an approximate formula S f S will sometimes be convenient.
In (103)
we may put
cos (?cos Y cos i
>')
__
C)
('
without sensible error in computing the very small difference question we thus obtain
;
in
=!/ J
Bin
ir
COB
SEMIDIAMETERS.
Putting
183
+
we have
:)
r]
(249)
i=
J'
1
1
 = +m+ m
1
ro
2
+ &c.
evidently insensible,
(250)
and hence,
since the third
power of m
is
S'
S=8m + Sm*
The value of ' required practically as exact as (248). in (249) will be found with sufficient accuracy by (114), or
which
is
The quantity S
semidiameter.
f
It is
usually called the augmentation of the appreciable only in the case of the moon.
is
S
130. If we neglect the compression of the earth, which will not involve an error of more than 0".05 even for the moon,* we
may develop (250) we may take
as follows.
Putting p
'
= 1 and =
7
in (249),
m
= sin = sin = sin = sin
if
T: TT it
cos J (f cos [:'
cos
C'
f ?)
'
J (f J sin
2 J sin
?r
:)]
+ cos C' +
sin
('
C'
C) sin C
n sin 2
which substituted
above the second,
S'
in (250) gives,
by neglecting powers of
sin
;r
S
= Ssin r cos C'+
^=
f
J
1
Ssin 2 *
sin 2
f
:'+ Ssin 2 * cosC'
>S
sin * cos T'
+
<x'
6
f
sin n
2
i
5 sin
8
?r
cos 2 C'
But we have
^
a!
sin
TT
sn
* The greatest declination of the moon being less than 30,
altitudes, only in
it
can reach great
where the compression is less sensible. A rigorous investigation of the error produced by neglecting the compression shows that the
low
latitudes,
maximum
error
is lews
than 0".06.
184
SRMIDIAMETBBS.
if
and
we put
h =* ^
sin 1",
log h
= 5.2495
sin it hS, which substituted above gives the followformula for computing the augmentation of the moon's ing semidiameter:
we have
=
8'
S=
h S> cos
C'
+
i A'
S
8
+
i
S* cos 2
C'
(251)
= 960".
log S'
EXAMPLE.
Find the augmentation
for f '
= 40, S = 16' 0"
1st
5.9645
log
8.947
\
term
"
log h
log cos
:'
5.2495 9.8843
log
A2
0.198
2d
log 2d term 9.145
3d
S'
"
log 1st
term 1.0983
log cos
2
:'
9.769
8
= = = =
12".54
.14
0.
08
12 .76
log 3d term 8.914
The value of S'
the
S may be
argument
apparent altitude
taken directly from Table XII. with 90 '.
131. If the geocentric
hour angle
(/)
and declination
(S)
are
given,
we
have, by
substituting (137) in (245),
sm
for
(3
(262)
Y)
which f and 8' are to be determined by (134) and (136), or with sufficient accuracy for the present purpose by the formulae
O
*
= p * sin
tan
cost
?' sin (d X
;
y)
sin Y
To find the contraction of the vertical semidiameter of the moon produced by atmospheric refraction. Since the refraction increases with the zenith distance, the refraction for the centre of the sun or the moon will be greater than that for the upper limb, and that for the lower limb will be greater than that for the centre. The apparent distance of the
132.
*r
SEMIDIAMETERS.
185
limbs is therefore diminished, and the whole disc, instead of heing circular, presents an oval figure, the vertical diameter of which is the least, and the horizontal diameter the greatest. The refraction increasing more and more rapidly &s the zenith distance increases, the lower half of the disc is somewhat moro
contracted than the upper half. The contraction of the vertical semidiameter
may be found
directly from the refraction table, by taking the difference of the refractions for the centre and the limb.
EXAMPLE. The true semidiameter of the moon being 16' 0", and the apparent zenith distance of the centre 84, find the contraction of the upper and lower semidiameters in a mean state of the atmosphere (Barom. 30 inches, Therm. 50 F.). We find from Table I.
84 0' For apparent zen. dist. of centre, " " approx. upper limb, 83 44 " 84 16 lower
Refr.
=
8'
28".0
.4
.1
".^89 =8 48
8'
Hence,
Approx. contraction upper semid. == 8' 28".0 " 8 48 .1 lower
9".4 r= 18".6
=
8 28 .0
= 20
.1
results are but approximate, since we have supposed the apparent zenith distance of the limb to differ from that of the
These
by the true semidiameter, whereas they differ only by the apparent or contracted semidiameter. Hence we must repeat as
centre
follows:
= 83 44' 18".6 = 84 15 39 28".0 Contraction of upper seinid. = " = 8 47 8 lower
App. zen.
dist.
u
upper limb lower "
Refr.
^= 8'
9".7
.9
=8
9".7
47
.7
8'
8'
= 18".3
=19
.7
.7
28
.0
Observations at great zenith distances, where this contraction most sensible, do not usually admit of great precision, on account of the imperfect definition of the limbs and the unceris
It is, therefore, sufficiently exact tainty of the refraction itself. either the upper or lower semito assume the cor fraction of
diameter to be equal to the mean of the two. In the above example, which offers an extreme case, if we fake the mean
186
SEMIDIAMETERS.
as the contraction for cither semidiameter, the error will be only 0".7, which is quite within the limit of error of observations at such zenith distances.
19"
133.
To find
the contraction
of any inclined semidiameter, produced
by refraction.
Let M, Fig.
22,
be the apparent place of the sun's or the moon's centre; AGBD, a circle described with a radius equal to the true semi
MA
diameter, will represent the disc as it
if
\D
would same at appear all points of the limb. The point A, however, being less refracted than M, will apthe refraction were the
pear at A',
P
at P', &c.
;
while
J3,
more
f The M, appears at contraction is sensible only at great zenith
refracted than
B
being
.
where we may assume that and PP'E, small portions of vertical circles drawn through and P. ar** sensibly parallel. If then we put
distances,
AM
A
S
= the true vertical semidiameter = AM, = A!M, the contracted vert, semid. ^j ~ the contracted inclined semid. = J/P', which makes an S
q
A,
&8
we
angle q with the vertical circle, tho contraction of the vertical semid.
=8
S
~ the contraction of the inclined semid. = q
S S
t
q
shall
have
&9
cos q
= P E ~ the difference of the
f
apparent zenith distances
of
J/and
P',
S
l
the difference of the app. zcn. dist. of
M and A
is
f
f
.
Now, the
difference of the refractions at
M and A'
is
AA
1
,
and
the difference of the refractions at
3/und P'
PP
;
and, since
these small differences are nearly proportional to the differences of zonith distance, we have
:Scos
AA'iPP'
SEMIDIAMETERS.
187
The
small triangle
PFP' may
FP'
be regarded as rectilinear and
rightangled at
F; whence
= PP' x cos q
or
If
we put S for Sq in the second member, the resulting value of ASq will never be in error 0".2 for zenith distances less than 85,
l
and
it suffices
to take
ASq = J$
cos 2 q
all
(2533
shall
This formula is sufficiently exact for have occasion to apply it.
purposes to which
we
The 134. To find the contraction of the horizontal semidiameter. 90 makes the contraction of the horiformula (253) for q 0. This results from our having assumed zontal semidiameter
= =
that the portions of vertical circles drawn through the several points of the limb are parallel, and this assumption departs
tical
circles
most from the truth in the case of the two verdrawn through the extremities of the
horizontal diameter.
case,
let ZJf, Fig.
To
23,
investigate the error in this
vertical
circle
f
be the
through the centre of the body, through the extremity of the horizontal semidiameter 9 In consequence of the refraction, the points 1 f and If we denote the zenith appear at JVand f distances of and N\)y and those of and mifl ', the refraction ?)]* g may be expressed as a function cither of z or of Art. 107, and we shall have
ZM
drawn that drawn
MM
.
M
M
M
N
.
MN
,
M
r
N
,
r
= k tan 2 = k
f
tan C
where k and k are given by the refraction table with the arguf The zenith distance of the point ments z and differs so little from that of that the values of k and k' will be sensibly the same for Loth points, and we shall have for the refraction
f
.
M
M
M'N\
r'
=
A
tan
3'
=
A'
tan C'
188
These two equations give
tan z
tanV
_ tan C ~
tan
C'
But
if
the triangle
ZNN'
is
rightangled at
N we have
9
cos
Z=
tan z
tan/
and hence,
also,
cos
Z=
is
tan C 
tanC'
Therefore the triangle
ZMM
>f ^/
f
1
also rightangled,
and
it
gives
tnn li*U
tan
;;
S
*
tan
.....
'
tf
~
_
.
sin (2 f r)
sin z
in
which S
= MM' and
tan
.
tf
'
 NN'.
=j=
Hence
5 _.
'
sin (z f r) j 
tan
A z sin
cos r
+ sm r cot *
,
.
'
or,
very nearly,
~ = + r sin 1" cot z = 1 +
1
ft
sin 1"
Hence the
contraction of the horizontal semidiameter
la
ex
pressed by the following formula:
8
S'=S'k*ml"
in the zenith, the mean value of log k is 1.76156; at the zenith distance 85,it is 1.71020. For S' 16 7 , therefore, the contrac
=
tion found
85.
the
by this formula is '.27 in the zenith, and 0".24 for Thus, for all zenith distances less than 85 the contraction of horizontal semidiameter is very nearly constant and equal to one*
the body
is
=
;
fourth of a second.
When
in the horizon,
0,
we have
also
k
= rcot z =
0,
and hence
S
S'
which follows
from the sensible
parallelism of the vertical circles at the horizon.
DEDUCTION OF ZENITH DISTANCES.
189
REDUCTION OF OBSERVED ZENITH DISTANCES TO THE CENTRE OF THE EARTH.
135. It
is
tion of the several corrections
important to observe a proper order in the applicawhich have been treated of in this
chapter. The zenith distance of any point of the heavens observed with any instrument is generally affected with the index error and
other instrumental errors.
the second volume
;
These errors
will
be treated of
in
allowed for, and we which would be obtained with a perfect instrument, and denote it by z.
that they have been duly shall call "observed" zenith distance thai
hero
we assume
shall
In all cases the first step in the reduction is to find the refrac tion r (=aft A y A tan z) with the argument 2, and then z r is the zenith distance freed from refraction.
+
1st.
In the case of&foced
star,
is at
once the required geocentric zen.
dist.
2d. In the case of the moon, the zenith distance
observed
IF
that of the upper or lower limb. If 8 is the geocentric and the augmented semidiameter found by Art. 128, 129, or 130,
S
1
the apparent zenith distance of the moon's centre freed from refraction, and affected only by parallax, and, consequently, it i? that which has been denoted by the same symbol in the discusis
of the parallax. With this, therefore, we compute the ' by Art. 95, and then parallax in zenith distance,
sion
,
is
To compute S' by
the required geocentric zenith distance of the moon's centre. (248), (250), or (251), we must first know ';
but it will suffice to employ in these formulae the approximate z + r S. value ' We can, however, avoid the computation of $', when extreme precision is not required, by computing the parallax for the
=
zenith distance of the limb.
Thus, putting f
'
=z+
r,
and
190
REDUCTION OF ZENITH DISTANCES.
'
computing
by Art.
95, the quantity
=
'
'
(
)
is
the geocentric zenith distance of the limb; and therefore, apS is the required geoplying the geocentric semidiameter, centric zenith distance of the moon's centre. This process
involves the error of assuming the horizontal parallax for the limb to be the same as that for the moon's centre. It can easily
be shown, however, that the error in the result will never amount
to 0".2,
exact
in practice is unimportant. The be investigated in the next article. 3d. In the case of the sun or a planet, when the limb has been
which in most cases
will
amount
observed, the process of reduction is, theoretically, the same as for the niOon ; but the parallax is so small that the augmentation therefore take of the semidiameter is insensible.
We
C'
=*+
r
S
96, or
and then, computing the parallax by Art.
C
th e truc geocentric zenith distance. If a point has been referred to the sea horizon and the measured altitude is H, then, being the dip of the horizon, f //' is properly the observed altitude, and ^ 90 h
(C
C) ls
~ C' ""
even by Art.
90,
7
~~
H D
The
D
=
the observed zenith distance, with which
136.
we proceed
as above.
process above given for reducing the observed zenith distance of the moon's limb to the geocentric zenith distance of
the moon's centre, is that which is usually employed but the whole reduction, exclusive of refraction, may be directly and
;
rigorously
C'
computed
as follows.
Putting
= z + r = the =
apparent zenith distance of the moon's limb
C
corrected for refraction, tho geocentric zenith distance of the moon's centre,
then, S' being the augmented semidiameter, we must substitute ' S' for ' in the formulae for parallax, and, by (101), we
have
/ sin (' f cos, (C'
Multiplying the
subtracting,
5')
= sin C S') = cos C
p sin
TT
cos
(?> (y>
/) tan
^')
y
p sin r cos
first
of these by cos
',
the second by sin f ', and
we have
REDUCTION OF ZENITH DISTANCES.
it/Bin S'
191
=
j.
sin (C'
C)
+
COS f
sin (C'
p)
in
which /^
By
(245)
we have
sin &'
also
/
:= sin
S
%
and hence the rigorous formula
sin (C'
C)
=
/>
sin
TT
sin (C'
y)
^
cos Y
^
^
qr sin
#
in
for which,
however, we
sin (C'
C)
may employ
/"
with equal accuracy
7)
practice
sin * sin (C' 
qi sin
S
(254)
in
which,
A
being the moon's azimuth, we have
If
we put
(Art. 128)
A
=  = 0.272956
a
we have
sin
S= k sin r,
sin (:'
C)
and
(254)
sin
may
be written as follows:
r)
+:
= [p
C'
A] sin r
it
(255)
For convenience
in computation, however,
will
be better to
make
the following transformation.
sin
Put
r)
p
= p sin
sin (C'
(256)
then (254) becomes
sin (C'
C)
= sin p =p S = sin H S) + sin = sin ip S) + 2 sin
sin
( jt)
1
>
(j9
cos tf) =p sin (1 sin 2 J /ST qi 2 sin />
S (1 S sin
cos p}
i
2
p
where the
two terms never amount to /; .2, and therefore the formula may be considered exact under the form
last
sin
.(C'
C)
=
s^ n
(P H $) ?
i
H
>S>
)
sin 1" sin
p
sin
&
will
Since f
;
f and p
^ S differ
by so small a quantity, there
REDUCTION OF ZENITH DISTANCES.
their sines
be no appreciable error in regarding them as proportional and hence we have
;
to
'
sin
j?
sin
S
(257)
the upper signs being used for the upper limb and the lower signs for the lower limb.
In this formula, is the parallax computed for the zenith p^ distance of the limb, and the small term %(p *S)sin p sin S may
+
be regarded as the correction for the error of assuming the parallax of the limb to be the same as that of the centre.
In latitude y = 38 59 ; N., given the observed zenith distance of the moon's lower limb, z 47 29' 58", the azimuth
EXAMPLE.
33
;
,
A
S4
Barom. 30.25
TT
F., Eq. hor. par.
= 59' 10",20
:
inches, At.
Therm. 65
;
F., Ext.
Therm
find the geocentric zenitb
distance of the moon's centre
(Table HI.)
log (0 log cos
.4
(
o')
=
9
f =
)
11' 15"
*
= 47 29'58".00
2.8293
(Table II.)
r
C'
9.9236
2.7529
log y
r
C'
(Table III.) log p
log sin
TT
9.999428
8.235806
y)
Y
= 47 = = *7
=_ __1___2^27
31
.27
26.
21
84.
log sin (;'
9.866652
8.101886
log sin
p
TT
log sin
8.235806
9.436093
7.071899
sin
(Art. 128) log (0.272956)
log sin
S
p S
(p f
/= S= p f S S) sin p sin S =
43' 28".09
16
9 .00
59 37 .09
log sin
5.7739
3.5535
f
C
= = 46
0^11
59 37 .20
31' 23". 07
log (p f S)
log i
lo g J
9.6990
C
(r
+ S) sin/?
sin
5 9.0264
hardly necessary to observe that if the geocentric zenith distance of the centre of the moon or other body is given, the
Tt is
apparent zenith distance of the limb attected by parallax and refraction will be deduced by reversing the order of the steps
above explained.
altitudes throughout 90 c. for *, &c., and the computation, putting everywhere />, making the necessary obvious modifications in the formula.
If altitudes are given,
we may employ
TIME BY OBSERVATIONS.
193
CHAPTER
V.
FINDING THE TIME BY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS.
55, that the local time at any place the hour angle of any known heavenly body is given. This hour angle is obtained by observation, but, a direct measure of it being in general impracticable, we must
137.
WE
have seen, Art.
is
readily found
when
have recourse to observations from which it can be deduced. The observer is supposed to be provided with a clock, chronometer, or watch, which is required to show the time, mean or sidereal, either at his own or at some assumed meridian, such as that of Greenwich. The clock correction* is the quantity which must be added algebraically to the time shown by the clock to obtain the correct time at the meridian for which the clock is regulated. If we put
T
T'
AT
we have
or
= the true time, = the clock correction,
T'
= the clock time,
*T
=
T
T'
f AjP
 T
(258)
and the clock correction
the clock
is
will
be
positive
or negative, according as
an
slow or fast. It is generally the immediate object of observation for time to determine this correction. At the
instant of the observation, the time
noted by the clock, and T' computed from the observation, the clock is correct otherwise the clock is in error, T' and its correction is found by the equation A T T. The clock rate is the daily or hourly increase of the clock cor*
is
T
if this time agrees with the time
;
=
rection.
Thus,
if
clock to denote
* For breYity, I shall use
VOL.
any timekeep**,
L
13
194
TIME BY OBSERVATIONS,
= the clock correction at a time
===
u
u
u
y?
dT
we have
=. the clock rate in a unit of time,
T)
f
(259)
where
r 7], must be expressed in days, hours, &c., according d T is the rate in one day, one hour, c. as When, therefore, the clock correction and rate have been
found at a certain instant
the clock indication
7^,
we can deduce
the true time from
it is
" clock face," as (or at any other instant, by the equation
T
often called)
T=
times
T
4
7;
+
3T (T
T)
two
(260)
different
If the clock correction has been determined at
T
Q
and T7 the rate
,
is
inferred
by the equation
(261)
are to be used only so long as we can the rate as constant. regard Since such uniformity of rate cannot be assumed for any great
But these equations
length of time, even with the best clocks (although the performance of some of them is really surprising), it is proper to make
the interval between the observations for time so small that the
The length of rate may be taken as constant for that interval. the interval will depend upon the character of the clock and the degree of accuracy required.
EXAMPLE.
clock
the
is
mean
At noon. May 5, the correction of a mean time 16* 13'.50 what is 16* 47'.30 at noon, May 12, it is time on May 25, when the clock face is 11* 13W 12'.6,
; ;
supposing the rate to be uniform
?
May
"
5, corr.
=
r^
16"* 47'.30
12,
"
16
13.50
33 .80
Eate
in 7 clays
=
$T^
+ +
7
4.829
Taking, then, as our starting point 7
May
12, 0*,
we have
TIME.
for the interval to
195
13* 12*.6
= 13M67.
T= May 25,
11* 13 12'.6,
T T = 13
d
11*
Hence we have
T. =r._ 1613.50
= 15 8.47 T = 11*1812'.6Q
^+
1
5.03
T
But
in
10 58
4 .18
this
example the rate
is
obtained for one true
</
mean
day, while the unit of the interval 13 .467 is a mean day as shown by the clock. The proper interval with which to com
pute the rate in this case
is
13* 10* 58*
4M3
= 13 .457
d
with
which we find
=:
1818.60
*T X
13.457
= + lLOS
18* 12*.6Q
58"'
T = IP
T'=rlQ
4.08
This repetition will be rendered unnecessary by always giving the rate in a unit of the clock. Thus, suppose that on June 3,
at 4
;'
ll m 12".35 by the clock,
we have found
the correction
+
2"
1
10M4; and on June
the correction
+ 2*
19*. 89
;
W 4, at 14* 17 49*.82, we have found the rate in one hour of the clock will be
=
34.1104
0'.2858
practical details respecting the care of clocks and other timekeepers, the methods of comparing their indications, &c.,
For
see Vol.
see also Chapter VII., u Longitude by Chronometer." shall hero confine myself to the methods of determining their correction by astronomical observation.
II.
;
depending upon the peculiar nature of the instrument with which the observation is made, will be treated very briefly in this chapter, and their full discussion will be reserved for Vol. IE,
Those methods, however, which involve
details
190
TIMI.
FIRST METHOD.
BY TRANSITS.
138. At the instant of a star's passage over the meridian, note The star's hour angle at that instant the time Tl>y the clock. 9 is 0*, whence the local sidereal time T is (Art. 55)
=
T'
If the clock
therefore,
is
a
the star's right ascension.
regulated to the local sidereal time,
we
have,
A
T =
a
T
f
regulated to the local mean time, we first convert the sidereal time a into the corresponding mean time T (Art. 52), and then we have
But if the clock
is
A
This, then,
possible.
is
T=
T
T
in theory the simplest and most direct method Tt is also practically the most precise when properly
But, as the transit inseldom, if ever, precisely adjusted in the meridian, the clock time T of the true meridian transit of a star is itself deduced from, the observed time of the transit over the instru
carried out with the transit instrument.
is
strument
ment by applying proper
be
corrections, the theory of
which
will
fully discussed in Vol. II. It will there be seen, also, that the
time
may be found from
transits
over any vertical
circle.
SECOND METHOD.
BY EQUAL ALTITUDES.
139. (A.) Equal altitudes of a fixed star. dian transit of a fixed star is the mean
The time
of the meri
when
it is
at the
same
altitude east
between the two times and west of the meridian so
;
that the observation of these
two times
is
a convenient substi
tute for that of the meridian passage when a transit instrument The observation is most frequently made with is not available.
the
the sextant and artificial horizon; but any instrument adapted to measurement of altitudes may be employed. It is, however,
not required that the instrument should indicate the tiue altitude ; it is sufficient if the altitude is the same at both observa
BY EQUAL ALl'ITUDKS.
tionfe.
197
same instrument, and take care not to adjustments between the two observations, we assume that the same readings of its graduated may generally Small inequalities, however, arc represent the same altitude. which will be considered hereafter.* may still exist, The clock correction will be found directly by subtracting the mean of the two clock times of observation from the comIf
we use
its
the
change any of
puted time of the
star's transit.
EXAMPLE 1. March 19, 1856; an altitude of Arcturus east of the meridian was noted at 11* lm 51'.5 by a sidereal clock, and the same altitude west of the meridian at 17* 21 30*.0; find
the clock correction.
East
11*
451.5
30.0
10 .75 13
J9
West
17 21
Merid. transit by clock = T =14 March 19, Arcturus R. A = a = 14 Clock correction AT=
7.11
3 .64
4
This
is
the clock correction at the sidereal time 14* 9m
7M1
or
at the clock
time 14* 13W
2.
10*.75.
EXAMPLE
Latitude 33
March
56' S.,
15, 1856, at
1*
the Cape of
13 W 56' E.; equal altitudes of Spica are observed with the sextant as below, the times being noted by a chronometer regulated to moan Greenwich time. The artificial horizon being employed, the altitudes recorded are
Good Hope,
Longitude
double altitudes.
East.
2 Alt. Spioa.
West
Merid. Transit, by Chronom.
= T = 12
30
19 .00
The chronometer being regulated to Greenwich time, we must compute the Greenwich mean time of the star's transit at the Cape (Art. 52). We have
* For the method of observing equal altitudes with the sextant, see Vol.
II.,
"Sextant."
198
TIME,
Local sidereal time of transit
Longitude
Greenwich sidereal time
=a= = =
~

13M7m
1
3 7*. 92
18
3
66.
41 .92
12
March
15, sid.
time of mean noon
28 88
1:2
6.87
86 .66
2 .97
Sid. interval
from mean noon
80
'2
Reduction
to
mean time
>
~
}
Mean
Or. time of star's
local transit
Chronometer time of do*
= =
Chronometer correction
= T = AT ^
T
'
12 2
83 58
'
12 30
1
19 .00
7
46.42
and after noon. If the were the same at both observations, the hour angles reckoned from the meridian east and west would be equal when the altitudes were equal, and the mean of the two clock times of observation would be the time by the clock at the instant of apparent noon, and we should find the clock cor140. (B). Equal altitudes of the sun before
declination of the sun
rection as in the case of a fixed star.
tor the
To
find
the correction
change of declination,
let
<p
3
^d
h
= the latitude of the place of observation, = the sun's declination at apparent (local) noon, = the increase of declination from the meridian to the west
observation, or the decrease to the east observation,
= the sun's true altitude at each observation, T = the mean of the clock times A.M. and P.M., &TQ = the correction of this mean to reduce to the
n
clock time
t
= half the elapsed time between the observations.
observation reckoned
of apparent noon,
Then we have
t
+ AjT = the hour angle at the A.M.
towards the
east,
t
AT
A'5
= the hour angle at the P.M. observation,
the declination at the A.M.
"
3
a f
A*
=
first
"
P.M
and,
by the
h
equation of (14) applied to each observation,
sin
sin
sin h
= sin y (d A^) + cos y cos (8 = 8in sin f + cos y cos (3 +
<p
(<J
A<J)
Ad) cos A<5) cos
(t
+ AT )
AT )
(t
BY EQUAL ALTITUDES.
If
199
we
substitute
sin (3 HH A#)
cos cos
(<5
it A<5)
(
A r o)
= sin = cos = cos
first
3 cos 3 cos
t
A# cos 3 sin A<5 Ad ip sili sin A'? cos A jT :+: sin sin A 7^
:
tf
and then subtract the
find
equation from the second,
2 cos ^ sin
f
<5
we
1
,,
shall
2 sin y cos 3 sin AJ

sin A') cos
!T
cos A 7
2 cos
<p
cos
fl
sin
cos A
sin
A
whence, by transposing and dividing by the coefficient of sin A^,
._.
sin
A 3P
tun A<? tan .
<t>
I.
,
tan
4.
A^5 tan 3 .
cos A 7L
m
sin
*
tail f
This is a rigorous expression of the required correction A 7^, but the change of declination is so small that we may put A<? for its tangent, A 7^ for its sine, and unity for cos &T without any W
appreciable error; and, since A(? is expressed in seconds of arc, we shall obtain A !T 111 seconds of time by dividing the second
member by
15.
We
*
thus find the formula*
~~
Ar)
.
tanj.
f
15 sin
+ T5~l^7
A* tan
.
3
(262)
The Ephemeris gives the hourly change of 3. If we take it for the Greenwich instant corresponding to the local noon, and call it A '5, and if t is reduced to hours, we have
A<$
=
^
A'<5
.
t
and our formula becomes
A'd .t tan 3
15 sin
t
15 tan
t
[Equation] Lfor noon.J
To
facilitate the
computation in practice, we put
t
15 sin/ a
15 tan
e>
t
=A
.
A'# tan
.
b
=
/?
.
A'<J
.
tan
<
(264)
then
we have
As
first
given by GAUSS, Monatltchc Corresponded, Vol. 23.
200
TIME.
correction A
The
T
is
called the equation of equal altitudes.
The
above form is rendered extremely the aid of our Table IV., which gives the values of simple by u elapsed time"(=2tf). log A and log B with the argument Then a and b are computed as above, the algebraic signs of the When the sun is moving several factors being duly observed. and also when towards the north, give &'3 the 'poultice sign and d are north, give them the positive sign in the opposite y> The signs of A and are cases they take the negative sign. A being negative only when / < 12* and B in the table given
computation according to the
; ;
B
;
positive
when t < 6 or > 18*. When we have applied &TQ to
7'
the
mean
of the clock times (or
the "middle time"),
we have
the time
T=
as
TQ + *T
meridian
transit.
1
shown by the clock
is
at the instant of the sun's
',
Then, computing the time T
the clock
whether mean or
sidereal,
which
required to
show
at that instant,
we have
the clock
correction, as before,
=T
EXAMPLE.
59'
T
Academy, Lat. W., the sun was observed at the K, Long. same altitude, A.M. and P.M., by a chronometer regulated to mean Greenwich time the mean of the A.M. times was 1* 8m 26*. 6, and of the P.M. times 8* 45m 41*.7 find the chronometer cor5,
March
1856, at the U. S. Naval
38
5* 5* 57*.5
;
;
rection at noon.
*
Wo
have
first
A.M. Chro. Time
P.M.
Elapsed time 2t Middle time T
= =8 =7 =4
1*
8" 26.6
45
37
57
41
15
.7
.1
4 .15
From
March
d
5,
the Ephemeris 1856,
we
find for the local apparent
noon of
*'*
= 5 46' 22".5 = + 58".10
Equation of time
=+
11"*
35M1
For the utmost precision, we reduce
A'<?
to the instant of local
BY EQUAL ALTITUDES.
noon.
follows:
201
59',
With
these quantities and
<f
= 38
we proceed
as
Arg. 7* 37" Table IV. log
A
<p
n9.4804
1.7642
log
B
9.2151
1.7642
logA'<J
logA'tf
log tan log a
9.9081
log tan d n9.0047
a
Middle Chro. time AT
=
nl.1527
14.21
log b
b
=
n9.9840
0*.96
= 4* 57* 4.15 T =a+b= 15.17 Chro. Time of app. noon T = 4 56 48.98
This quantity is to be compared with the Greenwich time of the local apparent noon, since the chronometer is regulated to have Greenwich time.
We
Mean
local time of app.
noon
==
= 0*
11"* 35*.ll
Longitude
Mean Greenwich time
A
T =rr
T
=5 5 57 .50 T' = 5 17 32.61 T = + 20* 43'.63
If the correction of the chronometer to
required,
we have only
should have
to
mean local time 1$ omit the application of the longitude.
Thus,
we
Chro. time of app. noon Equation of time Chro. time of mean noon
s= 4* 56" 48*.98
=
11
35
.11
~
4
45
13 .87
and since
at
mean noon
1 0* O"
time should give 4* local time is
0', it
a chronometer regulated to the local is here fast, and its correction to
45"* 13'.87.
the
141. (C.) Equal altitudes of the sun in the afternoon of one day arid morning of the next following day ; i.e. before and after midnight.
It is
evident that
when equal
zenith distances are observed in
the latitude
y, their supplement to 180 may be considered as zenith distances observed at the antipode in latitude equal p on the same meridian. Hence the formula (263) will give the
+
that
for equation for noon at the antipode by substituting y> <p, is, by changing the sign of the first term ; but this noon at
+
202
the antipode
observer,
TIME.
is the same absolute instant and hence
as the
midnight of the
A
T
= *'*
'
t
tan y
t
4
^i^la_nf
15 tan
[Equation
for!
15 sin
L midnight. J
and this is computed with the aid of the logarithms of A and B in Table IV. precisely as in (264), only changing the sign of A.
The
sign for this case
is
given in the table.*
for small
inequalities in the altitudes.
142.
To find
the correction
atmosphere the retwo observations, equal apparent altitudes will not give equal true altitudes. To find the change A/ in the hour angle i produced by a change A/? in the altitude A, we have only to differentiate the equation
If fraction is different at the
sin
from a change
in the condition of the
h =. sin ^
sin d
f
cos $ cos 8 cos
t
regarding y and 3 as constant
cos h
.
;
whence
<p
AA
=
cos
cos 8 sin
in
t
.
where
A/I is in
seconds of arc and A/
seconds of time.
is
If the altitude at the west observation
hour angle
\ Af.
is
increased by
it
A/,
the greater by AA, the and the middle time is increased by
The
correction for the difference
of altitudes
is
therefore
J A, and, denoting
by
A' 7^,
we
have, by the above equation,
30 cos
<?
cos
(266)
fl
sin
t
This correction is to be added algebraically to the middle clock time in any of the cases (A), (B), (C) of the preceding articles.
EXAMPLE. Suppose that in Example 2, Art. 139, there had been observed at the east observation Barom. 30.30 inches, Therm. 35 F., but at the west observation Barom. 29.55 inches, Therm. 52 F. have for the altitude 52 5' or zenith distance 37 55', by Table L, the mean refraction 45".4. By Table
We
finding the error
" * For an Improved method of example and some practical remarks, see my and rate of a chronometer by equal altitudes, Appendix to the American Ephemeris for 1S56 and 1857.
1 *
BY EQUAL ALTITUDES,
208
XIV.A and XIV.B,
mometer
the corrections for the barometer and therare as follows, taking for greater accuracy oneeighth of the corrections for 6'
:
East Obs.
West Ob*.
Barom. 30.30 Therm. 35.
+ +1 A
0".5
Barom. 29.55 Therm. 52. 
0".0
.1
+779
The
difference of these
true
"^0".7

numbers gives &h
+ 2".6
A/<
as the excess
of the
altitude
at
the west observation.
=
Hence, by the
0.415
9.789
0.081
formula
(266),
A/*
+
2".6
log
5'
h
=
52
?
d .=
t
33
56
log cos h log sec log sec
<5
<f>
=
J
elapsed time
A' 7'
...
 10 25 2* 9* 51.
0'.12
0.007
log cosec? 0.270
log
,
8.523 9.085
^ +
logA'7;
When, however, several altitudes have been observed, aw in this example, we may obtain this correction from the observations themselves for we see that the double altitude of Spica 20' = 1200" in about of/, and hence we have the changed
;
proportion
1200" :2".0
5;V: A'7;
which gives &'TQ
~ + OM2 as before.
By
taking the change in
T
.
the double altitude, the fourth term is the value of A^, or A'7 If this correction be applied, we tind the corrected time of 12 30"* 19M2, and consequently the chronometer cortransit
=
7'
rection
*T^
altitudes
;
I" 45'.54.
1
The
may
differ
the refraction
for instance, the second observation
from other causes besides a change in may be in
terrupted by passing clouds, so that the precisely corresponding altitude cannot be taken but, rather than lose the whole ob;
servation, if
the
first,
we can observe an altitude differing but little from we may use it as an equal altitude, and compute the
correction for the difference by the formula (266).
143. Effect of errors
the time found
in
the latitude, declination*
and
altitude
upon
by equal altitudes.
is
The time found by equal
altitudes
of a fixed star
wholly independent of errors in the latitude
204
TIME.
and declination, since these quantities do not enter into the computation.
affects the
In observations of the sun, an error in the latitude
term
a
= A A'# tan 9
dip
by
differentiating
which we find that an error
'd
.
the error da
=A
produces in a
<fy>,
sec 2
<f
.
<i<p,
or, putting sin d<p for
da =.
.4
A' tf sec 1
p sin tty
In the same manner, we find that an error dd in the declination produces in b the error
sin
<W
i
In the example of Art. 140, suppose the latitude and declina'ion were each in error 1'. have
We
log A*'<J nl.2446 log sec* r 0.2188
log B*'$ 0.9798 2 log sec d 0.0044
log sin
log sin
V
6.4637
V
6.4637
log
cfa
w7.9271
da
If
=
O'.OOS
logdb db
signs, the
7.4474
p O'.OOS
rfy?
and
rf5
had opposite
whole error
in this case
would
the observer can always easily obtain his latitude within I 7 and the declination (even when the
be 0*.008
+ 0*.003^0\OH." As
longitude is somewhat uncertain) within a few seconds, we may regard the method as practically free from the effects of any errors in these quantities. The accuracy of the result will there
depend wholly upon the accuracy of the observations. the observations depends in a measure upon the constancy of the instrument, but chiefly upon the skill of the Each observer may determine the probable error of observer. his observations by discussing them by the method of least An example of such a discussion will be given iathe squares.
fore
The accuracy of
following article. The effect of an error in the altitude
*
M9
have,
A
is given by (266). the azimuth of the object, being
am A
= cos d sin
cos h

Since
t
BY EQUAL ALTITUDES,
the formula
205
may
also
be written
30 cos
<?
sin
A
is
which
will be least
A = 90
near the prime vertical. From this we deduce the practical precept to take the observations when the object is nearly east or west. This rule, however, must not be carried so far as to include observations at very low altitudes,
the object
is
or 270, or
when when
the denominator
greatest,
i.e.
when
where anomalies
in the refraction
may produce unknown
is
dif
very nearly equal to the latitude, it will be in the prime vertical only when quite near to the mericfian, and then both observations may be
obtained within a brief interval of time
is
;
ferences in the altitudes.
If the star's declination
and
this circumstance
favorable to accuracy, inasmuch as the instrument will be less liable to changes in this short time.
144. Probable error of observation.
The
error of observation
is
composed of two
one arising from imperfect setting of the index of the sextant, the other from imperfect noting of the time; but these are inseparable, and can only be discussed as a The individual observations single error in the observed time.
errors,
are also affected by any irregularity of graduation of the sextant, but this error does not affect the mean of a pair of observations
on opposite sides of the meridian; and therefore the error of observation proper will be shown by comparing the mean of
the several pairs with the mean of these means. If, then, the mean of a pair of observed times be called a, the mean of all these means a the probable error of a single pair, supposing all
,
to be of the
same weight,
is*
in
which n
= the
is
number of
pairs,
and q == 0.6745
is
the factor
to reduce
final
mean
to probable errors.
The probable
error of the
mean au
See Appendix, Leatt Squares.
206
TIME.
EXAMPLE.
At the U.
S.
following series of equal altitudes of the
fhro. A.M.
Naval Academy, June 18, 1849, the sun was observed.
a a
f
Chro. P.M.
o
0*43 m
44
53*.
<)*44 m
3'.6
5A 13m 58.25
(a
fl
)
19.
43 43
38.
44
45.
11
11.5
45
45
42
42
41
41 41
46.3
19.7
37.
46 46
46
47
1.7
53.5
27.
28.5
55.
58.50 58.25 58.65 58.35 57.60 57.75
.V/.75
OM2 +0.37 +0.12 +0.52 +0.22
0.53 0.38
0.0144
.1369 .0144 .2704
.0484
.2809
1444
.1444
.0000
a
)'
19.7
40
0.5 36.5
0.38
0.03
58.10
=
"~
5~13~58 ~13
S
(if
=:
I."o65l
"^f1==
JL
=
0082
number of sets of equal altitudes of the same observer gave 0*.23 as the probable by error of a single pair for that observer, and consequently the probable error of the result of six observations on each side of the meridian would be only 0*.23 f ]/ 6 0*.094. This, howsimilar discussion of a
the sun taken
A
=
over, expresses only the accidental error of observation, and does not include the eft'ect of changes in the state of the sextant be
tween the morning and afternoon observations. Such changes by the changes of temperature to which it is exposed in observations of the sun; it is important, therefore, to guard the instrument from the sun's rays as much as possible, and to expose it only during the few minutes required for each observation. The determination of the time by stars is mostly free from difficulties of this kind, but the
are not unfrequently produced
not otherwise so accurate as that of the sun, except in the hands of very skilful observers.
observation
is
THIRD METHOD.
145.
DY A SINGLE ALTITUDE, OR ZENITH DISTANCE.
celestial
Let the altitude of any
body be observed with
the sextant or any altitude instrument, and the time noted by the clock. For greater precision, observe several altitudes in
quick succession, noting the time of each, and take the mean of tho altitudes as corresponding to the mean of the times. But
BY A SINGLE ALTITUDE.
20T
in taking the mean of several observations in this way, it must not be forgotten that we assume that the altitude varies in pro
portion to the time, which is theoretically true only in the exceptional case where the observer is on the equator and the
star's declination is zero.
interval of a
It is, however, practically true for an few minutes when the star is not too near the
meridian.
limit
The observations themselves
beyond which it will not be safe to apply the observations have been extended beyond
will generally show the this rule.
When
this limit, a cor
rection for the unequal change in altitude (i.e. for second diiferences) can be applied, which will be treated of below.
With
the altitude and azimuth instrument
we
generally ob
tain zenith distances directly.
In
all
cases,
however,
we may
suppose the observation to give the zenith distance. Having then corrected the observation for instrumental errors, for refraction, &c., Arts. 135, 13(3, let
centric zenith distance.
Let
<f>
be the resulting true or geobe the latitude of the place of
observation, 3 the star's declination, t the star's hour angle. The three sides of the spherical triangle formed by the zenith,
the pole, and the star may be denoted by a 90 8, and the angle at the pole by B
= 90
?,
~
<p,b
,c
~
and hence, Art.
22,
we deduce
COS
if
COS d
which gives
/
t
we deduce, by
by a very simple logarithmic computation. From Art. 55, the local time, which compared with
the observed clock time gives the clock correction required. It is to be observed that the double sign belonging to the radical in (267) gives two values of sin /, the positive corre
sponding to u west and the negative to an east hour angle; since any given zenith distance may be observed on either side of the
meridian.
To
distinguish the true solution, the observer
must
of course note on which side of the meridian he has observed. If the object observed is the sun, the moon, or a, planet, its
declination is to be taken from the Ephemeris, for the time of the observation (referred to the meridian of the Ephemeris); but, as this time is itself to be found from the observation, we must
at first assume
an approximate value of it, witli \yhich an approximate declination is found. With this declination a first compu
208
tation
TIMK.
by the formula gives an approximate value of <, and hence more accurate value of the time, and a new value of the declination, with which a second computation by the formula gives a still more accurate value of t. Thus it appears that the solution of our problem is really indirect, and theoretically involves an infinite series of successive approximations; in practice, howa
ever, the observer generally possesses a sufficiently precise value of his clock correction for the purpose of taking out the declina
tion of the sun or planets. The moon is never employed for the local time except at sea, and when no other determining object is available.*
EXAMPLE. At the U. S. Naval Academy, in Latitude ^=38 53" N., Longitude 5* 9* 57*.5 W., December 9, 1851, the following double altitudes of the sun west of the meridian were observed with a sextant and artificial horizon, the times being noted by a Greenwich mean time chronometer:
58'
Chronometer.
7*
35"
14.5
33 30' 20
10
"
35 55.
36 35.5 37 15 .5 37 55.
Barom. 30.28 inches. Att. Therm. 55 F. Ext. Therm. 50 F, Index correction of the
sextant
32
50
=
V
10"
Means? 36 35.1
83 10
correction of the chronometer was assumed to Find its true correction. With the assumed chronometer correction we obtain the ap OT 7* 46 15% with which we take proximate Greenwich time from the Ephemeri*
The approximate
be H 9m
40*.
=
d
Eq. of time
= ~
22
50'
27" Sun's semidiamotcr
"
S=
*
16'
7 m 25 f .80
hor. parallax
=
17"
8
/;
.7
We have then
* But the moon's altitude and the hour angle deduced from
it
may be
used in
finding the observer's longitude, as will be shown in the Chapter on Longitude. * observed altitude of the sun's lower limb," and is used for t The symbol
for the double altitude from the artificial horizon.
if
O
u*t
In a similar
manner we
BY A SINGLE ALTITUDE.
209
Observed 2Q Index corr.
=33
=
1(X
0"
1 10
83
8 50
= 16 App. z = 73 (Table II.) r = f sin z = p = = = 73 C
altitude
IT
34 25
25 85 3 15 8 16 17
12 25
The computation by
y
<f
(267) is then as follows:
log sec ? log sec 3
= = t = C =
d
38
58' 53" 22 50 27
0.109883 0.035464
61
49 20
12 25
.5
log sin }
sum 9.965661
8.996455
73
log sjn J diif.
J
sum
i diff.
= =
67 30 52 5 41 32
19.106963
log sin J
t
.5
9.553482
= 20 5r 25".6 time = = 2* 47* 39*.4 Apparent = 7 25.8 Bq. of time = 2 40 13 Local mean time = 5 5 57 Longitude True Gr. Time = T = 7 46 11.1
J t
t
.6 .5
r=7
A!T=:
36 35.1
36.0
+9
agreeing so nearly with the assumed correction that a repetition of the computation is unnecessary.
146. If
it is
preferred to use the altitude instead of the zenith
90 and the polar distance , distance, put the true altitude h 90 of the star 5, then we have, in (267),
=
P=
8i
n }[C
(<p
<*)]
=sin
}
(90
A
?
+ 90
P) = c
If then
we put
the formula becomes
[.14
210
TIME.
In this form we may always take the distance from the elevated pole, and regard the latitude as always positive, and then no attention to the algebraic signs of the quantities in the second
P=
member is required.
proceed as follows :
Thus, in the preceding example,
we should
App.alt.= 16
r
34' 25"
p=
/8=
37
16 17
19.106963
and the computation
147. If
is
finished as in the preceding article.
at the greatest degree of precision which the tables can aftbrd, we should find the angle %t by its logarithmic tangent, since the logarithms of the tangent always vary more
we aim
rapidly than those of the other functions.
For
this
purpose
\
we
deduce
s
=
} (C
+ +
<P
S)
}
(269)
COS S COB (S
or. if
C)
the altitude
is
used,
s
=
} (h
+ v + P)
(270)
sin (s
y} cos (s
P)
same
148. If a
number
of observations of the same star at the
it
place are to be individually computed,
will
be most readily
done by the fundamental equation
COS
I
= cos C
COS
sin
<f>
a>
sin C
COS
BY A SINGLE ALTITUDE.
211
and
for the logarithms of sin y sin $ and cos y cos d will be constant, for each observation we shall only have to take from the
;
rator will then
the logarithm of the numetrigonometric table the log. of cos be found by the aid of ZECH'S Addition or Sub
traction Table,
Tables.
The
which is included in HULSSE'S edition of VEGA'S addition or the subtraction table will be used acis
cording as sin y sin d
positive or negative.
149. Effect of errors in the data upon the time computed from an altitude. have from the differential equation (51), Art. 35. multiplying dt by 15 to reduce it to seconds of arc,
We
sin q cos d (15 dt)
= dZ
cos
A dtp
f cos q
dti
where
rf,
rfy>,
dd,
may
corresponding error of t; angle, or angle at the star.
d<p
denote small errors of p, 3, and dt the A is the star's azimuth, q the parallactic
,
If the zenith distance alone
0,
and dS
=
is
erroneous,
we
have,
by putting
0,
.... ibdt
sin q cos
fl
cos
y>
sin
A
from which it follows that a given error in the zenith distance have the least effect upon the computed time when the azimuth is 90 or 270 that is, when the star is on the prime vertical for we then have sin A 1, and the denominator
will
; ;
=
of this expression obtains its maximum numerical value. Also, since cos <p is a maximum for (p 0, it follows that observations of zenith distances for determining the time give the
results when the place is on the equator. On the other hand, the least favorable position of the star is when it is on the meridian, and the least favorable position of the observer is at the pole.
most accurate
By
putting d?
=
0,
dS
=
0,
sin q cos S
= cos p sin A
we have
cos y tan
A
by which we
least eftect
when
see that an error in the latitude also produces the the star is on the prime vertical, or when the
observer
is
on the equator.
Indeed,
when
the star
is
exactly in
212
TIME.
:
since, then, tan
the prime vertical, a small error in y has no appreciable effect oo, and hence when the latitude is uncertain,
A=
we may still
prime
obtain good results by observing only stars near the
vertical.
By putting d
=
0,
dy
= 0, we have
.
16*
which shows that the error
cos 3 tan q
in the declination of a
given star
produces the least effect when the star is on the prime vertical ;* and of different stars the most eligible is that which is nearest
to the equator.
As very
sible, to
great zenith distances (greater than
80)
are, if pos
be avoided on account of the uncertainty in the refraction, the observer will often be obliged, especially in high latitudes, to take his observations at some distance from the prime vertical, in which case small errors of zenith distance, latitude, or declination may have an important effect upon the computed clock correction.
have no sensible
Nevertheless, constant errors in these quantities will effect upon the rate of the clock deduced from
zenith distances of the
same
star
on
different days, if the star
is
observed at the same or nearly the same azimuth, on the same side of the meridian ; for all the clock corrections will be increased or diminished by the same quantities, so that their differences, and consequently the rate, will be the same as if The errors of eccentricity and these errors did not exist.
graduation of the instrument are which may thus be eliminated.
among
the constant errors
But
if
the
same
star
is
observed both east and west of the
meridian, and at the same distance from it, sin A or tan ^4, and tan 7, will be positive at one observation and negative at the other, and, having the same numerical value, constant errors and <Y will give the same numerical value of dt with rfy>, dS,
opposite signs. Hence, while one of the deduced clock corrections will be too great, the other will be too small, and their
mean
will
be the true correction
at the
time of the
star's transit
* From the equation sin q
(for constant rallies of o
~ sin A,
it
cos
<f)
follows that sin q
1,
is
a
maximum
in
<f
and
when
sin
4
and tan q
is
a maximum
the
aroe case.
CORRECTION. FOR SECOND DIFFERENCES.
,over the meridian.
218
Hence, it follows again, as in Art. 143, that small errors in the latitude and declination have no sensible
effect
upon the time computed from equal
To find
the
altitudes.
change of zenith distance of a star ttrcal of time, having regard to second differences.
150.
m
a given
in
The formula
d?
is
= cos
<p
sin
A dt
only when d and dt are infinitesimals. But the complete expression of the finite difference A in terms of the finite difference A/ involves the square and higher powers of &t. Let be expressed as a function of t of the form
strictly true
then, to find
hour angle
I
+ A*,
any zenith distance C + A C corresponding to the we have, by TAYLOR'S Theorem,
or,
taking only second differences,
*:
= *.* +
dt
dt*
.
2
We
have already found
d:
dt
= cos Y sin A
.
.
tf
which gives, since
A
varies with
t,
but y
A
is
constant,
#C
W
are here zero,
= cos ? cos A
(51)
dA
dt
But from the second of equations
we
have, since dd and
d<f
dA _ dT~~
whence
d*C
cos q cos d cos q sin ~~
_
A
SinC
cos y sin
sinl
_
A
cos
A
cos q
dt*~
shTf
214
TIMS.
for A
.
and the expression
AC
Since A
becomes
.
= cos ? sin A
A
Af H
*
t
cos
^
>
sin
A
cos.4 cos0 A* 1
t
sin
2
the radius, if we wish to express them time respectively, we must substitute
ISA* sin
supposed to be expressed in parts of in seconds of arc and of for them A sin and 1", and the formula becomes
and
A* are here
V
AC
= cos
<p
sin
,,ift ^ A (15 A*)
,
cosp8inAeoBAco80 ^ (15Af)
'
2
sin 1"
xtV71 ^
\
si n *
2
(271)
But
in so small a
term as the
v (15
2 A*) sin 1" 1
last
we may
sin 1"
put
__.
2 sin 2 }A' i
^m
its
2
the value of which
in
is
given
in
our Table V., and
also
.
logarithm
Table VI.
;
so that if
we put
.
.
a
= cos
tp
sin A,
k
= cos A cos q
sin
t
we
shall
have
AC
= 15 a*t + akm
(272)
number of zenith distances being observed at given clock mean of the zenith distances or of the clock times The first term of the above value of A second differences. for varies in proportion to A/, but the second term varies in propor151.
times, to correct the
A
tion to
A? and hence, when the interval is sufficiently great to render this second term sensible, equal intervals of time correspond to unequal differences of zenith distance, and rice versa : in other words, we shall have second differences either of the zenith distance or of the time. Two methods of correction
;
present themselves. 1st. Reduction of the mean of the zenith distances to the mean of the times. Let 19 Tv T# &c. be the observed clock times n 2 3
T
;
,
,
&c. the corresponding observed zenith distances
;
T the mean
;
ot
the times
;
the
mean of
the zenith distances
the zenith
to
distance corresponding to T. the interval T, 2 C to
The change
,
corresponds
^
T
9
T
9
&c.
;
so that if
we put
^,
r,
T^TT^&C.
CORRECTION FOR SECOND DIFFERENCES.
215
we
have, by (272),
Cj
C
C8
&c.
.
= 15ar + akm C =
t
l
&c.
in
which w.1
,
.
,
= 2 sin
:
8
Jr. 1
,
sin 1"
m
a
r ji.mi.Tr = 2sin*Jr TTrA&cj are found by Tab. V. 1"
a
.
:
sin
with the arguments TV r2 observing that
gives
,
&c.
The mean of
these equations,
in which n the number of observations. Or, denoting the mean of the values of m from the table by m that is, putting
,
=
W18 fTMj f Wl a J
&C.
n
we have
?
2rf.
=C
akm
(273)
distances.
Reduction of the mean of the times to the mean of the zenith Let Q be the clock time corresponding to the mean
T
is the of the zenith distances, then change of zenith distance in the interval T T, and, since this interval is very small,
we
shall
have sensibly
whence
(274)
We have, then, only to compute
the true time TJ from the mean of the zenith distances in the usual manner, and the clock correction will then be found, as in other cases, by the formula
To compute
A,
we must
it
either first find q
and A,
or,
which
i
preferable, express
by the
known
t
quantities.
We have
cos q cos A
cos
= COS
t
8in f f
sin q sin sin 8 *
A
cos C
COS p COS & COS C
216
TINS.
whence
m
In
cot
t
m
t
sin
t
cos
<p
cos
i
sin C tan C
(275)
the
awl which we employ for hour angle. computed
the
mean "zenith
distance and
This
mode
first.
of correction
is
evidently
more simple and
direct
than the
In St. Louis, Lat 38 38' 15" K, Long. 6* I * 7' W., tne following double altitudes of the sun were observed with a Pistor and Martin prismatic sextant, the index correction of
EXAMPLE.
1
which was
+ 20".
The assumed
correction of the chronometer
to mean local time was
+
2**
12*.
Barom. 30.25
inches,
Att
Therm. 80, Ext. Therm. 81.
*The
refraction should here be the
mean
of the refractions computed for the
CORRECTION FOR SECOND DIFFERENCES.
217
The
correction for second differences
is
particularly useful in
reducing series of altitudes observed with the repeating circle ;* for with this instrument we do not obtain the several altitudes,
hut only their mean. (See Vol. II.) When the several altitudes lire known, we can avoid the correction by computing each observation, or by dividing the whole series into groups of such
extent that within the limits of each the second differences will
be insensible, and computing the time from the
me^n
of each
group.
FOURTH METHOD.
152.
BY THE DISAPPEARANCE OF A STAR BEHIND A TERRESTRIAL OBJECT.
The
rate
of the clock
may be found by
this
method with
considerable accuracy without the aid of astronomical instruments. The terrestrial object should have a sharply defined
is to be observed, of the observer should be precisely imd the position of the eye the same at all the observations. If the star's right ascension
vertical edge,
behind which the disappearance
and declination are constant, the difference between the sidereal dock times 7\ and T9 of two disappearances is the rate S Tin the
interval, or
&T=
but
the right ascension the rate is then
if
T,
T
g
a has
increased in the interval
by
To
find the correction for a small
change of declination
= A,
zenith
2,
several altitudes or zenith distances, but for small zenith distances the difference
will
be insensible.
but under 80
,
At great zenith distances we should compute the several refrac
tions,
we may take
it
the refraction r for the
:
mean apparent
distance z
the
and correct
as follows
Take the difference between * and each
and
mean
m
of the values of
sinl"
from Table V. (converting the argument by the formula
rc
2
*
into time); then the
mean of
tfa
refractions will be found
= r + 2ro
sin r sec 1 z^
.
z should not much exceed I The difference i * This method was frequently practised in the geodetic survey of France,
e
See
Description Gfomftrique de la France (PUISSANT), Vol.
I.
p. 96.
218
TIME.
is
we
have, by the second equation of (51), since die azimuth constant as well as the latitude, so that dA and d<p
=
=
hre
0,
Ad tan q
15 cos 8
and hence the
rate in the interval will
be
(276)
*T=
The angle
z;

I*.
+
A.
_ ^ELf
15 cos d
q will be found with sufficient precision from an approximate value of t by (19) or (20). If we know the absolute azimuth of the object, we can find
the hour angle by Art. 12, and hence also the clock correction.
TIME OF RISING AND SETTING OF THE STARS.
153.
To find
the star
the time
when
is
of true rising or in the true horizon,
(28)
setting,
that
is,
the instant
we have
only to compute
the hour angle
by the formula
cos
t
=
tan
<p
tan 9
55.
and then deduce the
local time
by Art.
that is, the 154. To find the time of apparent rising or setting, instant when the star appears on the horizon of the observer, we
must allow for the horizontal
r
,
refraction.
Denoting this refraction
the true zenith distance of the star at the time of apparent by r , and, employing this value for , we rising or setting is 90 compute the hour angle by (267).
+
Since the altitude h
= 90
,
we have
in this case h
=
r
,
with which we can compute the hour angle by the formula (268). In common life, by the time of sunrise or sunset is meant the The instant when the sun's upper limb appears in the horizon. 90 + r ic true zenith distance of the centre is, then, S
(where n = the horizontal
parallax and
= + = the semidiameter), 8
with which we compute the hour angle as before. form is to be used for the moon.
The same
TIME OF THE BEGINNING AND ENDING OF TWILIGHT.
155. Twilight begins in the
when
the sun
is
18
morning or ends in the evening below the horizon, and consequently the
AT SEA.
zenith distance
is
219
then
= 90 + 18, or h =
(268).
18, with which
we can
NOTE.
find the
hour angle by (267) or
altitudes will be treated of
Methods of finding at once both the time and the latitude from observed under Latitude, in the next chapter.
FINDING THE TIME AT SEA.
First Method.
156. This is the
altitudes
facility
By a Single Altitude. most common method among
navigators, as
from the sea horizon are observed with the greatest with the sextant. Denoting the observed altitude cor
rected for the index error of the sextant
the dip of the by horizon by Z>, we have the apparent altitude h' D; then, taking the refraction r for the argument A', the true altitude of a star is h h' r. planet is observed by bringing the esti
H
=H
9
=
A
mated centre of
its reflected
correction for the semidiameter
image upon the horizon, so that no is employed the parallax is com;
puted by the simple formula
(TT
being the horizontal parallax)
A'
p = * cos
and hence for a planet
h
=
h'
r
+
TT
cos
h'
are observed by bringing the reflected of either the upper or the lower limb to touch the horizon. image As very great precision is neither possible nor necessary in these observations, the compression of the earth is neglected, and the parallax is computed by the formula
The moon and sun
p
and then,
n cos (hf
r)
S being
h
the semidiameter,
=
h'
r
+
7f
cos (V
r)
S
for parallax
In nautical works, the whole correction of the moon's altitude f it cos r is given in a table and refraction (h r)
=
with the arguments apparent altitude (h') and horizontal parallax In the construction of this table the mean refraction is used, (TT).
but the corrections for the barometer and thermometer are given
in a very simple table, although they are not usually of sufficient importance to be regarded in correcting altitudes of the moon
which are taken to determine the
local time.
220
TIME.
is
The hour angle
It is
important
at sea,
usually found by (268). where the latitude
is
always in some
degree uncertain, to find the time by altitudes near the vertical, where the error of latitude has little or no
(Art. 149).
prime
effect
The instant when the sun's limb touches the sea horizon be observed, instead of measuring an altitude with the sexmay tant. In this case the refraction should be taken for the zenith distance 90 J9, but, on account of the uncertainty in the horizontal refraction, groat precision is not to be expected, and the mean horizontal refraction r may be used. We then have 90 + + ru TT db S, with which we proceed by (267). In j so rude a method, /T may be neglected, and we may take 16' as the mean value of $, 36' as the value of r 4' as the average value of/) from the deck of most vessels then for the lower 90 56 ; and for the upper limb 90 24'. If limb we have both limbs have been observed and the mean of the times is taken, the corresponding hour angle will be found by taking 90 40'.
157.
+
=
D
,
=
;
,
~
=
Second Method.
158,
By
Equal
Altitudes.
The method of equal
altitudes as explained in Arts. 139
and 140 may be applied at sea by introducing a correction for the ship's change of place between the two observations. If, however, the ship sails due east or west between the observations, and thus without changing her latitude, no correction for her change of place is necessary, for the middle time will evidently correspond to the instant of transit of the star over the middle meridian between the two meridians on which the equal
altitudes are observed.
let
But,
if
the ship changes her latitude,
Ay
= the mcrease of latitude at the second observation;
is
then (Art. 149) the effect upon the second hour angle
15 cosy tan
A
which
is
the correction subtractive from the second observed
it
time to reduce
to that
which would have been observed
if the
AT SKA.
221
ship had not changed her latitude or had run upon a parallel. Hence \ &t is to be subtracted from the mean of the chrono
meter times to obtain the chronometer time of the star's transit over the middle meridian. In this formula we must observe the sign of tan A. It will be more convenient in practice to disregard the signs, and to apply the numerical value of the correction to the middle time add the correction when according to the following simple rule the ship has receded from the sun; subtract it when the ship has
:
approached the sun.
The azimuth may be found by
sin
the formula
t
A
= sin
cos
cos h
in
which for
/
we take
onehalf the elapsed time.
object which
is
The sun being the only we should also apply the
employed in
this
way,
equation of equal altitudes, Art. 140; as the greatest change of the sun's declination in one hour but, is about 1', and the change of the ship's latitude is generally
much
greater, the equation
in a
if
unimportant
proximate.
is commonly neglected as relatively method which at sea is necessarily but ap
But,
and applied precisely as
required, the equation may be if the ship had been at rest.
computed
EXAMPLE.
39
N., the
lows,
At sea, March 20, 1856, the latitude at noon being same altitude was observed A.M. and P.M. as folby a chronometer regulated to mean Greenwich time:
30
0'
Obsd.Q Index corr.
A.M. Chro. time
P.M.
"
2
= 11* 39* 33 = 6 20 17
6 40
2 59
Dip
Refraction
4
2
Semidiam.
h
= 30
+
16
8
2t= Elapsed time Middle time Chron. correction
Green, time
=
44
55 12
= = of) _
j
2
2 67
48
noon
ship changed her latitude between the two observations 20' 1200". For the Greenwich date March by W the 20, 2* 58 , 4', and we have t Ephemeris gives S 50 5' 80", <p 39 0'. Hence 8* 20* 22'
The
= Afp
=
=
=
=+
=
222
log sin log cos
log sin
t
<J
TIME.
9.8848 0.0000
log
log
,\,
*<f>
8.5229
3.0792
log sec h 0.0631
log sec y 0.1095
log cot
A
9.9479
A
9.7165
1.4281
log 26'.8
ship has approached the sun, and hence 26'.8 tracted from the middle time.
The
must be
sub
If
we wish
to apply the equation of equal altitudes,
further from the Ephemeris &'S
140,
= + 59",
log
log
we have
and hence, by Art.
9.2698
log
log
,4
'8
<f>
n9.4628
1.7709
B
A'<*
a
=
log tan
13.9
9.9084
b
log a nl.1421
=+
1.7709 tan d 7.0658 log
O'.O
log b 8.1065
Hence we have
Chro. middle time Corr. for change of lat. Equation of eq. alts.
Chro. time app. noon
= 2* 59 m = 26 = 13
=2
59
55'.
.8
.9
14.3
At sea, instead of using the observation to find the chronometer correction, we use it to determine the ship's longitude (as will be fully shown hereafter) and therefore, to carry the operation out to the end, we shall have
;
Chro. time app. noon Corr. of chronom.
Green,
mean time noon
Equation of time Greenwich app. time at the local
= = = = noon =
2* 59 m 14*
2 2 57
7
12
2
48
14
2 49
which
is the longitude of the middle meridian, or the longitude of the ship at noon.
159. In low latitudes (as within the tropics) observations for
the time
for the condition that the
may
taken when the sun is very near the meridian, sun should be near the prime vertical then be satisfied within a few minutes of noon and in case
may be
;
the ship's latitude
satisfied only
be In such cases the two equal altitudes may be observed within a few minutes of each other, and all corrections, whether for change of latitude or change of declination, may be disregarded.
is exactly
when
equal to the declination, it will the sun is on the meridian in the zenith.
MERIDIAN ALTITUDES.
228
CHAPTER
VI.
FINDING THE LATITUDE BY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS.
160.
BY
surface of the earth
the definition, Art. 7, the latitude of a place on the is the declination of the zenith. It was also
shown
in Art. 8 to be equal to the altitude of the north pole above the horizon of the place. In adopting the latter definition, it is to be remembered that a depression below the horizon is a
negative altitude, and that south latitude is negative. The south latitude of a place, considered numerically, or without
regard to its algebraic sign, south pole.
It is to
is
equal to the elevation of the
the latitude thus defined
is
be remembered,
also, that
not an angle at the centre of the earth measured by an arc of the meridian, as it would be if the earth were a sphere ; but it is the angle which the vertical line at the place makes with the
plane of the equator, Art. 81.
We have seen, Art.
the
86, that there are
it
plumb
line,
which make
abnormal deviations of necessary to distinguish between
the geodetic and the astronomical latitude. shall here treat exof the methods of determining the astronomical laticlusively
We
tude; for this depends only upon the actual position of the plumb line, and is merely the declination of that point of the
heavens towards which the plumb line
FIRST METHOD.
is
directed.
BY MERIDIAN ALTITUDES OR ZENITH DISTANCES.
161. Let the altitude or zenith distance of a star of
known
declination be observed at the instant when
it is
,
Deduce the true geocentric zenith
distance
on the meridian. and let d be the
geocentric declination, <p Let the celestial sphere be projected on the plane of the f 24, be the celestial meridian: meridian, and let , Fig.
the astronomical latitude.
ZNZ
f the centre of the sphere coincident with that of the earth; the axis of the sphere; the projection the north pole; and
PCP
P
ECQ
224
LATITUDE.
vertical line of the observer;
of the plane of the equinoctial Let CZ be parallel to the then the point Zof the celestial sphere, being the vanishing point of all lines parallel to CZ is the astronomical zenith of the observer, and the astro9
nomical is the If, then, position of the star on the meridian, north
of*
latitude = y.
ZE
A
the equator but south of the zenith,
have
ZA =
,
A E = 8,
we
and hence
(277)
?=* + C
This equation may be treated as entirely general by attending to the signs of 8 and Since in deducing it we supposed the star to be north of the equator, it holds for the case where it is south by giving the declination in that case the negative sign,
.
according to the established practice; and, since we supposed the star to be south of the zenith, the equation will hold for the
case where
it is
negative sign.
If the star
its
north of the zenith by giving in that case the is so far north of the zenith as to be
below the
lower culmination, the equation will still understand still hold, by 8 the star's distance north of the equator, measured from tlwough the zenith and f elevated pole, or the arc EA This arc is the supplement of the
pole, or at
provided we
E
.
and we may here remark that, in general, any declination formula deduced for the case of a star above the pole will
;
apply to the case where it is below the pole by employing the supplement of the declination instead of the declination itself;
declination over the pole. The case of a star below the pole is, however, usually conPut sidered under the following simple form.
that
is,
by reckoning the
Ph
PA'
==
NA'
A
the star's polar distance, 4< true altitude,
(278
)
then
? ^
in
P
f
which for south latitude P must be the star's south polar distance, and the sum of P and h is only the numerical value of <p. The declination it> to he found for the instant of the meridian
trans
t
by Art. fiOor
62.
In the observatory, instruments are employed which,
MBRJDIAX ALTITUDES.
226
directly the zenith distance, or its supplement, the nadir distance* With a meridian circle perftctly tirfjmted the meridian, the
m
would be known without reference to the clock, and the observation would he made at the instant the star passed the middle thread of the reticule but when the ininstant of transit
;
strument
not exactly in the meridian, or when the observation is not made on the middle thread, the observed zenith distance must be reduced to the meridian, for which see Vol. II., Meridian
is
Circle.
With
altitude,
altitude of a fixed star
the sextant or other portable instruments the meridian may be distinguished as the greatest
and no reference to the time is necessary. But, as the sun, moon, and planets constantly change their declination, their greatest altitudes may be reached eithor before or after the
meridian passage
;*
and
in
altitude the clock time of transit
order to observe a strictly meridian must be previously computed
and the altitude observed
at that time.
W 1856, in Long. 10* 5 32* E., suppose the apparent meridian altitude of the sun's lower limb, north of the zenith, is 63 4W 50", Barom. 30. in., Ext. Therm. 50 what
EXAMPLE
1.
On March
1,
;
is
the latitude
?
App. zen.
dist.
= = p 8=
r
Q=
26* 10' 10".
+28
3
_.
.7
__
.8

+ 16
26
7
1Q 8
C ==
3
V
~ =
26 45 .2 33 J5 j
38 "69" 51 To
EXAMPLE 2. July 20, 1856, suppose that at a certain place the true zenith distances of a Aquitce south of the zenith, and
a
Cephci north of the zenith, have been obtained as follows
a Aquila; C .^ + 26 34' 27".5
3
:
^
^
f
(.
8
29 22
8 50
.7
V
35
.2
= 26 54' 28".3 3 ~ + 61 58 21 y = + 3~5~~3 52 ^8
:
.1
aCephei
The mean
^
 3f>
latitude
3' 51 ".~>.
obtained by the two stars is, therefore, In this example, the stars being at nearly
altitude,
* See Art. 172 tor the method of finding the time of the sun's greatest which may also be used for the moo LI or a planet.
VOL.
f.
16
226
the
LATITUDE.
flaifte zenith distance, but on opposite sides of the zenith, any constant though unknown error of the instrument, peculiar to that zenith distance, is eliminated in taking the mean. Thus,
if the zenith distance in hoth cases had been 10" greater, we should have found from a Aquilce <p 35 V 0".2, but from a Cephei <p 35 3' 42".8, but the mean would still be ^ 35 8'
=
=
51".5.
It is
evident, also, that errors in the refraction, whether
due
to
the tables or to constant errors of the barometer and therm o*
meter, or to any peculiar state of the air common to the two observations, are nearly or quite eliminated by thus combining a pair of stars the mean of whose declinations is nearly equal to the declination of the zenith. The advantages of such a combination do not end here.
If
we
select the
is
two
stars so that the
it
difference of their zenith distances
so small that
may
be
measured with a micrometer attached to a telescope which is so mounted that it may be successively directed upon the two stars without disturbing the angle which it makes with the vertical
can dispense altogether with a graduated circle, or, at the result obtained will be altogether independent of its indications. and ' be the zenith distances, o and 8' For, let
line,
least,
we
the declinations of the two stars, the second of which is north of the zenith; then, if ' denotes only the numerical value of the
zenith distance,
we have
r
= t +:
?
v=zit
the
mean
of which
is
= *(*+*') +
the micrometer.
1C:')
(279)
so that the result depends only upon the given declinations and the observed difference of zenith distance which is measured with
Such
is
the simple principle of the
method first
in this
introduced by Captain TALCOTT, and now extensively used
country. To give it full effect, the instrument formerly known as the Zenith Telescope in England has received several important
in its present
modifications from our Coast Survey. It will be fully treated of, improved form, in Vol. II., where also will be
found a discussion of TALCOTT'S method in
all its details.
162. Meridian altitudes of a circumsolar star observed both above and beloio the pole. Every star whose, distance from the elevated
MERIDIAN ALTITUDES.
pole' is
letfs
227
at
than the latitude
If
and lower culminations.
may be observed we put
l
both
its
uppef
h  the true altitude at the upper culmination. " " < lower .r the star's polar distance at the upper culmination, p
A,
p n{
u
"
"
"
lower
4i
we
the
have, evidently,
v
mean of which
=h p V = hi+Pi
h,}
i
is
V
= \(h +
i(J>!/>)
(280)
whence it appears that by this method the absolute values of /> and p are not required, but only their difference p The p. of a star's declination by precession and nutation is so change
}
l
small in 12* as usually to be neglected, but for extreme precision ought to be allowed for. This method, then, is free from any error in the declination of the star, and is, therefore, employed
in
all
fixed observatories.
EXAMPLE.
With
the meridian circle of the Naval
Academy
the upper and lower transits of Polaris were observed in 1853 Sept. 15 and 16, and the altitudes deduced were as below:
Upper Transit.
Sept. 15, App. alt.
40 28' 25". 42
Ref.
.34
Sept. 16,
Lower Transit. 3731'39".76
30. 146
j
Barom.
Att.
30.005

Barom.
I
1
Therm. 65.2
63
At t. Therm. 75
Ext.
JRef.
112.46
30 27 .31
28 25
.8
Ext.
.8 J
"
74
A,
;>,
h
^ 40
=.1
27 10 .08
p
28 20 .04
^ 37 =
1
=38
58 53
G,
<p
38 58 53 .17 " 53 .04
Mean
o
=^38 58 63
is
.11
out separately.
In order to compare the results, each observation By (280) we should have
} (fl
_),
carried
/)
<p
= 38
58' 58".20
= 38
58 53 .11
This method
is still
subject to the whole CMTOV in the refraction,
228
LATITUDE,
which, however, in the piesent state of the tables, will usually be very small. If the latitude is greater than 45, and the star's declination less than 45, the upper transit occurs on the opposite side of the zenith from the ,pole. In that case h must still represent the
and
distance of the star from the point of the horizon below the pole, will exceed 90. Thus, among the Greenwich observation*
find
we
1837 June 14, Capella
At
h
<t>
= 7 = 95 = 51
18'
7".94 7 .91
39
28 37 .93
and
163. Meridian zenith distances of the snn observed near the summer the place of observation is near the winter solstices.
When
equator, the lower culminations of stars can no longer be observed, and, consequently, the method of the preceding article cannot be used. The latitude found from stars observed at their
upper culminations only is dependent upon the tabular declination, and is, therefore, subject to the error of this declination. If, therefore, an observatory is established on or near the equator, and its latitude is to be fixed independently of observations made at other places, the meridian zenith distances of stars cannot be employed. The only independent method is then by meridian
observations of the sun near the solstices.
Let us
at first
suppose that the observations can be obtained
is
is
exactly at the solstice, and the obliquity (e) of the ecliptic The declination of the sun at the summer solstice constant.

+
,
and
at the winter solstice
it
'
is
;
hence, from the
meridian zenith distances should have
and
observed at these times,
we
the
mean
of which
is
a result dependent only upon the data furnished by the observations.
Now, the sun will not, in general, pass the meridian of the observer at the instant of the solstice, or when the declination is at its maximum value e; nor is the obliquity of the ecliptic constant.
But the changes of the declination near the solstices aiv very small, and hence are very accurately obtained from the
ALTITUDE AT A GIVEN TIME.
solar tabled (or
229
is
from the Ephemeris which
based on these
small errors in the absolute value of the tables), notwithstanding The small change in the obliquity between two obliquity. If then Ae is the unsolstices is also very accurately known.
correction of the tabular obliquity, and the tabular values two solstices are e and s', the true values are e f AS and e' + AS and if the tabular declinations at two observations near the solstices are s the true declinations will x and JT'), (s' be 3 s  ae x and 8 ~ Ae x'), and by the formula (s' + ~^ we shall have for the two observations V C +
at the
;
known
r
?
<p
=C + + = :''
e
As
X
AC f x*
the
mean of which
*
is
=
4 (C
+
C')
+
i (.

*' )
 Hr
 *0
e
s'
a result which depends upon the small changes both of which are accurately known.
It is
and x
x',
suffices to
plain that, instead of computing these changes directly, it deduce the latitude from a number of observations
solar tables or the
near each solstice by employing the apparent declinations of the Ephemeris then, if ^' is the mean value of
;
the latitude found from
solstice,
all
the observations at the northern
all
and
y>" the
mean from
at the southern solstice, the
true latitude will
be
Every observation should be the mean of the observed zenith
distances of both the upper and the lower limb of the sun, in order to be independent of the tabular sernidiameter and to
eliminate errors of observation as far as possible.
SECOND METHOD.
164.
BY A SINGLE ALTITUDE AT A GIVEN TIME.
At
noted by the clock.
the true
is observed, the time is correction being known, we find local time, and hence the star's hour angle, by the
the instant
when the The clock
altitude
formula
t
=
a
in
which
is
the sidereal time and
a the
star's right ascension.
28ft
LATITUDE.
sun is observed, / is simply the apparent solar time. have, then, by the first equation of (14),
If the
sin
tf>
We
sin 5
\
cos
<p
cos d cos
t
= sin h
To determine
it,
in which y is the only unknown quantity. assume d and to satisfy the conditions
D
D d cos D ~
d sin
sin d
cos $ cos
t
then the above equation becomes
(7
cos (y
Z),
Z>)
= sin h
also p.
which determines
<p
and hence
For
practical con
venience, however, put
then, by eliminating
rf,
the solution
tan
d sec
may be put under the
t
follow*
ing form
:
tan
cos
D
Y
~
*
m
sm
cosee
(281)
The
first
taken numerically
of these equations fully determines Z>, which will be less than 90, positive or negative according
to the sign of its tangent. As t should will have the same sign as 0. or 6'*,
D
always be
less
than 90,
The second equation
since
is
T obtain by the third equation two values of the latitude. Only one of these values, however, is admissible when the other is
the
cosine of
+
il11
indeterminate as to the sign of 7% ^ are the same. Hence we /'
numerically greater than 90, which is the maximum limit of When both values are within the limits 90 and latitudes.
+
be distinguished as that which best with the approximate latitude, which is always suffiagrees ciently well known for this purpose, except in some peculiar
90, the true
solution
is
to
cases at sea.
EXAMPLE 1. 1856 March 27, in the assumed latitude 23 8. and longitude 43 14 W. the double altitude of the snn's lower;
r
?
ALTITUDE AT A GIVEN TIME.
231
limb observed with the sextant and artificial horizon was 114 30" at 4* 21 m 15* by a Greenwich Chronometer, which was m Index Correction of Sextant V 12", Barom. fast 2 30\
40'
=
29.72 inches, Att. the true latitude.
Therm. 61
F., Ext. Therm. 61
F. Required
Sextant reading Index corr.
= 114
114
rrr
40' 30"
1
Chronometer
Correction
Gr. date,
4* 21 m 15'
12
2 30
27, 4 18 45
39 18
19 39
March
App. alt. Semidiameter Ref. and par.
h
r?
57
f
Longitude
Local mean
Eq. of time
t.
=

2 52 56
I
=
.=_
16
3
31
25~49~
5

""
~
1
19
~57~35~Tl
t
App. time,
t
T
20 30
+2
51 30
=
20
T
30"
log sec log tan log tan
0.027360
8.698351
8.725711
3
t
7)
D~
7)
log cosec log sin D log sin h
log cos r
<)
1.302190
8.725098
_j_
2'
38"
9.926445
9.953733
r ^ V^
Y
=
25 58 49
2256
11
EXAMPLE
Fowalhaut
is
2.
is
1856 Aug. 22; suppose the true altitude of found to be 29 10' 0" when the local sidereal time
21* 49"' 44";
what
is
the latitude?
D^
We
have a = 22* 49
31
15' 13", Y

44'.
whence t
<>0
=
?

1*
0*
0*
;
d
^
is
30 22' 47". 5
inadmissible.
;
0' 6",
+
28
44' 53".
The nega
tive value of Y hero gives y
91
15'
19"; which
equal altitudes east and west of the be used not only for determining the time (Art. may For the half elapsed sidereal time 139), but also the latitude. between two such altitudes of a fixed star is at once the hour angle required in the method of the preceding article. When the sun is used in this way, the half difference between the apparent times of the observations is the hour angle, and the declination must be taken for noon, or more strictly for the mean of the times of observation. By thus employing the mean of the A.M. and P.M. hour angles and the mean of the
165.
The observation of
meridian
corresponding declinations,
we
obtain sensibly the same result
232
as
LATITUDE.
by computing each observation separately with its proper hour angle and declination and then taking the mean of the two resulting latitudes and an error in the clock correction does not affect the final result. The clock rate, however, must be known, as it affects the elapsed interval. Sec also Art. 182.
;
166. Effect of errors in the data upon the latitude computed from an observed altitude. From the first of the equations (51) we find
cos
or, since h
dtp
A
_
cos

A
,, dt j
,
cos A
= 90
ft
f, rfA
'/, and sin
<p
</
cos 3

cos
y
sin
A,
ec
J
.
JA
cos
tan
.1
.
dt
f
cos g sec
A
.
dft
whence
in
it
least effect
appears that errors of altitude and time will have the when A or 180, that is, when the observation is
=
the meridian, and the greatest effect when the observation is on the prime vertical. If the same star is observed on both
sides of the meridian
and
at equal distances
from
it,
the coeffi
cient of dt will have opposite signs at the two observations, and hence a small error in the time will be wholly eliminated by taking the mean of the values of the latitude found from two
taking a series of observations, to distribute them symmetrically with respect to the meridian. When they are ail taken very near to the meriIt is advisable, therefore, in
such observations.
dian, a special method of reduction is used, which will treated of below as our Third Method of finding the latitude.
be
is different for stars north and south of sign of sec henee errors of altitude will be at least partially the zenith eliminated by taking the mean of the results found from stars
:
The
A
constant error of the
near the meridian, both north and south of the zenith. instrument may thus be wholly eliminated.
A
As for the effect of the error when q ~ 90 and sec A is not
t'ireumpolar star Art. 18,
sec
is
rfJ, its
coefficient is zero only
infinite.
its
This occurs
observed at
elongation,
<P
when a where we have.
A
=
A
COS
l/[sin (3 f
<p)
sin (
^)]
which shows that sec
therefore, to
diminishes as 3 increases.
In order,
reduce the effect of an error in the declination
REDUCTION TO THE MERIDIAN.
at the
233
same time with that of errors of altitude and time, we should select a star as near the pole as possible, and observe it at or near its greatest elongation, on either side of the meridian. The proximity of the star to the pole enables us to facilitate the reduction of a series of observations, and we shall therefore
treat specially of this case as our Fourth
Method below.
167. "When several altitudes not very far from the meridian are observed in succession, if we wish to use their mean as a single altitude, the correction for second difterences (Art. 151) must be
however, preferable to incur the labor of a sepawe shall then be able to compare the several results, and to discuss the probable errors of the observations and of the final mean. When the observations are very near to the meridian, this separate reduction is readily effected, with but little additional labor, by the following method:
applied.
It
is,
rate reduction of each altitude, as
THIRD METHOD.
BY REDUCTION TO THE MERIDIAN WHEN THE TIME IS (1TVKN.
to the
This
168. To reduce an altitude, observed at a given time, is done in various ways.
meridian.
(A.) If in the formula,
sin
tte
employed
cos
<p
in Art. 164,
fl
y
sin
+
cos
t
cos
cos
t
= sin h
substitute
=
1
2 sin* J
t
it
becomes
sin
<p
sin &
+
<$
cos
<p
cos $
2 cos
^ cos
<5
sin 1
fr
t
= sin h
p)
But
am
Hence,
if
<p
sin
f
cos
<p
cos
<f
= cos
(<p
d)
or cos (4
we put
C,
rr
CP
ti,
or Ct
=4
?
the above equation
cos
If the
C,
may
be written
y>
= sin h + cos
sit
cos 4 (2 sin 2 }
t)
(282)
star does not
its
<list:wre of tlio star
change its declination, ^ is the zenith meridian passage; and, being found by
284
this equation,
LATITUDE.
we
then have the latitude as from a meridian
observation by the formula
according as the zenith
is
north or south of the
its
star.
still
When
if
the star changes
declination, this
method
holds
the
we
take d
for
the
lOrmulaj, in which true altitude is h.
time of observation, as is evident d is the declination at the instant
from our
when
To compute
latitude
,
the second
.is necessary. if the observations creases with
As
member, a previous knowledge of the the term cos <p cos 3 (2 sin 2 \ t) deare not too far from the
meridian, the error produced by using an approximate value of will be relatively small, so that the latitude found will be a <p
assumed one; and if the computabe repeated with the new value, a still closer approximation tion may be made, and so on until the exact value is found. This method is only convenient where the computer is procloser approximation than the
vided with a table of natural sines and cosines, as well as a table of log. versed sines, or the logarithmic values of 2 sin 2 \ /.
EXAMPLE. Same d^~ 2 51' 80", / \
as
Example
1,
Art. 164.
h
f>7
35'
IV,
23.
1* 20"' 30".
Approximate value ot> log (2 sin log cos ?
1
1 1]
8.785726
9.964026
9.999459
8.749211
nat. sin h 0.844201
nat. no.
0.056132
........
log cos o
log
nat. cos C t 0.900333
C,
.
9
_+
25
2
47' 54" (zenith south of sun.)
51 30
differing but 13" from the true value, although the assumed latitude was in error nearly 4'. Repeating the computation with
22 56' 24" as the approximate latitude, we find
exactly as in Art. 164.
169. (B.)
<p
=
22 56' 11",
We
may
h
.rz
i
also
compute
directly the reduction of the
observed altitude to the meridian altitude.
meridian altitude
Putting
Ct
= 90
C1KCUMMERIDIAX ALTITUDES,
the formula ,(282) gives
sin /^
sin
<2S5
..,
h
= 2 cos
J
<p
cos
<J
sin* J t
But we have
sin
ft

l
sin
.
/i
2 cos
(A,
+
A) sin
}
(A t
h)
and hence
.
,,..,.','
.
.
HIII
1(7^^
A.;
cos <p cos d =^  " cos J (/t t
sin* \
t
^ Ort
+
(283) ^ ;
A)
which gives the difference
it
A, or the correction of A to reduce /, but it requires in the second member 'an approximate /*j value both of p and of h v the latter being obtained from the assumed value of <f by the e(iiation h = 90 "5);'bu, if (<p 90' (d .<p)v the zenith is south of the star, by the equation h
to
;
i
l
=
KXAMPLK.
)
Same

as the above.
2
51'

30"
Approx.
v*
:
23 00 00 25 51 30 8 30 64
2 log sin i log cos ^ log cos d
t
8.484G90
9 S96^02B
9.999459
log sec
i (A,
+
A) 0.312573
j
^ + A ^_ = A
/^
J
60 51 50 6 36 33
57
log sin J (A t
=.
 A) 8.760754
A
A,
= =
35 11
<J
2
51'
30"
64 11 44
^^
<P
25 48 16
22 56 46

This method docs not approximate so rapidly as the preceding, but the objection is of little weight when the observations are On the other hand, it has the great very near the meridian. of not requiring the use of the table of natural sines. advantage
170. (C.) CircumineridittH
altittutes.
When a number of altitudes
are observed very near the meridian,* they are called dreamEach altitude reduced to the meridian gives uteridtitH altitudes.
nearly as accurate a result as meridian.
if
the observation were taken on the
An
the greatest ease
approximate method of reducing such observations with is found by regarding the small arc J (A x A)
;
as sensibly equal to its sine
sin U/tj
*
that
=_=
is,
by putting
A) sin 1"
A)
J(A t
How
near to the meridian will be determined in Art. 175.
28ft
LATITUDE.
t
and taking A
that (283)
for
may be
+ A), from which under the form put
j
(1^
it
differs
very
little.
NO
cos Aj
(284)
sin 1"
The value
in seconds of
2 sin" i
t
given in Table V. with the argument t. If A', A", A"', &c. are the observed altitudes (corrected for refraction, etc.); <', /", /'", &c., the hour angles deduced from the, observed clock times; ;// from the table and we put the m', w", , &c., the values of
is
m
m
;
constant factor
A.
_ COS p COS d
~~~
__ COS
'
^ COH
C,
cos
/^
A'
sin
we have
A,
A4
A,
^ ^
//'
A'"
+ Am' + Am" + Am"'
1*85)
and the mean of all these equations gives
"i
+ + + A'
A"
A'"
etc. ~~
(
~f
A
m'

j
w
/f
f

m + &c.
//y

n
in
n
;
which n
is
the
number of observations
A,
or
= A + Am
(286)
;n
for refraction, &c.,
which A denotes the mean of the observed altitudes corrected and m Q the mean of the values of m. When A! has been thus found, the latitude is deduced as from
meridian altitude, only observing that for the sun the declination to be used is that which corresponds to the mean of the times of observation, as IUIH already been remarked in Ait.
:iny
168.
EXAMPLE. At the U. 8. Naval Academy, 1849 June 22, circummeridian altitudes of p Ursae Minoris were observed with a Troughton sextant from an artificial horizon, as in the following table. The times were noted by a sidereal chronometer which
CIRCUMMERI0IAX* ALTITUDES.
237
was
fast
l >n 4V,7.
The index
correction
of the sextant
14' 58",
Therm. 64
Barometer, 30.81 inches, Att. F.
right ascension of the star
fast
Therm. 65
F.,
wa Ext
The
was
14* 51 m 14'.0 f
1
Chronometer
45
.7
Chronometer time of
star's transit
14 52
59.7
in the column t are found by taking the differ ence between each observed chronometer time and this chronometer time of transit.
2 Alt.
The hour angles
>c
Chronom.
14* 45*" 47'.
t
m
102.1
108 39' 40" 39 60
7"* 12'. 7
47
1.
5
40 40
41
48
51
54
.5
45
I
58.7
.2
70.2
32.8
4.4
5.1
41
54
56 57 58
15
2
29.5 36.5
22.
43.
1
30.2 36.8 22.3
43.3 47.8
40 30 40 20 40 40
3 4 5
7
22.3
43.8
47.5 17.5
10.
66.0
104.5
39J20
9
17.8 10.3
Mean~108 40 14
Ind. coir.
m
Assumed o
A
.0
=
m._
61*63
__
14 58
1^?L1B
1T4
Refr.
= 88
74
59' 0"
12*88
42
46 36 .9
47 36 .9
log cos ^ log cos rf
Approx.
Ci
 3o
9.8906 9.4193
,4w
hv
C,
rJ
_?L^>
fi4~l~iF"T7 .5

logcosecC, ^23*29
log
"
5
47 42 .5
A
9>428
1.7898
1.3326
^
74
46 36
.9 .4
$
=
A
log
log
38
58 54
m Am9
REMARK
of
1.
The reduction
is,
hv
h increases as the
denominator
decreases, that
as the meridian zenith distance decreases.
The preceding method, therefore, as it supposes the reduction to be small, should not be employed when the star passes very near
the zenith, unless at the same time the observations are restricted It can be shown, however, from the to very small hour angles. more complete formulae to be given presently, that so long as
is not less than 10, the reduction computed method may amount to 4' 30" without being in error by more than 1"; and this degree of accuracy suffices for even the
the zenith distance
this
best observations
made with
the sextant.
238
.
LATITUDE.
REMARK
2.
If in (284)
we put sin^ = V
sin 1". t(t
being
.in
seconds of time),
,
we have
h
,
A.
=
cos
CP
cos d
225
2
.
.
sin 1"
.
t*
= at
2
x^.v
(267)
cos h 1
in
which a denotes the product of
all
the constant factors.
It
follows from this formula that near the meridian the altitude varies as the square of the hour angle, and not simply in proportion to the
Hence it is that near the meridian we cannot reduce a number of altitudes by taking their mean to correspond to fh'e mean of the times, as is done (in most cases without sensible error) when the observations are remote from the meridian. The method of reduction above exemplified amounts to separately reducing each altitude and then taking the mean of all
time.
the results.
171. (D.)
Circummeridia.)} altitudes
more accurately reduced.
The
small correction which the preceding method requires will be obtained by developing into series the rigorous equation (282).
This equation, when we put deduced from the observation,
cos C
90
h ~ true zenith distance
may be put under
2 cos ? cos o sin 2
i t
the form
= cos
C,
which developed powers of sin J t,
*
If
in series* gives, neglecting sixth
and higher
we put y
= 2 cos
cos 6 sin 2 cos
t,
the equation to be developed is
Ci
//
= cos
(a )
)n
which
d w
constant and (
may be regarded as a function of y
;
so that
by MAC
LAURIN'S Theorem
\

I
(df .dyl
y
0.
&c. dpnote the values of fy and
(a) gives,
it^
differential coefficients
when
The equation
by
differentiation,
sin C
=
dy
C
1
dy
=
sin
r
cos  ~
dt,
cot C
&0.
^
y
sin 2
CIRCUMMERIDIAN ALTITUDES*
~~
289'
.
M
*
sin
*
riil"
sin
^
sin I"
given by DELAMBRE, the reduction to the meridian consists of two terms, the first of which is the same as that employed in the preceding method, and the second is the
By
this formula, first
will
small correction which that method requires. These two term? as the u 1st Reduction" and " 2d Reduction." be
designated
Putting
m
=
2 sin 2 $t
bin 1" sin
n
=2
sin*
it
sin 1"
= A* cot:,
we have
=
If a
:
Am + Bn
(289)
number of
equations of this form, the
observations are taken, we have a mean of which will be
number of
iii
which
TW O
is
the arithmetical
?i
mean
t.
of the observed zenith dis
tances,
and
the arithmetical
means of the values of
m
and
u corresponding to the values of
The
values of n are also
given in Table V. Having found fp
we have
the latitude, as before, by the formula
in
the negative sign when the zenith is which we must give and it must be remembered that for the sun south of the star, (or any object whose proper motion is sensible) 3 must be the
t
mean
of the declinations belonging to the several observations,
But when y
=
C =
we
have, by (a), ;
_=
v so that
(6)
becomes
8
Ci
+ f 2 sin
y
..
V* cot
sin^
^+K +
LI
t/
1
cot C
)
^
TV"
 &c
(0
as
Restoring the value of y, this gives the development used in the text, observing that and ^ are supposed to be in seconds of arc, the terms of the series are divided
by sin 1" to reduce them to the same unit.
240
LAT1TUDK.
or, which is the same, the declination corresponding to the mean of ehe times of observation.* Finally, if the star is near the meridian below the pole, the
transit.
hour angles should be reckoned from the instant of the lower Recurring to the formula
cos
in
C"

sin
^ sin $
f
cos
<p
cos
<5
cos
t
which
/
is
we observe that if we must put ISO we have
the hour angle reckoned from the upper transit, this angle is reckoned from the lower transit
/
instead of
sin
c"
/,
or
cos
cos
t
for
+ cos
t,
and then
fos C
sin 3
y cos
d cos*
and, substituting as before,
cos
this gives
t 
1
2 sin* J
t
cos C
or, since for
=
(<p
4
cos (y f
fl)
f
2 cos
<p
cos
ft
sin* }
t
lower culminations we have
cos
COH C
<J),
^
sin* J
f
180
(p
+
8}
and cos
\
= cos +
C,
rT
2 cos
^p
cos
<5
which developed gives
r
i ^
"I
cos
<f>
cos
2 sin*
if
/
cos
<f> <?
^ COH d
C,
v*
2 cot r t sin* i
sin 1"
sin C t
sin 1"
(C08sin \
/
or
C,
= C + Am + Bn (sub polo)
table,
(290)
first
which
is
computed by the same
but both
and second
reductions here have the same sign. If a star is observed with a sidereal chronometer the daily rate of which is so small as to be insensible during the time of
* To show that the
observation
tions,
and that if d', <J", &c., the several equations of the form (289) will give
<*,
mean we have put C,
declination
is
to
=*
f
be used, we
may
observe that for each
the several declina
ai *
^
= 6'
&c.,
<f
c'
Am'
Am''
f
A*
A*
cot
,
n'
$
the
 d" f
f
f
cot C, n"
mean
of which, if
= mean of ~ =* *
f
rf',
<t".
&c.. will be
v r ^ vut ;,
//
;
4"<
v
^
d
f
{
OIHOITMMERIDIAN ALTITUDES.
241
the observations, the hour angles t are found by merely taking the difference between each noted time and the chronometer
time of the
if
star's transit, as in the example of Article 170. But we wish to take account of the rate of the chronometer, it can be done without separately correcting each hour angle, as fol
lows: Let 3 T be the rate of the chronometer in 24* (8T being positive for losing rate, Art. 137); then, if t is the hour angle given directly by the chronometer, and t' the true hour
we have
t it
= 24*
:
24*
e>T
= 86400'
:
86400'
dT
whence
1
864001
Instead of sin
1
we must
use sin
1';
for
which we
shall have,
with
all
requisite precision,
sin J
f
= sin }
f
t
,
or sin* J f
=
sin*
*
H
/
I
fV
I
\t
I
Hence,
if
we put
we
shall
have
_A ,
cos
  <f>
cos d 2 sin* > "
;
t
;
sin C,
sin 1"
so tha t if we compute
A
by the formula
K
,
A. sss
cos y cos 8
sm
chronometer
intervale,
we can
take
m=
:
for the actual
and no further attention to the rate is required. The factor k can be given in a small table with the argument "rate," in connection with the table for w, as in our Table V.
If a star
VOL.
is
observed with a
mean time chronometer,
the inter
vals are not only to be corrected for rate, bxit also to
be reduced
I.16
242
LATITUDE.
from mean to sidereal intervals by multiplying them by /* =* 1.00273791 (Art. 49); so that for sin2 J t we must substitute k sin 2 2 (i^0) or> with sufficient precision, kfj? sin J /.
,
If the sun
is
tervals are both to
observed with a mean time chronometer, the inbe corrected for rate and reduced from mean
solar to apparent solar intervals.
The mean
interval
differs
from the apparent only by the change in the equation of time during the interval, and this change may be combined with the rate of the chronometer. Denoting by 8E the increase of the of time in 24A (remembering that is to be equation regarded as positive when it is additive to apparent time), and by dTths rate of the chronometer on mean time, we may regard d T dE as the rate of the chronometer on apparent time. Instead of the factor k we shall then have a factor A', which is to be found by the formula
E
*'=r
L
L
_*? J
86400
L_T
for k Jby taking
which may be taken from the table
the argument. Finally, if the sun
is
ST
observed with a sidereal chronometer.
t
we must
2 multiply sin
not only by
k'
but by
,.
Denoting
fjf
by
/
and
%
by
*',
these rules
:
may be
collected, for
the convenience of reference, as follows
Star by sidereal chron..
OA
,
.,
,
,
A A
=k
i
cos? cos
sin C t
<J
Star by
mean time chron.,4= ^^
sin
d
[log 1=0.002375] ~[logi=:0.002375]
(291)
. ,, COS? COS Sun by mean time chron., A =. AT
a
.
<J
;
Bun by
sidereal chron.,
A = Kf
C S
C S ^
f ^
[logf
= 9.997625]
for
which log k will be taken from Table V. with the argument ; rate of the chronometer = dT; and log i from the, same table
CIRCUMMERIDIAN ALTITUDES.
243
828= daily rate of the chronometer rith the argument 8T diminished hy the daily increase of the equation of time.
1856 March 15, at a place assumed to be in latiN. and longitude 122 24' W., suppose the following zenith distances of the sun's lower limb to have been observed with an Ertel universal instrument,* Barom. 29.85 The chronoinches, Att. Therm. 65 F., Ext. Therm. 63 F.
EXAMPLE.
tude 37
49'
meter, regulated to the local mean time, was, at noon, slow 11* 20'.8, with a daily losing rate of 6'.6.
Means 39
59 18
.5
fc
==
+0
29.1
m
=r342 .60n =rO
.49
The equation of time
have
at the local
noon being
==
+
8m 54*.6,
we
Moan time
of app. noon
0* 8 m 54*.0
Chronometer slow
Chr. time of app. noon
11
20.8
= 23 57
83
.8
The
difference between this
and the observed chronometer
times gives the hour angles t as above. The mean of the hour angles being
to
+
29*. 1,
/4
the declination
is
0* 29M, or for the be taken for the local apparent time Greenwich mean time March 15, 8 A 18"* 59*.7; whence
a
=r
(Approximate) y
"
~ f 37 39 C =
t
148'8".8
49
37 8
in.
.
.8
The
increase of the equation of time
II.,
24*
is
dE =
17*.4,
* See Vol.
Altitude
and Azimuth Instrument, for the method of observing the
zenith distances.
244
LATITUDE.
and, the chronometer rate being 6*.6, we have 8T 24*.0, with which as the argument "rate" in Table V.
8T~ +
is
HE
we
+
find log
V
= 0.00024.
The computation of the
latitude
now
carried out as follows:
y
=
37
48 41
.5
of y being in error, the value of A is not but a repetition of the computation with the value quite correct; of y just found does not in this case change the result so much
The assumed value
as 0".l.
*
the sun.
172. (E*) Gauss's method of reducing circummeridian altitudes of The preceding method of reduction is both brief and
accurate, and the latitude found is the mean of all the values that would be found by reducing each observation separately. This separate reduction, however, is often preferred, notwith
standing the increased labor, as it enables us to compare the observations with each other, and to discuss the probable error of the final result; and it is also a check against any gross error.
But, if
we
separately reduce the observations
by the preceding
method, we must not only interpolate the refraction for each GAUSS altitude, but also the declination for each hour angle.
proposed a method by which the latter of these interpolations is avoided. He showed that if we reckon the hour angles, not from apparent noon, but from the instant when the sun reaches its maximum altitude, we can compute the reduction by the method above given, and use the meridian declination for all the observations. This method is, indeed, not quite so exact as the precedbut I shall show how it may be rendered quite perfect in ing; practice by the introduction of a small correction. In the rigorous formula
cos C
= sin
<P
sin
ft
f
c
'
8
V c
s 9 cos t
ClKCUMMKRlfclAN ALTITUDES.
H
is
the declination corresponding to the hour angle
A<*
/.
If then
= the

the sun
d
l
hourly increase of the declination, positive is moving northward,
when
the declination at noon,
and
if
t
is
expressed in seconds of time,
we have
where, since &d never exceeds 60", x will not exceed 30" 8Q long as t SO* Hence we may substitute, with great accuracy,
<
1
.
sin d
cos
<$
= sin = cos
t
f
cos
sin
sin
,
x
a:
<J
t
^
sin
and the above formula becomes
cos C
= sin ^ sin d
term
is
l
+
The
last
f cos y> cos <\ cos f f sin (^ 2 cos $P sin dl sin* J sin x
t)
sin
#
extremely small, rarely affecting the value of and since x is proportional to the hour and therefore has opposite signs for observations on differangle, ent sides of the meridian, the effect of this term will nearly or quite disappear from the mean of a series of observations proby as
much
as 0".l;
perly distributed before and after the meridian passage.
Now,
we have
sin
x
=
sin *

= 15
in

t
sin 1"
3600
54000
Let
=
(<p
54000
then, taking
cos
cos d t
15
t
sin 1" =. sin
t
+
.
J sin
s
t
we have
sm.r
=(sm
,.,,,., + i sin *
f
8
f) sin ;
,v
#
r
cos <p cos r
.
<J
t
*
and the formula
cos C
for cos f
f sin
t
becomes, by omitting the
f cos ^ cos
l$st
sin
term,
= sin
^(cos
f
8
f1
sin
t
+
J
cos f cos
^
sin
Am
#
246
LATITUDE.
last
term involving sin3 1 multiplied by the small quantity sia #is even less than the term above rejected. Like that, also, it has opposite signs for observations on different sides of the meridian, and will not affect the mean result of a properly arranged series of observations. Rejecting it, therefore, our formula becomes
The
cos C
sin
if
sin J4
\
cos
if
cos
if
^
cos
(t
#)
f 2 cos
cos
^
sin 2 } #
The last term here must also be method as proposed by GAUSS
term and
1
affects all
it
rejected if we wish to obtain the as it is always a positive ; but, the observations alike, I shall retain it, espe
cially as
can be taken into account in an extremely simple
manner.
The maximum value of maximum altitude, is given
by putting
Putting
t
t
=&
which corresponds to the immediately by the above formula
cos
,
.
Hence & is
the
hour angle of the
fi
maximum altitude.
=t
4
we have
cos C
= cos
i
(if
<5j)
2 cos
2 cos
if
cos 3 l sin 2 J f
cos
d.
if
sin 2 J
#
Let
cos
sin
if
COR 3
l
2 sin 2
}
#
(if
<Jj)
sin 1"
then our formula becomes
cos C
= cos
(if
tf')
2 cos
if
cos 3l sin 2 } f
This equation
is
of the same form as that from which (288) was
obtained, and therefore
r
1
when developed
t
gives
cos
\
<J,
cos
if
cos 3l 2 sin 2 } f
Cj
cos
2
if
2 cot
*
C,
sin* 1
f
sin
sin 1"
\
sin ft
/
sin 1"
in
which
t
=
<p
3'.
Putting then, as before,
cos & cos
<5,
B==A
,
CQt:'
V (292)
sine,
and taking
and n from Table V., or their logarithms from Table VI., with the argument I', which is the hour angle reckoned
i
CIRCUMMK1UDIAX ALTITUDES.
from the instant the sun reaches
Ct
its
247
altitude,
maximum
we have
(293)
^:
Am
+
Bn
Since differs from the latitude by the constant quantity <J', its value found from each observation should be the same. Taking
,
its
mean
value, WCL have
The angle #, being very precision by the formula
*
small,
may be found
with the utmost
= 1___ * = [9.40594]
810000 sin 1"
A
A
(4^
which gives #'in seconds of the chronometer when A has b'ien computed by the formula (202). The most simple method of finding the corrected hour angles f will be to add & to the chronometer time of apparent n"<m, and then take the difference between this corrected time and
each observed time.
If
we put
8'
= +
eJj
j/,
we have
(295,
sin 1"
which requires only one new logarithm to be taken, namely, the value of log m from Table VT. with the argument #. We then
have, finally,
p
= + +y
rt
<\
;
(296)
EXAMPLE. The same as that of the preceding article. have there employed the assumed latitude 37 49' but, since ever rough computation of two or three observations will give a nearer value, let us suppose we have found as a first approxima 37 48' 45". With this and the meridian declination tion
s.
We
d
=
l
(f
l
48' 9".2,
and log
k'
= 0.00024
log
as before,
we now
find,
by
(292),
log
A
= 0.09810
B
= 0.2683
We
have also there found the chronometer time of apparent
248
LATITUDE*
=>
noon == 23* 57m 33".8. We now take from the Ephemeris A* + 5S".22, and hence, by (294),
ar. co. log
log** 1.7725 A 9.9069
9.4059
1.0858
*
Hencfe
f
=+
const, log
12.2
Jog A
thfc
23* 57m 38'.8
t
chronometer time of the maximum altitude is + 12.2 23* 57'" 46', which gives the hour angles
=
as
below
/'
:
log
11'.
m
log
Am
log n
log
Bn
20"
ifc
2.90274
2.68558
2.39718
2.99584
2.77868
0.1900
9.7557
0.4583
0.0240
48.
16.5
11
fe
2.49028 2.07526
1.18301
9.1776
8.3487
9.4459
8.6170T
59.5
30.
1.98216 1.08891
f
2
%
7
51.5
27. 3.5 22.
1.20525
1.29835
2.03730
2.45551
2.13040
2.54861
.
8.4553
8.7236
12
92955 9.8260
0.2381
9.5638 0.0943
0.5064
16
2.72077
2.92677
2.81387
3.01987
20 45.
The refraction may be computed from the
zenith distance, and then with
will
its
tables first for a
mean
variation in one
minute (which
be found with
its
refraction)
sufficient accuracy from the table of mean value for each zenith distance is readily found.
The
parallax,
which
the observations, is are given in the column r p of the following computation. The numbers in the 3d and 4th columns are found from their
here sensibly the same (= 5". 54) for all subtracted from the refraction, and the results
is
logarithms above; and the last column contains the several values of the minimum zenith distance of the sun's lower limb, formed by adding together the numbers of the preceding columns.
To
the mean of these we then apply the sun's semidiameter, the meridian declination, and the correction #, which are all constant for the whole series of observations.
CIRCUMMERIDIAN ALTITUDES.
249
This result agrees precisely with that found before. If we suppose all the observations to be of the same weight, we can now deter
mine the probable error of observation. Denoting the difference* between each value of ^ and the mean of all by #, and the sum of the squares of v by [w], according to the notation used in the method of least squares, we have
V
VV
1".9
f
3.61
1
.7
2.89
Mean
error of a single observa
JJ2
+ 0.9 1 +1
2 3

"JS
5 29

Mean
9
error of the final value of
.
.81
.7
2.89
1.44
2 =  89 =
.91
.2
.1
5
26.01
2
n
.6
6.76
= 10, [w] = 74.92 = 2".89
=0
.91
Probable error of a single obs.
X X
0.6745 0.6745
= 1".95 =
.61
It
must not be forgotten that the probable
:
error 1".95 here
a constant error represents the probable error of observation only of the. instrument, affecting all the observations, will form no of an error in the part of this error; and the same is true
refraction.
250
LATITUDE.
173. For the most refined determinations of the latitude, standard stars are to be preferred to the sun. Their declinations
are somewhat more precisely known ; the instrument is in night observations less liable to the errors produced by changes of temperature during the observations; constant instrumental errors and errors of refraction may be eliminated to a great extent by combining north and south stars or errors of declina;
avoided by employing only circumpolar stars at or near their upper and lower culminations. In general, errors of circummeridian altitudes are eliminated under the same conditions as those of meridian observations, since the former are reduced to the meridian with the greatest precision. See the next following article. For a great number of nice determinations of the latitude by circummeridian altitudes of stars north and south of the zenith
tion
may be
and of circumpolar
stars, see
PUISSANT, Nouvelle Description
Grto
mltrique de la France.
174. Effect of errors of zenith distance, declination,
the latitude
and
time,
upon
found by circummeridian
altitudes.
Differentiating (289),
last
regarding A as constant, and neglecting the variations of the term, which is too small to be sensibly affected by small errors of /, we have, since dip d^ f dd,
=
(15*)
The errors d and dd affect the resulting latitude by their whore amount. The coefficient of dt has opposite signs for east and west hour angles and therefore, if the observations are so taken
;
as to consist of a
number of
pairs of equal zenith distances east
and west of the meridian, a small constant error in the hour angles, arising from an imperfect clock correction, will be eliminated in the mean. This condition is in practice nearly satisfied when the same number of observations are taken on each. side of the meridian, the intervals of time between the successive
observations being made as nearly equal as practicable. An error in the assumed latitude which affects is eliminated by repeating the computation with the latitude found by the first computation. An error in the declination which would affect
A
A
is
not to be supposed.
LIMITS OF CIRCUMMERIDIAN ALTITUDES.
175.
reducing
251
methods of In the
To determine
the limits within
which
the preceding
circummeridian
altitudes
are
applicable.
First.
method of Art. 170 we employ only the " first reduction" (~ Am\ which is the first term of the more complete reduction expressed " by (288). The error of neglecting the second reduction" ( Bri) increases with the hour angle, and if this method is to be used it becomes necessary to determine the value of the hour angle at which this reduction would be sensible. We have
r> Bn
=A
A2
cot
A
^
C, 1
2 sin 4
H
sinl"
whence
if
we
put 6 for
Bn and
sin 1" tan C t
F= VJ
we
derive
sin 2 J*
=
A
i/&
(298)
Since
t
=

<p
5,
F and A are
but functions of
<p
and d
;
and
t
therefore by this formula
we can compute
the values of
for
any assigned value of 6, and for a series of values of <p and d. Table VILA gives the values of t in minutes computed by (298) when 6 1". That is, calling t the tabular hour angle and i
=
x
the hour angle for any assigned limit of error
sin 2 }
6,
we have
J
^
=
ipi
sin 2 J
A.
t
= sin
:
2
^ \/b
As
the limits are not required with great precision,
we may
sub
stitute for the last equation the following
If we take b
= 0".l, we have
\'b
= 0.56, or nearly J
:
hence
to
the
ia
reduction amounts limiting hour angle at which the second about J the angle given in Table VILA.
0".l
How far from the meridian may the observations the example p. 237 be extended before the error of the method of reduction there employed amounts to 1"? With Hence 30". 39, d 75, Table VILA gives ^ y rr>
EXAMPLE.
in
+
=+
=
262
the
method
is
in that
example correct within 1"
if
the observa
tions are taken within 30m of the meridian, and correct within O'M if they are taken within 15* of the meridian.
In the more exact methods of reduction given in Arts. 171 and 172, we have neglected the last term of the
Second.
development given in the note on page 239, which may be called a " third reduction/' Denoting it by c, we have
4/l
3 \
+ 3cot'C.v
sin 1"
/
whence,
if
we put
./ f
sinl"
\lf Scot* C,
we
sin 1 i
t
~ = K l/c
A
(299)
Table
c
= 1".
VELB
gives the values of *, computed by this formula, for Denoting the tabular value of t by tv we have
sin 1 i
tt
= jr
A
sin1 J
t
== sin 8 *
tt J/c
or,
with sufficient accuracy in most cases,
have nearly $ ; and hence the limiting hour angle at which the third reduction (omitted in our most exact methods) would amount to O'M is about the angle For
c
= O'M we
=^ \/c = 0.68, or
t
t/c
given in Table VII.B.
from the meridian may the observations in the example p. 243 be extended before the error of the method of reduction there employed amounts to O'M ? With  39, and  of this 38, <J 2, Table VILB gives f
EXAMPLE.
far
is
How
= = = 26m so that
t
:
*,
1" when and it is correct within O'M when the observations are taken
within
26'"
that example correct within the observations are taken within 39 of the meridian ;
the
method
is in
of the meridian.
The
limiting hour angle for a given limit of error diminishes
BY THE POLE STAR.
rapidly with the zenith distance; and hence in general very small zenith distances are to be avoided. But the observations maybe
extended somewhat beyond the limits of our tables, since the errors which affect only the extreme observations are reduced in
taking the
mean of
a series.
FOURTH METHOD.
BY THE POLE STAR.
176. The latitude may be deduced with accuracy from an altitude of the pole star observed at any time whatever, when this time is known. The computation maybe performed by (281); but when a number of successive observations are to be reduced, the following methods are to be preferred. If we put
p
=.
the star's polar distance,
we
have, by (14),
sin h == sin p cos
p
f cos
<p
sin
p cos
t
in which the hour angle t and the altitude h are derived from observation and y is the required latitude. Now, p being small we may develop <p in a series of less than 1 (at present 30'),
ascending powers of
/>,
and then employ as many terms as we
need to
attain any given degree of precision. cannot differ from the latitude by more than p:
The
if,
altitude
then,
we
put
p= h
x
will
x
;)
We
sin
be a small correction of the same order of magnitude as have*
<p
<f>
cos
sin
= sin (h = cos (h
=p
p
x) = cos h Jp* + &c.
#)
= sin h

x cos h x sin h
x sin h x9 cos h J
1
f i
& cos h + Ac. & sin h + &c.
which substituted
sin
in the
above formula for sin h give
1
j
h
=
si n
h
this
:
x cos h f p cos t cos h
(.r
2xp cos t f />*) sin h f &o.
and from
we
obtain the following general expression of the
correction
*P1. Trig. (408) and (406).
254
LATITUDE.
x =r p cos t
'i
(.r
2 #p cos
*
f
/>*)
tan A
tan A
&C.
(tf)
For a
first
approximation,
we
take
t
x = p cos
(6)
and, substituting this in the second term of (a), we find for a second approximation, neglecting the third powers of p and x,
x
= p cos
1
i
p
2
sin 2
f
tan A
(e)
Substituting this value in the second and third terms of find, as a third approximation,
JL
(a),
we
= p cos
f
{p
1
sin 3
1
tan h
+
J
p
3
cos
f
sin 2
(d)
This value, substituted
I//),
in the second, third,
and fourth terms of
gives, as a fourth approximation,
x
= p cos
4.
p
2
sin 2
4
tan A 9 sin
+
2
8
3 />
cos
2
/
sin 2
1
p
4
sin 4
f
tan 3 A
(e)
^p
(4
f) sin
1
tan A
In these formulae, to obtain x in seconds when p is given in 4 3 2 seconds, we must multiply the terms in p p and p by sin 1",
,
,
8 sin 2 1", sin 1", respectively. In order to determine the relative accuracy of these formula*,
let
us examine the several terms of the
the others.
The value of
will
1) sin
2
1
/,
last, which embraces all which makes the last term of (e) a
maximum,
of (4
be found by putting the differential coefficient
equal to zero
t
;
9 sin2
whence
t
4 sin
cos
t
(2
9 sin a
)
^
/
which
alone
for
is satisfied
by
t
=
0,
t
==
90, or
sin
2
],
the last of which
makes the second
1
30'
maximum
p
0".01 only
nearly
differential coefficient negative. 4 3 tan A 7 value of the term is, then, p sin
=
^
V
The
which
is
5400"
A
is
is
0".0018 tan
h.
is,
This can amount to
when
nearly
80,
that
is
when
the latitude
80.
This term, therefore,
wholly inappreciable in
every practical case.
BY THE POLK STAR.
255
4 sin < tau* A is a maximum for sin t = 1, The term Jp4 sin s This amounts in which case, for p = 5400", it is 0".0121 tail3 h. 0".l when h = 64, and to I", when h = 77. to For the maximum of the term J /?3 sin2 l" cos / sin2 / we have,
V
by putting the differential coefficient of cos
sin
t
t
sin
2
J
equal to zero,
(2
3 siu 2
0=0
t
which gives
the
sin
2
/
=
maximum value of this term is fp'sin2 1" /i = .4T5. Since the maximum values of this and the following terms do
;/
,
and consequently cos
= j/J
;
and hence
not occur for the same value of
their aggregate will evidently never amount to 1" in any practical case. Hence, to find the latitude by the pole star within I", we have the formula 2 A ? p cos t p* sin 1" sin 1 tan h (300)
,
=
+
The hour angle t is to be deduced from the sidereal time of the observation and the star's right ascension a, by the
formula
t
=
a
the computation of the formula (300), tables are given in every volume of the British Nautical Almanac and the Berlin Jahrbuch; but the formula is so simple that a direct
facilitate
To
computation consumes very
these tables, and
it is
little
certainly
more time than the use of more accurate.
EXAMPLE.
6,
1861, in the altitude of Polaris,
(From the Nautical Almanac for 1861). On March Longitude 37 W., at 7* 43'" 35* mean time, suppose
when
corrected for the error of the into
strument, refraction, required the latitude.
and dip of the horizon,
be 46
17'
28"
:
Mean time Sid. time mean
7*
6,
43 m
1
35'.
noon, March Reduction for 7* 43 W 35'
22 56
17
.9
16
.2
Reduction for Long. 2* 28* Sidereal time
24.3
March
6,
p= 1
25' 32".7
a
t
= = =
6 42
1
3
.4
I
7
39.0
5 34
24.4
==83
36' 6"
256
LATITUDE*
(300),
Hence, by formula
log;?
3.71035
2
log
j?
t
It
7.4207 9.9946
9.04704 log cos/ 1st term 2.75739 log
2 log sin
log tun
0.0196
log Jsinl"
4.3845
= 46 17' 28" 9 32 1st term = " = f_ 6 2d
A
1
<p
log 2d term 1.8194
.0 .0
=r 46
9~
2 .0
<p
By
the Tables in the Almanac,
= 46
9'
1"
177. If we take all the terms of (e) except the last, which have shown to be insignificant, we have the formula
we
<p
=h
is
p
cos
f
+
$/>* sin
t
1" sin 2
1
1
tan h
sin*
t
$p>
sin* 1" cos
sin 2
+
all
8 %p* sin 1"
tan' h
(301)
which
exact within 0".01 for instruments. a
latitudes less than
75, and
serves for the reduction of the most refined observations with
firstclass
If
we have taken
number of
altitudes in succession, the
separate reduction of each by this formula will be very laborious. To facilitate the operation, PETERREN has computed very convenient tables, which are given in SCHUMACHER'S Hiilfstafeln,
edited by
WARNSTORFF.
:
These tables give the values of the
following quantities
a
in
which pQ
= p cos $p* sin*l" cos sin = iA dn 1" sin'* ^ = ^ p (p* pj) cin 1" cos sin* = sin !" sin nan h = 1 30' = 5400". Then, putting
t
+
t
8
1
f
ft
2
t
t
*
8
4
8
fi
A = P_
Po
log
A = log p
3.7323938
the formula (301) becomes
<p
h
(/la
+ A) + AV tan h f
BY TWO ALTITUDES.
Putting then
257
X
= Aa, +
~
;
y == A*p tan A
+
y
/*
we have
<p
(302)
n
j; f
or,
when
the zenith distance
is
observed,
90
?
=C+
a:
y
The first table gives a with the argument /; the second, ft with the argument t; the third, A with the arguments p and ; and the fourth, /* with the arguments y and p, <p being used for A in
so small a term.
To reduce a series of altitudes or zenith distances by these the mean of the true altitudes or tables, we take for A or distances for a and ft the means of the tabular numbers zenith corresponding to the several hour angles, with which we find Aa and A*ft cot The mean values of the very small quanti;
.
ties
>l
and
{I
the
mean
are sensibly the same as the values corresponding to of the hour angles so that A is taken out but once for
;
A
the arguments polar distance and mean hour angle, and // is taken with the arguments y and the approximate value of y 2 Illustrative examples are given in connection with cot ft
=
.
the tables.
FIFTH METHOD.
TIONS.
178.
BY TWO ALTITUDES OF THE SAME STAR, OR DIF. FERENT STARS, AND THE ELAPSED TIME BETWEEN THE OBSERVA
Let
S and
S', Fig. 25,
be any two points of
'
***
the celestial sphere,
Z the
Pthe pole. Suppose
at
zenith of the observer, that the altitudes of stars seen
S and
S', either at the
times, are observed,
same time or different and that the observer has the
;
means of determining the angle SPS' also that the right ascensions and declinations of the stars are known. From these data we can find both the
local time.
latitude
is
A graphic solution (upon
and
it
an
artificial
globe)
and the indeed
quite simple,
will
throw
light
upon the analytic
solution.
With
the
I.
known
17
polar distances of the stars and the angle
SPS'9
VOL,
258
LATITUDE.
let the triangle SPS' be constructed. Prom S and $' as poles describe small circles whose radii (on the surface of the sphere)
sect in the zenith
are the given zenith distances of Sand S' these small circles interof the observer, and, consequently, determine
:
Z
PZ, or the colatitude, and at the same time the hour ZPS', from either of which with the star's right angles ascension we deduce the local time. This graphic solution shows clearly that the problem has, in general, two solutions for the small circles described from & and 8' as poles intersect in two points, and thus determine the zenith of another observer who at the same instants of time might have observed the same altitudes of the same stars. The analytic solution will, therefore, also give two values of the latitude; but in practice the obthe distance
ZPS and
;
server always has an approximate knowledge of the latitude, which generally suffices to distinguish the true value, j;
?
Let us consider
(A.)
first
the most general case.
,:!<,*
Two
different stars observed at different times.
Let
h, h' rzr the true altitudes, corrected for refraction, &c., T, T' =^ the clock times of observation,
&T,&T'
a, a'
d,
~ the right ascensions, and
=rr
the corresponding corrections of the clock,
d
r
the declinations of the stars at the times of the observations respectively, the hour angles of the stars at the times of the
t,f~
X
=
t
f
t
<p
= the difference of the hour angles, = the latitude of the observer
:
observations respectively,
then
we
have,
t
if
the clock
is
sidereal,
t
A
= T + AT a ^ T'+ AT'= (T' T) + (A2P
a'
1 ,
AT)
('
a)
(304)
values of
vations.
a formula which does not require a knowledge of the absolute *T and A T but only of their difference; that is, of the rate of the clock in the interval between the two obserIf the clock
*T'
AT
is
T regulated to mean time, the interval T to be converted into a sidereal interval by adding
1
is
+
the acceleration, Art. 49. have next to obtain formulae for determining
We
<p
and
t
or
/'
BY TWO ALTITUDES.
259
from the data
tions, the first
A, A',
<J,
3',
and L
the one
I shall give
two general
solu
of which
is
commonly known.
Let the observed points 8 and S' be joined by an arc of a great circle SS'. In the triangle PSS' there are 90 3, PS' <?', and the angle SPS' given the sides PS= 90 = ^, from which we find the third side S8' J?, and the angle PS' of Art. 10] P, by the formula [
First' Solution.
=
8=
cos
sin
sin
/?
B
P
= sin
rj'
sin
cos
Pin
P ^ cos
+
>l
cos
<J'
cos d cos A
>l
<T sin d
sin $' cos d cos
B
cos d
sin
or,
adapted for logarithmic computation,
m M
5
sin
cos cos
M M
P
P
sin

<J
 cos
?/i
<)
cos
I
/? :=.
cos
(M
sin A
O
')
\ \
I
/
(305)
sin 2? cos sin
m
=^
sin (Jlf
r)
sin
cos
ZS =
In the triangle Z88' there are now known the three sides 90 90  A, JSSf ; 5, and hence the angle A', 5S' Z8'S~= Q, by the formula employed in Art. 22:
=
.in0 =
Now, putting
there are
J(.^#^^ V
\
cos
;
(
/i
sin J5
306) ;
/
known
A/,
<f>,
^'==90
PZ=^ 90
in the triangle PZS' the sides PS' = 90 ^', and the angle PS'Z^q, from which the side and the angle S'PZ^ t', are found by the formulse
sin
<p
~ sin
..r~
J' sin A' j
cos
(J'
cos
h'
cos
</
cos
oos
<p
cos f
sin f
cos
tV sin A' A' sin
~
sin $' cos A' cos ^
y>
cos
#
or,
adapted for logarithmic computation,
n sin
??
cos xV
^>
'
N == sin = cos cos ~ cos (A" sin
A'
A'
/i
(307)
cos ^ cos cos ^P sin
f
if
sin (^Y r= cos A' sin
^:
/i
260
LATITUDE.
formulae (305) and (307) leave no doubt as to the quadrant But we may in which the unknown quantities are to be taken.
The
take the radical in (306) with either the positive or the negative Q, therefore, either in the first or fourth quadrant. sign, aiid
If
we take

Q always
in the first quadrant, the values of q will
be
?PT
,
Q
and either value may be used in (307); whence two values of <p and t'. That value of ^ however, which agrees best with the
known approximate
There
is
latitude
is
to be
taken as the true value.
method of distinguishing which value of q will give the true solution for, if A' and A are the azimuths of the triangle ZSS' the angle 8ZS'  A 8' and /S, we have in A,
also another
;
9
and
sin
Q
= sin (A'
A
A
A)
^
sin
B
in
are always positive. Hence Q is posiwhich cos h arid sin 1 is less or tive or negative according as greater than 180. The observer will generally be able to decide this the only cases
:
B
of doubt will be those where A' and
are very nearly equal or is 180 ; but, as we shall see hereafter, where 1 very nearly these cases are very unfavorable for the determination of the latitude, and are, therefore, always to be avoided in practice If the great circle 88 f passes north of the zenith, we shall have
A
A
A
A
'
A
negative, or greater than 180
:
criterion
we must
take
qP
:
hence we have also
this
Q
or
q~ P + Q according
1
;
as the
great circle
SS' passes
south or north of the zenith.
Second Solution.
Bisect the arc 88', Fig. 25, in 7
join
PT
and ZT, and put
H = the altitude of T = 90
T
D = the declination
angle
C
= ST=S'T,
of
T=
90
PT,
ZT,
P = the
Q
q
= the hour angle of
T
ZPT,
= the angle ZTS, = the angle PTZ.
PTS,
We have
sin 1
in the triangle
sin 8 }(<>
PSS' [Sph.
cos* J X
Trig. (25)]
\
C=
O
+
cos 2
(d
+
1 *') sin } J
BY TWO ALTITUDES.
cr,
261
adapted for logarithmic computation, by introducing an
sin
auxiliary angle JE,
sin
C sin C cos
E = sin J E = cos J
(<J
')
f <J')
cos }
/I
(3
sin } 4
have the angle PTS P, and therefore in the triangle S'PT we have the angle PTS' 180 P, the cosine of which will be cos P: hence, from these triangles we have the equations
In the triangle
8PT we
=
=
=
sin
D cos C +
(7
cos
cos
sin .D cos
D sin C cos P = sin D sin cos P = sin d'
fl
(7
whence
2 sin
2 cos
.
D sin
D cos = sin d + sin C cos P = sin d sin
(7
(5')
<5'
<5'
_.
sin } (S +
cos J
(<J
')
cos
,
_ cos
j
(<?
+
(309;
^Q
sin j (^
(7
^Q
cos
D sin
we
which determine
D and P after
ZTS and ZTS'
In precisely the same manner the equations
sin i (A
sin
(7
has been found from (308).
derive from the triangles
+ A')

cos J (A ~
cos
C
(;
j
A')
(310)
cos
cos Q =
^
} (h
^
+ A') sin ~r cos H sin
Then
formula
in the triangle
P5PZ we have
the angle
PTZ, by
the
and hence the equations
sin
<f>
cos ^ cos r cos f sin T
=
= in /) sin = cos D
//
//
+
cos
/)
cos IT cos j
siri
sin /> cos
^Tcos ^
T
cos
sin q
262
LATITUDE.
these for logarithmic computation, let ft and f be deter
To adapt
mined by the conditions*
cos cos
ft
ft
cos sin f cos f =. sin Bin cos
= =
H cos q
JET
JET
^
I
sin #
(311)
J
then
<p
and
r are
found by the equations
sin
tf
.= cos
cos p cos T cos y> sin T
= cos = sin
t',
/5
sin
ft
ft
cos
(D (D
f p)
f
^
p)
I
)
(312)
To
find the hour angles
t
and
let
a?
= r  K*' +
T
if
then, since
H = $(t't), we have
H+ = H x=
or
f
T
= the angle ^ the angle
sin (J A
TPS,
TPS',
and from the triangles
sin (i ^ sin
PTS and PTS' we
sin
have
#)
sin
+ x)
C
)
P
<$
P
'
cos
sin
C
^'
5'
(
cos
whence
sin (J ^ sin (} A
+x 8n J^ + x) + sin (J x
^
(
^')
cos
x)
cos
f CO8 <*
and, consequently,
tan x
= tan
i (5
+
<J')
tan
J (5
5')
tan
J I
(313)
Hence,
finally,
v
;
As when
in the first solution, the value of q will
become
= P+ Q
the arc joining the observed places of the stars passes north
of the zenith.
EXAMPLE. 1856 March 5, in the assumed Latitude 39 17' N. and Longitude 5* 6 36" W., suppose the following altitudes
* The equations (Bll) can always be satisfied, since the 1. the identical equation 1
~
sum of their squares
gives
BY TWO ALTITUDES.
(already
263
corrected for refraction) to have been obtained; the
time being noted by a
mean
solar
chronometer whose daily rate
10*.32 losing. The star Arcturus was not far from the prime vertical east of the meridian ; Spica was near the meridian.
was
Arcturus, h
Spica,
h!
= =
18
6'
30"
40
4 43
9
8'
= + 19 = 10 = =
to
14*
55' 44".6
24 39
.5
a
a'
9
6'.79
13
17 37 .72
T = 9* 40" 24'.8 T = 14 38 16.7 T T= 4 57 51 S = +2.1 Corr. for rate time = Red. to + 48.9 = 4 58 42 Sid. interval = 51 29 a = 5 50 12 = 87 33'
Chronometer
sid.
a'
.1
.9
I
.0
0".
According
by
(305),
our first
solution,
we
obtain,
B
= 91
15' 52".5
P=
Q
q
69
57' 54".7
and, by (306),
whence
Then, by
(307),
= 64 = 5
51 24
.8 .9
6 29
we
find
17' 20"
p
= 39
^
= 5S'"0"=
a'
2012. .= 13 17 37 .72
Sidereal time of the observation of Spica Sidereal time at mean Greenwich noon
= 13 = 22 = = = 14
37 49 .72
53 39 .83
9 .89
14 44
Acceleration for 14* 44* 9.8$ " longitude time of the observation of Spica
2
24 .85
50.23
Moan
40 54
.81
Chronometer correction at that time, A T ~ +
2 W 88*.ll
According to the second
solution,
we prepare
J(A \(h
the quantities
29
10
H=4346'30"
with which
}(*+*')= 445'32".6
}(^
+ A')=
A')
^)=,15 1012.1
=
5'36".5
59
6.5
we
find,
by
(308), (309),
and
(310),
log tan
E=
C C
9.437854
I) =,
6
34' 32".0
log sin log COH
= 9.854225 = 9.844639
P
Q
q
=
==
68 108
27 22 35 12
7 49
.2
.1
9.834176 log sin cos ff=. 9.863785 log
H^
=
40
.9
264
LATITUDE.
(The auxiliaries C and IT are not themselves required: we take their cosines from the table, employing the sines as argument*.) We now find, by (311), (312), (313), and (81,4V log sin p =_ /i<J.G73029 9.945532 log cos /*
r
=
== 322
30'
51" .3
.3
x
r
39
18'
4".0
.0
.
D
4. r
?
= 45 = 39
T
a;
52 36
17 20
i A
*
= 1 14 21 = 321 16 30 = 21* 25* = 2 55 6 = 18 30
20
12
6
f=
agreeing precisely with the results of the
first solution.
179. In the observation of lunar distances, as we shall see hereafter, the altitudes of the moon and a star are observed at the same instant with the distance of the objects. The observed distance is reduced to the true geocentric distance, which
is
the arc
B of
the above first
solution,
or 2
6 of the
Y
second.
The
observation of a lunar distance with the altitudes of the objects furnishes, therefore, the data for finding the latitude, the local
time,
and the longitude.
180. (B.) In this case fixed star observed at two different times. the declination is the same at both observations, and the general
A
The hour angle
between
the
formulae of the preceding articles take much more simple forms. ^ is in this case merely the elapsed sidereal time
observations,
the
formula
(304),
since
<x
= a',
becoming here
J
= (T'
D
T)
+
(AT"
AT)
(315)
p= 90; and
Putting
S' for
Cand
sin
S in (308) and (309), we find are found by the equations
H = 0,
cos
P=
0,
C=
cos d sin i
A,
sin
D=
cos
last
C
(816)
Since
we have
sin
q
=P
==.
Q = 90
.H"
<J>,
the
two equations of
(311) give
p
cos
cos Q,
COB Y ~
Hh ff *QQ
ft
BY TWO ALTITUDES.
which, by (310), become*
.
265
.
Bin a
= cos

J (h f A') sin J (A
A') ~
sinC
COS f
sin t (A
+ *') cos J
cos
ft
"(A
A')
cos
G
by the following:
Then
(p
and
r are
found by
<p
.(312),
or rather
sin
= cos
tan r
=
tan/9
ft
sin
(D
+ Y)
.
or sin T
=

sin/9
~
(818)
os ?
The hour
angles at the two observations are
i::;!!
Here
p,
}
<>
tive or a negative angle,
being determined by its cosine, may be either a posiand we obtain two values of the latitude
in (318). The first value will + f or by taking either jbe taken when the great circle joining the two positions of the star passes north of the zenith the second, when it passes south of the zenith. The solution may be slightly varied by finding by the
;
D
D
D
formula
tan
D=
^cos
U
(320, V 7
obtained directly from the triangle PTS (Fig. 25), which is rightcan then disangled at T when the declinations are equal. with C by writing the formulae (317) as follows pense
We
:
g} n o
_. cos i(h
+
A') sin j (A
A
h9 )
(321)
cos 8 sin i
cos y
^ = sin J (A
cos J (A ( A') cos ft sin d
'
A') sin } 
.
4 The formulae (815), (316), and (317) are essentially the same as those for this case by M. CAILLBT in his Manuel du Navigateur, Nantes, 1818. given
first
266
181. (C.)
LATITUDE.
The sun observed at two different times. In this case is the elapsed apparent solar time. If then the times T and T' are observed by a mean solar chronometer, and the equation of time at the two observations is e and e (positive
the hour angle I
f
when
additive to apparent time),
A
we have
A T)
f
= (T
T
7
) f
(
A
T
(e
e)
(322)
Taking then the declinations 3 and 3' for the two times of obserwe can proceed by the general methods of Art. 178. as the declinations differ very little, we can assume their But, mean i.e. the declination at the middle instant between the observations as a constant declination, and compute at least an
vation,
approximate value of the latitude by the simple formulae for a
fixed star in the preceding article. can, however, readily, correct the resulting latitude for the error of this assumption.
We
obtain the correction, we recur to the rigorous formulae of our second solution in Art. 178. The change of the sun's declination
To
being never greater than
1'
=
per hour,
we may put
and
(309),
cos $(3
3')
1.
Making
this substitution in (308)
and putting 3
for J(5
and &3
wiM 8 *g n ify the mean of the declinations, so that A() will signify onehalf the increase 3) of the sun's declination from the first to the second observation
$')
+
R0 that $
for $(3'
(positive
when
the sun
is
moving northward), we
shall
have
tan
E=
r.
6 ]n
cos 3 tan
J A
But ^5 diminishes with ^, so that J& always remains a small quantity of the same order as A<?; and hence we may also put Thus the second equation of (308) gives cos J?= 1.
sin
C=
cos
ti
sin } A
and the
first
of (309)
sin 3
cos
C
which are the same as
declination
is
(316), as
given for the case where the
absolutely invariable.
Hence no
sensible error
is
produced,
in the values of
C and
D by the use of
the
mean
de
BY TWO ALTITUDES.
clination.
267
(309)
But by the second equation of
:
P will
no longer
be exactly 90
if
then
we put
P=
we
have, by that equation,
bin
90
+ AP
Atf
A
= cos 3 sin
cos
sin
Ad
sin J
D sin
cos
C
cos
D
or simply
D
sin } A
Then, since q
=P
,
we have
2
= 90  Q + AP
is
The
rigorous formula for the latitude
sin
<p
= sin .D sin H + cos
Z)
cos
H cos #
= 90
in
which when we use the mean declination we take q
Q: therefore, to find the correction of <p corresponding to a correction of q AP, we have by differentiating this equation, Jj
~
and
H being invariable,
cos
y>
.
by
=
cos
A'?
D
cos
cos
H
sin q
.
A/7
H cos
Q
sin J A
We
have found in the preceding
article sin
ft
= cos H"eos
$;
and hence
cos
sin i A
JP
In the case of the sun, therefore,
latitude
<p
we compute
the approximate
the
mean
by the formula (316), (317), and (318), employing for 8 declination. then find A^> by (323) (which in
We
additional labor, since the logarithms of sin ft volves very and sin %A have already occurred in the previous computation),
little
and then we have the true latitude
If we wish also to correct the hour angle r found by this method, we have, from the second equation of (47) applied to
268
LATITUDE.
the triangle (taking b and c to denote the sides T, which are here constant),
PTZ
PT and
Z
AT :=
cos
H cos A .AP
COS
<f>
in
which
triangle
A is the PTZ
cos
azimuth of the point
cos
T.
But we have
cos
sin Z>
in the
H cos A = sin
Ar
<p
D cos r
<p
Substituting this and the value of AP,
and, substituting the value of tan JD (320),
AT
=
sin J A
A
A<*
we have
tan
/tan CP cos r r
D) '
/
i
tan y cos r
tan 5
cos
i /
V
1
\
/
When
this correction is
added to
r,
be found by the rigorous formulae, and also the correction x according to (314).
have,
we have the value that would we have then to apply In the present case we
i A
by
(313),
x
=
A<5
tan d tan
and the complete formulae
t
for the
hour angles
jr
(
and V become
= T + AT ~ f^T+AT.tf+J*
Putting
y
=r.
i A
AT
X
x,
we
find,
by substituting the above values of AT and
y
\
/tan^co.r^jtan^i taniA/ sinj/l
^
and then we have
(325
corrections Ay> and ^ are computed with sufficient accuwith fourplace logarithms, and, therefore, add but little to racy the labor of the computation. Nevertheless, when both latitude and time are required with the greatest precision, it will be preferable to
The
compute by the rigorous
formulae.
BY TWO ALTITUDES.
209
EXAMPLE.
suppose we
1856 March 10, in Lat. 24
:
K,
Long. 30
all
W.,
obtain two altitudes of the sun as follows, find the latitude. tions being applied
0* 30
correc
At app. time
"
h
h'
4 30
}>l=
^2*
0;
=
H* + A')
J
30
(A
A')
^ 61 = 18 = 89 = 21
11' 38".3
(d )
=
3 3
51' 52".8
46 35
59
7
.8
.1
(O=
d
A<J
47 57
55
.4
.1
12 31
.3
= 3~49 = +
1'
57".7
The following
(316), (317),
is
the form of computation by the formulae
and
(318),
employed by BOWDITCH
in his Practical
Navigator, the reciprocals of the equations (316) and of the second of (317) being used to avoid taking arithmetical comple
This form is convenient when the tables give the secants and cosecants, as is usual in nautical works.
ments.
cosec
secrf
$
A
0.301030
0.000972
.............
cos
cosec n 1.1 75024
cos
cosec
C
0.302002
9.937854
........
D=
4
25' 21".3
9.937854
cos } (h sin \(h
sin/?
+
h')
9.884347
cosec 0.192065
sec
cosec wl. 112878
h')
9.558428
9.744777
0.080469
9.919829
0.080207
cos
*ec
........
?=
4 y
=,
cos
9.919829
33
45 88
20 16
2'
.0
.7
D
29 24
sin sin
9.690161
=
23".2
9^609990
If the approximate latitude had not been given, we might also r 38 10' 59".8, and then we should have have taken had
D
=
C080
sin
?,
9.919829
=
we
(D
sin
r) n9.791113
30
55' 44".3
?
w
To
correct the
first
value of the latitude for the change of
declination,
have, by (323),
log A
sin
ft
2.0708 9.7448
i x
cosec
sec
<p
0.3010
0.0394
Ap^
and hence the true
143".2
log ASP
n2.1560
latitude is
2'
= 24
23".2
2'
23".2
= 24
V
0"
270
LATITUDE.
which agrees exactly with the value computed by the rigorous
formulae.
The approximate time is found by the with but one new logarithm we have
:
last
equation of (318)
in
ft
9.744777
cos? 9.960596
r
= 37
(325),
28'
28"
sin r 9.784181
By
(324)
and
we
find
r
+y=
t
~
37
0*
30'
0"
0'

2*
30_
30"
f
4* 30* 0'
which are perfectly
182. (D.)
is
exact.
7V;o equal altitudes of (he same star, or of tie sun. This a very useful one in practice with the sextant when equal altitudes have been taken for determining the time by the method
case
of Art. 140.
sin
<p
By
fl
putting
1,
h' =
=D+
ft
0,
cos

r
We
(318) gives sin have, therefore, for this case,
.,
and hence
k in the formulae (317), ~ sin
(f
we
find
(D
+
\
p),
or
by
(320)
and
(321),
tan 1 )
=
tan
cos
ft
 
cos Y
D  sin
A sin
:
ti
i
A
sin
which
is
the
method of
Art. 164 applied as proposed in Art. 165.
give Y the double sign, and obtain for the reasons already stated.
We
two values of the
latitude,
The time will be most conveniently found by Art. 140. The method there given is, however, embraced in the solution of the
0, present problem. For, since we here have sin /9 have r 0, and the hour angles given by (325) become
=
we
also
=
t
y f =, y
= U
+
U
BY TWO ALTITUDES.
the
271
mean of which
gives
that
is,
y
is
the correction of the
mean
of the times of obser
vation to obtain the time of apparent noon 0''. was denoted in Art. 140 by AT and since cos r
;
This correction
~
0,
the formula
(824) gives,
when
divided by 15 to reduce
A<J
it
to seconds of time,
tan
<p
A<$
tan d
15 sin JA
15 tan jM
identical with (262). Thus it appears that (262) is but a particular case of the formula (324), which I suppose to be new. The latitude found by (326) will require no correction, since sin /? 0. 0, and therefore A^>
which
is
=
NOTE. The preceding solutions of the problem of finding the latitude and time by two altitudes leave nothing to be desired on the score of completeness and accuracy but some brief approximative methods, used only by navigators, will be
;
treated of
among
the methods of finding the latitude at sea, and in Chapter VIII.
183. I proceed to discuss the effect of errors in the data upon the latitude and time determined by two altitudes, and hence
also the conditions
Errors of altitude. by the relation V
errors in both
;
most favorable to accuracy. Since the hour angles t and V are connected t f ^, the errors of altitude produce the same A being correct, we have dt = dt and for for,
=
f
;
either of these
we may
also put
c/r,
since
x $(t+t'), and x is not general solution of Art. 178, T affected by errors of altitude. Now, we have the general relations
sin
=
<?
we
have, in the second
h
f
sin h
= sin = sin
<p y>
sin d
j1
cos
cos d cos
$'
t
1
/Q97\
sin d

cos y cos
cos
t'
)
which, by differentiation relatively to
equations (51)]
h,
<p,
and
/,
give [see
dh
dh'
cos
=
A d<p
cos A* d<p
cos y sin A dr cos <p sin A'dr
in
which
A
and A' denote the azimuths of the two
stars, or.
of
the same star at the two observations.
272
LATITUDE.
dip
Eliminating dr and
successively,
sin A'
we
,
find
j
i
sin
__
A
^
.
sin
f
_
/
j *
(A

^.)
sin
\
dh
(328)
cos f dr
~
sin
cos A!
9
Jf
cos
sin (A'
.4
(A
A)
4)
These equations show
of altitude as
that, in
order to reduce the effect of error*
much
as possible,
we must make
sin (A*
A)
a*
great as possible,
and hence A'
A, the difference of the
azi
muths, should be as nearly 90 as possible. If we suppose A' A 90, we have
=
h
cos <pdr
=
+
sinAdhf
and, under the same supposition, if one of the altitudes is neat the meridian the other will be near the prime vertical. If, then,
the altitude h
sin
is
near the meridian, sin
A
will
be small while
A' is nearly unity, and the error dy will depend chiefly on the term sin A'dh. At the same time, cos A will be nearly unity and cos A' small, so that the error dr will depend chiefly on the
term coaAdh'. Hence the accuracy of the resulting latitude will depend chiefly upon that of the altitude near the meridian and the accuracy of the time chiefly upon that of the altitude near
;
the prime vertical. If the observations are taken upon the same star observed at and the equal distances from the meridian, we have A' 9
= A
general expressions (328)
become
dh
+ dh
A
dh
^4
1
2 cos
cos <pdr
dh
2 sin
1
The most favorable condition for determining both latitude and time from equal altitudes is sin A cos A, or A 45.
=
=
Errors
in
the observed clock times.
An
error in the observed
;
time
may
dT
is
the error of
be resolved into an error of altitude for if we say that T at the observation of the altitude h. it
JA
T
TWO ALTITUDES.
273
amounts
f
to saying either that the time corresponds to he altitude A, or that corresponds to the altitude A dh, dh
T
dT
T
being the increase of altitude in the interval dT. may, therefore, consider the time jTas correctly observed while A is iu dh. error by the quantity Conversely, we may assume that the altitudes are correct while the times are erroneous. The discussion of the errors under the latter form, while it can lead
+ We
no new results, is, nevertheless, have, from the formula (304),
to
sufficiently interesting.
We
da
= dT
dT
The general equations (327), are correct, give
upon the supposition that A and A
= =
where we put dt
find
cos
cos
A dy A dip
1
cos ^ sin A dt cos <p sin A' (dt
+ dfy
Eliminating
<ft,
+
rf/
for
dt',
since /'==<
+
x.
w*
fy
= eos *
>s
*'"
i!l
dl
(829)
Eliminating
d<p,
,
~~ ~~
sin A' cos sin
9
A
A)
(A
and similarly
.
ox i=
sin
A
(A
cos A'
r
,, ax
sin
A) x
But we have from the formula
dr ^r
}
r
=J +
(t
*')
(dt
+
dt')
and hence
Sill
(^1
^~
A^
'
i*A
rinM'
If
i)
T
T
by
#,
/OOA\
(
we denote
the clock correctipn at the time
we
shall
have
and
VOL.
L
18
274
or, if
LATITUDE.
we deduce & from
the second observation, the rate being
supposed correct,
dS^dV
The mean
is
</r
Substituting the value of dr and also
after reduction,
rfA
= dT
'
f
dT,
we
find,
dT>
sin
(4' A)
sin (4'
A)
J (331) V
The
conclusions above obtained as to the conditions favorable to
the accurate determination of either the latitude or the time arc, In addievidently, confirmed by the equations (329) and (331).
d& = dT;
amount.
and dT, we have dip a constant error in noting the clock time produces no error in the latitude, but affects the clock correction by its whole
tion,
we may
observe that
if
AT
1
=
=
Errors of
tively to A
declination.
These errors may
also
be resolved into
errors of altitude.
By
differentiating the equations (327) rela
and
<J,
we
dh
find
= cos qdd,
dh
r
= cos q'dd'
in
which q and q are the parallactic angles at the two observaf
tions respectively.
resulting values of
If these values are substituted in (328), the and dr will be the corrections required in <l<p
f
and hour angle for the mrors dd and dd noting these corrections by &<p and AT, we have
the latitude
sin
ftp
^z.
;*
and, de
A
9
cos*/ ~
...
,
CLo 4
sin (A'
A)
dd
,
A co&q ... do' sin(^'^)
sin
9
>=
COB
f>
AT
=
cos A! cos q ~~
sin (A'
%
cos
sin
A
9
(332)
cos q
9
^~
dd'
,
,
A)
(A
A)
If the observation h
vertical,
is
we have
~
tup
on th'e meridian, and h f on the prime dd and in the same case we have, by
;
founded.
a
* The error of a quantity and the correction for this error are too frequently conThey are numerically equal, but have opposite signs. If a should be
x, it is too
great
z.
by z;
its
error
is \
x; but the correction to reduce
it
to it*
true value is
BY TWO AI/TITUDBS.
(328),

'275
and the total correction of the latitude d$, precisely the same as if the meridian observation were the only one. Hence there is no advantage in combining an observation on the meridian with another remote from it, in
dtp
rfA,
==
+
dlt
or, still better,
the determination of latitude: a simple meridian observation, a series of circummeridian observations, is always
is
preferable if the time is approximately known. When the sun is observed and the mean declination
emA<J>
ployed, putting A
and, by (332),
__
f
I
(d
0),
we have dd
=
A,
dd'
=
sin A' cos q
+ sin A cos (f
A)
sin (A'
which, by substituting
,,
sing' cos
*5
j
8 ^ n 9 CO8 ^
cos
<p
cos
A
y>
becomes
"
'
'
~
"""
co.s
f
3
sin (A'
(333)
A)
y
This
If,
is
when
but another expression of the correction (323). the sun is observed, instead of employing
declination
altitude,
do'
this case
the mean we employ the declination belonging to the greater which we may suppose to be A, we shall have d8 0,
2 A*J; and, denoting the correction of the latitude in
by
A'^>
w
<
have, by (332),
.
A'^>
=
2 sin
A cos q'
.
,
A'S
~
2 sin0 cost/ cos d ^
sin (A'
A<*
sin (A'
A)
A) COH <p
will A'^ bo numerically less than A^? both observations arc on the same side of the meridian, the condition A'^ A^ gives
First.
Under what conditions
If
<
2 sin q cos
q'
<
sin (q'
(
q)
or
2 sin q cos
q'
< sin
tan q
q'
cos q tan
\
cos
tf sin
q
whence
<
</'
which condition
is
always
satisfied
when
A
is
the greater altitude
Secondly. If the observations are
on different sides of the
276
LATITUDE.
meridian, 5 and q* will have opposite signs, and we shall have, The condition numerically^ sin (q q) instead of sin (q + ?)
f r
A'JP
< ap,
then, requires that
2 sin q cos
q'
< sin
tan q
^'
cos
cos
q' sin
y
or
<
tan
g'
Therefore A y>' will be greater than A^ owJy when the observations are on opposite sides of the meridian and tan q tan q In cases where an approximate result suffices, as at sea, and tho correction &<p is omitted to save computation, it will be expedient
>
f
.
to
employ the decimation
single case just mentioned.*
at the greater altitude, except in the But to distinguish this case with
should have to compute the angles q andy'; and Since the approximate criterion must suffice. increase with the hour angles, we may substiparallactic angles tan q' the more simple one tute for the condition tan q
accuracy
therefore an
we
>
t
>
t',
which gives
2
or
(t
and t being only the numerical values of the hour angles)
Hence we derive
this
very simple practical rule
:
employ
the sun's
declination at the greater altitude, except when the time of this altitude is farther from noon than the middle time, in which case employ /Ac
mean
declination.
The
and
t
value of
cos
+ =
f
greatest error committed under this rule is (nearly) tho f t. t in (323), when r But since in this case 3t A^>
=
t
<p
= J ^, and therefore sin p = cos <p sin r A, we have T sin \ L This reduces (323) to &<p = J &d sec J L
6*,
,
Since \ will seldom exceed
&d will
riot
exceed
3',
and the
maximum
will
error will not exceed T.6.
1',
In most cases the error
cient at sea.
*<p
a degree of approximation usually quite suffiNevertheless, the computation of the correction our formula (323) is so simple that the careful navigator by
be under
* BOWDITCH and navigators generally employ in all oases the mean declination lut the above discussion proves that, if the cases are not to be distinguished, it will he better always to employ the declination at the greater altitude.
:
BY TWO EQUAL ALTITl'DKP.
will prefer to
277
to obtain the
employ the mean declination and
exact result by applying this correction in
all cases.
SIXTH METHOD.
BY TWO ALTITUDES OF THE SAME OR DIFFERENT WITH THE DIFFERENCE OF THEIR AZIMUTHS. STARS,
184. Instead of noting the times corresponding to the observed altitudes, we may observe the azimuths, both altitude and azi
once by the Altitude and Azimuth instrument or the Universal Instrument. The instrument gives L The computation of the latitude the difference of azimuths and the absolute azimuth A of one of the stars may then be
at
muth being obtained
performed by the formulae of the preceding method, only interA for L changing altitudes and declinations and putting 180 been found, we may also find t by the usual methods. When A has
SEVENTH METHOD. BY TWO DIFFERENT STARS OBSERVED AT THE SAME ALTITUDE WHEN THE TIME IS GIVEN.
185.
By this method
the latitude
is
found from the declinations
of the two stars and their hour angles deduced from the times of observation, without employing the altitude itself, so that the result is free from constant errors (of graduation, &c.) of the instrument
with which the altitude
'
is
observed.
Let
0, a
,
a'
d,
t,
$'
t'
h
<p
= the sidereal times of the observations, = the right ascensions of the stars, " " = the declinations " " = the hour angles = the altitude of either star,
the latitude
;
then, the hour angles being found
t
by the equations
f
=
sin
<p <p
a
sin
^ &<f>
a'
we have
sin A
<J
sin h
= sin
f
cos
cos d cos
'
t
sin d' f cos
y cos
cos f
Prom
the difference of these
y>
we deduce
t
tan
(sin d'
sin
)
= cos d cos = (COS rJ
cos d' cos f COS d') (COS cos <*') (cos
t t
+
+
(cos a
+
COS f) cos f )
278
LATITUDE.
and, by resolving the quantities in parentheses into their factory
tan
if
= tan
+
i (d'
+
<J)
cos
J
(f
+
f)
cos
J
(f
t)
f)
cot }
(V
d) sin
l(f
+t)
sin * (f ~~
If
now we put
m
iw
sin Jf sin J (f cos J/rrr cos i (f
=
f)
cot J (<T
a)
t)
tan
} (5'
we have
tan ?
+
d)
}(334)
(335)
= m cos [J (f +
f)
Jf]
The equations (334) determine m and J!f, and then found by (335) in a very simple manner.
It is
the latitude
is
important to determine the conditions which must govern
the selection of the stars and the time at which they are to be observed. For this purpose we differentiate the above expressions for sin h relatively to (f and t. The error in the hour angles is composed of the error of observation and the error of the clock
correction.
If
we put
T, T'
AT
= the observed (sidereal) clock time, = the clock correction, $T = the rate of the clock in a unit of clock time,
A
we
shall
have
f
=
T+
T

a,
f
=T+
A
T
f
3T( T
jT)
a'
is suffi
Differentiating these, assuming that the rate of the clock ciently well known, we have
dt
= dT+ <1T,
1
dt'
= (IT
H
dT
are the errors in the observed times, and 'A 7 The differential equations are the error in the clock correction.
in
which dT,
dT
then
dh dh
in
cos
=
Ji
Ady
cos jl'ety
COR ^ sin A AT f cos y sin A' dT

cos
<p
sin
A d&T
cos ^ sin A' d
stars.
&T
which
and J/ are the azimuths of the
The
difference
of these equations gives
J<?
sin
A
cos 4'
.
sin A'
swho
cos
A
cos
A
A
fina A?
^ ?T
,
sin
4
A
;
sin
A
cos A*
cos
9
cos A
BY TWO EQUAL ALTITUDES.
279
of
The denominator
the azimuths
is
cos
A
cos A*
is
a
maximum when one
zero and the other 180, that is, when one of the stars is south and the other north of the observer. To satisfy this condition as nearly as possible, two stars are to be selected
the
mean of whose declinations is nearly equal to the latitude, and the common altitude at which they are to be observed will be equal to or but little less than the meridian altitude of the star which culminates farthest from the zenith. It is desirable,
the difference of right ascensions should not be great.
7
also, that
The coefficient of r/A7 is equal to cot \(A + A), which is zero when %(A + A) is 90 or 270 hence, when the observaf
f
:
tions are equally distant from the prime vertical, one north and the other south, small errors in the clock correction have no
sensible effect.
When the latitude has been found by this method, we may determine the whole error of the instrument with which the altitude is observed; for either of the fundamental equations
will give the true altitude,
which increased by the refraction
will
be that which a perfect instrument would give.
With the zenith telescope (see Vol. II.) the two stars be observed at nearly the same zenith distance, the small may difference of zenith distance being determined by the level and the micrometer. The preceding method may still be used by correcting the time of one of the observations. If at the oband ', the times served times T, T f the zenith distances are when the same altitudes would be observed are either
186.
T
or,
and
T + cos*~? A sm
<p
,
T+
'
C
'~
<f>
C
and
cos
sin
A
T
With the is given directly by the instrument. where hour angles deduced from these times we may then proceed by (334) and (335). But it will be still better to compute an approximate latitude by the formulae (334) and (335), employing the actually observed
times,
and then to correct this latitude for the difference of
zenith distant.
280
tATITUDE.
differentiating the formula
tan
tp
By
(sin
<$'
sin
<5)
= cos
9'
fi
cos
t
cos $' cos t
relatively to
sec 1
tp
y and /V we have
'
(sin
sin
<$)
<fy
= cos
sin f <&'
= sin f sin
Hence, substituting
df
= dT' =

cos p
sn
we
find
v (836)
(<5'
sin * (cV
<$)
cos J
and the true latitude
will
be
y>
+
d<p.
EIGHTH METHOD. BY THREE OR MORE DIFFERENT STARS OBSERVED AT THE SAME ALTITUDE WHEN THE TIME IS NOT GIVEN.
187.
times
To find both
the latitude
and
the clock correction from the clock
when
thr.ee different
stars arrive at the
same
altitude.
in the preceding method, we do not employ the common altitude itself; and, as we have one more observation, we can de
As
termine the time as well as the latitude. Let S, S', S", Fig. 26, be the three points of the celestial
sphere, equidistant from the zenith Z, at which
Fig. 26.
T,
T, T"
A
T
= the clock correction to sidereal time at
~
the rate
the time T, of the clock in a unit of
clock time, the right ascensions of the stars, ^ " the declinations " " the hour angles the altitude,
the clock times of the observations,
$T
a, a',
#,
a"
rY
,
f,
8\ f
f
A
^
Also, let
jl
= = the latitude.
=f =r
*
f
jl'
= ^PS = SPS";
r
,
then, since the sidereal times of the observations are
BY THREE EQUAL ALTITUDES.
281
0'
= =
=
T +
T'
0"
T"
+ AT+ + AT+
f
&T(T'
ar (I"'
T) T)
and the hour angles are
t
=e
a,
= e'
a
f
,
r=
e"
_
a)
,
we have
A
A'
= =
T'
T"
A'
T + ar (I" T + $T(T"
T) T)

(a'
(a"
a)
The angles
^
and
are thus found from the observed clock
times, the clock rate, and the right ascensions of the stars. hour angles of the stars being /, t A', we have ^, and t
The
+
+
= sin ^ sin ^ + cos y cos cos = sin sin cos cos cos sin A ~ sin sin ^" + cos cos ^" cos +
sin h
sin
t
A
'
;
<p
~
<p
<5
(t f ^) A')
^>
<p
(t
Subtracting the first of these from the second, we have an equation of the same form as that treated in Art. 185, only here we have / f ^ instead of t'\ and hence, by (334), we have
m sin
and putting
M=
sin J A cot J (5'
<$)
)
f^cosJA tani(5'+
JT=Jjl
we have, by
(335),
(5)
/
Jf
(338)
tan
<p
==
m
cos
(<
+
JV)
(339^
In the same manner, from the
first
and third observations we
have
m
f
sin
M'
/
sin J
A'
cot
J
(^"~
<J)
)
XOIQN
m'cosJf
^eosix'tanK^"+)
1A'~M'
(*
J
JVT'^
tan ?
(341)
(342)
= m' cos + JT')
The problem
is
then reduced to the solution of the two equa
tions (339) and (342), involving the f and /., If we put
two unknown quantities
k cos
(t
f AT) ==
771
282
there follows also
LATITUDE.
m
and these two equations are of the form treated of in PI. Tiig.Art. 179, according to which, if the auxiliary & is determined by the condition
tan *
=
m
f
(343) v
we
shall
have
[t
tan
+ l(N+ JV' )] = tan (45
,
*) cot }
(A*
IT)
is
(344)
which determines the formula
from which the clock correction
A
fouud by
T^
a
+
t
T
The latitude is then found from cither (339) or (342).* To determine the conditions which shall govern the selt^tion of the stars, we have, as in Art. 185,
dh
dh
= ~
cos
A
dy>
cos
cos
<p <p
sin
A dT
dT'
 cos
<p
sin
A
cos A*
dtp
sin A'
dh~
By
cos A"d<p
cos y sin
A" dT"
cos ^ sin A* cos <? sin A" d A
T
the elimination of d&T^
we deduce
A
X'
)
)
the following;
sin
<p
sin A') dh  sin (sin A' .4") <M sin A ) dh (sin X"
(sin
A
= sin (4' = sin (4" = sin
(\4

d$
rfy
<fy
cos cos
.4'
sin .4
(dT'
dT*
j
sin sin
A"
Bin A' sin
(dT"
dT'
)
4")
cos
4
A"(dT
Adding these three equations
2
together,
sin
and putting
K =r sin
sin
(^'
.4)
+
(A"
.4')
+
sin (.4
A")
we
find
>4 (sin
>4"
sin A'} 
dT
sin
\
.4'
(sin
A2 A'
sin
2 A'
sin
,
A"
(sin
:
A'
sin
H
A) dT mt
,
.
B^ eliminating
d<p
from the same three equations,
is
we
shall find
* This simple ami elvgant solution
XV1TI.
p. 2H7,
due
to
GAUSS, Mono illche Corretpondenz, Vol
BY THREE EQUAL ALTITUDES.
283
cos
=
flin
A
(
cos
A
'
cos
A ") dT
Bin
,
.4'
(cos .4"
2J5C
2#
sin .4" (cos ,4
4) rfr
cos 4') , rfy/
2A'
The denominator 2 AT is a maximum when the
three differences
of azimuth are each 120,* which is therefore the most favorable condition for determining botli*the latitude and the time. In
general, small differences of azimuth are to be avoided. GAUSS adds the following important practical remarks.
clear that stars
as those
It is
which
altitude varies slowly are quite as available rise or fall rapidly; for the essential condition is
whose
that the precise instant when the star reaches a supposed place should be noted, as that at the time which is noted the star should not be sensibly distant from tLat place.
not so
much
may, therefore, without scruple select one of the stars near culmination, or the Pole star at any time, and we can then easily satisfy the above condition. Moreover, at least one of the
its
We
stars will
always change
its
altitude rapidly
is satisfied.
when
the condition
of widely different azimuths
The
stars
proper to be observed
artificial
may
be readily selected witn
the aid of an
of time between
in general so that the intervals the observations shall be so small that irregu
globe, and
larities of the clock or an error in the assumed rate shall not have any sensible influence. Having selected the stars, the clock times when they severally arrive at the assumed altitude are to be computed in advance within a minute or two, so that the observer may be ready for each observation at the proper time. This is quickly done with fourplace logarithms by the formula (267), in which <p and will have the same values for the three stars.
* For by putting a
= A'
2
A,
a'
= A"
A',
we have
K
sin a f sin a'
sin (a
+
a')
and, differentiating with reference to a and mum are
a',
the conditions of
maximum
or mini*
cos a
cos (a
cos (a
a'
ff
')
cos
a'
a')
= =
(a
which givH either a =_
ihe case ut urn xi mum
a'
.~
or a
= = 120; and the latter evidently belongs
284
If
it is
LATITUDE.
desired to compute the differential formulas the follow
ing form will be convenient.
We have
J
K=
2 sin
j
(A'
4)
sin
(A"
A') sin
J
(A
A")
sn
15 cos y
sin
_,
/f
,1'
cos
J
(A  A")
sin ___
J
(A __

A"}
sin ;t" cos
;
(A' f A)
K
wnj (^ _T^)
_
+
sin
A
sin *
(^ M') sin* U" _.

A')
sin A' sin J
U +_
.4") sin }
(A

A") j
sin
A"
sin J (A'
+ A) sin \(A'  A)
it
,,
where
dtp
is
divided by 15, since
will
be expressed in seconds
of arc, while dT, dT', and d T" are in seconds of time. If \ve first compute the coefficients of the value of d&T, those of
be found by multiplying the former respectively by cot J (A* + A"), cot J (^t + A"), and cot J (A' + A), and also by 15 cos <p It is well to remark, also, for the purpose of verification, that the sum of the three coefficients in the formula for dtp must be 0, and the sum of those in the formula for d &T must
dtp
will
.
be

1.
<tt
dT, and d\' for dT" dT, will reduce the above expressions to a more simple form, which
The
substitution of
for
dT'
I leave to the reader.
above method, GAUSS took the with a sextant and mercurial horizon, at following observations, Glittingen, August 27, 1808. The double altitude on the sextant was 105 18' 55". The time was noted by a sidereal clock whose rate was so small as not to require notice.
EXAMPLE.
To
illustrate the
BY THREE EQUAL ALTITUDES.
a
285
Andromeda
a Ursa* Minoris
a
= 21* 33 m 26* T' = 21 47 30
T
2
"
Lyra
^ 22
5
21
The apparent
a
places of tho stars were as follows
a
a!

:
Andromeda
Minoris
23* 58 TO 33.S3
=28
2'
14" .8 5 6
.7
~~
55
4 .70
= 88
== 38
17
a LyrcK
a" = 18
30
28 .96
37
.6
Hence we
find
U
'

518'25".28
30
5S
7
59'55".28
"
J
J)
'
+
d)
^ =
25 .45
(t
*)=
17 25 .90
19 40 .70
9 40 .25
+
5)
= 33
JT
22 12 .68
=
86
41
30' 55" .07
U'
.
=JV=
== log tan ^
*)
30 59 .79
= 450 _#^
^
11
53' 41".28
Kj
^
9.3235372
33
20
V
T
'
N)=
5630
G 18 .72 log tan (45 .24 lug cot J GAP
71 log
.

9.8142617 0.4171063
V
+
7,
r
)
59 35 14
ta
u fr)
t
= =
20 34 23 .56 39 51 .15
2*
36*
3'.41
= T= Clock correction A T =
t
+
a
~
a^
23 58 21 22
21 33
10
33.33
29 .92
26.
56 .08
Then, to find the
latitude,
we have
LATITUDE.
t
log cos
+ JV== 38 + N)
(t
38' 38".47
t
9.8926738
log cos
+ N' = 80 + N*)
(t
<p
31' 50".94
9.2162110
0.8836657
logm
log tan
y
0.2072029
0.0998767
log
ro'
log tan
31' 51".46
0.0998767
? == 51
If with these results
stars,
we compute
the true altitude of the
we
find from each h
= 52
37' 21".2.
42 ;/ .7, and hence the apparent altitude 52 88' 3".9. The double altitude observed was, therefore, 105 16' 7".8. The 3 ; 30", and hence the index correction of the sextant was
=
The
refraction
was
double altitude given by the instrument was 105 which was, consequently, too small by 43".
"
15'
25",
To compute the A = 293
and hence
d<p
differential equations,
45'.2
we
A"
find
A' = 182
9M
= 90
3.519
0.602
17'.9
= + 3.808 dT = 0.391 dT
0.288
0.007
dT
dT'
dT" dT"
by which we see that an error of one second in each of the times would produce at the most but 7".6 error in the latitude, and one second in the clock correction.
188. Solution of the preceding problem by CAGNOLI'S After GAUSS had published the solution above given, he was himself the first to observe* that CAGNOLI'S formulae for the solution of a very different problemf might be applied directly
to this.
When
the altitude
fig. 26. (bis).
computed, CAGNOLI'S formula have To slightly the advantage over those of GAUSS. deduce them, let y, 9', 7" be the parallactic angle*
is
also
at the three stars, or (Fig. 26) let
and
also put
Q'
Q"
= =
i
(PS" 8
(PS' 8
P8S")
PS8')
}
* Monatliche Corresponded, Vol. XIX. p. 87. f Namely, that of determining, from three heliocentric places of a solar spot, the See CAGNOLI'S position of the sun's equator, and the declination of the spot.
Trigonomttrie, p. 488.
BY THREE EQUAL ALTITUDES.
i,
287
since ZSS',
" ZS'S", and ZSS are
q
(f
isosceles triangles,
we
have
q
+ + +
q
PSS' ps\S"
PSS"
= PS'S = PS' S = PS"S
f
q'
f
q"
3"
whence
+q' ^=2Q"
(f
^f"
=r=
'
=
+
+
Q'
$" C"
>(345)
i
are found from the triangles PS"S'j PS"S, and PS'S, by NAPIER'S Analogies (Sph. Trig. Art. 73), thus
Now,
$,
^
x
;/
,
:
(J')
cos
J
(a"
+
f
d)
COS
7
J
('
fl)
where
article.
A,
A
With these values become known by (345).
are the angles at the pole found as in the preceding of Q, Q r Q", those of 9, q', and q"
,
We
have aiso
cos cos
<p
<p
sin (t f X\ sin
t
~ cos h sin q
~ cos A sin q
whence
sin (t
+
f
A)
_ sin q
sin q
1
sin
and from
this
sin (t
f
A) f sin
t t
sin #'
+
f
fi
in
q
Bin (f
+ A)
tan
sin
sin #'
sin q
or
(t+
}A) ^~ tan & (q
_
+ q)
tan
K'~ ?)
288
LATITUDE.
,
f Substituting the values of q and q in terms of
this gives
')
tan
(t
+
.]
A)
= tan
j
J
tan
Q"
cot
(#
or,
substituting the value of tan (>",
tan
(t
+
.]/)
= Sm * *'7^ cot (Q cosi(fl' +
(
<5)
tf
<?')
(847)
which determines
can
now
:
triangles
whence and the clock correction. We and altitude from any one of the PSZ, PS'Z, PS"Z, by NAPIER'S Analogies (Sph. Trig.
t \

J /,
find the
latitude
Art. 80)
thus, from
PSZ we
have
'
tan J
O + A) =
A)
v
r gy
tftn ( 46
o
+ +
]
tan
J (y>
=~
+ i(f
A),
~ cot (45
A
and then
JP
= J (^ +
/i)
= J(jp + A)
(p

A).
the angles are determined by their tangents, an amexists as to the semicircle in which they are to be taken; biguity but, as GAUSS remarks, we may choose arbitrarily (taking, for
all
As
example, Q, Q', Q" always less than 90, positive or negative according to the signs of their tangents), and then, according to the results, will have in some cases to make the following
changes
1.
:
(348) are such that have opposite signs, we must substitute 180 f 9 for q and repeat the computation of these two equaIn this repetition the same logarithms will occur as tions. before, but differently placed. 2. If the values of if and h exceed 90, we must take their supplements to the next multiple of 180. 3. The latitude is to be taken as north or south according as sin y> and sin h have tho same or different signs.
<f>
If the values of
sin A
and h found by
cosf and
i^> found ambiguity, however, exists in practice as to / since Q can differ from its true value only by by (347), Q' 180, and this difference does not change the sign of cot (Q Q'):
No
+
hence tan
(t f
JA) will
come out with
its
true sign;
and between
BY 'THREE OK MORK EQUAL ALTITUDES.
the two values of
will
289
t+ A, differing by 180, or 12*, the observer be at no loss to choose, as he cannot be uncertain of his
12*.
time by
EXAMPLE.
'shall find
Taking the example of the preceding
article,
we
Q

37
57' 9",3
Q' .^ Q'
f
fi
17' 51 ".66
C"= ~
10' 22".85
84
25' 23".81
q
^_Q+
39 52
51
+
Q
t
^ __ 40 ^ _ 39
J (f
51 .27
l(t
J
(^
+ q) = + A) =
f
36' 37".06

4 36
31 51
.35
=
i
O
.5
=+ A) = A = 52
g)
34' 45".79'
32 44 .84
37 21
.2
we have more than
latitude
*a
is
;
189. If we hire observed wore than three stars at the same altitude, sufficient data for the determination of the
more accurate
but by combining all the observations we may obtain result than from only three. This combination effected by the method of least squares, according to which
values of the
we assume approximate
those which best satisfy
unknown
quantities
and
then determine the most probable corrections of these values, or all the observations.
Let
3P,
T\ T",
T ",
f
&c. be the observed times
by the clock
when
the several stars reach the same altitude.
Let A T be the
T9 ^Tthe assumed clock correction at some assumed epoch known rate. Let y> and h be the assumed approximate values of the latitude and altitude. With <p and A, which will be the same for all the stars, and with the declinations 5, d 3", &c., compute If the hour angles /', /", &c. and the azimuths ^4, A'^ A", &c. the assumed values were all correct and the observations perfect, we should have a + t &T+ dT(T T ); for each of these quantities then represents the sidereal time of observation but if A, and A T require the corrections <fy>, rfA, and d*T, and if dt is the corresponding correction of t, we shall have
\ f
,
=
,
= T+
;
tf>,
a
+t+
dt
~
T+
A
T+
dA
is
T + 3T (T  Tf)
The
relation
between
dh
dtp, rfA,
and
<//
=
cos
A dy
15 cos 9 sin
Adt
In
all
and
a similar equation of condition exists for each star.
VOL,
I.
19
290
LATITUDE.
is
each.
these equations, dh and dp are the same, but dt If we put
different for
= = /" =
'
T'
T + *T + *T(T !T ) (a +t + *T + $T(T'  T (' f T" + *T + dT(T" T ) (a" + O
)
(349)
&e.
which are
all
known
quantities,
we have
dt'
dt=f +
d*T,
=f
and the equations of condition become
dh
+ cos A' .dip + 15 cos
d?
f
y>
sin A' .d
&T +15 cos ^ sin A' .f
Q
(350)
4c.
from which, by the method of least squares, the most probable values of rf/i, <fy>, and d&T are determined. The true values of the altitude, latitude, and clock correction will then be + d/t,
/i
which
The hour angles will be computed most is the same as the following
:
accurately by (269),
tan' }
t
^
si "
*
>
cos * (:
in
+ y + ^ cos j (:
y?
a)
which f
= 90
*
h
;
and the azimuths by
J
tan*
A
= Biu
cos
(C ~" (C
^+^08
?
} (C J
 y  *)
y)
}
+
it
+
(5)
sin
C+
a)
Since f and f are constant,
will
be convenient
to
put
sin
(c
__
j
<3)
sin (6
cos (6
J
J
<5)
cos (c
i 5)
then
tan 2
J *
= ?nn
tan 2
M=
(351)
The barometer and thermometer should be observed with each
BY THREE OR MORE EQUAL ALTITUDES.
291
altitude, and if they indicate a sensible change in the refraction a correction for this change must be introduced into the equations of condition. Thus, if r is the refraction for the altitude h for the mean height of the barometer and thermometer during the
whole
then the assumed altitude requires for that star not only the correction dh, but also r the correction r Hence, if we find the refractions r, r', r", &c. for all the observations, and take their mean r we have only
series,
it is r,
.
while for one of the stars
,
to
r
add
r
,
to the equations of condition respectively the quantities r , r" r' r , &c.
t
If any one of the stars is observed at an altitude /* slightly different from the common altitude A, we correct the correspond
ing equation of condition by adding the quantity h
Ar
190. We may also apply the preceding method to the case where there are but three observations. The final equations are then nothing more than the three equations of condition themselves, from which the unknown quantities will be found by simple elimination. It will easily be seen that this elimination leads to the expressions ford<p and d & T already given on p. 284, if we there exchange d7] dT and dT" for//', and/" respectf
,
ively. to make
We
have/=
can simplify the computation by assuming A? so as one of the quantities /,/',/" zero. Thus, we shall if we determine A7 by the formula
T
1
(352)
then, finding/'
and/" with
sin i
f
this value,
J
and putting
.,
sin J A! cos
A*
(A
sin
A)
sin J
(A"
A')
iJt
M" cosM"
A)
sin J
*/"
A')
sin i
(A"
(A"
we
ahall
have the following formulae:
If
sin i
(A
+
A")
+ k' sin
J
(A'
9
+
4
A)
J
15 cos
^*_.
__ <P
(A 4 A")
4 A" cos 1
(A
A)
(353)
15 cos
=. 4.
K cos J (A"
A)
k' cos
I
(A'
A)
)
/
292
LATITUDE.
'EXAMPLE. Taking the three observations above employed, and assuming the approximate values
A
T^
by
11
0*,
<p
= 51
32' 0",
h
= 52
37' 0",
we
shall find,
(351),
t
^
~ 2* 36* 5.50 ^ _ 66 15'.2
/=
1.83
f
.4'
= =
/' r=
3* 19 55'.65
t"
177
50'.2
^"
= 3* = 90
23"*
58.25
18M
By
(349),
putting in this case
dT
0,
we then have
/" ==
6'.21
+
80.95
and the equations of condition (350) become
dh
<?h
+
0.4027 d? 0.9993 </? 0.0053
<fy
8.5410
d* T
1

+
0.3522 d A 7
9.3308
rfA
+
d?
d*T
= = 57.94 =
15.63
28.51
</A
whence
//
A
T=
+
3.92
=
8".58
= + 21".31
are, therefore,
and the true values of the required quantities
A
T=
10"* 56.08
<?
= 51
3V
51".42
A
52
37' 21".31
agreeing almost perfectly with the values before found. Since in this example there are but three observations,
we
may
also
employ the formulae (353),
A
first
assuming
T=
10" 58.17
which
is
the value given by (352).
With
/"
log K'
this
we
find
= + 82'.78 log V = 0.4199
/'
= 4'.38 ^ wO.4932
dh
and by
(353)
we
shall find
dAT
= + 2.09
d<p
=
8".58
=+
21".31
Hence the
10m
true clock correction
is
10m
58M7
+
2*.09
=
56*.08; and the values of the latitude and altitude with the former values. agree
alsc
BY TRANSITS.
191.
298
We may here observe that, theoretically, the latitude be found also from three different altitudes of the same might star and the differences of azimuth ; for we should then have
sin d
sin sin
fl
tf
~ sin y sin h f cos V cos * cos A n sn = sin y sin in cos (A A cos cos ~ sin y sin + cos cos A" cos (^ f in
h'
j<f>
A'

)
/i"
<p
*')
which A is the azimuth of the star at the first observation, and the differences of azimuth i and /' are supposed to be given. The solution of Art. 187 may be applied to these equations by writing h for d and A for t. Again, there might be found from three different altitudes of the same star not only the latitude and time, but also the declination of the star; for we then have
ih
sin h
sin k'
= sin
~ sin
<p
sin d
\
cos cos
<p y>
<p
cos d cos
t
y sin
<p
f cos
f
cos d cos cos 5 cos
(t (t
f
/I
)
sin h" . sin
sin d
( A')
from which we can readily deduce ^>, and 5. But the method is of no practical value, as the errors of observation have too
tf,
much
influence
upon the
result.
NINTH METHOD.
BY THE TRANSITS OF STARS OVER VERTICAL
CIRCLES.
192.
We
is
may
vertical circle
observe the time of transit of a star over any with a transit instrument (or with an altitude and
azimuth instrument, or
tion axis
common
theodolite); for
when
the rota
horizontal, the collimation axis will, as the instrument revolves, describe the plane of a vertical circle. For any
want of horizontally of the rotation axis, or other defects of adjustment, corrections must be applied to the observed time of transit over the instrument to reduce it to the time of transit
over the assumed vertical
circle.
These corrections
will
be
treated of in their proper places in Vol. II.; and I shall here assume that the observation has been corrected, and gives the
clock time T of transit over some assumed vertical circle the azimuth of which is A. The clock correction A T being known, we haVe the star's hour angle by the formula
t
T+
94
LATITUDE.
star
and then, the declination of the
equation [from (14)]
cos
t
being given, we have the
sin
<p
tan d cos y
= sin
t
cot
A
(354)
p can be found by this Let us inquire under what conditions an accurate equation. result is to be expected by this method. By differentiating the
If,
then,
A
is
also
known, the
latitude
equation,
we
find [see (51)]
cos q cos d ?at cos C sin A
tan C
sin
dtp
A
dA
,
.
.
sin q
\
ad
cos
sin
A
from which
possible.
it
The most
appears that sin A and cos f must be as great as favorable case is, therefore, that in which
is
the assumed vertical circle
declination differs but
little
the prime
vertical,
;
and the
star's
from the latitude
for
we then have
A = 90
and small. Indeed, these conditions not only increase the denominator of the coefficient of <//, but also diminish its
numerator, since, by
(10),
we have
<p f~
cos q cos 5
= sin f sin
cos C cos
<p
cos
A
which vanishes wholly when the
transits
Moreover, if the same over the prime vertical, A 1, at the other sin A
star passes through the zenith. star is observed at both its east and west
we
shall
1,
have at one transit
sin
=+
resulting values of the latitude will,
and the mean of the two therefore, be wholly free
from the effect of a constant error in the clock times, that is, of an error in the clock correction. It is then necessary only that the rate should be known. This method, therefore, admits of a of precision, and requires for its successful applicahigh degree tion only a transit instrument, of moderate dimensions, and a Its advantages were first clearly demonstrated by timepiece. BESSEL* in the year 1824 but it appears that very early in the last century HOMER had mounted a 'transit instrument in the
;
prime vertical for the purpose of determining the declinations of stars from their transits, the latitude being given. The details of this important method will be given in Vol. II., under
" Transit Instrument/'
*A9tronom. Nach., Vol.
III. p. 9.
BY TRANSITS.
193. It
295
over
some vertical circle the azimuth of which is undetermined. We must then observe either two stars, or the same star on opposite aides of the meridian. We shall then have the two equations
cos
cos
t
if
.
may sometimes be possible to observe transits only
tan
tan
A
sin
<p
tan
tf
.
tan
.
A
sin
y
tan
fi'
.
tan
A A
cos
cos
<p
= sin
sin
t
t'
<p
from which the two unknown quantities A and <p can be determined. If the same star is observed, we shall only have to put f}' r^_ <J. Regarding tan A sin <p and tan A cos <p as the unknown
quantities,
we
have, by eliminating
.
them
<5
in succession,
if
tan
A
A
A
.
sin
<p
= sin
t
sin rV cos
sin
cos cos
$'
sin
5
cos
t
sin <Y cos d sin  (t' v
cos
cos
t'
d' sin d
r
tan
cos
<p
cos
t
V  cos d
<5
sin d' cos
cos
f
:
t
cos #' sin
If
we
introduce the auxiliaries
m
and M, such that
i
(*'
m m
we
sin
M = sin
cos J/
= sin
(*'
+ 5) sin
1
t
(*'
*) cos i (f
)
/
C
'
shall easily find
m m m
sin [J ('
+
t)
M"\
= sin
cos
^
sin 5' cos
r5
sin
if
cos
'
sin 3
cos [i
1
(t f f)
sin [i (f
M
sin
Jf ]
]
sin
<5'
cos
tf
cos f cos #' sin ^
sin (f
5' sin 5 f) cos
and hence
tan
A
^1
?

tan [J
(/'
tan
cos ? r^

sin [j (f tLL
eos [J (f
_ #) L
+
Jtf ] cot
=!
<
( 356 )
+
M]
a simple logarithmic computation. which determine <p by The solution will be still more convenient in the following form
:
A
and
tan
M =. tan
A
y>
sin (fV
i (?' t)
+
^
J
sin (,r __
tan
Ml ^sin LLV__J__J = tan $ [i(^+ 
(357)
tan
^
=
sin
296
If the
LATITUDE.
same
star is
observed at each of
its transits
over the
same
M = 90, which gives
cos J(J
vertical circle,
we have
#'
#,
and hence tan J/
=
oo,
(858)
sin
^>
If the same must have V +
star is
t
observed twice on the prime vertical,
since tan
we
0,
A = oc
o
;
and then,
tan y
tan = cos } (t
tan d
cos
t
;
(359)
^ ^
f
which follows also from (354) when cot A = or, geometrically, from the right triangle formed by the zenith, the pole, and the
star, as in
Art. 19.
is given, we can find the time from the transits of two stars over any (undetermined) vertical circle by the second equation of (357), which gives
If the latitude
sin [J (t
+t)
M]^

tan
sin [} (t
<?
t)
M]
t;
/'.
and
for the observation furnishes the elapsed time, and hence /' and hence both / and this equation determines J(<' t),
+
and time are given, we can find the declination of a star observed twice on the same vertical circle, by (358). When the observation is made in the prime vertical, this becomes one of the most perfect methods of determining declinations.
If the latitude
See Vol.
194.
II.,
Transit Instrument in the Prime Vertical.
The following
mining the latitude
TENTH METHOD.
brief approximative methods of determay be found useful in certain cases.
BY ALTITUDES NEAR THE MERIDIAN TIME IS NOT KNOWN.
two altitudes near the meridian
WHEN THE
195. (A.)
'iraes
By
and
the chronometer
of the observations, when
the rate of the chronometer is known*
but not its correction.
Let
A, h'
T, T'
= the true altitudes, = the chronometer times,
T}
r^.\(T'
TWO ALTITUDES NEAR THE MERIDIAN.
then,
t
297
and
t'
being the (unknown) hour angles of the observations,
(287), approximately,
we
have,
by
A
in
t
=K+
at'
9
which A
t
is
the meridian altitude, and
225 sin 1" cos y cos d
2
cos A t
is
The mean of
these equations
and their difference gives
h
K
= a (f
7*'
(f
+
7* to
But we have
in
which we suppose the interval
chronometer.
be corrected for the
rate of the
Hence
which, substituted in the above expression for An gives
h,

K* +
*')
+
<"*
+ & (h (IT
 kr 7
>
(360)
According to this formula, the mean of the two altitudes is reduced to the meridian by adding two corrections: 1st, the " reduc2 quantity a r which is nothing more than the common
,
tion to the meridian*'
computed with the half elapsed time
as the
hour angle
If
2d, the square of onefourth the difference of the altitudes divided by the first correction.
;
we employ
*,
the form (285) for the redaction,
we have
(361)
= *(* + A') + Am + """
<p
""
Am
1
in
which
A
and
= cos
cos d
m
= 2 sin
IT
cos A t
sin 1"
m
is
taken from Table V. or log
m from Table
VI.
298
LATITUDE.
1.
EXAMPLE
From
171, 1 select the following,
the observations in the example of Art. which are very near the meridian.
EXAMPLE
tions,
2. In the same example, the first and last observawhich are quite remote from the meridian, are as follows
:
Ohsd.
alts.
Q
J (A
Tmc
alts.
49 49
51' 19^3,
50 24
= 50 = 50 = A')
h
h'
Q
Chronometer.
6'
43".7
23* 37 35
5 48 .4
18
31
13
.8
r=
20
28
which give Am 37 48' 37". 9
= 16'
=
58", and the 2d corr.
= 0".2,
whence
This simple approximative method
to the traveller,
and especially
at sea,
may frequently be useful where the meridian obser
vation has been lost in consequence of flying clouds. At sea, however, the computation need not be carried out so minutely as the above, and the method becomes even more simple. See
Art. 204.
M. V. CAILLET*
gives a
method
for the
same purpose, which
is
readily deduced from the above.
Put
then (360) becomes
(k
24 +
4ar'
ar' 2 ) 2
Traitedt Navigation (2d edition, Paris, 1857), p. 819.
THREE ALTITUDES NEAR THE MERIDIAN.
or,
299
putting
sin 1"
in
which
A is the altitude farthest
this reduces the
from the meridian. Although two corrections of (361) to a single one, the
computation
is
not quite so simple.
196. (B.) By three altitudes mar the meridian and the chronometer times of the observations, when neither the correction nor the rate of the In this case we assume only that the chrochronometer is known.
tions.
nometer goes uniformly during the time occupied by the observaLet
h,
h',
.h"
T, T',
T"
T,
= the true altitudes, = the chronometer times, = the chronometer time of the greatest altitude.
=
A*,
If
we
introduce the factor for rate
according to Art. 171,
the formula for the reduction to the meridian by GAUSS'S
is,
method
approximately,
/
ti
^h
__
aki*
in
which
t
is
noting ak by
the time reckoned from the greatest altitude. o&, we have then, from the three observations,
Ai
De
= A + a(r h^h'+ a(T' = *+( 7"'A>
T,)'
)
TJ* TJ*
V
)
(363)
which three equations suffice to determine the three unknown By subtracting the second from the quantities a, Tv and A r first, and the third from the second, we obtain
h
~~ h
'
h'

_ h"  = a
_
rnt
I
\
T"
+
\
T) s
2a2l
i
rptt
and the difference of these
h'
rjnrr
is
h"
f
_^
rju
JS_
rp
rp
= .(T"
T)
800
If,
LATITUDE.
then,
we put
~
.
~ the mean change of altitude
second observation,

in
one second
first to tht
of the chronometer from the
c
=
= ditto from
vation,
c
rpit
the second to the third obser
we have
b
rp
'
/T*
T
c= t
T
i
/FT/
.
2a
j
2
or T. *
=
l
rjv

trwt
i
~
2a
(364 N
2
tions (363), all of tation is correct.*
Having thus found Tv we can find h from any one of the equawhich will give the same result if the computhe observations in the example of Art. 171 I select the following three observations
:
EXAMPLE.
Obsd.
From
alts.
Q
.
True
alts.
50
5'
42".8
A
50
50
h
A'
7 27
A'
7 25 .5
A'
h"
= =+
J
104".3
I .5
= 50 2V 7".6 = 50 22 51 A" = 50 22 50 T T = 269'.5
T"
Y" 1
7
Q
Chronometer.
T
.9
.4
= 23* 50" 46'.5 T = 23 55 16 T" = 87 6 = ~~ 0.3869
.
.5
T'
T* /
*
= 321
^Qi tl7l
lf 3
.5
.
c
C ~~*
/
=
+
_i_
0.0047
U
/i
n 'tuiu ~p v.OJf 1O
(2
+
2 ')
1
= 3 =+ 2a T, = 23
1
3/w
Jog a
4
57
52.0
*
log
(T
50
21'
6 82]8 T,) r^ 5.2604
2
^
53
.6
loga(T~A
2
T
i; ^=
7" G'.o
~
T,)
= 2.0817
J".6
A 1= =
;,
50
2^~*~
36 51
48
9
.7
89
o\
=
1
.2
^
37
4H 42
.5
The mean of the
172
is
three values found from these altitudes in Art.
37
48' 42".8.
is
I
* This method
Vol.
I.
essentially the
same as that proposed by LITTROW (Astronomie,
it applicable to the sun without considering the change of decimation, hy introducing GAUSS'S form for the reduction to the meridian.
p. 171.)
have here rendered
REDUCTION TO MERIDIAN BY AZIMUTHS.
197. (C.)
301
By
two altitudes or zenith distances near the meridian
and
the difference
meter, he
tudes, if
If the observer has no chronoof the azimuths. obtain his latitude by circummeridian altimay he observes the altitudes with a universal instrument,
still
circle at each observation, taking care, the star i always observed at the middle vertical of course, that As this instrument generally gives directly the zenith thread. h. for 90 have the equadistances, we shall substitute
and reads the horizontal
We
tion
lain
<J
~ sin
= sin
whence
cos i
(y>
<p
cos I
cos y sin C cos
A
A
(<p

C)
+
(<p
2 cos
<p
sin C sin 1 1
f
ft
C) sin i [C
<0]
= cos ? sin C sin* J A
But
if
d
= C = the meridian zenith distance;
t
and hence
when which expresses the reduction to the meridian = If the observation is very the absolute azimuth A is given. in the denominator near the meridian, we may neglect \ ( ,) of the second member, and take
,
^
**
cos
<p
sin
ft
d
2 sin* J
sin 1"
A
cos
or,
putting
a
= ^^ ^ ^^
cos
C
<$
(366)
2
4
.
C.r^aA
(367)
from which
it
follows that near the meridian the reduction of the
zenith distance varies as the square of the azimuth. Now, when we have taken two observations, we have
whence, putting
r
=

302
LATITUDE.
the following equation, analogous to (360),
we deduce
Ct
=
J (:
+
r)
ri/p  ar*  ^ _ ^L
p'via
rtT
2
(368)
Here
r is equal to onehalf the difference of the readings
of the
horizontal circle, and is therefore known ; and the computation is entirely similar to that of the formula (360).
198. (D.)
By
three altitudes or zenith distances near the meridian
and
of azimuths. the observations taken with a universal instruSupposing
the differences let
ment,
f,
f, C"
A, A',
A"
= the true zenith distances, = the readings of the horizontal
article,
circle,
we
shall have,
by the preceding
:,
=
:
*u
:,:'
aU' A y
t
 AJ
)
I
(369)
which A is the (unknown) circle reading in the meridian, and a is the (unknown) change of zenith distance for 1" of azimuth. These equations are solved in the same manner as (363); and hence we have the formula
in
l
1
i
____ ~~
*
*
A'
A
A"
b
r
~
*
*
I'
r
l'
(370)
A
.
A
+ A'
A'+ A"
which determine a and A^
the equations (369).*
after
which
jis
found by any one
of"
* In
this connection, see
an
article
by LITTROW
in ZACII'S Monatliche CorreiponiJem,
Vol. X. (1824).
BY CHANGE OF ALTITUDE.
303
ELEVENTH METHOD.
BY THE RATE OF CHANGE OF ALTITUDES NEAR THE PRIME VERTICAL.*
199.
We
have, Art. 149,
d;
Ibdt
If
= cos ^ sin A
then
we
observe two altitudes near the prime vertical in quick
succession, noting the times by a stopwatch with as great precision as possible, and denote the difference of the altitudes, or
of the zenith distances, by </, and the difference of the times by
dtj
we
shall
have
COB
<p
.=
dz
15
{ft
cosec.4
(371)
The observation being made near the pr me
;
vertical,
an error
in'
the supposed azimuth will have but small influence upon the If the observation is exactly in the prime vertical, or result.
A
within a few minutes of
it,
we may
put
008 *
=
(372)
This exceedingly simple method, though not susceptible of great precision, may be very useful to the navigator, as it is available when the sun is exactly east or west, and, consequently,
when no other method is practicable, and, moreover, requires no previous knowledge of the time or the approximate latitude,
or of the star's declination. f
1853 July 3, PHESTEL observed, near the prime the time required by the sun to change its altitude by ^ vertical, quantity equal to its apparent diameter, by observing with a sextant first the contact of the lower limb with its image in an
EXAMPLE.
artificial
horizon, and then the contact of the upper limb with
* PRBSTEL, in Astron. Nach. Vol XXXVII. p. 281. f Since the star's declination is not required, this method has the additional
t
advantage (which may
practicable without the
at
me
of the Ephemeri*.
times be cf great importance to the traveller) of being This feature entitles this method to a
prominent place in works on navigation.
#04
its
LATITUDE AT SEA.
image, the wextant reading being the same at both observaHe found tions, namely, 30 15' 0".
Chronometer.
Contact of lower limb, 4* 43 W
ki
34*.
P.M.
upper
"
4
~~~
47
5
.5
The
sun's diameter
</:
was
31' 32".
Hence we have
log
= 31'
:
32"
dt
881.6
53
23'.f>
=
^1892"
211'.5
3.2769
ar.co.log 7.6747 "
log TV
8.8239
?>
<P
=
log cos
9.7755
The azimuth, however, was not exactly 90, but about 88 Hence we shall have, more exactly,
20'
A=
y>
9.7755
88
20'
= 53
log cosec
A
0.0002
9.7757
22.3
log cos y
will
It is evident that the
method
be more precise
in
high
lati
tudes than in low ones.
FINDING THE LATITUDE AT SEA.
First Method.
200. This
is
By
MeritHan. Altitudes.
the most common, as well JIB the simplest and of the methods used by the navigator. The altireliable, tude is observed with the sextant (or quadrant) from the sea horizon, and, in addition to the corrections used on shore, the dip of the horizon is to be applied. The true altitude being
most
deduced, the latitude is found by (277) or (278), Art. 161. At sea the time is seldom so well known as to enable the navigator to take the star at the precise instant of its meridian
passage. But the meridian altitude of a star is distinguished as the greatest, to secure which the observer commences to measure
some m inn ties before the approximately comtime of passage, and continues to observe it until he perputed ceives it to be lulling. The greatest of all his measures is then assumed as the meridian altitude.
the star's altitude
MERIDIAN CIRCLE.
But, as before,
305
shall neglect the insensible term sin n sin c, and then the first and third of these equations will suffice to determine 8 Moreover, since in the case of the moon r will not exceed 1, the neglect of m will cause Hence we take no sensible error in cos (r m).
and put cos n
=
we
1,
f
.
sin d'
= cos c sin (d
COS C COS
l
qi d)
COS d* COS r
(<J,
+ d)
or,
developing the second members,
sin d'
cos
d'
cos r
= cos c cos d sin = cos c cos cos d
</
dl qp sin
l
:
$' s'
cos
sin
^
a,
sin
whence, by eliminating cos
qi sin
5'
c
cos
d,
we
find
$' sin
= sin
d'
cos
^
cos
<5,
cos r
(195)
If
now we put
= the moon's geocentric declination, " = " semidiameter, u = eq. hor. parallax, / = the geocentric or reduced latitude of
3
5
it
the place of
= the earth's radius for the latitude A' = the moon's distance from the centre A,
p
y,
observation,
of the earth
and from the place of observation, respectively, the
equatorial radius of the earth being unity,
we
have, by the formulae of Art. 98, Vol. L,
J' sin d'
A'
cos d'
= J sin d = J cos
fl
p sin p cos
<p*
/ cos T
this last
one in (133) of being equivalent to the more rigorous and by Art. 128, Vol. L, when the moon is near the meridian; Vol. L, we also have J sin s J' sin s'
=
Substituting these expressions in (195), after multiplying
J',
it
by
we
find
qr J sin s
= J sin (5
p sin (>'
^) <y
+ 2 J cos
p cos
sin
<\
sin 2 } r
/
sin
\
sin 2 T
VOL.
II.
20
806
Dividing by 4 * J
ip sin s
MERIDIAN CIRCLE.
= SID
:
/>
>
this
becomes
2 cos 5 sin
if
= sin (5
sin
TT
^)
sin
is
+
^
sin 8 } r
TT
(<?'
^)
p sin
cos
/ sin ^
If then
sin* r
where the
last
term
evidently insensible.
we put
sin
p
=
/>
sin
TT
sin
(y>'
j)
we have
sin (d
tfj)
= sin p ip sin
$
2 cos $ sin 3l sin 8 } r
The last term (which is the reduction to the meridian) seldom exceed 1", and may be put under the form
in
will
JZ=(.y? Vain ^
\ /
1
1". sin 2<J.r 8
The quantity
find which,
Aij
r
is
here the true hour angle of the moon, to
let
fi
A
= the sidereal time of the observation, " " = moon's transit, = the increase of the moon's right ascension
sidereal second
;
in
one
then
and hence
R
The
from
sin
first
= 2*!L sin 1" sin 2 4
To
<S
8
(1
>l)
fa
8
/i.)
(197)
two terms of the value of
5).
sin (d
<Jj)
differ
but
little
sin (p qr
H= sin $
find their exact value,
s) 5)
we have
p
= sin (p + = sin (p
:+:
+ sin p (I + 2 sin p sin
8
cos s) =p sm s(l cos p) s qp 2 sin s sin 2 Jp }
two terms of this will seldom amount to a tenth of a and therefore the formula may be regarded as perfectly second, accurate under the form
last
sin
The
p
+
sin s
= sin
(
p
q= 5)
T
i
(p q^
s) sin
1" sin
j>
sin s
Now,
ratio
since d
d^
and p
qr 5 differ
by so small a
quantity, the
:
of the sine to the arc will be the same for both of them hence we shall have, with the utmost precision,
s=
^
j
p
qp 9 qp J G> nF
)
sin
p
sin A
1Z
(198)
MERIDIAN CIRCLE.
as given
807
by BESSEL.* The upper or lower sign is to be used according as the north or the south limb is observed. The declination thus found is reduced to the time of the observation. But if we wish its value at the time of the meri
^
which
dian passage, we must add to it the correction (p. j^) ^', in V is the increase of the declination in one sidereal
second, or
60.1643
where
A<?
= the
increase of declination in one minute of
time, as now given in the American Ephemeris. 1 ^ is found as in Art. 154: namely, taking A<X
= the increase
mean
time,
mean The value of
of the moon's right ascension in one minute of
we
have
Aa
60.1643
60 that, putting
i
j_ l !_*_A)
we
shall
have
log (1
=
ar. co.
log
.
and log
page 179. be most convenient to apply the In practice, it will generally several reductions directly to the observed zenith distance, as in
B may be taken from the table on
the following example.
EXAMPLE.
meridian
17.
The
declination of the
moon was
observed with the
circle
The nadir point was
of the Washington Observatory, 1850, September first observed as follows:
Thfe value of one revolution of the micrometer
* Tabufa Reffiomontana, In trod.
p.
34". 856, or
LV.
308
MERIDIAN CIRCLE.
;
1" Or .0291 and hence, by the method of Art. 197, the micrometer zero (or reading of the micrometer when the circle reading 0' 0") was was
=
(M ) = 38'.934 +
The
observation of the
:
(K0291
X
1.61
= 38'.978
moon was
as follows, S.L. denoting
south limb
The
circle
was
west, in
distances towards
the
south.
which position the readings are zenith The correction for runs was
is
0".75 for
of
3' is 1'
3',
and since the excess of the reading over a multiple
0".43.
44". 95, the proportional correction for runs
The clock time of transit of the moon's centre over the meridian
was
fi
= 21* 17* 16*.80. =
y = 38 53' 39".25, and = 9.9994302. The longitude
is
latitude of the observatory II' 14".54, log p therefore <p <p' m 12* west of Greenwich. is 5* 8
The
For the date of the observation, we take from the Nautical
Almanac
whence
= 16 = + 6".377 in 1" mean time, n = 54' 9".64 " = 14' 45".49 2.0150 Aa = = 9.98521 and = + 0".1060 X) log (1
d
1'.7
Afl
s
A'
The
seconds,
correction for the micrometer, or is additive to the circle reading.
M
(M\ converted into
The reduction
to the
meridian, or R, found by (197), is also algebraically additive to the circle reading, attention being paid to the sign of S; and the correction for change of declination to be added to the circle read(IJL p^ ^'. Since the sum of these three corrections ing will be should be the same for each micrometer observation, the precision
of the observations will be shown by computing this
each.
sum
for
Thus, we
find
MERIDIAN CIRCLE.
809
Observations of the declination of a planet, or the sun. The are observed in the same manner as the moon, larger planets that is, by making the micrometer thread tangent to the limb,
206.
and when the planet is treated as a spherical body the observation is also reduced in the same manner. In the case of the sun, both limbs may be observed. The reduction to the meridian may be facilitated by a table giving
the logarithm of the factor
09*
sin i"
I
=
i
_
S i n 2<J
for each day of the fictitious year (Vol. I. Art. 406), such as BESSEL'S Table XII, of the Tabula Regiomontance. This table also gives for each day of the year the value of
a =. increase of the sun's declination in 100 sidereal seconds,
so that the reduction of the observed declination to the meridian, including the correction for the change of declination in the
interval
r, is
ar
310
MERIDIAN CIRCLE.
correction for parallax
The
may be put under
.
the form
p
in
= 8".57116 p sin
,
,
(?'
^
8)
distance from the earth, the mean distance in each observatory this quantity may be combeing unity, puted for the latitude, and for each day of the year, and also
which
r
= sun's
and
inserted in the table.
In order to embrace every thing necessary
for the complete reduction of the observed declination, the table contains also the sun's semidiameter for each day of the fictitious
year.
207. Correction of the observed declination of a planets or the moon's
Let us conlimb for spheroidal figure and defective illumination. sider the most general case of a spheroidal planet partially The correction to reduce the observed declination illuminated.
of the limb to that of the centre is equal to the perpendicular distance from the centre to the micrometer thread, which is
tangent to the limb and perpendicular to the meridian. The formulae for computing this perpendicular in general are (Vol. I.
p. 580)
tan
&=
.,
sin
/
= siu
#'
sin
F
~ s sin $ cos x
sin*'
in
which s"
is
makes with the
the required perpendicular, & the angle which it axis of the planet (reckoning from the north
point of the disc towards the east), c is a constant depending upon the eccentricity of the planet's meridian, Fthe angular distance
of the earth and sun as seen from the planet, and s is the equatorial radius of the disc, or greatest apparent semidiameter at the
The perpendicular here coincides time of the observation. with the declination circle, and consequently we have at once # p, according as the north or the south limb p, or 180 is observed; p denoting, as in the article referred to, the position angle of the axis of the planet. From the discussion in Vol I. Art. 354, it follows that (putting p for e?) the north limb will the south limb gibbous) when sin p be full (and, consequently, and sin V have the same sign. shall, therefore, here change the sign of sin g, and take
=
We
MERIDIAN 6IBCLB.
tan p'
ass
811
'
^
sin
/
= sin p' sin
F
(199)
in
which $ =the greatest apparent semidiameter at the mean distance of the sun from the earth, and r' the planet's geocen
=
tric distance.
is the
We
then have the rule
is positive jj
:
the north or the south limb
full limb according as sin
y
for
computing p, V and and SQ is given on p. 578.
or negative. The formulae c are given in Vol. I. Arts. 348 et seq.,
gibbosity of Saturn, however, is wholly insensible, and even that of Jupiter at the north and south points of the limb
The
cannot exceed 0".05, which
for Saturn
is
so
of declination observations that
it
much less than the usual error? may be disregarded. Hence,
and Jupiter the correction will depend only upon the of the planet, and will be computed by the equations figure
c
r'
sin
p
f
r
f
cos j/
in
c
2 1) [9.2706] cos Z), I and p being taken directly from the tables for Saturn's Ring given in the Ephemeris. further simplification may be permitted in the case of COS W ~ Saturn ; for, on account of the small values of p. the ratio
= /(1
A
which for Jupiter we take log
ee
c
cos
2
= j/(l
= 9.9672,
and for Saturn

will
be very nearly unity,
arid
if
we
have the true value of s" within
It is hardly necessary to
less
take s" than 0".05.
=
cs
f
we
*P
shall
remark that when we neglect the
gibbosity of Jupiter or Saturn, the mean of the observed declinations of the north and south limbs gives at once the declination of the centre.
For Mars, Venus, and Mercury the correction
defective illumination ; but in this case
computation of p and V, as follows.
tion for sinjj (199) the values of
p.
will be only for avoid the separate Substituting in the equa
we can
sin
amp and
V given
in Vol.
f
I.
577,
and moreover
observing that, since these bodies are
regarded as spherical,
there results
It
we have
c
=
1,
and, consequently,
p
= p,
gin
x
R
[cos d' sin
D
sin 3' cos JD cos (a'
A)]
(200)
312
in
MERIDIAN CIRCLE.
which
A, D = the sun's
a',
E
y
= the planet's right ascension and declination, " R' = the earth's and the planet's distances from the sun;
?'
and a positive value of sin j will here also indicate that the north limb is full and the south limb gibbous, and a negative value the reverse. Adapting this formula for logarithms, we have,
therefore,
tan
F = tan D sec (a'
sin**
R mx= B' sin^F
or,
<5')sinZ>
A)
(201)
more conveniently, perhaps,
tan
E = tan 8' cos (a' A) sin R (D E) cos d' ~ sin/ = * cos E R'



'
(201*)
E
being taken
less
than 90, with the sign of
its
Then we
formula
find the reduction to the centre of the planet
tangent. by the
s"
= ^ cos %
the formula (Vol.
I.
(202)
If the declination of a cusp of
Venus or Mercury has been
p. 577)
observed,
we must find^ by
tan p
= cot
(a'
A)
sin
(F
8') sec
F
(203)
in
which JPhas the same value
as above,
and then the reduction
to the centre of the planet will be
For the moon, 'when the gibbous limb has been observed, the but on account of formulae (201) may be used for computing and .ffi', we may put their quotient the small difference of 1. Since the declination of the gibbous limb will not be observed
;
R
=
except when the moon is nearly full, it will be best to reduce the observations as if the observed limb were full, according to Art. 205, and then to apply u small correction for gibbosity.
MERIDIAN CIRCLE.
s This correction will be AS formula for the moon will be
313
;j.
=
s cos
j
= s versin
A)
Hence the
tan
E = tan V cos ('
sin/
AS
= =
sin
(D 
E} cos
d'
(204)
$
versin
/
of Venus, at
declination of the southern cusp over the meridian of Greenwich, July 16, 1852, observed with the transit circle, was
1.
EXAMPLE
The apparent
its transit
<5'=150'45".60
From
the Nautical Almanac,
we have
a'^8*!!*
1.46
A=
7
43
42 .80
D
log
r^ 9.4675
= 21
19' 8"
and from Vol.
I.
p. 578,
Hence, by
(203),
= 8".55 we find log tan p = 0.0031, and, consequently,
s
and the apparent declination of the planet's centre was,
fore,
d
there
= 15
V 6'M3
EXAMPLE 2. The apparent declinations of Jupiter's north and south limbs, observed at Greenwich, March 18, 1852, were
N.L. 3'=:
S.L.
17 17
<*'=
21'57".36 22 37 .61
let
To
illustrate the
complete formulae,
of the planet into account. Nautical Almanac
a'
For
this purpose,
us take the gibbosity we take from the
=
230
17
56'.4
A
e
$'=
22.2
I. p.
= 224 = 23
25'.0
27.5
log
^=0.6783
and from, VoL
574,
n
=
357
56'.5
t
=r 25
25'.8
314
MERIDIAN CIRCLE.
(619), Vol.
23'.5
A
Hence, by the formulae
L,
*
F= 201
F'
V=A
=
20 47'.5
c
= 234 52' 8 = ~1027'.7 log tan p = 9.4281
Then, by
(199),
taking log
= 9.9672, we have log sin % = n8.7025
was
full.
from which
taking
s
it
= 99".70, we find
For
full
follows that the south limb
Hence,
limb
(s")
For gibbous limb
"
= i ^^ = 19".50 sinp = (") cos ^ 19 .47
.
f
r'
The
declination of the centre was, therefore, according to
these observations,
From N.L.
S.L.
3
=
17
22' 16".83
18 .11
Considering the difference of these results, which is by no as great as often occurs in the Greenwich observations of Jupiter, it appears that the practice there followed of always
means
applying the polar semidiameter (which is the one given in the Nautical Almanac) is quite accurate enough for these observations.
Our more exact method will not be without application, however,
in
cases where greater refinement both in observation and reduction are attained.
6, 1852, the declination of the moon's centre deduced from an observation of the north
3.
EXAMPLE
At Greenwich, Feb.
limb, on the assumption that this limb
3'
was
full,
was
= + 13
17' 0".58
For the time of the moon's
'
transit
on
this date,
we have
= 158
=
18'.6
A
=
*
16'
31"
2)=:
319 15
56M
36.3
whence, by (204),
y
=
2
58'
ALTITUDE AND AZIMUTH INSTRUMENT.
315
correction
which shows was
that the north limb
was gibbous.
The
AS
= s versin / = 1".33
therefore,
and the true declination was,
*
= f 13
IT
1".91
CHAPTER
VII.
THE ALTITUDE AND AZIMUTH INSTRUMENT.
208. THIS instrument may be regarded as a transit instrument combined with both a vertical and a horizontal circle, by means of which both the altitude and the azimuth of a star may
be observed at the instant of
its
transit
through the vertical
plane described by the telescope. This combination is not often used for the higher purposes of astronomical research, as every additional movement introduced into an instrument diminishes
its stability
and increases the risk of
error.
However,
at
Green
is
wich, a regular series of extrameridian observations of the moon carried on with such an instrument, for the sake of comparison
In other places, it lias been called the astronomical theodolite; and, in fact, the general theory of the instrument, which will be given hereafter, will be found to be
directly applicable to the detic measurement.
Still
with meridian observations. the name of the altazimuth.
The instrument has
there received
common
theodolite employed in geo
another
its
name
is
the universal instrument, so called on
;
account of
numerous applications
but this
name
is
usually
given only to the portable instruments of this class.
universal instruments of
The small
ERTEL are well known.
209. Sometimes the horizontal circle is reduced to small dimensions, and designed simply as a finder, or to set the instru
316
ALTITUDE AND AZIMtJTH
;
ment approximately at a given azimuth while the
large dimensions, and most refined astronomical measurement.
is
vertical circle
made of unusually
intended for the The instrument is
is
then
known simply as
Circle of the
a vertical circle. Such is the ERTEL Vertical Pulkowa Observatory, the telescope of which has
a focal length of 77 inches, and its vertical circle a diameter of 43 inches.* This instrument is permanently mounted upon a solid granite pier 6r, Plates X, and XI., which is insulated from the walls and floor of the building. It stands upon a tripod which is adjusted
by foot screws. The three feet are so placed that two of them are in the east and west line hence, but one of these two is seen in Plate X., which is a projection of the instrument upon the plane of the meridian, while all three are seen in Plate XI., which is
:
a projection upon the plane of the prime vertical. The meridional foot screw <o carries a small circle ? graduated into 360, the index
of which
is
attached to the foot.
One
revolution of this circle
changes the inclination of the instrument in the plane of the meridian 318" consequently, one division corresponds to 0".88.
:
The centre of the instrument is held in place by the support a attached to the pier. The vertical stand consists of a hollow cone of brass, in which
turns the steel axis
b.
The lower extremity
and
is
of this axis
is
convex
and smoothly
finished, supported by a system of three counterpoises e, suspended upon levers which relieve the pressure upon the bearing points of the vertical axis, and thus diminish
At the top of the conical stand is a 13 inch azimuth the verniers of which are attached to the axis. This is provided with a clamp and tangent screw which is moved by the
the friction.
circle,
rod d in giving the upper portion of the instrument a small motion in azimuth. The upper extremity of the vertical steel axis carries the strong
oblong bar
rests the adjustable horizontal axis i in the Vs at vv* this
which may be called the bed of the instrument. frame vfgv, which supports the This axis should be perpendicular to the vertical axis, and its adjustment in this respect is effected by means of two opposing screws at A. The axis i has two equal cylindrical pivots of steel at vv. It is hollow, to admit light from the lamp x, which is reflected upon
e,
On
bed
* See Description de
Vobser. cent., &c., p. 130.
ALTITUDE AND AZIMUTH INSTRUMENT.
317
the threads of the reticule of the telescope by a mirror in the interior of the tube at u. The telescope and principal vertical
and invariably attached to one extremity of the opposite end of the axis is a smaller vertical circle w, which serves as a finder. From the centre of this circle radiate four conical arms terminating in ivory finding
circle o are firmly
this axis.
At
balls n.
means
telescope is swept in the vertical plane solely by these balls, never by touching the telescope or prinof
The
When the telescope is approximately cipal vertical circle. pointed and clamped, fine vertical motion is given to the tangent screw by the rod k. The instrument is swept in azimuth by
the fine azimuthal motion being means of an ivory ball at the rod d. given by The circle is read off by four microscopes attached to a square frame a, which is fixed to the frame yfgv. The level ft attached
/,
to this
frame indicates
its
The
circle is
divided to
2',
inclination with respect to the horizon. and the microscopes read directly to
The single seconds, and by estimation to 0".l, or even less. error of reading of a single microscope is given by probable PETERS as only 0".090 in observations by day, and 0".098 in
observations by night. The friction of the horizontal axis in the
Vs
is
diminished by
the single counterpoise p, which, by means of a lever, the fulcrum of which is at </, supports the principal part of the weight of the
telescope, vertical circles, and horizontal axis, by exerting an upward pressure at r. The point r being at suitable distances
from the two Vs respectively (nearer to the principal circle than both Vs is equally relieved while the whole weight of the movable portion of the instrument is
to the finder), the friction in
;
transferred to a point
y,
very near to the vertical axis of rotation.
striding level s rests upon the pivots of the horizontal axis, and, by reversal in the usual manner, serves to measure the inclination of this axis to the horizon.
The
The
reticule at
t
is
composed of three horizontal threads, two
of which are close parallel threads (the clear space between them 6eing only 6"), which serve for the observation of objects which
present sensible discs, or of those which are too faint to be observed by bisection (see Art. 198). The third thread is 18"
from the others, and is used in observing stars by bisection. The unequal distances prevent mistakes in the choice of threads. These horizontal threads are crossed by two vertical ones, the
318
ALTITUDE AND AZIMUTH INSTRUMENT.
is 1' of arc. The middle point between these determines the optical centre of the instrument, and all obser
distance of which
vations are
made as nearly as possible The extreme accuracy attainable in
at this point.
the observation of zenith
distances with this instrument
ing values of the zenith point (see Art. 219) of the circle, as cited by STRUVE, from observations by PETERS upon Polaris at its upper and lower culminations :
Z
may
be inferred from the follow
Moan
33
.45
Hence, assuming that the zenith point of the circle was constant, the probable error of an observed value of Z was, for either 0".22. This error, however, is the combined effect of series, error of observation and variability of Z. But the probable error of observation was obtained from the discrepancies between the several values of the latitude deduced from these same obser
=
vations,
0'M7 so that the probable error of Z and was j/[(0".22)2 arising from variation in the instrument was 2 0".14. The means for the two transits differ by ] (0".17) 0".27, which results from the use of different divisions of the circle and different parts of the micrometers. To compare them justly, it would be necessary first to eliminate especially the
:
=
=
=
division errors.
In order to eliminate the effects of flexure, the objective and
ocular are
made interchangeable The dimensions of the various
(see Art. 204).
parts of the instrument
may be
AZIMUTHS.
819
taken from the plates, which are accurately drawn upon a scale of &.*
210. The portable universal instruments are usually so arranged that the vertical circle may be removed altogether from the
instrument when horizontal angles only are to be measured. One of these instruments is represented in Plate XII. In Fig. 1, the instrument is arranged for measuring horizontal angles In Fig. 2, the telescope of Fig. 1 is replaced by exclusively. another which is connected with a vertical circle and (unlike the
azimuth telescope) is at the end of the horizontal axis. The weight of the telescope and vertical circle is counterpoised by a weight at the opposite end of the axis. The focal length of the telescope in instruments of this kind seldom exceeds 24 inches.
The following
discussion of the theory of these instruments
will apply to any of the forms above mentioned, as I shall consider their two applications to azimuths and to altitudes
independently of each other.
Let A Q H, Fig. 49, represent the true horizon, /Jthe zenith. Let us suppose the vertical Fi 49 axis of the instrument to be inclined to the
211. Azimuths.
true vertical line, so that
when produced
it
meets the celestial sphere in be the great circle of which
Z Z
f
.
Let A Q
is
f
the pole.
The plane
that of the graduated horizontal circle of the instrument.
of this circle
is
Let us suppose, further, that the horizontal rotation axis, which should be at right
angles to the vertical axis, and, consequently, parallel to the horizontal circle, makes a small angle with this circle. As the instrument revolves about its vertical axis, this rotation axis will
describe a conical surface, and the prolongation of this axis to the celestial sphere will describe a small circle A A 1 parallel to be the point in which this axis produced through A^H'. Let
A
the circle end meets the sphere at the time of an observation, the position of a star observed on any given vertical thread and
* For all the particulars of the use of this instrument in the determination of the declination 6f a circumpolar star, consult the memoir of Dr. C. A. F. PETERS,
Aftron. Nach., Vol. XXII., Resultate aus Beobachtungen des Polartterm Y*rticalkrtite der Pulkowaer StemwarU.
am
Ertelschen
320
in the field.
its
ALTITUDE AND AZIMUTH INSTRUMENT.
As the telescope revolves upon the horizontal axis, axis of collimation describes a great circle of which is the
A
pole, and the given thread describes a small circle parallel to Let this great circle.
c
= the = the
positive when the thread is on the collimation axis as the vertical circle,
distance of the thread from the collimation axis, same side of the
6
elevation of
A .above
the horizon as given by the
f
= the inclination of the
= the
lino,
circle,
spirit level applied to the horizontal axis, positive the circle end of this axis is too high,
when
vertical axis to tho true vertical
t'
inclination of the horizontal axis to the azimuth
a'
= AZH, = AZ'H, A = the azimuth
a
origin,
of the star 0, reckoned from
A
as the
2
= the zenith distance of the star
i',
;
then, in the triangle
AZZ', we have
AZ'=W>
Sph. Trig.,
AZZ'^l8Q a,
sin b
a'
a'
a'
AZ'Z =
i f
AZ = 90
a',
6,
ZZ' =
i,
and hence, by
f
i
= cos = cos cos b sin a = sin
cos b cos a
cos f sin
sin
i'
cos
cos f cos
cos
i'
i
sin f sin
But,
i,
t',
and
squares, these equations
6 being always so small that we can neglect their may be reduced to the following
b
=
i
cos a'
+ f=
i
cos a
+f
\
(205)
f
= .4 + 90 and the sides AO=9Q+c, AZ=QQb, ZO = z and hence = sin b cos z cos 6 sin z sin(4 a) sin
a,
;
In the triangle
AZO, we have
the angle
AZO = A ZO +
c
or, since c
and
6 are small,
sin
(4
a)
= ^ + r^
tan z
sin z
Hence
sin (A
a) is also
a small quantity, and the angle
A
a
BY CHRONOMETERS.
321
AT
F.
4 40" 59'.20
M.
P.
49
5
18
55.53 3.24
And finally, at Carthagena, observations on the 25th and 29th of June gave the corrections and rates at the mean epoch June
27*.
as follows:
F.
5*
l
m 23'.55
M.
p.
_5
4 37
44
47 .98 34 .42
+ 0.85  5 .90 + .30
Employing the rates found at La Guayra, the corrections of the chronometers on June 5J .870 at Porto Cabello (for which we ll .985), and the resulting difference of longitude, have t followe are, by formula (383), are
=
rf
M
:
F.

AT
f
/.
AT
P. Cabello
4* 32
5K.57
M.
P.
41
5
f
La Guayra. 4 17.23
11.81
1
19.47
12 .00
10
.32
Mean
+
4
16 .25
With
the
rf
same
corrections and the corresponding difference of t longitude, as follows:
= 19 .005) the
rates,
we have on June
12.890 at Cura$oa (for
AT
F.
r
t.AT
Cur afoa
La Guayra.
6.03
4* 32* 53.17
M.
P.
41
+
Mean
88
7
4 10
43.68 11.64
11.85 51.60
3 .16
+
8
With
I
the
same
= 33d .115) the
rates,
27 d at Carthagena (for corrections and the corresponding difference of
we have on June
longitude, as follows:
AT
f
t
F
Jf.
4* 32 W
6T 42.30
.
Carthagena La Guayra, 34" 41.25
+
4
P.
VOL.
21
47.74 5 10 32.38
2
35 34
0.24
2 .04
Mean
I.
f 34
34
.51
3:2:2
LONGITUDE.
to correct these results for the changes in the rates of we have, in the interval n 33.115,
Now,
the chronometers,
=
6'T
6T
1 .36
F.
+ O'.OS
s
M.
p.
=+
X
+1.77
.49
and, consequently,
*
=
2
^^^
X
3
33.115
=^
OQ2466
2 Applying the correction / </ to the several results, the true differences of longitude from La Guayra are found as follows
:
Appro*,
diff.
long.
fl.q
Corrected
diff.
long.
P. Cabello
Cura$oa Carthagena
+ 4 16.25 + 8 3 .16 + 34 34 .51
+
f
(K85
.89
+
+
+84
+
34 37
4" 16.60
.05
.21
2 .70
But it is usually preferable to carry out the result by each chronometer separately, in order to judge of the weight to be attached to the final mean by the agreement of the several individual values. For this purpose we have here, by the formula
(384), for
?i
= 33.115,
F.
+ 0.00121
0.02054
M.
P.
.
+
0.02673
and hence the correction J t 2 x is,
P. Cabello.
for the several cases, as follows :
Curagoa.
F.
+ OM7
2.95
+ 0.44
7.41
Carthagena. 1.82
+
M.
P.
22.52
+
3 .84
+9 .65
to the
+
29
.31
Applying these corrections severally
results,
we
F.
have, for the differences of longitude
P. Cabello.
above approximate from La Guayra,
Carthagena.
Cura9on.
+4 +4
17'.40
+ 8* 6'.47
4.44
1.25
+ 34" 42'.57
37.72 31.35
M.
16.52
P
Means
15.90
16
.61
+8
4
.05
+ 34
37
.21
agreeing precisely with the corrected means found above.
BY CHRONOMETERS.
If
323
to
the
chronometers
have been exposed
considerable
intro
changes of temperature, the proper correction duced by the method of Art. 223.
216.
may be
Where
Chronometric expeditions between two points.
a
dif
ference of longitude is to be determined with the greatest possible precision, a large number of chronometers are trans
ported back and forth between the extreme points. There are two classes of errors of chronometers which are to be eliminated: 1st, the accidental errors, or variations of rate which follow no
law,
and may be either positive or negative 2d, the comtant errors, or variations of rate which, for any given chronometer, appear with the same sign and of the same amount when the chronometer is transported from place to place in other words,
; ;
a constant acceleration, or a constant retardation, as compared with the rates found when the chronometer is at rest. The
accidental errors are eliminated in a great degree
by employing
the probability being that such The errors will have different signs for different chronometers. constant errors cannot be determined by comparing the rates at
a large
number of chronometers,
the chronometer
the two extreme points, since these rates are found only when is at rest; but if the chronometers are trans
ported in both directions, from east to west and from west to east, a constant error in their travelling rates will affect the differ
ence of longitude with opposite signs in the two journeys, and will disappear when the mean is taken. These considerations have given rise to extensive expeditions, of which probably the
most thoroughly executed was that carried out by STRUVE, in In this expedition sixty1843, between Pulkova and Altona.* chronometers were transported eight times from Pulkova eight to Altona and back, making sixteen voyages in all, giving the difference of longitude between the centre of the Pulkova Obserm vatory and the Altona Observatory 1* 21 32'.527, with a probable
error of only 0'.039.
Chronometric expeditions between Liverpool (England) and
*
Expedition chronomttrique extcutte par ordre de Sa Majestt // Empereur Nicolas I. la determination de la longitude gtographique relative de V obscrvatoire central de
St.
pour
Russie.
Petersburg, 1844.
For an'nccount of the carefully executed expedition under Professor AIRY to determine the longitude of Valentia in Ireland, see the Appendix to the Greenwich
Observations of 1846.
324
LONGITUDE.
Cambridge (TL S.) were instituted in the years 1849, '50, '51, and by the U. S. Coast Survey, under the superintendence of Professor A. D. BACHE. The results of the expeditions of 1849, '50, and '51, discussed by Mr. G. P. BOND,* proved the necessity of introducing a correction for the temperature to which the chronometers were exposed during the voyages, and particular attention was therefore paid to this point in the expedition of 1855, the details of which were arranged by Mr. W. C. BOND. The results of six voyages, three in each direction, according to the discussion of Mr. G. P. BoxD,f were as follows
'55
:
Longitude.
m Voyages from Liverpool to Cambridge 4* 32 81.92 " " Cambridge to Liverpool 4JJ2 31 .75^
Mean 4 ~82~
31 .81
with a probable error of 0*.19. In this expedition fifty chrono. meters were used. The greater probable error of the result, as compared with STRUVE'S, is sufficiently explained by the greater length of the voyages and their smaller number.
The following is essentially STRUVE'S method of conductthe expeditions and discussing the results. ing Before embarking the chronometers at the first station (A),
217.
they are carefully compared with a standard clock the correction of which on the time at that station has been obtained with
the greatest precision by transits of welldetermined stars. (See Vol. II., " Transit Instrument/') Upon their arrival at the second
station (5), they are
station. J
compared with the standard clock at that
these two comparisons the chronometer correcthe two stations become known, and, if the rates are tions at
From
known, a value of the longitude is found by each chronometer by (383). But here it is to be observed that the rate of a chronometer is rarely the same when in motion as when at rest. It
is
is
necessary, therefore, to find its travelling rate (or sea rate, as it This called when the chronometer is transported by sea).
effected
might be
*
by finding
first,
the correction of the chrono
Report of the Superintendent of the U. 8. Coast Survey for 1854, Appendix No. 42. f Report of the Superintendent of the U. S. Coast Survey for 1856, p. 182. J For the method of comparing chronometers and clocks with the greatest pre
cision, see Vol. II.
BY CHRONOMETERS.
;
325
meter at the station A immediately before starting secondly, its immediately upon its arrival there ; and thirdly, without any delay at B, returned directly to A, finding having,
correction at
B
again its correction there immediately upon arriving. The difference between the two corrections at is the whole travelling rate during the elapsed time, and this rate would be used in making the comparison with the correction obtained at B, and
A
deducing the longitude by (383). But, since the chronometer cannot generally be immediately returned from JB, its correction for that station should be found
in
its arrival there and again just before leaving, and the travelling rate inferred only from the time the instrument is in motion. For this purpose, let us suppose that we have found
both upon
at the times
t,
f
6,
,
*",
6',
t",
a',
the cbron. corrections
a,
the correction a at the station
at
B;
b*
t,
before leaving
t", t'",
times
t',
being
A before leaving 6 upon arriving B; and a! upon the return to A. The all reckoned at the same meridian, if we
;
now put
m
A
= the mean travelling
rate of the chronometer in a unit
=
of time, the longitude of
B
west of A,
travelling
we
shall have,
rate is the
same
upon the supposition that the mean for both the east and west voyages,
A ;
= a +m(t = a' m
O
*")
ft
(*"'
V
quantities
From
these two equations the two unknown become known. Putting
r
m and I
=f
t
T"
=*"'*"
^
J
we
find, first,
(
f
g)
T
(,)
+ T"
in
which the numerator evidently expresses the whole travelling Then, rate, and the denominator the whole travelling time.
putting
826
LONGITUDE.
(a)
= a + mr
we have
in
^j
>(388)
which (a) is the interpolated value of the chronometer correction on the time at A, for the same absolute instant V to which the correction b on the time at B corresponds.
EXAMPLE. In the first two voyages of STRUVE'S expedition between Pulkova and Altona in 1843, the corrections of the chronometer " Hauth 31" were found, by comparison with the standard clocks at the two stations, as below. The dates are all in Pulkova time, as shown by one of the chronometers employed in the comparison
:
At Pulkova (A\ "Altona (),
Altona
"
t
if
( JJ), t"
= May 19, 2P.54 = " 24,22.66 = 26, 10 .72
81,
a = + 6^ =
b'
6* 3810
1 1
14
14
7
39.92 36 .77
9.58
Pulkova (A),
t"=
0.00
<t=
a
b
+
ilence
T == 5"
1M2
t"=
4 13 .28
= 6*.047, =4
+
a'
b'
.553,
= + 31.48 = + 3 .15
5.047
4.553
9.6
a
mr=
A
= + 0*
6W
88MO
14.89
= (a)
(a) = + b = I b = + 1
+
21
6 52 .99
14 39.92
32
.91
218. In the above, the rate of the chronometer is assumed to be constant, and the problem is treated as one of simple interBut most chronometers exhibit more or less accelerapolation. tion or retardation in successive voyages, and a strict interpolation requires that we should have regard to second differences. If we always start from the station A, as in the above example, using only simple interpolation, we commit a small error, which
always
affects the longitude in the
variation of the chronometer's rate
same way so long as the preserves the same sign.
JS,
But
if
we commence
the next computation with the station
BY CHRONOMETERS.
327
so that the two chronometer corrections at A are intermediate between the two at J3, then the error in the longitude will have a different sign, and the mean of the two values of the longitude will be, partially at least, freed from the influence of the acceTo show this more clearly under an feration or retardation.
algebraic form, let us suppose that vals of rest at the two stations,
at the times
t,
we
have, omitting the inter
t,
6,
r,
t", a',
t",
6',
the chron. corrections
intervals
a,
r
7
,
r",
and that
p.
2/9
= daily rate of the chronometer at the time = the daily acceleration of the rate after the time
t,
p.
f,
the true values of the four corrections, observing that b and b r refer to the meridian of JB, will be, according to the law of uni
formly accelerating motion,
b
=a = a + ^r + fr* = + /(T + O+/J(T + O V = a + p(r + + r") + p(r + +
a
J
a'
fl
f
?'
r'
T")'

*
If
now we
1
find the value of (a) corresponding to b (that
is,
for
the time
and
a',
interpolation between the values of a } by simple we have
t
from which we obtain the erroneous longitude
error in the longitude, by simple interpolation /?rr'. commencing with the station 4, is dX
Hence the
=
and
In the next place,
correction
6,
if
we commence
at the station J5,
with the
6
employing simple interpolation between
and
6',
to find the correction
the time t" corresponding to a ; , (b) for
we
have
828
LONGITUDE.
=a+
and we
fJL(r
+
r')
+
,3(r'
+
2rr'+ r'*+ rV')~
*
find the erroneous longitude
A"
=
a'
(6)
=
A
0rY'
Hence the
station
.23,
error
is
by simple
dX"
is
interpolation, commencing with the /Jr'r" ; and the error in the mean of the
two longitudes
an error which disappears altogether when the intervals r and r" are equal. Since the voyages are of very nearly equal duration, it follows that by computing the longitude, as proposed by STRUVE, commencing alternately at the two stations, the final result will be free from the effect of any regular acceleration or
retardation of the chronometers.
EXAMPLE. From the "Expedition Chronometrique" we take " the following values for the chronometer "Hauth 31, being the combination next following after that given in the example
of the preceding article,
commencing now with the
b
station jB, or
Altona
:
At Altona (J?), t " Pulkova (A), f Pulkova (4), f
41
= May 26, 10*.72 = " 81, .00 = June 5 .62
3,
a
= =+
+
1*
14"
7
36M7
9 .58
Altona
Here
T
OB),f"=
d
"
7,20.52
a'= 6'=
6'
flf'
7
19.36
114
0.35
=4
13*.28
=4
rrr
d
.553
b
= + 36'.42
=+
9.78
t f '=r4
14 .00
4 .621
=
.4.553
+ 4.621
=
9.174
*
=
14
36'.77
(6) = a = + _ a _ (6) = + j
+
1
13.22
14
7
23.55
9 .58
1
21
33 .13
is /
The mean of
this result
and that of Art. 217
1*
21 W 33'.02.
BY CHRONOMETERS.
329
219. Relative weight of the longitudes determined in different voyage* by the same chronometer. From the above it appears that the
problem of finding the longitude by chronometers is one of If the irregularities of the chronometer are interpolation. regarded as accidental, the mean error of an interpolated value of the correction may be expressed by the formula*
where r and r f have the same signification as in the preceding article, and e is the mean (accidental) error in a unit of time.
The weight of such an
therefore, also the
from
it, is
interpolated value of the correction, and, weight of a value of the longitude deduced inversely proportional to the square of this error, and
may, therefore, be expressed under the form
a constant arbitrarily taken for the whole expedition, so as to 'give p convenient values, since it is only the relative weights of the different voyages which are in question.
A:
where
is
But if the chronometer variations are no longer accidental, but follow some law though unknown, a special investigation may serve to give empirically a more suitably expression of the
Thus, according to STRUVE'S investigations in the case of certain clocks, the weight of an interpolated value of the correction for these clocks could be well expressed by the formulaf
weight than the above.
But even this expression he found could not be generally applied and he finally adopted the following form for the chronometric
;
expedition
:
p
=
^
TVrr"
(389)
in
which
T
is
the duration of an entire voyage, including the
* See Vol.
II.,
" Chronometer.*'
f Expedition Chron., p. 102.
330
LONGITUDE.
r,
time of rest at one of the stations,
constant.
of the voyage to and from a station, and
r" are the travelling times is an arbitrary
K
Although this is but an empirical formula, it represents well the several conditions of the problem. For, jtfrs/, the weight of a resulting longitude must decrease as the length of the voyage
increases
;
and, second,
it
must become greater
as the difference
between the two travelling times r, r" decreases, since (as is shown in Vol. II., " Chronometer") an interpolated value of a clock correction is probably most in error for the middle time between the two instants at which its corrections are given.
220.
according
Combination of results obtained by the same chronometer, to their be the several values Let ^', ^", JJ" weights.
of the longitude found by the same chronometer, according to the method of Arts. 217 and 218 their and p', p", p"'
;
weights by formula (389) (or any other formula which may be found to represent the actual condition of the voyages) ; then, according to the method of least squares, the most probable value of the longitude by this chronometer is
L = P'*' + P"*" + P'"X" +
P'
+
P"
+
P'"
+
^ (39 0) ^
and
if
the difference between this value and each particular
value be found, putting
Jf
L=
v',
X'
L = v"<
A'"
L = v'", Ac.
H9
n
e
r
= the number of values of = the mean error of L, = the probable error of L^
r 444194*1
then
we
shall
have
/
r
= 0.6745
(391)
where [p] denotes the sum of
p'v'v',
p',
p", &c., and [pvv] the
sum
of
p"v"v", &c.
according
221. Combination of the results obtained by different chronometers, to their weights. The weights of the results hy different
BY CHRONOMETERS.
831
mean
chronometers are inversely proportional to the squares of theii errors. The weight P of a longitude will, therefore, be expressed generally by
L
ee
in which k is arbitrary. For simplicity, we may assume k and then by the above value of e we shall have
=
1,.
(39
..... are the values found by the several If, then, L', L", chronometers by (390), P', P", P'" ..... their weights by (392), the most probable final value of the longitude is
U"
,
p +
,
plt
(393
Then, putting
i'i
=F',
JV
= the number of values of L, E = the mean error of Jk R = the probable error of Lw
,
L"
=F",
L'"
L =r'"
Q
&c.
we have
(394)
222. I propose to illustrate the preceding formulae by applying them to two chronometers of STRUVE'S expedition, namely, "Dent 1774" and u Hauth 81." In the following table the longitudes found by beginning at Pulkova are marked P, those found by beginning at Altona are marked A, and the numeral accent denotes the number of the voyage. The weights p in the second column are as given by STRUVE, who computed them by
in hours),
the formula (389), taking 34560 (the intervals T, r, r" being which is a convenient value, as it makes the weight of
K=
a voyage of nearly mean duration equal to unity
T= 288*, T = T' = 120*.
;
If
we

express
T
9
r,
r", in days,
namely, for we tak*
(24)'
382
LONGITUDE.
shall
and we
have STKUVE'S values of/? by the formula
60
(895J
Thus, for the
of Art. 217,
first
voyage,
f"
we
have, from the data in the example
2*.46
T=
(395),
t^=ll*
= IK 103 =
whence, by
1.18
11.103 i/(5.047
X
4.553)
In applying it is not necessary to multiply the entire longitudes by their weights, but only those figures which differ in the several values. Thus, by "Dent 1774" we have
The values of Lt and
L," are found
by
(390).
this formula,
2*.ol
X
1.10
+
2'.83
X
102
1.10
2'.46
+
1.02
+ 2.09 X + 1.14 +
+ &c.
BY CHRONOMETERS,
333
Combining these two
results,
we
59 59
have, by (393),
0.61
A=
1*
21 32
+
O^J6
X
+
{
X
22
= v nm 82 , 601
22
with the probable error, by
(394),
R
=
0.067
final result
This agrees very nearly with the chronometers.
223. In the preceding
from the sixtyeight
method, the sea rate is inferred from two comparisons of the chronometer made at the same place before and after the voyages to and from the second place and the correction of the chronometer on the time of the first place at the instant when it is compared with the time of the second place is interpolated upon the theory that the rate has changed uniformly. This theory is insufficient when the temperature to which the chronometer is exposed is not constant during the two voyages, or nearly so. I shall, therefore, add the method of introducing the correction for temperature in cases where
;
circumstances
may seem
"
to require
it.
According to the experience of M. LIEUSSON, the rate chronometer at a given temperature 9 may be expressed
formula (see Vol.
II.,
m
of a
by the
Chronometer")
tf
ro
= m + k(&
2
)
Vt
is
(396)
in
which #
is
the temperature for which the balance
compen
sated,
f
=
m
t
0,
the rate determined at that temperature at the epoch being the time from this epoch for which the rate m is
f
required, k the constant coefficient of temperature, and k that of acceleration of the chronometer resulting from thickening of
the oil or other gradual changes which are supposed to be proportional to the time.
It is evident that, since every change of temperature produces an increase of w, the term k(& ty* will not disappear even when It is necessary, therefore, the mean value of & is the same as ? Let us, to determine the sum of the effects of all the changes. determine the accumulated rate for a given period of therefore, time r. Let rw be the rate at the middle of this period, in which 0. A strict theory requires that case we have in the formula t
.
=
384
LONGITUDE.
;
we should know the temperature at every instant
but, in default
of this, let us assume that the period r is divided into sufficiently small intervals, and that the temperature is observed in each.
Let us suppose n equal intervals whose sum observed values of # by #<*>, #<2>, #<s  #<w>.
>
is r,
and denote the
rate
The
#
2
in the 1st interval is [7H
+
+
k (# (1)
k (*<>
) ]
X
n
2d
Ac.
in the
"
&c.
[m
#
2
) ]
X X
nth interval
is
[w
f k
(W*  #
a
) ]
n
and the accumulated
quantities,
rate in the time r is the
sum
of these
where
2n (9
#
2
)
denotes the
To make
this expression exact,
sum of the n values of (9 we should have an infinite number
of infinitesimal intervals, or
the integral sign
for the
j
we must put
=
rfr,
and substitute
summation symbol S:
is
thus, the exact
expression for the whole rate in the time r
This integral cannot be found in general terms, since $ cannot be expressed as a function of r but we can obtain an approximate expression for it, aa follows. Let # be the mean of all the observed values of & then we have
; t
;
in
constant, and, therefore, for n values we have 2 is the mean of all Moreover, since ) (#, n (#, ) 2n (<? t?,) 0, and, consequently, also the values of #, we have
which
i?,
#
is
2
^
2
n
Ji?
.
=
^
JT.2 (* t
*
) (
 * = 2 (*!
t)
#)
T.
(*
*j)
=
;
and the above
expression becomes
BY CHRONOMETERS.
835
Hence,
also,
*.(**?$=*<***&+*.(**?$
or, for
an
infinite
value of
n,
 *.)' dr = r (d, _ *
Thus, the required integral depends upon the integral C (&
&i?dr,
which may be approximately found from the observed values of & by the theory of least squares. For, if we treat the values of & #j as the errors of the observed values of #, and denote the

mean
in the
error (according to the received acceptation of that term method of least squares) by e, we have
*=&=* n
1
(398)
in which n is the actual number of observed values of #. If we assume that a more extended series of values, or indeed an infinite series, would exhibit the same mean error (which will be the more nearly true the greater the number n), we assume the
general relation
in
which
N
is
any number.
Hence,
also,
and,
making
N
infinite,
(
*!)*= **
(399)
Substituting this value, the formula (397) becomes
or
from which
+ *T (dj # + kre* # [ro + k (* + (400) # + ke* is the mean rate it appears that m + *(#i
WIO T
)
2
t
)
Ae*]r
2
)
r, w/ being the rate at the # middle of the interval for a temperature & For any subseinterval r', we must, according to (396), replace m Q by quent w k't, t being the interval from the middle of r to the middle of *'.
in a unit of time for the interval
=
.
836
LONGITUDE.
let us
Now,
suppose that the chronometer correction
is
obtained
}
by astronomical observations at the station A, at the times T and Tv before starting upon the voyage, and again after reaching the station .B, at the times 7^ and T these times being all v reckoned at the same meridian. Let av a2 as <7 4 be the observed corrections, and put
,
,
,
so that r and r" are the shore intervals and r' the sea interval. Let the adopted epoch of the rate MO be the middle of the sea interval r'; then, by (400), with the correction k't, the accumu
lated rates in the three intervals are
k(*
A
l
*.)"
+*
]r
(401)
+ a,  a, = [,
+ * (#/  *.) +
ke>* ] r'
in
r,
which &19 d/, #/' are the mean temperatures in the intervals /x are found by the formula (398). These r', r", and *, e', ^
three equations determine the three and L If we put
unknown
quantities
mw
A',
we
have, from the
first
and third equations,
M
/r
we
which substituted in the second equation gives L If, however prefer to compute the approximate longitude without considering the temperatures, and afterwards ..to correct for tempe? rature, we shall have
.
TERRESTRIAL SIGNALS.
887
";
k
(
\
(*,'
 V ~ frV+^V + e" _
2
to a
2
A
/
= U;fAA
voyage in either direction
;
These formulae apply
sign.
but in the
case of a voyage from west to east they give / with the negative
The term k'(r" r) r' in the first equation of (402) will not be rigorously obtained if the temperatures are neglected but it is usually an insensible term in practice, as r" and r are made
;
as nearly equal as possible, and k' is always very small. In combining the results of different chronometers employed
in the
same voyage, the weight of each may be assigned
accord.
ing to the regularity of the chronometer as determined observed rates from day to day.*
from
it&
SECOND METHOD.
BY SIGNALS.
224. Terrestrial Signals. If the two stations are so near to each other that a signal made at either, or at an intermediate station, can be observed at both, the time may be rioted simultaneously
at
by the clocks of the two stations, and the difference of longitude once inferred. The signals may be the sudden disappearance
or reappearance of a fixed light, or flashes of gunpowder, &c. If the places are remote, they may be connected by intermediate signals.
stations
For example
:
chosen from east to west, the
termediate stations B,
suppose four stations, A, B, (7, jD, first and last being the principal
is
whose difference of longitude
C
At the inrequired. let observers be stationed with good
known. Let A and J5,
chronometers whose
respectively.
rates are
three points intermediate between
B and
signals be
C,
made
at
C'and D,
be
made
signals must, by a preconcerted arrangement, successively, and so that the observers at the intorino
The
diate stations
may have their attention properly directed upon the appearance of the signal. If, then, at the first signal the observers at atod have noted the times a and b; at the
A
B
* Besides the papers already referred to, the U. 8. Coast Survey for 1867, p. 314.VOL. I. 22
se
the Report of the Superintendent of
, .
\
338
LONGITUDE.
second signal the observers at
the third signal the is evident that the time at
B and C the times b observei's at C and D the times c
r
f
ana c; and d;
at
it
a
+ (b'
b)
+ (c'
;
c),
the third signal is made is at which instant the time at is d: hence
A when
A
and
D
the difference of longitude of
D
is
=a +
f
(b
6)
+ (d
c)
d
stations.
(403)
It is re
and so on
for
any number of intermediate
quired of the intermediate chronometers only that they should c, for which purpose 6, <?' give correctly the differences b'
only their rates must be accurately known. The daily rates are obtained by a comparison of the instants of the signals on successive days.
Small errors
in
the rates will be eliminated by
making the signals both from west to east and from east to west, and taking the mean of the results.
The intervals given by the intermediate chronometers should, of course, be reduced to sidereal intervals, if the clocks atthe
extreme stations are regulated to sidereal time.
EXAMPLE.
(PUISSANT). between Paris and Strasburg as follows:
Paris.
From On the
the Description
Geonietrique
de
la
France
25th of August, 1824, signals were observed
Intermediate Stations.
Strasburg.
j 
~"
A
19* 6m 20.3
8*
B
49* 48'.2
54
8
I
C
9* 16 TO
0.2
D
I
10.8
9 30
37.8
19* 46" 51.4
The
correction of the Paris clock on Paris sidereal time was
;
36'.2
27'.7.
that of the Strasburg clock on Strasburg sidereal time was and C were regulated to mean The chronometers at
B
time, and
their daily rates were so small as not to be sensible in the short intervals which occurred.
We have
V
Mean
b
c'c^U
=19
=
4"22'.G
37.6
.2
interval
sid. int.
Bed. to
Sid. interval
= +3.1 = 19 8
.3
CELESTIAL SIGNALS.
Paris clock
19*
839
8*
5
20'.3
Correction
Paris
aid.
36
19
.2
.1 .3
Strasburg clock Correction
19M6"
51.4
'17 .1
time
time of the
44
3
Sfcrasburg sid. time 19 46
23
.7
Sid. interval
+19
*}
Paris
sid.
last signal Strasburg do.
I
19 24
[
47
23
1
A
.7
19 46
=r~0~21
~8 (K3
In the survey of the boundary between the United States and Mexico, Major W. IL EMORY, in 1852, employed flashes of gunpowder as signals in determining the dift*. of long, of Frontera
and San
Elciario.*
signals may be given by the heliotrope of GAUSS, by which an image of the sun is reflected constantly in a given direction towards the distant observer. Either the sudden eclipse of the the light, or its reappearance, may be taken as the signal
;
The
usually preferred. the methods by terrestrial signals may be included that in which the signal is given by means of an electrotele^clipse
is
Among
graphic wire connecting the two stations; but this important and exceedingly accurate method will be separately considered below.
Certain celestial phenomena which are same absolute instant by observers in various parts of the globe, may be used instead of the terrestrial signals of the preceding article among these we may note a. The bursting of a meteor, and the appearance or disappearance of a shooting star. The difficulty of identifying these objects at remote stations prevents the extended use of this method. 6. The instant of beginning or ending of an eclipse of the moon. This instant, however, cannot be accurately observed, on account of the imperfect definition of the earth's shadow. A rude approximation to the difference of longitude is all that can
225.
Celestial Signals.
visible at the
:
be expected by
c.
this
method.
The
eclipses
planet
The
of Jupiter's satellites by the shadow of that Greenwich times of the disappearance of each
p. 64.
* Proceedings of 8th Meeting of Am. Association,
340
satellite,
LONGITUDE.
and of
its
Ephemeris:
local
so that an
reappearance, are accurately given in the observer who has noted one of these
difference between this observed occurrence and the Greenwich time given in the Ephemeris, to have his absolute longitude. With telescopes of different powers, however, the instant of a satellite's disappearance must evidently vary, since the eclipse of the satellite takes
phenomena has only to take 'the
time of
its
place gradually, and the
will it continue to
reappearance are mean of, the results obtained will be nearly free from this error. The first satellite is to be preferred, as its eclipses occur more Observers who wish to frequently and also more suddenly. deduce their difference of longitude by these eclipses should use
telescopes
more powerful the telescope the longer show the satellite. If the disappearance and both observed with the same telescope, the
of the same power, and observe under the same
atmospheric conditions, as nearly as possible. But in no case can extreme precision be attained by this method. d. The occupations of Jupiter's satellites by the body of the
planet.
in the
The
behind the
approximate Greenwich times of the disappearance disc, and the reappearance of each satellite, are given
Ephemeris. These predicted times serve only to enable the observers to direct their attention to the phenomenon at the
proper moment.
e.
The
transits
of the satellites over Jupiter's disc.
The
ap
proximate Greenwich times of "ingress" and "egress," or the first and last instants when the satellite appears projected on
the planet's disc, are given in the Ephemeris. /. The transits of the shadows of the satellites over Jupiter's disc. The Greenwich times of "ingress" and "egress" of the
shadow
are also approximately given in the Ephemeris. Among the celestial signals we may include also eclipses of
the sun, or occultations of stars and planets by the moon, or, in general, the arrival of the moon at any given position in the
heavens;
consequence of the moon's parallax, these eclipses and occultations do not occur at the. same absolute instant for all observers, and, in general, the moon's apparent position in the heavens is affected by both parallax and refracbut, in
tion.
The methods of employing
these
phenomena
as signals,
therefore, involve special computations, and will be hereafter See the general theory of eclipses, and the method treated of.
of lunar distances
BY THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH.
341
THIRD METHOD.
226. It
is
BY THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH.
may be compared by means
evident that the clocks at two stations, A and 5, of signals communicated through
an electrotelegraphic wire which connects the stations. Sup* pose at a time T by the clock at A a signal is made which is at the time T 1 by the clock at that station. Let perceived at 7/ \ T and A 7 be the clock corrections on the times at these stations respectively (both being solar or both sidereal). Let x be the time required by the electric current to pass over the wire; then, A being the more easterly station, we have the difference of longitude ^ by the formula
y
B
A
^
(
T+
A T7 )  ( 7"
+ A T') + # = Aj f r
to
Since x
this
is
unknown, we must endeavor
let
eliminate
it.
For
7
a signal be made at at the clock time T ", purpose, which is perceived at A at the clock time T nf then we have
;
B
;
=
(
T'" 4
*T"
f
)
(T"+ AT")
x
=
A8
r
In these formulae
^ and ^
denote the approximate values of the
;
difference of longitude, found by signals eastwest and westeast respectively, when the transmission time x is disregarded and
the true value
is
is the simple and obvious application of the telegraph to determination of longitudes; but the degree of accuracy of the result depends greatly more than at first appears
Such
the
upon the manner
received.
in
which the signals are communicated and
Suppose the observer at A taps upon a signal key* at an exact second by his clock, thereby producing an audible click of the armature of the electromagnet at B. The observer at B may riot only determine the nearest second by his clock when he hears this click, but may also estimate the fraction of a second; and it would seem that we ought in this way to be able to determine a longitude within onetenth of a second. But, before even
this
i>r
degree of accuracy can be secured, we have yet to eliminate, reduce to a minimum, the following sources of error:
II.,
* See Vol.
Chronograph," for the details of the apparatus here alluded
to.
'
842
1st.
LONGITUDE,
2d.
The personal The personal
The small
error of the observer
error of the observer
who gives the who receives
signal;
the signal
and estimates the fraction of a second by the ear;
8d.
fraction of time required to complete the galvanic
circuit after the finger touches the signal
key;
4th.
The armature time, or the time required by the armature at the station where the signal is received, to move through
the space in Avhich
it
plays,
and to give the audible
click;
5th.
errors of the supposed clock corrections, which involve errors of observation, and 'errors in the right ascensions of
The
the stars employed.
successfully with these sources are indebted to our Coast Survey, which, under the superintendence of Prof. Bache, not only called into existence
For the means of contending
of error
we
the chronographie instruments, but has given us the most efficient method of using them. The "method of star signals/' a.s
was originally suggested by the distinguished astroS. C. Walker, but its full development in the form now employed in the Coast Survey is due to Dr. B. A. Gould.
it is
called,
nomer Mr.
The difference of longitude be227. Method of Star Signals. tween the two stations is merely the time required by a star to pass from one meridian to the other, and this interval may be measured by means of a single clock placed at either station,* but in the main galvanic circuit extending from one station to the other. Two chronographs, one at each station, are also in
the circuit, and, when the wires are suitably connected, the clock seconds are recorded upon both. good transit instrument is
A
carefully
mounted
at each station.
When
the star enters the field of the transit instrument at
A
(the eastern station), the observer, by a preconcerted signal with and JS, his signal key, gives notice to the assistants at both
A
who
sits
at once set the chronographs in motion, and the clock then records its seconds upon both. The instants of the star's tran
over the several threads of the reticule are also recorded
his
upon both chronographs by the taps of the observer upon
signal key.
When
the star has passed
all
the threads, the ob
* The clock may, indeed, be at any place which is in telegraphic connection with the two stations whose difference of longitude is to be found.
BY THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH.
server indicates
348
it by another preconcerted signal, the chronoare stopped, and the record is suitably marked with date, graphs name of the star, and place of observation, to be
subsequently
off accurately by a scale. the star arrives at the meridian of ./?, the transit is recorded in the same
identified
and read
When
manner upon both chronographs.
Suitable observations having been made by each observer to determine the errors of his transit instrument and the rate of
the clock, let us put
T
l
= the mean
graph at
of the clock times of the eastern transit of the star overall the threads, as read from the chrono
T9
= the same, as read from the chronograph at = the mean of the clock times of the western transit of T/
J9,
A
y
the star over
all
the threads, as read from the chrono
T9
'
e, e'
= = the
graph at A^ the same as read
from the chronograph at By
personal equations of the observers at
A
and
A
respectively,
r,r'~ the corrections of Tj and T{ (or of
T9 and T ')
foi
the &tate of the transit instruments at A and By or the respective " reductions to the meridian" (VoL II., Transit Inst.),
fiT
x ~= the transmission time of the
Tlt the correction for clock rate in the interval T,' electric current between
and By
;
A
A
= the difference of longitude
is
then
it
easily seen that
we
have, from the chronographic
records at A,
A
=r~.
T/
+ *T+ +
r'
e'
x
at

(T
+
r f e)
and from the chronographic records
H,
and the mean of these values
*
l
is
= U(T '+T + r'lU(T +TJ + + dT + *8
9')
l
Tl
(404)
which we
may
briefly express thus
;
:
^
+
#
e
344
in
'
LONGITUDE.
which
A,=:the approximate difference of longitude found by the exchange of star signals, when the personal equations
of the obbcrvers are neglected.
This equation would be final if e> ^ or the relative personal of the observers, were known however, if the observers equation now exchange stations and repeat the above process, we shall have, provided the relative personal equation is constant,
:
A
:
A"
9 }
e
 /
as
In
before
which ^ 2 is the approximate difference of longitude found and hence the final value is
;
have not here introduced any consideration of the armature time, because it affects clock signals and star signals in the same manner; and therefore the time read from the chronographu* fillet or sheet is the same as if the armature acted instantaneously.* It is necessary, howcyer, that this time should be constant from the first observation at the first station to the last observation at the second, and therefore it is important that no changes should be made in the adjustments of the apparatus
I
during the interval. As the observer has only to tap the transits of the star over The the threads, the latter may be placed very close together.
prepared by Mr. W. WURDEMANN for the Coast Survey have generally contained twentyfive threads, in groups or u tallies" of five, the equatorial intervals between the threads, of a group being 2'.5, and those between the groups 5" with an additional thread on each side at the distance of 10* for use in obreticules
;
servations
by "eye and
it
ear."
and render
able,
necessary to take
Except when clouds intervene whatever threads may be availto
only the three middle
tallies,
The use of more has been found
* Dr. B. A.
battery
or fifteen threads, are used. add less to the accuracy of a
GOULD
thinks that the armature time varies with the strength of the
and the distance (and consequent weakness) of the signal; being thus liable The effect upon the difference of to be confounded with the transmission time. same longitude will be inuppieciable if the batteries are maintained at nearly the
strength
BY THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH.
345
determination than is lost in consequence of the greater fatigue from concentrating the attention for nearly twice as long. A large number of stars may thus be observed on the same night and it will be well to record half of them by the clock at one station, and the other half by the clock at the other
;
upon the general principle of varying the circumstances under which several determinations are made, whenever practiFor cable, without a sacrifice of the integrity of the method. this reason, also, the transit instruments should be reversed
station,
^
during a night's work at least once, an equal number of stars being observed in each position, whereby the results will be freed from any undetermined errors of collimation and inequality of pivots. Before and after the exchange of the star signals, each observer should take at least two circumpolar stars to determine the instrumental constants upon which r and r' depend. This part of the work must be carried out with the
of r and
greatest precision, employing only standard stars, as the errors r' conic directly into the difference of The longitude.
right ascensions of the "signal stars" do not enter into the computation, tuid the result is, therefore, wholly free from any
error in their tabular places: hence
larger catalogues may be possible to select a sufficient moderate zenith distances at both stations, (unless the difference of latitude is unusually great), so that instrumental errors will
be used as signal
any of the stars of the stars, and it will always number which culminate at
have the
minimum
effect.
single night's work, however, is not to be regarded as conclusive, although a large number of stars may have been ob
A
served and the results appear very accordant; for experience shows that there arc always errors which are constant, or nearly so, for the same night, and which do not appear to be represented in the corrections computed and applied. Their existence is
proved when the mean results of different nights are compared. Moreover, it is necessary to interchange the observers in order to eliminate their personal equations. The rule of the Coast
Survey has been that when fifty stars have been exchanged on not less than three nights, the observers exchange stations, and fifty stars are again exchanged on not less than three nights. The observers should also meet and determine their relative personal equation, if possible, before and after each series, as it
may
prove that this equation
is
not absolutely constant.
S46
LONGITUDE.
will
Before entering upon a series of star signals, each observer be provided with a list of the stars to be employed. The
preparation of this list requires a knowledge of the approximate difference of longitude in order that the stars may be so selected that transits at the two stations may not occur simultaneously.
EXAMPLE. For the purpose of finding the difference of longitude between the Seaton Station of the U. S. Coast Survey and Raleigh, a list of stars was prepared, from which I extract the following for illustration. The latitudes are
Seaton Station (Washington) y " (North Carolina) y Raleigh
= + 38 = + 35
53'.4
47
.0
and Raleigh
is
assumed
to
be west from Washington 6 m
30*.
The following table contains the observations made on one ot these stars at the abovenamed stations by the U. S. Coast Survey
telegraphic party in 1853, April 28, under the direction of Dr. B. A. GOULD. In this table " Lamp W." expresses the position of the rotation axes of the transit instruments. The 1st column contains the symbols
by which the
;
fifteen threads of the three
middle
tallies
were
denoted the 2d column, the times of transit of the star over each thread at Seaton, as read from the chronographs at Seaton the 3d column, the times of these transits as read from the chronographs at Raleigh the 4th column, the mean of the 2d and 3d columns the 5th column, the reduction of each thread to the
; ; ;
mean
of
all,
;
computed from the known equatorial
intervals of
the threads
the 6th column, the time of the star's transit over
BY THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH.
the
347
mean
in the 4th
of the threads, being the algebraic sum of the numbers and 5th columns ; and the remaining columns, the
Raleigh observations similarly recorded and reduced.
in the last column for each station would be equal the observations and chronogniphic apparatus were perfect; and by carrying them out thus individually we can estimate their
The numbers
if
The numbers [3.67] at Seaton and [36.17] at Raleigh accuracy. are rejected by the application of PEIRCE'S Criterion (see Appendix, Method of Least Squares), and the given means arc found from the remaining numbers.
The
corrections
6'.9)
of the
transit
instruments
for
this
star
= + 36 (3
were
'
for the Seaton instrument, T
Raleigh
= =
CK028
.193
The
T/
7
rate
T.
of the clock was insensible in
the brief interval
Hence, neglecting the personal equations of the ol> servers, the difference of longitude is found as follows
:
2V)
(T,
'=
15* 52 36'.342
+
T,
)
+r=
15 46
3.364
32.978
^^
:
6
In this manner seven other stars were observed on the same follows night, and the results were as
348
LONGITUDK.
Mean
6 32 .99
From
the residuals
0,
we deduce
star,
the
mean
error of a
single
determination by one
^
*tnd
0.06
hence the mean error of the value
0'"
32VJ9
is
eB==
_2^
=(
,.02
this error will be somewhat increased by those errors of the instruments which are constant for the night, and not represented in r and r', and by the errors of the personal equations yet to be
But
applied.
error.
Moreover, a greater number of determinations should be compared, in order to arrive at a just evaluation of the mean
of
228. Velocity of the galvanic current. Recurring to the equations p. 343, we find, by taking the difference between the values
of A given by the chroriographic records at the two stations,
If the clock
differ
is
at the eastern station (A), the time
in
T
2
will not
tin*
19 except consequence of irregularities in chronographs and errors in reading them, and therefore should find x solely from the times 7J' and 7^', or
from
T
we
=,*(
TV
TV)
(405;
BY THE ELECTKIC TELEGRAPH.
In like manner, by the formula
if
349
the clock
is
at the
western station,
we
find X
Thus, in general, the transmission time will be deduced by comparing the records of the star signals made at one station when the clock is at the other station. In the above examples the clock was at Washington, and hence, from the record of the transit at Raleigh, we have fourteen values of T, f T.t '=2x, as follows:
4 0.08
+ + +
Jt
.05
.09
.03
+ (K08 + 00 + .23

'
.03 .09
.13
.14 .09
+
f
f
.10
+
.00
the
That these are not merely accidental residuals is shown by permanence of sign, with the single exception in the case the eleventh observation. The discrepancies between them of indicate accidental variations in the chronographs, combined with
errors in reading off the record. Taking the to a certain extent these errors, we have nating
mean, as elimi
2x
= 0.077
JG
~ 0.0385
x and the distance of the stations we can deduce the velocity per second of the galvanic current. In the present instance, the length of the wire was very nearly 300 miles, and, if the above single observation could be depended
From
this value of
upon,
we should have,
is
velocity per second
~ "Tr^rr*
U.OooO
7792 miles,
which
doubtless too small.
velocity thus found, however, appears to depend upon the intensity of the current,* as has been shown by varying the It has also been found that battery power on different nights.
The
the velocities determined from signals made at the east and west stations differed, and that this difference was apparently depend*
It
depends also upon the sectional area, molecular structure, and) of course,
material, of the wire.
850
LONGITUDE.
;
ent upon the strength of the batteries the velocities from signals eastwest and signals westeast coining out more arid more
nearly equal as the strength of the batteries was increased. See Dr. GOULD'S Report on telegraphic determinations of differ
ences of longitude, in the Report of the Superintendent of the U. S. Coast Survey for 1857, Appendix No. 27.
FOURTH METHOD.
BY MOON CULiMINATIONS.
229. The moon's motion in right ascension is so rapid that the change in this clement while the moon is passing from one meridian to another may be used to determine the difference
of longitude.
transit is
Its right
ascension at the instant of
its
meridian
most accurately found hy means of the interval of sidereal time hetween thi* transit and that of a neighboring wellknown star. For this purpose, therefore, the Ephemerides contain a list of mooncidw mating stars* which are selected for each day so that at least four of them arc given, the mean of whose declinations is nearly the same as that of the moon on that day, and, generally, so that two precede and two follow the moon. The Ephemerides also contain the right ascension of the moon's bright limb for each culmination, both upper and lower, and the variation of this right ascension in one hour of longitude, i.e. the variation during the interval between the moon's transits over two meridians whose difference of longitude is one hour. This variation is not uniform, and its value is given for the instant of the passage over the meridian of the Ephemeris. These quantities facilitate the reduction of corresponding observations, as will be seen below.
230.
As
y
to the observation, let
#,
the sidereal times of the culmination of the moon's
known
rate,
a,
limb and the star, respectively, corrected for all the errors of the transit instrument, and for clock
a
 the
right ascensions of the moon's limb at the instants of transit;
and the star
then
we
evidently have
*
= +#
'
&'
(406)
BY MOON CULMINATIONS.
351
The
and the moon being nearly in the same parallel, the instiumeiital errors which affect & also aftect #' by nearly the
star
same
by
quantity.
We
we
to apply all the corrections for
this omission
should not, however, for this reason omit known instrumental errors, since
should introduce an error in the longitude For precisely equal to the unconnected error of the instrument; if the instrumental error produces the error z in the time of the
star's transit,
perfectly
the effect
is
the same as
if
the instrument were
mounted in a meridian whose longitude west of the of observation is equal to z but the sidereal time required place by the moon to describe this interval z is equal to z + the increase of the moon's right ascension in this interval. Hence
;
the longitude found, by the methods hereafter given, would be in error by the quantity z.
lunar tables were perfectly accurate, the true longitude given by the observation would be found at once by comparing the observed right ascension with that of the Ephe231. If the
meris.
errors of the Ephemeris.
There are two methods of avoiding or eliminating the In the first, which has heretofore been
exclusively followed, the observation is compared with a corresponding one on the same day at the first meridian, or at some
meridian the longitude of which is well established. In this method the increase of the right ascension in passing from ono
is directly observed, and the error of the on the day of observation is consequently avoided ; Ephemeris but observations at the unknown meridian are frequently ren
meridian to the other
dered useless by a failure to obtain the corresponding observation at the first meridian.
In the second method, proposed by Professor PEIRCE, the Ephemeris is first corrected by means of all the observations
taken at the fixed observatories during the semilunation within
which the observation
for longitude falls.
The
corrected Ephe
meris then takes the place of the corresponding observation, and is even better than the single corresponding observation, since
has been corrected by means of all the observations at the fixed observatories during the semilunation.
it
I shall consider
observations.
first
the
method of reducing corresponding
352
282.
tude
is less
Corresponding observations at places whose difference of lonc/*At each place the true sidereal times than two hours.
of transit of the moonculminating stars and of the moon's bright limb are to be obtained with all possible precision from
:
these, according to the formula (406), will follow the right ascension of the moon's limb at the instants of transit over the
two meridians, taking
all
in
each case the mean value found from
the stars observed.
Put
Lr L
ttj,
9
A
the approximate or assumed longitudes, ~r the true difference of longitude,
the observed right ascensions of the moon's bright limb at and 9 respectively, l
aa
H = the
Q
L
L
variation of the R. A. of the moon's limb for
1*
of longitude while passing from
L
l
to
L

9
f
then
we have
J
*^p ^0
(407)
a t and 9 being both expressed in seconds, A will in which, a2 be in hours and decimal parts.
is
H
the difference of longitude is less than two hours, it as constant, sufficiently accurate to regard for the middle longitude provided we employ its value found by interpolation from the values in the /, i(Zv As),
When
found to be
H
^
t
+
Ephemeris, having regard to second differences.
EXAMPLE.
The following observations were made, May
by the
IT. S.
15,
1851, at Santiago, Chili,
Astronomical Expedition
under Lieut. GILLISS, and
at Philadelphia,
by
Prof.
KENDALL
:
We
shall
assume the longitudes from Greenwich
Philadelphia,
to be,
Santiago,
L L
l
a
= 5* 0 30.85 = 4 42 19.
GILLIE
at first
last
the longitude of Philadelphia being that which results from the chronometric expeditions of the T. S. Coast Survey, and
that of Santiago the value whit'li Lieut.
assumed.
BY MOON CULMINATIONS.
358
15,
The apparent right ascensions of the stars on May moonculminating list in the Nautical Almanac, were
by the
# Librae
B. A. C. 5579
15* 45 22'.59
16 32
(406),
59.20
We
have then at Philadelphia, by
Mean
<*
a
= 16
20
55 .99
Hence
a
fl
a,
=  4S.87 L =
J (ij
= 4*.86,
We
shall find
mean longitude Q for the the interpolation formula (72), or by
Aa!

H
+
Bb
in which, if
we put n =
0.405
we have
A=:n^=
and a and
as follows
:
^ _ 0.120
r
6 are
found from the values of
H
in the
Ephemeris
Mayl5,L.C.
15, U. C.
142.56
143 .48
JK28
+ 0.64
16, L. C.
[
 o
.35]
144 .12 144 .35
"
0.23
.41
16,
U. C.
whenct
H = 143.48 +
Q
H=
143.48
0
a'=
259
0.64
^
+ 0.042 = 143.781
_^
= J(
0.28
0.41)
^
0.85
43.37
_ o\80164 =r
18 5.90
143.781
7oL.
I.
28
354
LONGITUDE.
which
if
is the longitude of Santiago from Philadelphia. the longitude of Philadelphia is correct, \ve have
Hence,
Long, of Santiago
233.
tude
is
= 4* 42 m 33.95 from Greenwich.
Corresponding observations at places whose difference of longigreater than two hours. Having found a, and a2 as in the
we ^mploy in this case an indirect method of For each assumed longitude we interpolate the right ascension of the moon's limb from the Moon Culminations in the Ephemeris to fourth differences. Let
preceding case,
solution.
A v A} =
the interpolated right ascensions of the moon'* limb for the assumed longitudes l and L.2 respect
L
ively,
Ephemeris on the given day is ?, the true values of the right ascension for 7^ and L2 are A + e and A 2 + e, the error of the Ephemeris being supposed to be sensibly constant for a few hours but their difference is
If the correction of the
i
;
(A,
so that the
+
e)~(A
l
+ e)^A A
9
l
computed difference of right ascension is the same as if the Ephemeris were correct. If now the observed differis the same as this computed difference, ence a2 (Xj L v is correct;* sumed difference of longitude, or L2
the asbut, if
this is not the case,
put
y=(a,a )(4
l
1
^
1)
(408)
and
&L
then Y
= the
will
correction of the uncertain longitude, which suppose to be a
we
X
the change of the right ascension while the moon is describing the small arc of longitude A!/ ; and for this small
is
difference
so that
we may apply we have at once
the solution of the preceding article,
*L
or
=H
X
'

(in hours)
(409)
=r
~
JH
(in seconds)
(409*)
* It should be observed, however, that one of the assumed longitudes must be nearly correct, for it is evident that the same difference of right ascension will not exactly correspond to the same difference of longitude if we increase or decrease
both longitudes by the same quantity.
BY MOON CULMINATIONS.
In
355
which the value of
H must
or,
uncertain meridian
the
L
2,
more
mean
longitude between
L
be that which belongs to the must be taken for strictly, and L2 + &L ; but, as &L is 2
is here superfluous. generally very small, great precision in if in any case &L is large, we can first find for the However,
H H
H
meridian
L^ and
with this value an approximate value of &Z/;
for the meridian then, interpolating value of A// will be found.*
H
L + J AJL, a more correct
2
EXAMPLE.
The following observations were made May
and Greenwich
15*46:
15,
1851, at Santiago
Object.
Santiago.
Greenwich.
# Librae
3'.37
15* 45" 22'.37
Moon
II
Limb
16 21
16 33
B. A. C. 5579
36.84 40 .12
16
9
39.41
59 .17
16 32
We assume here, as in the preceding example, for Santiago L = 4* 42 19*, and for Greenwich we have L = 0. The places
TO
2
}
of the stars being as in the preceding article,
we
find for
Greenwich, a
Santiago, a3
t
aa
at
= 16* 9 m 39*.54 = 16 20 55 .99 = 11 16 .45
;
right ascension for Greenwich is in this case that given in the Ephemeris for May 15 the increase to simply the meridian 4* 42" 19*. has been found in our example of in1
The computed
terpolation, Art. 71, to be
and hence
r
= + 0.61
19',
We find,
whence
W moreover, for the longitude 4* 42
By
these observations
we
have, therefore,
Longitude of Santiago
*This method
action*
= 4* 42m 34'.28
WALKER,
Trans
of reducing moon culminations was developed by of the American Philosophical Society, new series, Vol. V.
356
234. Reduction of
LONGITUDE.
moon culminations by
in the
the hourly
Ephemeris.
article is
per preceding but the interpolation of the moon's place to fourth differences is laborious. The hourly Ephemeris, however, requires the use of second differences only. The sidereal time of the transit of the moon's centre at the meridian i x is the observed a r If then we put right ascension of the centre
fectly exact;
The method of reduction given
=
=
T
l
the
0,
=
mean Greenwich time corresponding to a, as found by the hourly Ephemeris, the Greenwich sidereal time corresponding to Tv
Ephemeris
i,
is
we have
at once, if the
correct,
= e,
.,
(410)
This, indeed, was one of the earliest methods proposed, hut was abandoned on account of the imperfection of the Ephemeris.
The substitution of corresponding observations, however, does not require a departure from this simple process for we shall have in the same manner, from the observations made at
;
another meridian (which
may be
the meridian of the Ephemeris),
L, .= 6,
 a.
9;
and hence
A
,
 L =(0. 9
(a,

.)
(411)
of the Greenwich and it is evident that the difference (0j ) times will be correct, although the absolute right ascension of the Ephemcris is in error, provided the hourly motion is correct. The correctness of the hourly motion must be assumed in all
methods of reducing moon culminations; and state of the lunar theory there can be no error
be sensible in meridian to another.
In this
in the present
which can the time required by the moon to pass from one
in
it
method a
is
the right ascension of the moon's centre
;
which may be deduced from the time of transit of the limb by adding or sub" tracting the sidereal time of semidiameter passing the meridian,"
at the instant of the transit of the centre
given in the table of
To
find TJ corresponding to
moon culminations in the Ephemeris.* a p we may proceed as in Art.
64,
* If we wish to be altogether independent of the moonculminating table, *e can compute the sidereal time of semidiameter passing the meridian by the formula (see
Vol. II., Transit Instrument),
BY MOON CULMINATIONS.
or as follows:
857
Let
a,
between which
Aa
no.
and TQ + falls, and put
T
1A
be the two Greenwich hours
the increase of right ascension in 1" of the time T
,
.
mean time
at
the increase of
Aa
in 1*,
a
= the right ascension of the Ephemeris at the hour
T
Q,
then, by the
method of
interpolation 'by second differences,
we
have
in
which the interval
This gives
T
{
T
is
supposed
to.
be expressed in
seconds.
T
*

T
*
!7r
o)
2
3600
and
second member an approximate value of Tv may be deduced from the local time of the observation and an used, approximate longitude. A still more convenient form, which dispenses with finding an approximate value of Tv is obtained as follows Put T^T.+ x then we have
in the
:
15(1
in
sion in one sidereal second,
the increase of the moon's right ascenwhich 8 = the moon's scmidiameter, A and 6 the moon's declination, which are to be taken
~
tor ttie Greenwich time of the observation, approximately known from the local time and the approximate longitude. Or we may apply to the sidereal time (= tfj) of the transit of the limb the quantity
8
15 cosrf
8 sec d will be the right ascension of the moon's #, it a, We then find the Greenwich time Q } correcentre at the local sidereal time #, to aj as in the text, and we have
and the resulting
sponding
^
358
LONGITUDE.
X
=
60
(a,
%
)
eOCa,^)/
Aa
or,
\
^
,
* A 7200
J
]
/
with sufficient accuracy,
x
=
Aa
\
7200 A
Putting then
g,
= 80 () Aa
x
^"
.
7200 Aa
v (412)
we As
have, very nearly,
= #' + ^"
(413)
will
a practical rule for the computer, we may observe that x" be a positive quantity when &a is decreasing, and negative
particularly convedirectly
when AOC is increasing. The method of this article will be found nient when the observation is compared
See page 362.
with the
Ephemeris, the latter being corrected by the following process.
235. Peirce's method of correcting the Ephemeris.*
The accuracy
of the longitude found by a
moon
culmination depends upon
When this that of the observed difference of right ascension. difference is obtained from two corresponding observations, if
the probable errors of the observed right ascensions at the two meridians are e and e2 the probable error of the difference will
l ,
be
2 2 e2 ). [Appendix]. But if instead of an actual obi/fo servation at Z/2 we had a perfect Ephemeris, or e2 0, the
+
probable error of the observed difference would be reduced to ^ and if we have an Ephemeris the probable error of which is less than that of an observation, the error of the observed difference is reduced. At the same time, we shall gain the additional
;
advantage that every observation taken at the meridian whose longitude is required will become available, even when no corresponding observation has been taken on the same day; and
*
Report of the Superintendent of the U. S
Coast Survey for 1864, Appendix,
p. 115*.
BY MOON CULMINATIONS.
859
experience has shown that, when we depend on corresponding observations alone, about onethird of the observations are
lost.
The defects of the lunar theory, according to PEIRCE, are involved in several terms which for each lunation may be principally combined into two, of which one is constant and the
for all
other has a period of about half a lunation, and he finds that practical purposes we may put the correction of the
Ephemeris for each semilunation under the form
X=A + Bt+
in
Ct
tJ
(414)
which A,
J3,
and
t
C are
at
constants to be determined from the
observations
semilunation,
made
and
it
the principal observatories during the denotes the time reckoned from any assumed
epoch, which
observations.
fractions of a
will be convenient to take near the
t
mean of
;
the
The value of
is
expressed in days
and small
day may be neglected.
Let
a,,
a a a s &c.
,
,
= the
right ascension observed at any observatory at the dates t v 3 8 &c., from the assumed
,
,
a/,a g ',a a ',&c.
=
epoch, the right ascension at the same instant found
from the Ephemeris,
and put
nv
=a
,
t
a/,
n3
=a
fl
a g',
n3
=a
3
a,',
&C.
# 2 n y &c. are the corrections which (according to the observations) the Ephemeris requires on the given dates, and hence we have the equations of condition
then
rij,
A
A
+
Bt^
f Bts
+ Cf + CV
a
2
na
>i
a
= =
&c.
In order to eliminate constant errors peculiar to any observaobservation is not made at Greenwich, the obtory, when the ascension is to be increased by the average excess served right
for thp year (determined
right
by simultaneous observations) of the ascensions of the moon's limb made at Greenwich above
those
made
at the actual place of observation.
360
If
LONGITUDE.
now we
put
.
m
=r the number of observations of condition, =^ the algebraic
the
number
of equations
T
7*a
3
= the sum of the squares off,
the
sum of the
values off,
AT = the algebraic sum of the values oi N = the algebraic sum of the products of n multiplied by
//,
l
T =r T4 ~
the algebraic sum of the third powers off, sum of the fourth powers off,
f,
AT9 =c
be
the algebraic
sum of the products of n
multiplied by f,
least squares,
the normal equations, according to the
will
method of
T
mA TA
9
= + TB + 7^' + T^B + T CNi=Q T A + jT B !F JV =
JV
3
s
f
^
V (415)
)
4
<7
9
The
solution of these equations
substitution, according to the forms given in the be expressed as follows :
7^ '
2
by the method of successive Appendix, may
"
rri j
i
*r
~
\
m
*
\
N;
= JV
7* A^
'
m/
s
AP
s
TT **
*
~
i
m
rrt
JL
t
/TT
JL
. *
^9
A 4
m
(r;y
r;
AT' "~
*
,
4
*
(7
=
AT"
7^"
^ =.
T'T*
a
y
mean
^1
'
= W
a
Ta n ^^^ TP m
f
"
(A\ g\ ^ /
Then,
to find the
error of the corrected Ephemeris,
we
observe that this error is simply that of the function X, which is to be found by the method of the Appendix, according to which \ve first find the coefficients kw kv k2 by the following formulae:
and then, putting
M
BY MOON CULMINATIONS.
361
we have
(t JT)
=
(417)
in
e denotes the mean error of a single observation and the mean error of the corrected Ephemeris ; or, if e denotes (eJT) the probable error of an observation, (e^T) denotes the probable error of the corrected Ephemeris. (Appendix.)
which
If the values of
,
/t
p
and
fc
2
are substituted in
M, we
shall
have
It will
generally happen, where a sufficient
number of
observa
T'
tions are combined, that
_iy
'a
is
a small fraction which
may be
neglected without sensibly affecting the estimation of a probable error, and we may then take
(41**)
According
tion of the
moon's
to PEIRCE, the probable error of a zktndard observatransit is 0".104 (found from the discussion of
a large
number of Greenwich, Cambridge, Edinburgh, and Washwill
ington observations); so that the probable error of the corrected
Ephemeris
be equal
the
to
M. (OM04).
EXAMPLE.
At
Washington Observatory, the following
obtained from the transits over observed with the electrochronograph twentyfive threads,
right ascensions of the
:
moon were
Appro x. Green Mean Time.
1859, Aug. Hi, 19*
17,
20
18, 21
The sidereal time of the semidiameter passing the meridian Is here taken from the British Almanac, as we propose to reduce the observations by meuna of the Greenwich observations which are
reduced by
diameter.
this
almanac.
We
thus avoid any error in the semi
During the semilunation from Aug. 13 to Aug. 27, the Greenwich observations, also made with the electrochronogniph,
362
LONGITUDE.
n)
gave the following corrections (=
right ascensions of the
of the Nautical Almanac
moon
:
Let us employ these observations to determine by Peirce's method the most probable correction of the Ephemeris on the
dates of the
Washington observations.
rf
Adopting
as the
epoch
Aug. 17th 12* or 17
given.
The
are approximately as above correction of the Ephemeris being sensibly constant
.5,
the values of
t
for at least
one hour, these values are
sufficiently exact.
We
find then
m
=6
(416),
tf
and hence, by
C=
The

0.02135
==
OM257
^
=
/,
(K52ft
correction of the Ephemeris for any given date
17.5,
is,
reckoning
from Aug.
therefore,
0.525
X=
OM257*
O'.02135f
Consequently, for the dates of the Washington observations, the correction and the probable error (Me) of the correction, found by (418) or (418*), are as follows:
Aug.
16, 19* 17, 20 18, 21
t
t
t
=~ = + 0.3 = + 1.4
0.7'
^
0.56
Me Me Me
= 0.05 = .04 = .04
The longitude of the Washington Observatory may now be
found by the hourly Ephemeris
tions),
(after
applying these correcof
by the method of Art.
234.
Taking the observation
Aug.
16,
we have
BY MOON CULMINATIONS. Aug.
16,
T
=
19*,
R. A. of Ephemeris
da
X=
a
=O
A
0" 47'.56
0.45
6
7
1
Aa
= 1.8122
= + 0.0023
=
=: a^
47 .11 51.34
4 .23
*_!,=:
log (a t
ar. co.
a
x
)
1.80774
9.74179
log*" 6.6554
log da
ar. eo. log
log Aa
7.3617
log 60
f
1.77815
Aa 9.7418
6.1427
log
3.32768
x'
= 35 26'.57 .80 x" =
=35
25.77
log
Tfa
log x" w9.9016
T Hence, Greenwich mean time Sidereal time mean noon Correction for 19* 35 m 25.77
Greenwich sidereal time Local sidereal time a
=
+ x = 19* 35m 25'.77
9
37
3
24.18 13.09
3 .04
16
7
=
51.34
11 .70
Longitude =
5
8
The
same manner, the three
observations of the 17th and 18th being reduced in tb results are
236. Combination of moon culminations by weights. When some of the transits either of the moon or of the comparison stars are incomplete; one or more of the threads being lost, such observa
tions should evidently have less weight than complete ones, if we wish to combine them strictly according to the theory of
Besides, other things being equal, a determinaprobabilities. tion of the longitude will have more or less weight according to
the greater or less rapidity of the moon's motion in right ascension.
* For the computation of the probable error and weight, see the following
article*
864
If the
LONGITUDE
weight of a transit either of the moon or a star were simply proportional to the number of observed threads, as has been assumed by those who have heretofore treated of this subject,* the methods which they have given, and which are obvious applications of the method of least squares, would be quite sufficient.
But the
first
subject, strictly considered, is
by
110
means
so
simple, Let us
consider the formula
or, rather
= + (' *.
*')
of the
which #t and &' are the observed sidereal times of the transit moon and star, respectively; a' is the tabular right ascension of the star, and a is the deduced right ascension of the moon. The probable error of a! is composed of the probable errors of # and of a' #', which belong respectively to the moon and the star. We may here disregard the clock errors, as
in
1
t
well as the
unknown
instrumental errors, since they aftect
<?!
and #' in the same manner, very nearly, and are sensibly eliminated in the difference
is composed of the errors of a' and #'. The quantity a' error of the tabular right ascension of the moonculmiprobable
&
^
&'.
The probable
error of
th<>
nating stars is not only very small, but in the case of corresponding observations is wholly eliminated and even when we use a corrected Ephemeris it will have but little effect, since the observed right ascension of the moon at the principal observatories
;
always depends (or at least should depend) chiefly upon these $' as simmay, therefore, consider the error of a' have here to deal with those errors only ply the error of #'.
stars.
We
We
which do not necessarily aftect &' and & in the same manner, and of these the chief and only ones that need be considered
i
here are
1st,
ditions of the
the culmination error produced by the peculiar conatmosphere at the time of the star's transit, which
are constant, or nearly so, during the transit, but are different for different stars and on different days and, 2d, the accidental
;
error of observation.
*
It is
only the latter which can be diminished
;
tions of the
NICOLAI, in the Astronomischt Nachrichtcn, No. 26 American Philosophical Society, Vol. VI.
and
8. C.
WALKER,
Transac
p. 258.
BY MOON CULMINATIONS.
365
by increasing the number of threads. In Vol. II. (Transit InHtrument) I shall show that the probable error of a single determination of the right ascension of an equatorial star (and this
may embrace
Observatory
exist
it
is
the moonculminating stars) at the Greenwich 0*.06, whereas, if the culmination error did not
O'.OS,
would be only
thread being
~ 0*.08,
the probable error of a single
7.
and the number of threads
Hence,
putting
c
the probable culmination error for a star,
we deduce*
c
If,
= l/((X06)'(0.03)' = 0.052
then,
t
we
put
= the probable accidental error of the transit of a st&r over
n
= the number of threads on
#',
a single thread,
which the star
in
observed,
#', ig
the probable error of
and, consequently, also of a'
and the weight of a'
formula
#' for
each star
JE*
may be found by
the
which E is the probable error of an observation of the weight If we make p \ when unity, which is, of course, arbitrary. n ~ 7, we have 0*.06. this value, and also Substituting c = 0*.052, s = 0*.08, the formula may be reduced to the folin
E~
lowing
:
'
100
^TB
+
?
#,
<">
mean
The
value of
c
<x t is
to
be deduced by adding to
the
* The value of
proper, such as
thus found involves other errors besides the culmination erroi
irregularities of the clock
c,
unknown
These cannot readily be separated from
nor
is
it.
and transit instrument, &c. necessary for our present purpose
166
LONGITUDE.
(^
According to weights of all the values of c^ everal stars, or
given by the
0i= i+
,,
[^)]
O ' t06
(420)
/here the rectangular brackets are employed to express the sum f all the quantities of the same form. The probable error of
he last term will be
E
If
now we put
cv
kc
= the probable error of = the culmination error for the moon, = the probable accidental error of the
ttl ,
transit of the
rij
=
moon's limb over a single thread, the number of threads on which the moon
is
observed,
he probable error of #, will be
= +lcf+ (~
\
nt
I*,
and hence
*
Po determine c t I shall
f+s? +
&
1
employ the values of the other quantities n this equation which have been found from the Greenwich Professor PEIRCE gives observations. .104, and in the
=0
sases
which I examined
[7?]
I
uming
= 4 as
found the mean value k
= 1.3.
Ast
the average
number of
stars
upon which a
lepends in the Greenwich series,
we have
vhence
ind the
formula for the probable error of
otj
observed at the
neridian
L
v
is
,,.
=
( 0.0
91y+
^)' + <^p
(422)
!n
,
the case of corresponding observations at a second meridian
L2 the probable error s2 is also to be found by this formula, and hen the probable error of the deduced dift'erence of right ascenion will be
BY MOON CULMINATIONS.
367
will
and the probable error of the deduced longitude
h
be
,
v/V +
2
2
(423)
1*
where, being the increase of the moon's right ascension in of longitude, we have
* h
H
= 3600
L
l
(424)
is
But
if
the observation at the meridian
compared with a
corrected Ephemeris (Art. 235) the probable error of which is (0*.104), the probable error of the deduced longitude will be
M
= h v/e *+ M* (0.104)2
l
( 425)
Finally, all the different values of the longitude will
be com
bined by giving them weights reciprocally proportional to the squares of their probable errors. The preponderating influence of the constant error represented by the first term of (422) is such that a very precise evaluation of the other terms is quite unimportant. It is also evident that we shall add very little to the accuracy of an observation by increasing the number of threads of the reticule beyond five or
For example, suppose, as in the Washington observations used in Art. 235, that twentyfive threads are taken, and that four stars are compared with the moon we have for each star,
seven.
;
by
(419),
p
and hence
ir!.
1.22
100 f
whereas for seven threads we have
the increase of the
et
OM04, and therefore
number
of threads has not diminished the
16, 17, 18, Art. 235, the
probable error by so
much
as O'.Ol.
For the observations of 1859 August
values of A are respectively
32.1
30.8

and
28.8
and, taking
Me =
M
(0 .104) as
0*.04
given in that
and
article,
namely,
0'.05
0.04
868
{
LONGITUDE.
with the value of *  0*.097 above found, wo deduce the probable errors of the three values of the longitude, by (425),
3'.5
S'.l
and
2'.9
The reciprocals of the squares of these errors are very nearly in the proportion of the numbers 1, 1.3, 1.5, which were used a& the weights in combining the three values.
237.
The advantage of employing a
corrected Ephemeris
instead of corresponding observations can now be determined by the above equations. If the observations are all standard
observations (represented by n  7 and [p] 4), we shall have e2 , OM04, and the probable error of the longitude will be
=
v
by corresponding observations
by the corrected Ephemeris
~ he = hs
l
j/2
j
1 1
l
M*
be preferable when < 1, which will be the case except when very few observations have been always taken at the principal observatories. But experience has shown that when we depend wholly on corresponding observations we lose about onethird of the
The
latter will, therefore,
M
observations, and, consequently, the probable error of the final
be were
longitude from a series of observations is greater than it would all available in the ratio of \/3 y'2. Hence the probable errors of the final results obtained by corresponding observa:
tions exclusively,
and by employing the corrected Ephemeris by
2
,
which
ratio
,
all
the observations are rendered available, are in the
i/l this is as 0.6,
:
8
+
1
:
J!/
and, the average value of
M being
about
0.67.
If,
dian to be determined,
however, on the date of any given observation at the meriwe can find corresponding observations
the probable error of the longitude found by comparing their mean with the given observation will be only h^ j/l'S* which is so little greater than the average error in the use of the corrected Ephemeris, that it will hardly be worth while to incur the labor attending the latter. If there should be three corresponding observations, the error will be
at two principal observatories,
reduced to
Ae 1 j/1^33, and, therefore, less than the average error of the corrected Ephemeris.
BY MOON CULMINATIONS.
369
The advantage of the new method
chiefly in cases
will, therefore,
be
felt
where either no corresponding observation, or but one, has been taken at any of the principal observatories,
about 27, and therefore a probable error of OM in the observed right ascension, supposing the Ephemeris perfect, will produce a mean probable error of 2*. 7 in the longitude. If the probable error diminished without limit in proportion to the square root of the number of observa238.
is
it* assumed in the theory of least squares, we should have to accumulate observations to obtain a result of an\ only given degree of accuracy. But all experience proves the fallacy of this law when it is extended to minute errors which must wholly escape the most delicate observation. The remarks of Professor PEIRCE on this point, in the report above cited, are of the highest importance. He says " If the law H error embodied in the method of least squares were the sole law to which human error is subject, it would happen that by a sufficient accumulation of observations any imagined degree of accuracy would be attainable in the determination of a constant and the evanescent influence of minute increments of error would have the effect of exalting man's power of exact observation to an unlimited extent. I believe that the careful examination of observations reveals another law of error, which is involved in the popular statement that man cannot measure what he cannot see/ The small errors which are beyond the limits of human
The mean value of h
=
tions, as
:
;
*
perception are not distributed according to the mode recognized by the method of least squares, but either with the uniformity which is the ordinary characteristic of matters of chance, or more
frequently in
peculiarities,
some
arbitrary form dependent upon individual for instance, as an habitual inclination to the such,
in vain to attempt with the law of least the comparison of the distribution of errors squares to too great a degree of minuteness ; and on tjiis account,
use of certain numbers.
On
this account,
it is
of observation an ultimate limit of accuracy which no mass of accumulated observations can ever penetrate. beyond wise observer, when he perceives that he is approaching this limit, will apply his powers to improving the methods, rather
there is in every species
A
than to increasing the number of observations. This principle will thus serve to stimulate, and not to paralyze, effort ; ewid its VOL. L 24
J70
LONGITUDE.
vivifying influence will prevent science from stagnating into
mere mechanical drudgery.
" In approaching the ultimate limit of accuracy, the probable error ceases to diminish proportionably to the increase of the
number of
observations, so that the accuracy of the
mean
of
several determinations does not surpass that of the single determinations as much as it should do in conformity with the law of
mean
squares: thus it appears that the probable error of the of the determinations of the longitude of the Harvard Observatory, deduced from the moonculminating observations
least
of 1845, 1846, and 1847, is 1'.28 instead of being I'.OO, to which it should have been reduced conformably to the accuracy of the
separate determinations of those years. " One of the fundamental principles of the doctrine of probathat the probability of an hypothesis is proportionate bilities is,
to its
agreement with observation. But any supposed computed may be changed by several hundredths of a second without perceptibly affecting the comparison with observation,
lunar epoch
provided the comparison is restricted within its legitimate limits of tenths of a second. Observation, therefore, gives no information which is opposed to such a change/'
ultimate limit of accuracy in the determination of a longitude by moon culminations, according to the same distin
The
guished authority, is not less than one second of time. This limit can probably be reached by the observations of two or three
ones are taken; years, if all the possible
of them
and a longer continuance
w ould be
f
a waste of time and labor.
it
From
come
these considerations
follows that the
method
oi
moon
and
culminations,
when
the transits of the limb are employed, cannot
into competition with the methods by chronometers occultations where the latter are practicable.*
the moon's limb,
* In consequence of the uncertainty attending the observation of the transit of it has been proposed by MAEDLER (Astron. Nach. No. 337) to sub*
etitute the transit of a welldefined lunar spot.
The only attempt to carry out this U. S. Coast Survey, a report upon which by Mr. PETERS will be found in the Report of the Superintendent for 1856, p. 198. The
suggestion, I think, is that of the
varying character of a spot as seen in telescopes of different powers present*, it teems to me, a very formidable obstacle to the successful application of thii
method.
BY AZIMUTHS OF THE MOON.
3T1
FIFTH METHOD.
BY AZIMUTHS OF THE MOON, OR TRANSITS OF THE MOON AND A STAR OVER THE SAME VERTICAL CIRCLE.
travelling observer, pressed for time, will not unfrequently find it expedient to mount his transit instrument in the vertical circle of a circumpolar star, without waiting for the meri239.
The
dian passage of such a star. The methods of determining the time and the instrumental constants in this case are given He may then also observe the transit of the moon in Vol. II.
local
and a neighboring star, and hence deduce the right ascension of the moon, which may be used for determining his longitude
precisely as the culminations are used in Art. 234.
if the local time is previously determined, we may with all observations except those of the moon and the dispense neighboring star, and then we can repeat the observation several times on the same night by setting the instrument successively It will not in different azimuths on each side of the meridian. the observations to azimuths of more than be advisable to extend
240.
But
15
on either
side.
The
altitude
and azimuth instrument
its
such observations, as
is peculiarly adapted for horizontal circle enables us to set it at
any assumed azimuth when the direction of the meridian is approximately known. The zenith telescope will also answer
as the horizontal circle reading is not it is not indisrequired further than for setting the instrument, and therefore the ordinary portable transit instrument
the
same purpose.
But
pensable,
may be employed, though
star.
it
will not
be so easy to identify the
comparison The comparison star should be one of the welldetermined moonculminating stars, as nearly as possible in the same and not far distant in right ascension, parallel with the moon,
either preceding or following. The chronometer correction
all
and
rate
must be determined, with
before or after the possible precision, by observations either moon observations, or both. An approximate value of the correction should be known before commencing the observations,
as
be expedient to compute the hour angles and zenith distances of the two objects for the several azimuths at which it is proposed to observe, in order to point the instrument properly
it
will
and thus avoid observing the wrong
star.
872
LONGITUDE.
To secure the greatest degree of accuracy, the observations should he conducted substantially as follows 1st. The instrument being supposed to have a horizontal circle,
:
let
azimuth of which
the telescope be directed to some terrestrial object, the is known (or to a circumpolar star in the meriand read the circle. The reading for an object in the dian),
meridian will then be
2d.
known
;
denote
at
The
first
assumed azimuth
by a. which the
it
transits are to
be
observed being A, set the horizontal circle to the reading
A + a.
and the
vertical circle to the
computed zenith distance of tho
moon
3d.
or the star (whichever precedes). This must be done a few minutes before the computed time of the first transit
Observe the inclination of the horizontal axis with the Observe the
transit of the first object over the several
spirit level.
4th.
threads.
5th. If there is time, observe the inclination of the horizontal
axis.
6th. Set the vertical circle for the zenith distance of the second
object, 7th.
and observe its transit. Observe the inclination of the horizontal axis with the
spirit level.
disturbed in azimuth during these which constitute one complete observation. operations, Now set upon a new azimuth, sufficiently greater to bring the instrument in advance of the preceding object, and repeat the observation. It will often be possible to obtain in this way foui or six observations, two or three on each side of the meridian, but the value of the result will not be much increased by taking more than one observation on each side of the meridian. The collimation constant is supposed to be known; but, in
The instrument must not be
order to eliminate any error in it, as well as inequality of pivots, onehalf the observation^ should be taken in each position of
the rotation axis.
The azimuth of the instrument at each observation known from the local time, and hence the following
is
only
indirect
method of computation will be found more convenient than the usual method of reducing extrameridian transits; but the reader will find it easy to adapt the methods given in Vol. II. foi
such purpose to the present case.
BY AZIMUtHS OF THE MOON.
378
:
We
shall
T, T'
make
use of the following notation
= the mean of the chronometer times of transit of
the moon's limb and the star, respectively, over the several threads,*
AT, A?"
b, b'
=
the corresponding chronometer corrections, the inclinations of the horizontal axis at the times
Tamil*,
<?=the
a, a'
d, d'
collimation
constant for the mean of the
threads.
" = " = t " C' = " = " = A,A' Aa = the increase
f,
the moon's and the star's right ascensions,
"
"
declinations,
"
"
"
hour angles,
true zenith distances,
parallaetic angles,
"
"
"
C,
q, q'
"
of.
azimuths, the moon's right ascension in one
A<J
= the
minute of mean time,
TT
S=
<p
=
= the observer's latitude,
increase (positive towards the north) of the moon's declination in one minute* of mean time, the moon's equatorial horizontal parallax, the moon's geocentric semidiameter,
L'=
AL
= the required correction of this longitude,
the true longitude .= IJ 4
the assumed longitude,
L==
&L
The moon's ex, d, TT, and S are to be taken from the Ephemcrls for the Greenwich time T + &T + //(expressed in mean tune). The changes A<Z, &8 are also to be reduced to this time. The right ascension and declination must be accurately interpolated,
from the hourly Ephemeris, with second differences. The quantities A, q are now to be computed for the chro7 nometer time 7 and A', ', q' for the time T'. Since A and A'
,
,
* The chronometer time of passage over the mean of the threads will be obtained
rigorously by reducing each thread separately to the mean of all by the general ^ormula given for the purpose in Vol. II. If, however, the same threads are
for both moon nnd star, and c denotes the equatorial distance of the mean of the actually observed threads from the collimation axis, it will suffice (unless the observations are extended greatly beyond the limits recommended in the text) to
employed
take the
means
thread the collimation of which
of the observed times at the times of passage over the fictitious c. is The slight theoretical error which this
if
procedure involves will be eliminated with respect to the meridian.
the observations are arranged symmetrically
374
LONGITUDE.
are required with all possible precision, logarithms of at least six decimal places are to be employed in their computation but for C> ?> C' ?'> * 9 ur decimal places will suffice. The following formulae
;
for this purpose result
from a combination of
(16)
and
(20)
:
= T+ AT tan M = tan sec
t
For the moon.
For the
star.
a
t
d
\ }
[
,
.
tan
, 4
tan =r T
sin
cos Jf
t

>
(fp
I Jf) J
with wun six decimals ' decimals;
( tan (i
)
<{
M = tan
f
'= T'+AT'
3' sec
a'
f
'
,
., tan 4' 1
= tan f cos Jf
sin (p
j
V
Jf' )
(426)
in
which A and y are to be so taken that sin A and sin q shall have the same sign as sin t. The true azimuth of the moon's limb will be found by applying to the azimuth of the centre the correction
S
""
sin C
for 1st limb! ["upper sign " 2d " [lower J
we assume the parallax of the limb to be the same as that of the centre (which involves but an insensible error in this case), we next find the apparent azimuth of the limb by applying the
If
correction given
by
(116), or
?/) sin 1" sin
A
f
cosec C
in
which
<p
<p'
is
terrestrial
radius for the latitude
the reduction of the latitude, and p is the In this expression we <p.
is the computed azimuth of the star, for the azimuth of the moon's limb, since by the nature of the apparent
employ
J/, which
observation they are very nearly equal. To correct strictly for the collirnation and level of the instru
ment,
we must have
which
will
tances,
for the
the moon's and star's apparent zenith disbe found with more than sufficient accuracy
purpose by the formulae
dist.
moon's app. zen.
star's
= = C + * sin C
Ci
refraction
"
"
"
=C/=
C'
refraction
BY AZIMUTHS OF THE MOON.
375
and then the reduction of the true azimuth to the instrumental azimuth (see Vol. II., Altitude and Azimuth Instrument) is
b
for the
moop,
sin
c
Ci
tan
Ci
for the star,
sin
Ci
V
'
tan C/
upper or lower sign being used according as the vertical circle is on the left or the right of the observer. The computed instrumental azimuths are, therefore,
(moon) A,
=A
sin C
+ rvrry sin
r
_ __ p
C
sin
C,
_JL
tan
(
(star) v
^L/
= A '^
^
:
sinC/
If
tanC/
the longitude and other elements of the computation are correct, we shall find A l and A^ to be equal otherwise, put
:
now
x
then
= A,
A
i
(428)
we
are to
find how the
all
supposing here that
required correction &L depends on z, the elements which do not involve the
longitude are correct. Now, we have taken a and 8 from the Z/, when Ephemeris for the Greenwich sidereal time T + & T &T L'+ &L. Hence, should be taken for the time T they
+
+
+
if I
denote the increments of the moon's right ascension and declination in one sidereal second, both expressed in seconds of arc, 1*A
and
ft
= [9.39675]
,
(429)
60.164
we
find that
a requires the correction
A
.
<
in the moon's and these corrections must produce the correction azimuth. The relations between the corrections of the azimuth, the hour angle, and the declination, where these are so small as to be treated as differentials, is, by (51),
876
LONGITUDE.
sin C
sin C
sin i q sin C
that
is,
.T
cos cos ~ sin C
<7
,
r
,
A.A//j
Hence,
if
we
put
a
~ ,
A
2
,*
sn i q
sin C
sin C
Af^^ (430) v
we have
^L
=~
//+
L.
and hence,
finally,
the true longitude
241. In order to determine the
relative advantages of this
method and that of meridian transits, let us investigate a formula which shall exhibit the effect of every source of error. Let
f
tfa,
&J, &r,
rJ/S

the corrections of the elements taken from
<5a',
')'
= the corrections of the star's place,
^
the Ephemeris of the moon,
$T, 8T' .= the corrections for error in the obs'd time, AT the correction of A T,
= ty = the correction of
If,
when
the corrected values of
all
the elements
that of the
longitude included
A
l
and
AJ become A +
}
are substituted in the above computation, dA l and AJ dAJ, we ought to find,
+
rigorously,
A,
+
x
dA
l
= 4,' + dAi'
(432)
which compared with (428) gives
=  <U + dA/
t
We
have, therefore, to find
expressions for
dA and
l
terms of the above corrections and of *L.
differentiating (427),
t
We
rfA/ in
first,
have,
by
= dA +
sin C SHI ^
neglect errors in c and 6 which are practically eliminated by comparing the moon with a star of nearly the same declination, and combining observations in the reverse positions of the
axis.
BY AZIMUTHS OF THE MOON.
87t
The
total differential of
dA
,.
= cos
(5
A
is,
by
(51), after
reducing
.
dt to arc,
cos <7
i 15
.
dt
sin C
p2 + sinq <W sin C
,
.
.
,
cot C sin Acfy
consequently, also,
''
sm
.
'
'
.
cot
^
,
,
C' si
sin C
C
Since
<
= 3T +
*T
a,
we have
where rfTand
but
rfa is
d&Tmay
a
be at once exchanged for
1st,
composed of two parts:
the correction of the
results
Ephemeris, and
having taken
arc,
2d, for the uncorrected time.
A(&L + dT +
8&T), which
from our
in
Hence we have,
Ibdt
= 15<5T
is
15
*T
15Ja
The
correction dd
likewise composed of two parts, namely,
37
= M + p(*L + Further^ we have simply d8 = S3' and
<U
f
but, as
we may we can
for the brief interval
neglect the error in the rate of the chronometer between the observation of the moon and
the star,
take 8* T1
= 8* T
y
and, consequently,
When
the substitutions here indicated are
made
in (432),
we
obtain the expression
98
.
p(<?
sin C
15 /'.<*<*'+
sin C
]
sin C
5151.
sin C
M'+
.
15
f'.W
/) sin 1"
Bin A'
.
on
/*)
^ + =^'
r
(488)
378
in
LONGITUDE.
:
which the following abbreviations are used

J
_ ~ COS
<?
COSff
,
_
sinC'
sine
smC
and
in the coefficient of
By
1st.
the aid of this
error.
we have put A = A equation we can now trace
f
dtp
.
the effect of
for
each source of
The
coefficients of
J<J,
33', &r, 3<p
have different signs
observations on different sides of the meridian, and therefore the errors of declination, parallax, and latitude will be elimi
nated by taking the from the meridian.
2d.
mean
of a pair of observations equidistant
being nearly equal to that of the have very nearly//', and the coefficient of iJAjPwill be a; and since to find &L we have yet to divide the equation by a, it follows that an error in the assumed clock correction produces an equal error (but with a different sign) in the longitude, as in the case of meridian observations. 3d. An error 3 T in the observed time of the moon's transit
The
star's declination
moon, we
shall
~
produces in the longitude the error
The mean of
therefore
from the meridian
the values of a for two observations equidistant The mean effect of the error 3 T is is A/.
'
iW
which
is
the
same
The
effect of
as in the case of a meridian observation. an error 8T' in the observed time of the star's
transit is
and
for
being
in the
two observations equidistant from the meridian, the same parallel as the moon, the mean effect is
star
T* 7
also the
"
same
as for a meridian observation.
BY AZIMUTHS OF THE MOON.
379
4th. An error 38 in the tabular semidiameter is always eliminated in the case of meridian observations when they are compared with observations at another meridian, since the same
semidiameter
meridians.
effect
is
employed
in
But
in the case of
is
reducing the observations at both an extrameridian observation the
upon the longitude
dS
dS
^ cos
(5
cos ^
ft
sin q
and
in the
mean
of two observations equidistant from the
it is
meridian, the values of q being small,
A COB d COB q
(1+2
sin2 } q) nearly.
For a meridian observation the
error will be
38
The error in the case of extrameridian observations, therefore, remains somewhat greater than in the case of meridian ones, the excess being nearly
.
X COS d
which, however, is practically insignificant for we have not to fear that dS can be as great as 1", and therefore, taking q 15, 3 0.4, which are extreme values, the difference 30, and A
;
=
=
=
cannot amount to
5th.
OM
in the longitude.
The
error
Sa of the tabular right ascension of the moon
produces in the longitude the error
15/. a
da
and from the mean of two observations equidistant from the
meridian, the error
is
15 fa
as in the case of the meridian observation.
The error
<Ja'
in the star's right ascension produces the error
is
when
the star
in the
same
parallel as the
moon.
380
LONGITUDE.
From this discussion it follows that, by arranging the observations symmetrically with respect to the meridian, the mean result will be liable to no sensible errors which do not equally affect
for the large culmination error in (Art. 236), which equally aftects extrameridian observations, the latter would have a great advantage
meridian observations.
the case of the
But
moon
by diminishing the
error of the
effect
of accidental errors.
But the probable
of two observations equidistant from the seven threads being employed, will be, by (422), meridian,
mean
and that of a single meridian observation, evtn where only one star is OM1. When compared with the moon, is, by the same formula, we take into account the extreme simplicity of the computation, the method of moon culminations must evidently be preferred and that of extrameridian observations will be resorted to only in the case already referred to (Art. 230), where the traveller
=
;
may wish
meridian.
and without waiting to adjust
to determine his position in the shortest possible time his instrument accurately in the
EXAMPLE.
At
the U. 8. Naval
Academy, 1857 May
9,
1 ob
served the following transits of the moon's second limb and of ff Scorpti, at an approximate azimuth of 10 East, with an ERTEL
universal instrument of 15 inches focal length
Chronometer.
Level.
:
j>
II Limb.
* Scorpii
T = 16* 11 30M7 T'=\ 27 49.83
^ + 2".2 V= + 2
b
.2
c
= 0.0
Collim.
) j
Vertical circle
left.
These times are the means of three threads. The chronometer correction, found by transits of stars in the meridian, was 0*.32. The 55* 9M6 at 13* sidereal time, and its hourly rate assumed latitude and longitude were
V
^ 38
58' 53".5
L'
==.
5* 5" 55
The
star's place
a'
was
9'
= 16* 12 31.90
=
25
14' 68".5
BY AZIMUTHS OF THE MOON.
381
We
first
find the sidereal times of the observations of the
star respectively,
moon and
the observation of the
moon
and the Greenwich mean time of we have
:
T' =
55*
T
i*T
=_
=
15* 10'20*.2S
~ 15* 32*
L
Rid.
'
_
f)
5
55

Gr. sidereal time
20
3
17
22
8
15 .28
time Gr.
moon
58 .91
16 .37
Sidereal interval
Red. to mean time
Gr.
~ =
13
2
49
.28
mean time
= May
=.
m 27*.09 9, 17* 10
find
Hence from the Ephcmeris we
a
15* 54* 45'.32
Aa
= 2M135 S = 14' 47".2
find
= =
=r
24
54'
42' 54".4
7".619
9".2
By
(426)
we
For the
latitude
<f
we
find,
from Table
III.,
log p
=.
9.9994
^=
11'
15"
and then, by
(427),
we
find
,=
9
57 18
.4
A,'
=
9
57 15
.8
382
LONGITUDE.
whence
x
and
=
find
ft
2".6
By
(429), (430),
(431),
we
log
log A
^ 9.72175
= n9.10256
a
= 0.5054
we wish to see the effect example, we find, by (433),
If
0.5054
of
all
the sources of error in this
&L
=
2". 6
14.96 da
0.16
Jif
+
14.82
ila'
+
0.16 iM'
+ +
14.45
AT
14.82
0.001
6T
6ir
1
0.36
AT
<fy
1.11 <JS
+ 0.002
The proper combination of observations is supposed to eliminate, or at least reduce to a minimum, all the errors except that of the
moon's right ascension as given in the Ephemeris. In practice, therefore, it will be necessary to retain the term involving da. Thus, in the present case we take only
0.5054 A
2".6
14.96 da
second observation on the same day at an azimuth 10 west gave
0.5458
A
*L^
5".7
14.92 da
The elimination of the errors of declination requires that we take the arithmetical mean of these equations; whence we have,
finally,
*L
=
7.S9
28.43
<*a
SIXTH METHOD.
BY ALTITUDES OF THE MOON.
242. The hour angle (t) of the moon may be computed from an observed altitude, the latitude and declination being known, and hence with the local sidereal time of the observation (= 0; the moon's right ascension by the equation a <, with which the Greenwich time can be found, as in Art. 234, and,
=
consequently, also the longitude.
The hour angle is most accurately found from an altitude when the observed body is on the prime vertical, and more
accurately in low latitudes than in high ones (Art. 149). method, therefore, is especially suited to low latitudes.
This
The method maybe considered under two forms: (A) that in which the moon's absolute altitude is directly observed and
BY ALTITUDES OF THE MOON.
;
383
employed in the computation of the hour angle and (B) that in which the moon's altitude is compared differentially with that of a neighboring star, i.e. when the rnoon and a star are observed either at the same altitude, or at altitudes which differ only by a quantity which can be measured with a micrometer.
243. (A.)
By
the
moon's absolute
altitude.
practised only with portable instruments,
This method being it would be quite
superfluous to employ the rigorous processes of correcting for the parallax, which require the azimuth of the moon to be given.
The process of Art. 97 will, therefore, be employed in this case with advantage, by which the observed zenith distance is reduced
not to the centre of the earth, but to the point of the earth's axis which lies in the vertical line of the observer, and which
we
briefly designate as the point 0.
Let
C"
= the
observed zenith distance, or complement of the
= = AJ> = L = the true longitude = L' + A//.
L'
observed altitude, of the moon's limb, the local sidereal time, the assumed longitude, the required correction of L',
Find the Greenwich sidereal time + Is', and convert it into for which take from the Epkemeris the quantities mean time,
= the moon's declination, " = eq. hor. parallax, = " semidiameter. S
3
TT
Let S' be the apparent semidiameter obtained by adding to
;
S
the augmentation computed by (251) or taken from Table XII. Let r be the refraction for the apparent zenith distance " and
put
C'
=. c"
+
r
S'
(434)
Let
be the corrected parallax for the point 0, found by (127), or by adding to n the correction of Table XIII. (which in the present application will never be in error O'M) and put
#!
;
Ct
C'*,
sine'
in
which log
e= 7.8244.
684
LONGITUDE.
h'our angle (which
is
The
is
the same ib* the point
1
O
as for
centre of the earth)
then found by (267),
[r '
/>.
Bin *t
=
J \
*" 1
( \
*
+ ^ fill *LLC?i_r. <'
l'C>8 <P

VJ
) /
COS
( 486)
rJj
after
which the moon* 8 right ascension
a
is
found by the formula
(437)
=
t
and hence tne Greenwich time and the longitude as above stated. But since we have taken 8 for an approximate Greenwich time depending on the assumed longitude, the first computation of a second one with a corrected value will not be quite correct of d will give a nearer approximation and thus by successive approximations the true value of / and of the longitude will at last be found.
/
;
;
"But instead of these successive approximations
at
we may
obtain
once the correction of the assumed longitude, as follows. have taken d for the Greenwich time + L', when we should have taken it for the time + L' h A.L. Hence, putting
ft
We
the increase of
5 in
a unit of time,
follows that d requires the correction ft&L; and therefore, by of the computed hour angle will be (51), the correction
it
cos d tan q
in
the parallactic angle. Since a t, the comascension requires the correction (in seconds of time) puted right
which q
is
=
15 cos
d
tan q
Therefore,
if
we put
A
= the increase of a in a unit of time,
also the longiit
the
computed Greenwich time and, consequently,
requires the correction
tude derived from
15 X co8<Jtan</
BY ALTITUDES OF THE MOON.
385
sion
Hence, denoting the longitude computed from the right ascen* a & /by Z/', we have
=
True longitude
~ L*
= L"
15 A cos d tan q
whence
1
L"U
+
sec 3
15
If
we denote
by
the denominator of this expression
by
1 4 a,
we
shall have,
(18),
a
=jLt*!*!L*.\
15/1
\
sin*
tant
(438^
/
and then
/
L" L
'
T
/'
EXAMPLE. At the U. S. Naval Academy, in latitude <p 38 53" and assumed longitude L* 5* 6 m 0*, I observed the double altitude of the moon's upper limb with a sextant and artificial horizon as below
58'
=
:
1849
May
2.
Moon
east of the meridian.
With these values of i d, and
l9
<p
= 38
58' 53",
we
find,
by (436),
t=._
__3 to
53'.64
The
2*41 m
sidereal time at
7*.98;
Greenwich mean noon, 1849
May
2,
whence
6
a
VOL.
=
^
8*
11
16 14.61 36 8 .25
I.26
886
LONGITUDE.
this right
Corresponding to
ascension
we
find
by the hourly
Ephemeris the Greenwich JL", as follows:
Local
mean
time, and hence the longitude
Greenwich mean time
"
= 10* 39 ^ 5 33
TO
48'.7
21.6
27.1
27.1
L"
L"= T~6 L' = +
also
lw
By
the hourly Ephemeris
we
have for the Greenwich time
A
f
10* 39" 48.7,
Increase of a in
dml
and hence, by
(438)
== = = fi= +
2'.014
10".01
and
(439),
a
=
L^ L'+ A = 5
0.3317
L
= + 4(K6
6 4<K6
244.
The
result
thus obtained involves the errors of the
tabular right ascension and declination and the instrumental error. The tabular errors are removed by means of observations
of the same data
in the case of
made at some of the principal observatories, as moon culminations. The instrumental error will
be nearly eliminated by determining the local time from a star at the same altitude and as nearly as possible the same declinainstrumental error will then produce the same and /, and, therefore, will be eliminated from t their difference a. The error in the longitude will
tion; for the error in both
~
then be no greater than the error in @. But to give complete effect to this mode of eliminating the error, an instrument, such as the zenith telescope, should be employed, which is capable of indicating the same altitude with great certainty and does not
involve the
different
errors of graduation of divided circles.
A
very
method of observation and computation must then be resorted to, which I proceed to consider.
245. (B.)
By
the zenith telescope.
equal altitudes of the moon and a star, observed with The reticule of this instrument should for
these observations be provided with a system of fixed horizontal threads nevertheless, we may dispense with them, and employ
:
only the single movable micrometer thread, by setting cessively at convenient intervals.
it
suc
BY ALTITUDES OF THE MOON.
38Y
selected a well determined star as nearly as possible moon's path and differing but little in right ascension, a preliminary computation of the approximate time when each body will arrive at some assumed altitude (not less than 10) must be made, as well as of their approximate azimuths, in
Having
in the
order to point the instrument properly. pointed for the first object, the level
The instrument being
is
clamped so that the bubble plays near the middle of the tube, and is then not to be moved between the observation of the moon and the star. After
field,
the object enters the
it
and before
it
reaches the
first
thread,
may be necessary to move the instrument in azimuth in order that the transits over the horizontal threads may all be observed without moving the instrument daring these transits. The times by chronometer of the several transits are then noted, and the The instrument is then set upon the azimuth level is read oft*. of the second object, the observation of which is made in th same manner, and then the level is again read off. This comThe instrument may then be set for pletes one observation. another assumed altitude, and a wecond observation may be taken in the same manner.* Each observation is then to be separately Let reduced as follows
:
i t i'j i",
&c.
= the
distances in arc of the
several
threads
m, m'
= the
from their mean,
moan of the values of
i
for the observed
threads, in the case of the
respectively,
f
moon and
star
l,l
the level readings, in arc, for the
star,
moon and
0,
':=:
the
mean of
the sidereal times of the observed
transits of the
moon and
star;
then the excess of the observed zenith distance of the moon's above that of the star at the time 0' isf limb at the time
m
and the quantities zenith distance.
m' 4.
i
_
i'
m
I
being supposed to increase with increasing
* The same method of observation may be followed with the ordinary universal instrument, but, as the level is generally much smaller than that of the zenith telescope, the. same degree of accuracy will not be possible.
j
When
the micrometer
is set
be the means of these readings, converted into arc, with the
successively upon assumed readings, m and m will known value of the screw.
r
388
Atao, let
a,
,
LONGITUDE.
t,
C>
A, q
= the
;
R. A., decl., hour angle, geocentric zenith distance, azimuth, and parallactic angle of the moon's centre at the time
'
8' 9 f> C', A', q'
n,
= the same for the star at the time 0'; 8 = the moon's equatorial hor. parallax and
semidiameter;
A
1*
= the increase of a in of time " " " = = the latitude; L* = the assumed longitude; &L = the required correction of L'
sid.
ft
/)
;
*'
y>
;
quantities a, 5, TT, and S are to be taken from the Ephemens f for the Greenwich sidereal time (converted into mean
The
+L
d being interpolated with second differences by the time) hourly Ephemeris. Then the required correction of the longitude will be found by comparing the computed value of with
;
a and
the observed value.
For
this
purpose
we
first
compute
and
'
with the greatest precision, and also A and q approximately. If the differential formula of the next article is also to be computed, A' and q 1 will also be required. The most convenient formulae
will
be
For the moon.
For the
star.
tan
M =tan
*=0
cos C =.
a
$ sec t
f=
\
>
,
.
0'
'
a'
sin
cos
A = tan (<p
M M cot
)
M
,
.
( tan Jlf'= tan
<
;
sec
t'
) }
.
,
[ decimals
)
j
cos C
,
=
sin
I
M
'
(440)
C
cos A' == tan (?
cost
tan t sin
cos
(<5
N
with four
decimals
;
tan JV' tan
q'
+ JV)
= cot =
Jf') cot C
'
<p
cos ^
The
zenith distance
thus computed will not strictly correspond
is correct.
to the time
unless the assumed longitude
Let
ita
true value be
+
rf.
Also put
= the observed zenith distance of the moon's limb, = the observed zenith distance of the star, C/ and r r = the refraction for
Cj
f
y
C,
',
BY ALTITUDES OF THE MOON.
889
then
^
Putting then
= C/ f m
m'
+
I
V
and, by Art. (136),
=
(441)
^>
^P
cos
the
\\
r
f
sign being used for the moon's
1
?^
>
limb, we
have
This equation determines d^. have, therefore, only to determine the relation between d and &L. Now, we have taken a and <J for the Greenwich sidereal time f L ; when we should have taken them for the time + L' + ^Z/: hence
,
We
a requires the correction " " 3
t
"
and then, by
(51),
c^C
=
a:
cos q
.
p&L
sin q cos
<5
.
15 A &i
Hence, putting
=
ar

rf, or
and
we have
= C  C" + * = 15 A sin # cos ^ + a L= &L =
/9
cos #
{
r4.4.2^
JJ'
The
(441),
solution of the problem,
is
data are correct,
upon the supposition that all the completely expressed by the equations (440),
and
(442),
246.
in the
The quantity x is in fact produced not only by the error assumed longitude, but also by the errors of observation
In order to obtain a general expression
and of the Ephemeris.
890
in
let
LONGITUDE.
effect of
which the
T,
every source of error
may be
represented,
T
f
= the chronometer times of observation of the
moon and
star,
rfa,
<W,
= the assumed chronometer correction, dT,3T'=: the corrections of T and T for errors of observation, fa T = the correction of A T, fa 3S = the corrections of the elements taken from
AT
y
fy
If,
,
= the correction of the assumed latitude.
the Ephemeris,
',
f"
when the corrected values of all the elements are substituted, k become + ^C> C' + ^C'> * + ^i instead of the equation + </C) = k we shall have (C
C"+dC'(C
and hence
x
=
=*+ + <M dC + d:'
clC)
,
tt
(448)
and we have now to find expressions for d of the above corrections of the elements.
d', and
d/c
in terms
Taking
all
the quantities as variables,
we have
dC
= 15 sin q
15 sin
<f
cos d dt
dt'=
Since
t
cos
d' dt
1
cos
cos q dd q' dd'
+ +
cos
A dy
dy
cos A!
= T+ AT
7
a,
we have
da
where dTand
T may be exchanged for 5!Tand 5^7", but da is of two parts: 1st, of the actual correction of the composed Ephemeris; and 2d, of %(&L + 3T + 5 A T) resulting from our having taken a for the uncorrected time hence we have
eta
:
The
correction d8
is
also
composed of two
parts, so that
3T
Further,
we have
f simply dd
= 3d',
r
and
df=^3T
in
+ d*T3a'
assumed
to
which JAjTat the time T'
is
be the same as at the
BY ALTITUDES OF THE MOON.
7
391
time T , an error in the rate of chronometer being insensible in the brief interval between the observations of the moon and the
star.
Again,
cos
we
have, from (441),
y)
p dp
= p cos * sin (C"
d*
dk = dp + dS
+ p sin * cos (C"
f)
dt"
or,
with sufficient accuracy,
dk
= sin
C' fa =F
88
+
sin n cos C' dC'
Now,
substituting in d and d the values of d/, dS, &c., and then substituting the values of d and d' thus found, in (443), together
final
with the value of dk, we obtain the may be written as follows :*
equation desired, which
x = a&L +/
.
do, f
cos q
.
83
(/
ifiT
a) 3
.
T
*T'
(5
W
/=
a
mf
.do!
m cos q' d$' + mf
(/
sinC'ftr
^.
a)
AT
(cos
m cos J.'
:
where the following abbreviations are employed
= A/ +
a,
15 sin q cos d ft cos q
f = 15 sin
m=
1
<f
cos
?r
d'
sin
cos
C'
Having computed the equation
be divided by
all
and then
&L
will
in this form, every term is to be obtained in terms of x and
the corrections of the elements.
discussion of this equation, quite similar to that of (433), show that the observations will give the best result when taken near the prime vertical and in low latitudes, and,
will readily
farther, that the combination of observations equidistant from the meridian, east and west, eliminates almost wholly errors of declination and parallax and of the chronometer correction.
A
At Batavia, on the llth of October, 1853, Mr. LANGE, among other observations of the same kind, noted the following times by a sidereal chronometer, when the moon's
EXAMPLE. f
DE
* The formula (444) is essentially the same as that given by OUDBMANS, Astronom. The method itself is the suggestion of Professor KAISKR Journal, Vol. IV. p. 164. of the Netherlands.
f Astronomical Journal, Vol. IV.
p. 165.
892
LONGITUDE.
lower limb and 36 Capricorn* passed the same fixed horizontal
threads
:
T=
0* 38 TO 8.G2
T = 0* 49
53'.77
The
was
difference of the zenith distances indicated
by the
level
ll> =:f2".0
The chronometer
iu the interval
correction
was
&T= +
l
m
3*.32,
and the
rate
T'
jTwas insensible.
The assumed
"
We
was ? " L' longitude
latitude
= =
6
9'
57".0
7* 7 m 37'.0
have
= 0* 39m 11.94
sid.
0'==
0* 50"1 57.09
For the Greenwich
time 4* 10
a
57*.00,
time
+ Z/' = 17* 31 m
A
34*.94,or
mean
we
find,
from the Nautical Almanac,
= = = S=
d
ir
21* 12"* 5'.45
20
55'
8".9
= + 0.0387 P = + 0".1440
'=
21
57' 51".4
15' 47".8
20~ 22'.45
26' 30".5
^=
22
The computation by
C
(440) gives
A
^
= 52 = 68
81
III.
11' 49".44
14'.4
C'= 53 13' 57".30 4'=6630'.6
g'==80
35'.2
18'.9
From Table
p
we
find
2'
?'=
27"
log
/>
rrr
9.999983
Since the same fixed threads were used for both
tve
have
m = m',
find
and hence
also sensibly r
=
moon and
;
star,
r'
therefore, by
(441),
we
C"
= 53
13'
59".30
9".86
C
:"^~
62'
r *
= 5*".5 = + 62'9'M7
P
= 46' 21". 26
Hence, by
a?
(442),
= _ 0".69
f
a
= + 0.5575

Ai
=
is
1.24
The longitude by
is
this observation, if the
7
Ephemeris
correct,
therefore
L = L + *L =, 
7 3S.24
BY LUNAR DISTANCES.
If
898
shall find
we compute
all
the terms of (444),
we
*==
1.24 24.84 da
0.27 M +23.84 <JT + 24.28 fa'+ 0.29 W+ 1.7955+
24.24*2"
1.44 Ar
0*
tice it will usually be sufficient to compute only of da and dd. In the present example, therefore,
This shows clearly the effect of each source of error; but in practhe coefficients
we should
take
A
=
1.24
24.84
<Ja
0.27
M
which will finally be fully determined when 8a and dd have been found from nearly corresponding observations at Greenwich or
elsewhere.
SEVENTH METHOD.
247.
in the
BY LUNAR DISTANCES.
The distance of the moon from a star may be employed same manner as the right ascension was employed in
Arts. 229, &c., to determine the Greenwich time, and hence the If the star lies directly in the moon's path, the longitude. of distance will be even more rapid than the change of change
right ascension
witli
givi*
;
and therefore
if
the distance could be measured
the a
same degree of accuracy as the right ascension, it would more accurate determination of the Greenwich time
The
is observed with a sextant, or other reinstrument (see Vol. II.), which being usually held in flecting the hand is necessarily of small dimensions and relatively inferior accuracy. Nevertheless, this method is of the greatest im
distance, however,
portance to the travelling astronomer, and especially to the navigator, as the observation is not only extremely simple and
time
requires no preparation, but may be practised at almost any when the moon is visible.
The Ephemerides,
centre of the
therefore, give the true distance of the
the sun, from the brightest planets, and from nine bright fixed stars, selected in the path of the moon, The planets emfor every third hour of mean Greenwich time.
moon from
The nine stars, known as lunardistance stars, are a Arietis, a Tauri (Aldebaran), a Virginis (8pica\ ft Geminorum (Pollux), a Leonis (Eegulus\ a Aquilse (Altair], a Piscis Australis (Fomala Scorpii (Antares), haut), and a Pegasi (Markab). The distance observed is that of the moon's bright limb from a
ployed are Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, and Venus.
894
star,
LONGITUDE.
from the estimated centre of a planet, or from the limb of The apparent distance of the moon's centre from a star or planet is found by adding or subtracting the moon's apparent (augmented) semidiameter, according as the bright limb is nearer to or farther from the star or planet than the centre. The observed distance of the sun and moon is always that of the nearest limbs, and therefore the apparent distance of the centres is found by adding both semidiameters.* The apparent distance thus found differs from the true (geocentric) distance, in consequence of the parallax and refraction which affect the altitudes of the objects, and consequently also the distance. The true distance is therefore to be obtained bj computation, the general principle of which may be exhibited in a simple manner as follows. Let Z, Fig. 29, be the zenith of the observer, M' and $'the observed places of the moon and star, the parallax and refraction of the moon, <SS' the and S are the refraction of the star, so that
the sun.
MM
'
M
altitudes of geocentric places. the objects may either be measured at the same
The apparent
time as the distance, or, the local time being known, they may be computed (Art. 14). The apparent zenith distances, and, consequently, also the true zenith distances, are thereIn the triangle ZM'S' there are known the three fore known.
sides,
M S' the apparent distance of the
r
objects,
ZM' the apparent
f zenith distance of the moon, and Z8 the apparent zenith distance is computed. of the star; from which the angle Then, in the there are known the sides, ZM\he moon's true triangle
ZMS
zenith distance, and
ZS the
star's true zenith distance,
and the
angle Z; from which the required
the
true distance
MS is computed.
In this elementary explanation the parallax and refraction of moon are supposed to act in the same vertical circle ZM, whereas parallax acts in a circle drawn through the moon and the geocentric zenith (Art. 81), while refraction acts in the vertical
circle
drawn through the astronomical
zenith.
Again,
when
the
moon, or the sun, is observed at an altitude less than 50, it is necessary to take into account the distortion of the disc produced
*
We may
also observe the distance
is
from the limb of a planet, provided the sex*
;
tint telescope
of sufficient power to give the planet a welldefined disc planet's semidiameter is then also to be added or subtracted.
and the
BY LUNAR DISTANCES.
by refraction
if
we wish
to
compute the true distance
to the
nearest second of arc (Art. 133). These features, which add very materially to the labor of computation, cannot be over
looked in any complete discussion of the problem. Simple as the problem appears when stated generally, the strict computation of it is by no means brief; and its importance
and the frequency of
tions are not in favor,
it.
its
have led
application at sea, where long computato numerous attempts to abridge
In most instances the abbreviations have been made at the expense of precision but in the methods given below the error in the computation will always be much less than the probable error of the best observation with reflecting instruments so that these methods are entitled to be considered as practically perfect. With the single exception of that proposed by BESSEL,* all the solutions depend upon the two triangles of Fig. 29, and may be divided into two classes, rigorous and approximative. In the
;
:
rigorous methods the true distance is directly deduced by the rigorous formulae of Spherical Trigonometry ; but in the approxi
mative methods the difference between the apparent and the true distance is deduced either by successive approximations or from a development in series of which the smaller terms are neglected. Practically, the latter may be quite as correct as the former, and, indeed, with the same amount of labor, more correct, since they require the use of less extended tables of logarithms. I propose to give two methods, one from each of
these classes.
A.
248.
The Rigorous Method.
For
is
distance
brevity, I shall call the body from which the moon's observed the sun, for our formulae will be the same
for a planet,
zero.
and for a fixed star they will require no other than making the parallax and semidiameter of the star change
method requires a
computation
advantage.
is
* Astron. Nach. Vol. X. No. 218, and Astron. Untersuchungen, Vol. II. BESSEL'S different form of lunar Ephemeris from that adopted in our Nautical Almanacs. But even with the Ephemeris arranged as he proposes, the
not so brief as the approximative method here given, and
so
its
supe
riority in respect of precision is
It is,
slight as to give it no important practical however, the only theoretically exact solution that has been given,
and might still come into use if the measurement of the distance could be rendered much more precise than is now possible with instruments of reflection.
896
LONCUTUDtf.
local
Let us suppose that at the given
mean time
T the
obser
vation (or, in the case of the altitudes, computation) has given
d"
the apparent distance of the limbs of the
sun,
moon and
h'=
ff'= the apparent
the apparent altitude of the moon's centre, altitude of the sun's centre,
and that in order to compute the refraction accurately the barometer and thermometer have also been observed. For the Greenwich time corresponding to T, which will be found with
sufficient accuracy for the
purpose by employing the supposed take from the Ephemeris longitude,
s
8=
then, putting
= the moon's semi diameter,
the sun's
"
e/'= the apparent distance of the centres, s' the moon's augmented semidiameter, s " correction of Table XII.
= =
we have
d'=d"J
8
upper signs for nearest (inner) limbs, lower signs for farthest
(outer) limbs.
But
if
the altitude of either
body
is
less
than 50,
we must
take into account the elliptical figure of the disc produced by refraction. For this purpose we must employ, instead of s' and
S,
those semidiameters which
lie in
the direction of the lunar
distance.
Putting
q
= ZM'S',
Q
= ZS'M'
h f and
(Fig. 29)
AS, A/S
= the contraction of the vertical semidiameters of the
moon and sun
for the altitudes
JSP,
the required inclined semidiameters will be (Art. 133)
^
AS cos 2 q
q
and
S
A/S cos2
Q
f
be found from the three sides of the s S triangle ZM'S', taking for d its approximate value d"
The angles
(which
is
and
Q
will
f
q and
90
Q is H'.
sufficiently exact for this purpose, as great precision in h' and not required), and for the other sides 90
If
we put
m
= )(h' +
H'+d")
BY LUNAR DISTANCES.
897
we
flin
a
shall
have
cos
4 q *
= eos m sin (m gO
Bitid'ooBA'
V
m sin (m JJQ
sind' cos #'
^
'
and then the apparent distance by the formula
d'=
d"
f
(s
AS cos 2 7) zh (#
AS cos
2
Q)
(446)
We
"We
lies in
are
now
to reduce the distance to the centre of the earth.
shall first
reduce it to that point of the earth's axis which the vertical line of the observer. Designating this point
as the point 0, Art. 97, let
dl9
A,, J7j
the distance and altitudes reduced to the point
o,
refraction for the altitudes h and H',
f
r,
TT,
R = the P = the
sun.
equatorial hor. parallax of the
moon and
The moon's
by
(127),
parallax for the point
will
be found rigorously
but with even more than
sufficient precision for the
present problem by adding to TT the correction given by Table XIII. Denoting this correction by ATT, we have
7T,
=
it
4 ATT
h,
=
h'
r
+ *, cos (A'
r)
H, = H'
E + P cos (H
its
9
R) (447)
The
If,
parallax
is
P is
in all cases so small that
reduction to the
point
insignificant.
and 8 represent the moon's and sun's then, in Fig. 29, reduced to the point 0, and we put places
M
Z=
we
d',
the angle at the zenith,
MZS,
shall
have given in the triangle M'ZS' the three sides
A ; 90
,
90
J?7 whence
,
^ 17 COB y
/
C08 *(*'
H + *)<*>**' + H''
<
cos
A'
cos
H'
and, then, in the triangle MZS we shall have given the angle with the sides 90 ^ and 90 1/i, whence the side MS will be found by the formula [Sph. Trig. (17)],
Z
</,
=
sin* J di
= cos
2
}
(^
+
Hi)
cos
^
cos JE^ cos2 }
Z
898
LONGITUDE.
simplify the computation, put
To
then the
sin 2 }
last
formula, after substituting the value of Z, becomes,
2
dl
= cos
j
(A,
+ H^
cos
cos
A'
m
cos
cos //'
(m
d')
Let the auxiliary angle
.
M be determined by the equation
At
i
s\n
, 2
M=
._
cos
cos Ifi l
.
cos
m
cos
(m ^
d'} 1
,
AAf,
cos
A'
cos
H'
cos2 i (A,
+
(448)
If,)
then
we have*
sin
j
d,
= cos
let
}
j
(A,
+
/f,) cos
M
(449)
Finally, to reduce the distance
Fig. so,
of the earth, the heavens,
M
point 0, sun's place (which
.
M
from the point to the centre be the north pole of 30) the moon's place as seen from the the moon's geocentric place, S the
P (Fig.
is
sensibly the
same
for either
point). being and celestial sphere, the points l same declination circle in the
The point
in the axis of the
M
PM M.
V
M evidently
lie
Hence,
s
putting
d
$
= the geocentric distance of the moon and sun = SM,
<J,
= the moon's geocentric declination 90 PM, = the declination reduced to the point = 90 PMV A = the sun's declination = 90 PS,
PMS and
*
we
have, in the triangles
COS
l
M MS,
V
i
cos cos d   (8
sin (5j
l
5)
cos d
__ ~
J sin
"
$) sin
d
cos 5 sin
sin
(5
cos
d
d
We may put cos
cos d
l
(d {
d)
= 1,
~

cos d
=
cos
is
and, therefore,

(sin
J
sin d cos d)
* This transformation of the formula
df reflation.
due
to
BOBUA, Detcription
et
utagt du eerele
BY LUNAR DISTANCES.
399
cos
and since d
sin (d
d is very small, we may put cos d d^ sin d^ and hence, very nearly,
l
}
d
=
a
,
,
a
,
=
d.
/
I
cos d
\
sin
J
sin ^
V
I
sin
d
l
tan d
/
l
Substituting the value of dl
d 'from (122),
in sin
J
sin d
\
'
X4wrv
sin in
d
tan d
(450)
in which <p is the latitude of the observer, and log A may be taken from the small table given on p. 116. The correction given by this equation being added to dlJ we have the geocentric distance d according to the observation. To find the longitude, we have now only to find the Greenwich mean time T corresponding to </, by Art. 66, and then
L=
EXAMPLE.
T.

T
(451)
In latitude 35 N. and assumed longitude 150 W., 1856 March 9, at the local mean time 5h 14m 6', the observed altitudes of the lower limbs and the observed distance of the nearest limbs of the moon and sun were as follows, cor
T=
rected for error of the sextant
h"
:
= 52
34' 0"
H" =
8
56' 23"
d"
= 44
36' 58".6
The height of the barometer was 29.5 inches, Attached therm. 60 F., External therm. 58 F. I shall put down nearly all the figures of the computation, in
order to compare given in the next
1st.
it
with that of the approximative method to be
article.
= 15*
The approximate Greenwich mean time is 5* 14W 6* + 10* 14m 6*, with which we take from the American Ephemeris
s
S=
= 16' 23".l
16'
*
8".0
P=
= 60' 1".9
8".6
d
J
=+ =
14
19'
3'
4
=
2d. To find the apparent semidiameters, we augmentation of the moon's semidiameter from l^'.O, and hence find
'
first
take the Table XII.,
=
16' 37".l
400
LONGITUDE.
Then to compute the contraction produced by refraction we find from the refraction table, for the given observed altitudes, the
contractions of the vertical semidiameters (Art. 132),
AS
= 0".4
:
A
= 9".6
we
With
the approximate altitudes and distance of the centres then proceed by (445), as follows
d'
h'
= 52 H' = 9
A'
=45
10'
logcosecd'
log sec
h'
0.1493
log cosec d'
log sec
0.1493
51
0.2190
12
U'
0.0056
9.7732
m =53
ro TO
37
log cos
m
9.7782
J7'^=44 26
as
46
log sin (m
H
log cos
m
1
)
9.8450
log sin (m
h') 8.1265
9.9865
log sin J g
8.0546
log sin }
2 log cos
9.9933 159 56'
Q
9.0273
12 14'
q
2 log cos q
#=
Q
log
9.9456
9.6021
9.9800 0.9828
log A*
AS
cos 3
9.6477
0.9623
A* cos 2 q
=
0."4
A
Q
=
9".2
Hence we
have, by (446),
d":=44
$'
36'58".6
16 36 15 58
.7
AS cos* j
2
SASco8
= =
.8
d'=45
3d.
934.1
The
To find the apparent and true altitudes of the centres.
apparent altitudes of the centres will be found by adding the contracted vertical semidiameters to the observed altitudes of the
The apparent altitudes, however, need not be computed limbs. with extreme precision, provided that the differences between
them and the true
altitudes are correct; for
it is
mainly upon
these differences that the difference between the apparent and true distance depends.
The reduction of
for the latitude 35
the moon's horizontal parallax to the point 3".9; and hence is, by Table XHL, A*
=
we have
TT,
=n+
ATT
= 60' 5".8
by
(447) is as follows
:
and the computation of the
altitudes
BY LUNAR DISTANCES.
h"
Vert, semid.
9
401
h
= 52 = = 52
34'
0'"
H"
//'
.7
r

8
56'
23"
16 37
50 37 42
Vert, semid. 
15 58
9
^
Table
II. r
h'r =52 4954.3
log
R ^ __ 5 H'R = <T~ 6
log
12 21
33
.6
47
.4
^
r)
3.55700
9.78115
P
fi)
0.9345
log cos (A'
cos (A'
log cos(jff'
9.9945
0.9290
3.33815
IT,
r)
A,
= = 53
36' 18".5
26' 12".8
P cos (JT
^
= tf) H=
%
8".5
9
6'
55".9
4th.
We
d'
A'
jff'
now
find the distance
by (448) and
(449), as follows:
= 45 9'34".l = 52 50 37 = 9M12J51__
_
log sec
log sec
0.2189683
0.0056300
9.7733154
m
= 8 = 53 S= 9
d'
A!
l
m
== 53
36 TeTl log cos 26 42 log cos 26 12 .8 log COR
.
9.9952654
9.7750333
6 55
.9
log cos
9.9944803
J(Ai+^Hi)
= 31
2)9.7626927 9.8813464
16 34
.4
log cos
log sin
9.9318007
......... 9.9318007
log cos
M 9.9495457
M 9.6583330
by
(450),
J dj
dt
5th.
= 22 = 45
54 9 48 18
.2 .4
log sin J ^9^5901337
for
<p
= 35,
To
find the geocentric
distance,
we
have,
4
6th.
= 45
48' 13".7
To
I.
find the
26
Greenwich mean time corresponding
to.d,
VOL.
402
LONGITUDE.
and hence the longitude, according to Art. 66, we find an approximate time ( T) + t by simple interpolation, and then the required time jT (T) + t + A, taking A* from Table XX., with the arguments t and A$ (= increase of the logarithms in
=
the Ephemeria in 3*), as follows : By the American Ephemeris of 1856 for
15*
March
9,
we have
0"
0
(d)=4540'54"
d
Q=
.7
.7
=45
48 13
7
t
A*
= = = =
5
9
13
4
1
13
log
log
t
= 2.6432 = 2.8912
T
=. 15 13
14
3
T
L
6
57
58
B.
The Approximative Method.
249. I shall here give
my own method
(first
published in the
Astronomical Journal, Vol. II.), as it yet appears to me to be the shortest and most simple of the approximative methods when these are rendered sufficiently accurate by the introduction of all
the necessary corrections.
Its
portance attached to a precise result.
value must be decided by the imThere are briefer methods
to be found in every work on Navigation, which will (and should) be preferred in cases where only a rude approximation to the
longitude
As
required. before, let
A',
is
H = the apparent altitudes of the centres of the moon
'
and sun,
d"= the observed distance
Sj
TT,
P=
$'
8=
=
of the limbs, their geocentric semidiameters, their equatorial horizontal parallaxes, the moon's semidiameter, augmented
hy Table
tfj
= the moon's parallax, augmented by Table XIII.
XII.,
We
Art. 97.
of reduce the distance to the point contractions of the semidiameters produced by refraction will be at first disregarded, and a correction on that
shall here also first
The
account will be subsequently investigated. If then in Fig. 29, ' and 8 the places and S f denote the apparent places, p. 394, reduced to the point 0, we shall here have
M
M
BY LUNAR DISTANCES. d
'
h'
= d" 8 = M'S', = 90  ZM'
tf
,
A 1= = 90
2af,
and the two triangles give
cos
#=
if
_
cos
,
d, *
sin A,  sin

cos A l cos
jEft

If,

= cos d'
from which,
*M
we put
sin h. sin
.___ 1_
d,
403
= MS,
#' #!
= 90 Z8', = 90 S,
sin h' sin
H'

cos
A'
cos
H
'
.

H. __
I
*
_
cos
==
A.
cos
H.
sin A' sin
H'
cos d' f (n

cos
A'
cos
#'
'
we
derive
cos d' cos d l
= (1
ri)
7/1)
sin A' sin 7?
Put
then
we have
and
_COfl(y+
.
2 sin
^,_ ft
J
r~ 
+
Also
^
_
fli
_
cos
<i'
cos
COS
//,
= 2 sin
J
Ad
sin
(</' f
Aft)
'
cos A'
cos //'
in(A'+}A/0\
T*'
r\ 1+
j
/.
2siniAflsin(Jf
^^
j
jAJ5T)v
J
J
AA
sin (A'
f
+
J
Ah )
 2 sin
;
A ff sin (//'
cos If'
cos h
4 sin
j Aft sin j
Af sin (A +
cos
A'
I
AA) sin
(g
f
A/f)
~
sin A' cos A. sin
i
 __
IF cow /f
*
cos
^'
cos
A' sin A.
*
cos
H'
sin
sin A' cos A' sin
H'
cos
#'
substituting in
which the values
A'
A'
2 sin 2 cos 2 sin
cos A t
sin A,
l
= sin (2 = sin (2
sin (2
A/
+
f
A'
AA) AA)
A/?) A/f)
sin
4 sin
AA AA
JTcos ff ==
IT
2 cos If'sin JJ,
= sin (2 JET
^A)
A'
+
sin
si
we
find
~ HHI A/tHin(2JT
H^wTH'
AflT)
2Tin
cos A^Blii
404
Substituting
(<), (rf),
LONGITUDE.
and
(e)
in (#),
and
at the
same time,
foi
brevity, putting
2 sin
'
}AA
~~"
l
sin (A'
+
A
cosh'
fi
1
_
~~
sin
AA
sin (2
h'
H
'
2 cos
cos
H'
C
1
=
~
ZBfo
cos
JT
in(2A'
2 cos
A'
+
AA)
1
cos
#'
we have
This formula
than
is
1,
it
will not
rigorously exact ; but, since &d is always less produce an error of 0".l to substitute the arcs
\ &d, \ A^, &c. for their sines, or \ td sin 1", \ AA sin 1", &c. for sin \ Ad, sin }A/I, &c.; and therefore we may write
'
(g)
in
which
Av
J5 T ,
C D^ now
19
have the following
signification
:
cos
A'
cos A
f
2 cos //'
cos xi
D
1
~~
AX?
cos
;
'
H
sin(2A
+
AA)
9
2 cos A'
The next step in our transformation consists in finding convenient and at the same time sufficiently accurate expressions of AA and &H. Let
r,
R = the true refractions for the
have, within less than O'M,
apparent altitudes
A'
and
then
we
AA
=
*!
cos(A'
r)
r
BY LUNAR DISTANCES.
If
406
the error in this term
we
neglect r in the term
^ cos
(h'
r),
will never
exceed 1"
;
but even
this error will
be avoided by
taking the approximate expression
cos (hf
r)
= cos
r
h'  sin r
sin h
f
and we
shall
then have
&h
= =
TT,
cos
h'
,.
+
/,
\
TT,
sin r sin A'
,
(*,
cos
A'
r)
1
* + *!

sin r sin A'
TTj
cos
r
\
h!
1
Since the second term of the second factor produces but 1"
in &A,
still
we may employ
for
it
give ^A with great precision.
an approximate value, which will Denoting this term by k, we
sin r tan A'
j
have
_
or,
K! sin r sin A' Wj
cos
A'
/
__
TTj
r
COS h'
very nearly,
*
= Bin
r
tan
A'
( \
1
+
TTj
~
cos

\
A' /
If
we put
r
a cot
A',
iu
which a has the value given
in
Table
II. ,
we have
but in such a ratio that k remains very may without is about the mean value of nv and we shall find for a mean state of the air, by the values of a given in Table II.,
N"ow,
a
increases with
A',
nearly constant for a constant value of x r sensible error take 7t l  57' 30" 3450", which
=
We
forA':=
A'
5
k
=45 A' =90
Hence,
if
*
= 0.000291 = 0.000286 * = 0.000285
+ A)
we
take
k
= 0.00029
A'
the formula
AA
=
(*!
cos
r) (1
,
(452)
will give AA within ^^ of its whole amount, that is, within less than 0".02 in a mean state of the air. For extreme variations
406
LONGITUDE.
be increased by
of the density of the air, it is possible that the refraction may its onesixth part, and k will also be increased
by its onesixth part. But, as the term depending on k is not more than 1", the error in A/<, even in the improbable case
supposed, will not be greater than 0'M6. The formula (452) may therefore be regarded as practically exact with the value
k
= 0.00029.
A strict computation of the sun's or a planet's altitude requires
the formula
y*ff
R)
but
P is in all
cases so small that the formula
= B
PeosJT
(453i
will always
be correct within a very small fraction of a second.
r
'
Now,
let
#'_
H
7 f computed from the mean values of UK* quantities r and refraction are given in Table XIV. under the name "Mean
The
R
Reduced Refraction
for Lunars."
The numbers of
the table
are corrected for the height of the barometer and thermometer by means of Table XIV.A and B. These tables are computed
from BESSEL'S refraction
table,
mometer of the barometer, and the indicate the same temperature, which
problem.*
assuming the attached therexternal thermometer, to
is
By
'
the introduction of r 1 and R',

allowable in our present we obtain
cos
**(., ,0(1+ A)
A'
cos
H
H'P
and the
* If
Table
coefficients of
formula
(g)
become
rigor,
it
it
is
desired to compute
(Art. 107)
r'
and R' with the utmost
can be done by
II.,
by taking
sin h'
sin
H'
second in
a.11
The tables XIV. and XIV. A and B give the correct values
practical cases.
to the nearest
BY LUNAR DISTANCES.
40T
i
(,
 O (1 + A) sin (A' +
(H  I *H) p>n(2A'+AA) '
sin
"
r
A*)
C,
7) Xxi
= _
"
'
('  P)
fjf, J\i
I
"
j
2 cos
A'
The term
only 1".
sin 1" cosrf' is very small, its maximum being l Ci It is easy to obtain an approximate expression for it
it
A
and
to
combine
take
sin 1"===
with the term
A
l
cosd
/
.
In so small a term
we may
d
A
If
jR'sin l
sin
H'=
sin
R tan H'^
k
and hence
l
u4,Ci sin l"
=A
l
(1
+
*)
=
8
(r,
r')
^)
sin
(V
+
J
*A
now we put
sn
sin
2H'
(455)
sn
~~
_ sin (2 + A*)
A'
sin 2
V
A
sin A' cot
rf'
and
A'
0"
F=
=
(^
(w t
(
r')
=
r') ^ sin IT' cosec
B'
P) r sin
//' cot d'
'456,
the formula (g) becomes,
when
divided by
sinrf',
sn
the
first
=^
may be
^
put under the form
}Arf)
\
I
member
of which
,
1
+
2 sin
sin d'
/
408
so that if
.
LONGITUDE.
we put
2 sin d'
or,
within O'MS,
r
=
i
Ad* sin 1" cot
'
'
v
<f
(457
a:
i
we have
*<*
= A' +
+
C"
+
D'
+
A', 5', <?', and D' are computed directly from the distance and altitudes by (456), and with sufficient apparent C, JD, accuracy with fourfigure logarithms. The logarithms of A
, ,
The terms
are given in Table XV., log f r' and h ; log J5 and log ffj
A
and log
D with
the arguments
and
by
C with the arguments R' P In the construction of this table &h and A/f tire computed by (452) and (453), and then the logarithms of A, B, C, D,
JE?'.
(455).
The sum A'+ B'+C' +
D
1
is
called the " first correction of the
distance/' and, being very nearly equal to Arf, is used as the argument of Table XVL, which gives #, or the " second correction
of the distance," computed by (457). When x is greater than 30" and the distance small, it will be necessary to enter this table a second time with the more correct value of &d found by employing the
first
value of
x.
,
The
rfj,
correction &d being thus found and added to rf ; we have or the distance reduced to the point 0. The reduction to the
is then made by (450). a table. If we put by
centre of the earth
also facilitated
This reduction
is
N = ATT
__
.
/
(
sin
J
sin d
\
I
and then
a
=
An
sin $
\
sin
d
l
tan
.
a^
/
o
= An
.
sin
sin
tan
d^
di
(459)
is
we
shall
have
tf=a
and a and
first
+b
called
b
part of
can be taken from Table XIX. where a and b " the second part of N."
"the
N"
We then have
(460)
which
is
distance
d.
the correction to be added to dl to obtain the geocentric Table XIX. is computed with the mean value ol
BY LUNAR DISTANCES.
jr
409
= 57'
dl
30", which will
d
in
any
case.
But,
if
not produce more than 1" error in we wish to compute the correction
shall have, after finding
for the actual parallax,
table,
we
d
1
N by
the
d
it
= N sin ? Y
X

3450"
(460*) v
being in seconds.
trouble of finding the declinations of the bodies and the use of Table XIX. would be saved if the Almanac contained the
The
logarithm of value of log
N in
N in
the
connection with the lunar Ephemeris. The Almanac would, of course, be computed
with the actual parallax, and (460) would be perfectly exact. have yet to introduce corrections for the elliptical figure
We
of the discs of the
moon and sun produced by refraction. These
by Tables XVII. and XVIII., which are Let
corrections arc obtained
constructed upon the following principles.
ASj, A/Sj
= the contractions of the vertical somidiameters,
the contractions of the inclined semidiameters;
AS,
A#
then
we have
(Art. 133)
ASj COS*
A*
q
9
A/S
= A&, COS
and Q
5
Q
where q
have
= the
angle
ZM'S
(Fig. 29)
= ZS'M'. We
sin jfiT
sin A' cos d'
h' sin
cos
d'
But,
sin
by
(456),
H'
d'
B'
sinA'cosrf'
cos
A'
A'
cos
fio
A' sin
^( r
i
r/ )
cos
A' sin d'
A (^
r')
cos
A'
that
prtft \j\JO
n lj
~
^^~

I
I

\
A
1,
^~
I
l
I
______________
(ff t
B
i
r) cos A
If
we put A
have
= 1 and J5 =
cos
gr
which are approximate values, we
At
I
qhall
=
1J/
,
;
r')cosA'
2
(461)
410
LONGITUDE.
we
In order to ascertain the degree of accuracy of this formula, observe that the errors in cos q produced by the assumption
1, JB
A
=
1,
are
tan
'
e
__,__.. ~^
2
h'
6
' 
~ /I _ m
^
sin
H
9
tan d'
cosh'
sin d'
the errors in cos q are
and the errors
__ ~~
in
A s are, therefore,
, 1
2A$
t
(yl
1) tan A' cos q
_ 2 AS, (1
~~
cos
B)
sin
IT cos
d
1
q
<l
tan d
f
A' sin
In order to represent extreme cases,
H'=
we
and let us suppose q will give e t and e/ their greatest values; then shall find for the different values of h' the following errors:
=
90, which
A'
^tanrf'
fj'aind'
5
0".45
.16
.08
0".02
.00 .00 .00
.00
10
15
30
50
It
.02
.00
can only be for very small values of d f that the error e can be 5 and, as these small values of the important, even for h' distance are always avoided in practice, our formula (461) may be considered quite perfect.
l
;
In the
same manner, we
shall find
which is even more accurate than (461). These formulae are put into tables as follows.
Table XVII. A, with the arguments value of
J
For the moon,
r',
h'
and^
gives the
n
_ s
___Ai
T)
/NO
. 1_
.....
*
_
Oi
8
*
i
v Jf ^
where /is an arbitrary factor (18000000) employed to give^ convenient integral values. Then Table XVII.B, with the arguments g and 4 + jB', gives
;
BY LUNAR DISTANCES.
411
For the sun, Table XVIII. A, with the arguments H' and
gives the value of
in
which
F^ ~;
and Table
XVIILB
gives
In these tables moon," and C'
A' + B' is called + D' the "whole
the
"whole
correction of the
correction of the sun/'
As
these quantities are furnished by the previous computation of the true distance, the required corrections are taken from the
tables without
any additional computation.
:
The values of AS and A$ are applied to the distance as follows when the limb of the moon nearest to the star or planet is observed, AS is to be subtracted, and when the farthest limb is observed, AS is to be added when the sun is observed, both AS and A$ are to be subtracted from d.
;
In strictness, these corrections should be applied to the distance d f , and the distance thus corrected should be employed in
computing the values of A',
;
jB',
C",
and D'.
This would
require a repetition of the computation after AS and A$ had been found by a first computation but this repetition will rarely change the result by 0".5. In the extreme and improbable case
and one body is at the altitude 5 and the other directly above it in the same vertical circle (so that the entire contraction of the vertical semidiameter comes into account), such a repetition would change the result only 1".8 and even this error is much less than the probable error of sextant observations at this small altitude, where the sun and
the distance
is
when
only 20
;
moon
already cease to present perfectly defined discs.
250. I shall
1st.
The
local
now recapitulate the steps of this method. mean time of the observation being l\ and
r
the
assumed longitude L, take from the Ephemeris,
for the approxi
412
LONGITUDK.
mate Greenwich time
(For the sun
T+ L, the quantities
P 
s,
;
S,
TT,
P,
$,
and
J.
0,
we may always take
8". 5
for a star,
8

P0.)
2d. If A",
H", d"
s
r
denote the observed altitudes and distance
of the limbs, find
^=
and the apparent
h'
= s + correction of Table XII.,
*
+
correction of Table XIII.,
altitudes
and distance of the
centres,
= A"
s',
P
=, //"
T
8,
d'=d"s'
S
upper signs for upper and nearest limbs, lower signs for lower and farthest limbs.
For the altitudes h and H', take the " reduced refractions" /' and J?' from Table XIV., correcting them by Table XIV.A and B for the barometer and thermometer. Then compute the
1
quantities
.1'
B'
=_
I,
TT
r')
rO
A sin h' cot d B sin H' cosec
1
'=
(R' P) Osi ruff' cot d'
for which the logarithms of A, 5, (7, and are taken from Table XV. In this table the argument ^ r' is called the " reduced the and refraction of the moon," and R' parallax ** reduced refraction and parallax of the sun (or planet) or star." For a star this argument is simply H'. When d'> 90, the signs of A f and C" will be reversed. It may be convenient for the computer to determine the signs by
D
P
referring to the following table
:
5', which depend upon the moon's and refraction, may be called the first and second parts parallax of the moon's correction, and the sum A + B' the " whole cor1 rection of the moon." In like manner, C 1 and may be called the first and second parts of the sun's, planet's, or star's correct
3d.
1
The terms A' and
D
BY LUNAR DISTANCES.
tion,
413
and the sum C'
+
D* the " whole
correction of the sun,
planet, or star/'
The sum of
these corrections
in
= A' +
B'
+
1
C"
4 D' may be
it
called the "first correction of the distance/
Taking
as the
x,
upper argument
4th.
Table XVI., find the second correction =?
indicated in the table.
the sign of which
is
Take from Table XVII.A and
A*.
B
the contraction of
is
its
inclined semidiameter
also the contraction
If the sun
from Table XVIILA of either of these corrections will be positive when the sign farthest limb is observed, and negative when the nearest limb is observed.
5th.
the other body, take A and B, The
=
The
<p,
N sin
puted by
correction for the compression of the earth is =^ the latitude and ^V may be accurately com<p being the formula
;
/V ^V
,T

.
>\ Trl ^ITtl
/
\
sin J
^
sin ^
v
\
I I
sin
d
tan d
l
I
or
it
may be found
is
suiting which
sin
is
evident.
within 1" by Table XIX., the mode of con The sign of Nsin <p will be determined
sin
y>,
by the signs of
<p
^and
remembering that for south
latitudes
negative. the corrections being applied to d', we have the geocentric distance d; and hence the corresponding Greenwich time and the longitude.
A.11
EXAMPLE. Let us take the example of the preceding (p. 399), in which the observation gives
1856,
article
T
Assumed
=
=
March
9th,
=.
35
5M461X)
3 h"
77"
=52
...
34'
0"
L
8
56 23
Barom.29.5in Therm. 58 F.
Approx. Gr. T.
= 15
14 6
J
d"
= 44
36 58.6
By the
s
Ephemeris,
we have
^r
=
16' 23".l
= 60' 1".9
= 60
+_3
.9
5=16' 8".0
d
Table XII.
s'
= 16
+
14
.0
.1
Tab. XIII.
TT,
=+
P = 8".6
J
14
=
4
37
5" 8"
as follows:
The computation may be arranged
414
rzrr
* /==
h'
LONGITUDE.
5234'.0
^= 866'.4
4
52
16 6

S
//
50.6
= =
16.1
9'
=
=r
16 37
16
.1
9
12.6
5
</'
8 .0
.7
= 45
9 43
6' 49". 6
6
.
R'=
/>==:
6
.
537
.6
' =
JBU8
5854.7
.4'
446'58".9
(Table XV.) log

B
9.9981
(Table XV.) log
log
(7?'
D
9.9987
/) logOr, log sin//'
log cosec d'
3.5484 9.2042
 P)
r/'
2.5172 9.9015 0.1493
2.5667
0.1493
7i2.9000
log sin h' log cosec
log
?'
log
/?'
D'
=
13'I4",8
.6
A'
4 J5'= 4 83 39
2d
u
r=
6"
4
0'
8".
7
1st corr.
4^r> 16 .6
=r
Table XIX. 1st Part of
N= 
(Table XVI.)
2
2d
(Table XVII.) ( Table X VIII.)
corr. = A< =
4 38' 66
/;
.2
18 .5
0. 9.
.
o == 35.
JVsin
=
4 .6
= 45 48
12
.8
p.
This result agrees with that found by the rigorous method on 401, within 1".
To
find the longitude,
9,
we now
have, hy the
American Ephe
meris for March
(T)
= 15*
=
0
0'
(d)
d
^ 45 = 45
40' 54"
Q=
log
log
t
0.2510
AQ =
+ 17
48 18
7 IP
t
13
3
1
= 2.6425 = 2.8935
Table
XX.
JL
_
1 it 1^
PL
71
Q
13
rn
14
=
9 58 56
BY LUNAR DISTANCES.
251. In
415
consequence of the neglect of the fractions of a second method, it is possible that Ihe computed distance may be in error several seconds, but it is easily seen that the error from this cause will be most sensible in cases where the distance is small and, since the lunar distances are
in several parts of the above
;
number of objects, the observer given Ephemcris can rarely be obliged to employ a small distance. If he confines himself to distances greater than 45 (as he may readily do), the
in the
for a
method will rarely be in error so much as 2", especially if he also avoids altitudes less than 10. When we remember that
the least count of the sextant reading is 10", and that to the probable error of observation we must add the errors of graduation, of eccentricity,
and of the index correction, it must be conceded that we cannot hope to reduce the probable error of an observed distance below 5", if indeed we can reduce it below
10".
Our approximate method
is,
therefore, for
all
practical
purposes, a perfect method, in relation to our present means of
observation.
If the altitudes have not been observed, they may be computed from the hour angles and declinations of the bodies,
252.
ascensions.
the hour angles being found from the local time and the right But the declination and right ascension of the moon
will be taken from the Ephemeris for the approximate Greenwich time found with the assumed longitude. If, then, the assumed
longitude is greatly in error, a repetition of the computation may be necessary, starting from the Greenwich time furnished by the
first.
a practical rule, we may be satisfied with the first computation when the error in the assumed longitude is not more than 30*. In the determination of the longitude of a fixed
it
As
be advisable to omit the observation of the thereby the observer gains time to multiply the observations of the distance. But at sea, where an immediate result is required with the least expenditure of figures, the altitucies should be observed.
point on land,
altitudes, as
will
noted by a chronometer reguand the most direct employment of the lated to Greenwich time, resulting Greenwich time will then be to determine the true, This proceeding has the advan correction of the chronometer.
253.
sea, the observation is
At
416
LONGITUDES.
tage of not re<jn5ring an exact determination of the local time at the instant of the observation.
For example, suppose the observation in the example above computed had been noted by a Greenwich mean time chronometer which gave 15* 10" 0*, and was supposed to be slow 4 6*. The true Greenwich time according to the lunar observation was 15* 13W 0*, and hence the true correction was + 3 0*. With
1
111
TO
this correction
we may at any convenient time afterwards determine the longitude by the chronometer (Art. 214). In this way the navigator may from time to time during a
voyage determine the correction of the chronometer, and, by
taking the mean of all his results, obtain a very reliable correction to be used when approaching the land. He may even determine the rate of the chronometer witli considerable accuracy by comparing the mean of a number of observations in the first part of the voyage with a similar mean in the latter
part of
254.
it.
To
correct the longitude
found by a lunar
distance for errors
of the Ephemeris.
all its
observation, we errors as insensible except those which affect the moon's If, therefore, the longitude of a fixed point has been place.
In relation to the degree of accuracy of the may in the present state of the Epherneris regard
found by a lunar distance on a certain date, the corrections of the moon's right ascension and declination are first to be found for that date from the observations at one or more of the principal observatories, and then the correction of the longitude will be found as follows. Let
a,
d =. the right ascension
and declination of the moon given
in the
A, J
<5a,
= those of the sun, planet, or star,
declination,
Kphomeris
for the date of the observation,
dd~
the corrections of the moon's right ascension and
dd
= the corresponding correction of the lunar distance,
,
dL
the corresponding correction of the computed longitude;
and S being the geocentric places of the two In Fig. 30, bodies, as given in the Ephemeris, and d denoting the distance
M
MS, we have
cos d
sin
<5
sin J
f
cos
<J
cos J cos (a
A)
(468)
BY LUNAR DISTANCES.
411
by
differentiating
%J M
which we
COS
rrr
find
COS J H1H (a _\_
Hin
A) '
.
^
,}
a
d
_,
cos
gin
J
sin $ cos J co
ftin </
._
(a
Ai
) .
M
If then
y
= the change of distance in
*L
3*,
we
shall
have
=

M
X T
ij
(465J
in
computing which we employ the proportional logarithm of the
Ephemeris,
Q
=
3*
log , reduced to the time of the observation.
in
EXAMPLE. At the time of the observation computed 250, we have
Moon,
Sun,
a a
Art
A
A
= 2* 11 14= 23 23 25
^
2 49
d
J
=+ ==^=
14
18'.4
4
3
.1
19
d
45
48
.2
=
with which
42
19'.8
we
find,
by
<M
(464),
^ 0.908 ^a +
=
0.350
W M
and hence, by
(465),
with log
0.2511,
0.62
dL
1.62 <U 
Suppose then we find from the Greenwich observations 8a =  5".7 and rW 4 /x .O, the correction of the longi0'.38 tude above found will be
dL
255.
=
+
<t
11.7
To find
the
longitude by
lunar distance not given in
tht
Eithemeris.
The regular
lunardistance stars mentioned in Art.
247 are selected nearly in the moon's path, and are therefore in general most favorable for the accurate determination of the
Nevertheless, it may occasionally be found expedient to employ other stars, not too far from the ecliptic. Sometimes, too, a different star may have been observed by mistake, and it may be important to mak? use of the observation
Greenwich time.
You.
I.
27
418
LONGITUDE.
true distance d
is
The
to
be found from the observed distance
by the preceding methods, as in any other case. Let the local time of the observation be T, and the assumed longitude L. Take from the Ephemeris the moon's right ascension a and de
Greenwich time T ( 7>, and also the star's right ascension A and declination J; with which the corresponding true distance </ is found by the formula
clination o for the
cos d9
= sin d sin J
f
cos d cos J cos (a
is
A
;
)
Then, put
if
d
A
=
</
,
the assumed longitude
correct
if
otherwise,
f
= the increase of a in one minute of mean time, " " " = the increase of d " " " = the increase of d "
"
then
we
have, by (464),
cos d cos J sin (a
sin
A)
,
cos d sin J
sin d cos
J cos (a
A)
dQ
sin
dQ
in
and hence the correction of the assumed longitude
of time,
seconds
For computation Ly logarithms, these formulae may be
ranged as follows
:
ar
tan
M ~ COS tanJ
(a
si
A)
cos dg
= sin J cos (5
J)
_
.
M
(
)
(466)
cos d cos J sin (a
ot
x
Jx ,. ^ tan (<J
Jlf )
,..
r
EXAMPLE.
of the
16,
moon from
T=
Suppose an observer has measured the distance Areturus, at the local mean time 1856 March 6* 0* 0% and, 10* 30W 0% in the assumed longitude L
=
reducing his observation, finds the true distance
d
= 73
?
55'
10"
what
is
the true longitude
BY LUNAR DISTANCES.
419
For the Greenwich time
a
T+ L
$
= 16*
30'
30 W
12'
we
I'M
.8
find
A
^
8*
47* 6'.54
9
7 .04
A r^ 4
14
5*
J
=
22 0.50
find
=
(466),
= + 23 = + 19
80
= f 31".40
8 .62
55 44
0=
7".5
with which
we
</
by
73
d
d
= =
55' 35".
<$
r
25"
is 6*
Ml
= 2.V.59 = + 58'
.6
and therefore the longitude
256. In
58
f
.6.
errors of the
order to eliminate as far as possible any constant instrument used in measuring the distance, wo
should observe distances from stars both east and west of the moon. If the index correction of the sextant is in error, the
produced in the computed Greenwich time, and consequently in the longitude, will have different signs for the two observations, and will be very nearly equal numerically: they will therefore be nearly eliminated in the mean. If, moreover, the
errors
distances are nearly equal, the eccentricity of the sextant will have nearly the same effect upon each distance, and will therefore be eliminated at the same time with the index error. Since
even the best sextants are liable to an error of eccentricity of as much as 20", according to the confession of the most skilful makers, and this error is not readily determined, it is important
to eliminate
it
in this
of reflexion
is
manner whenever practicable. If a circle employed which is read off by two opposite
is
verniers, the eccentricity
tion should
errors.
eliminated from each observation
;
but even with such an instrument the
same method of observaother constant
be followed,
in order to eliminate
has been stated by some writers that by observing distances of stars on opposite sides of the moon we also eliminate a constant error of observation, such, for example, as arises from a faulty habit of the observer in making the contact of the moon's
It
limb with the
star.
habit of the observer
This, however, is a mistake; for if the is to make the contact too close, that is, to
bring the reflected image of the moon's limb somewhat over the star, the effect will be to increase a distance on one side of
the
moon
effect
while it diminishes that on the opposite side, and the upon the deduced Greenwich time will be the same in
420
LONGITUDE.
both cases.
This will be evident from the following diagram, Suppose a and b (Fig. 31).
lg' 31 '
/
are the two stars, the moon's limb. If the observer
i
M
judges a contact to exist when the star appears within the moon's disc as at c, the distance
ac is too small
and the distance
too great. But, supposing the moon to be moving in the direction from a to />, each distance will give too early a Greenwich
/><
time, for each will give the time actually at c.
If,
when
the moon's limb was
however,
we
observe the mot in both positions, this kind
of error, if really constant, will be eliminated ; for, the moon's bright limb being always turned towards the sun, the error will increase both distances, and will produce errors of opposite sign
in the
Greenwich time.
Hence,
if
a series of lunar distances
from the suu has been observed, it will be advisable to form two distinct means, one, of all the results obtained from increasing
from decreasing disof these means will be nearly or quite freo from a constant error of observation, and also from constant indistances, the other, of all those obtained
tances: the
mean
strumental errors.
FINDING THE LONGITUDE AT SEA.
257.
use.
By chronometers.
This method
it
is
now in almost
universal
The form under which
from chronometer on the time of the first meridian (that of Greenwich among American and English navigators) is found at any place whose longitude is known, and at the same time also its The rate daily rate is to be established with all possible care. for from day to day during the voyage, the being duly allowed Greenwich time is constantly known, and therefore at any instant when the local time is obtained by observation, the lonslightly
applied at sea differs very that given in Art. 214. The correction of the
is
gitude of the ship
is determined. time on shipboard is always found from an altitude of some celestial object, observed with the sextant from the sea horizon. (Art. 156.) The computation of the hour angle ip then made by (268), and the resulting local time is compared directly with the Greenwich time given by the chronometer at
The
local
SKA.
fht
421
the Ephemeria
iustaufc
of the observation.
The data from
required in computing the local time are taken for the Greenwich time given by the chronometer.
EXAMPLE. A ship being about to sail from New York, the master determined the correction on Greenwich time and the rate of his chronometer by observations on two dates, as follows:
1860 April 22, at Greenwich noon, chron. correction " " " " "
30,
Rate
in 8
days
Daily rate
= + 3 43 = + 33 = + 4
= + 3m
lO'.O
.6
.6
.2
On May 18 following, about 7* 30"' A.M., the ship being in latitude 41 33' N., three altitudes of the sun's lower limb were observed from the sea horizon as below. The correction of the chronometer on that day is found from the correction on April 30 by adding the rate for 18 days. (It will not usually be worth while to regard the fraction of a day in computing the total rate at sea.) The record of the observation and the whole computation may be arranged as follows
:
1800
May
18.
^41
=
==
33'
9* 37 m
Chronometer
2K
63.
 37
Q 29
"
40' 10"
Barom. 30.32
Therm. 59
F.
" 38 20.
46 50 50
Mean
Correction
<ir.
9 37

51.3
69
.2
Mean
Index corr.
Dip
4
date
= May 17,
Q's
<?
21 42
50.6
= = =
29 46 40
110
4
2
for
which time we take from the
19
38'
15'
Ephemeris the quantities
39"
60"
= Equation of time ~
Semidiameter
3 m 49*.8
Local mean time =19 28
Gr.
16.6
= 21 42
50.6
34
=r 33
Longitude
=
2 14
38
f
.fr
\V.
tion
In this observation, the sun was near the prime vertical, a posimost favorable to accuracy (Art. 149).
422
LONGITUDE.
The method by equal altitudes may also be used for finding the time at sea in low latitudes, as in Arts. 158, 159.
258. In order that the longitude thus found shall be worthy of confidence, the greatest care must be bestowed upon the determination of the rate. As a single chronometer might
deviate very greatly without being distrusted by the navigator, it is well to have at least three chronometers, and to take the
mean
of the longitudes which they severally give in every case. But, whatever care may have been taken in determining the rate on shore, the sea rate will generally be found to differ from
it
more or
;
less, as
the instrument
is
affected
by the motion of the
and, since a cause which accelerates or retards one chronometer may produce the same effect upon the others, the agreement of even three chronometers is not an absolutely certain
ship
proof of their correctness. The sea rate may be found by determining the chronometer correction at two ports whose
difference
of longitude is well known, although the absolute longitudes of both ports may be somewhat uncertain. For this " purpose, a Table of Chronometric Differences of Longitude" is
is
given in RAPER'S Practice of Navigation, the use of which illustrated in the following example.
EXAMPLE. At St. Helena, May nometer on the local time was
2,
the correction of a chro
0* 23'" 10*. 3.
At
the
Cape of
Good Hope, May
17,
the
correction
rate
?
on the
local
time was
+
1*
14m
28*. 6
;
what was the sea
We have
Corr. at St. Helena,
May
2d
=
== f
0*
1
23"
80
13
10.3
Chron.
diff.
of long, from Raper
"
"
45.
Corr. for
Cape of G. H., May 2d
17th
=+
=i
.
1
1
14
34.7 28.6
53
.9
Rate
in 15
days
Daily sea rate
259.
=^
+3
+
.59
By lunar distances. Chronometers, however perfectly are. liable to derangement, and cannot be implicitly relied made, upon in a long voyage. The method of lunar distances (Arts. 247256) is, therefore, employed as an occasional check upon the
chronometers even where the
longitude from day to day.
hitter are
When
there
is
used for finding the no chronometer on
AT SEA.
428
board, the method of lunar distances is the only regularly available method for finding the longitude at sea, at once sufficiently
accurate and sufficiently simple. As a check upon the chronometer, the result of a lunar distance is used as in Art. 253.
rates of his
In long voyages an assiduous observer may determine the sea chronometers with considerable precision. For this
purpose, it is expedient to combine observations taken at various times during a lunation in such a manner as to eliminate as far
as possible constant errors of the sextant
and of the observer (Art.
Suppose distances of the sun are employed exclusively. 256). Let two chronometer corrections be found from two nearly equal distances measured on opposite sides of the sun on two different
and second half of the lunation respectively. The mean of these corrections will be the correction for the mean date, very nearly free from constant instrumental and
dates, in the first
personal errors. In like manner, any number of pairs of equal, or nearly equal, distances may be combined, and a mean chro
nometer correction determined for a mean date from all the observations of the lunation. The sea rate will be found by comparing two corrections thus determined in two different lunations. This method has been successfully applied in voyages between England and India.
260. By the eclipses of Jupiter's satellites. An observed eclipse of one of Jupiter's satellites furnishes immediately the Green, wich time without any computation (Art. 225.) But the eclipse
is not sufficiently instantaneous to give great accuracy for, with the ordinary spyglass with which the eclipse may be observed on board ship, the time of the disappearance of the satellite may
;
precede the true time of total eclipse by even a whole minute. The time of disappearance will also vary with the clearness of
the atmosphere. Since, however, the same causes which accele. rate the disappearance will retard the reappearance, if both
phenomena are observed on the same evening under nearly the same atmospheric conditions, the mean of the two resulting longitudes will be nearly correct. Still, the method has not the
advantage possessed by lunar distances of being almost always available at times suited to the convenience of the navigator.
261.
By
the
moon's
altitude.
This method, as given in Art. 243,
424
CIRCLES OF POSITION.
?>e used at sea in low latitudes; hut, on account of the unavoidable inaccuracy of an altitude observed from the sea horizon, it is even less accurate than the method of the preceding
may
article,
and always
far inferior to the
it is
method of lunar
distances,
01
although on shore
precision
262.
one which admits of a high degree
when
carried out as in Aft. 245.
will
By occupations of stars by the moon. This method, which be treated of in the chapter on eclipses, may be successfully used at sea, as the disappearance of a star behind the moon's limb may be observed with a common spyglass at sea with nearly as great a degree of precision as on shore but, on account
;
of the length of the preliminary computations as well as of the subsequent reduction of the observation, it is seldom that &
navigator would think of resorting to convenient method of lunar distances.
it
as a substitute for the
CHAPTER
VIII.
FINDING A SHIP'S PLACE AT SEA BY CIRCLES OF POSITION.
263. IN the preceding two chapters we have treated of methods of finding the position of a point on the earth's surface by tho two coordinates latitude and longitude and therefore in all these methods the required position is determined by the intersection of two circles, one a parallel of latitude and the other a meridian. In the following method it is determined by circles The prinoblique to the parallels of latitude and the meridians. which underlies the method has often been applied; but its ciple value as a practical nautical method was first clearly shown by Capt. THOMAS H. SUMNER.* Let an altitude of the sun (or any other object) be observed at any time, the time being noted by a chronometer regulated tn Greenwich time. Suppose that at this Greenwich time the sun
;
tor's chart
* A new and accurate method of finding a ship's position at sea by projection on Mercaty Tapt. THOMAS H. RUMNKR. Boston, 1843,
SUMNER'B METHOD.
of the globe (Fig Is vertical to an observer at the point Let a small circle AA'A" be described on Fig. 32. the globe from as a pole, with a polar dis
426
32).
M
M
equal to the zenith distance, or complement of the observed altitude, of the tance
sun.
It is evident that at all places within this circle an observer would at the given
at
MA
time observe a smaller zenith distance, and fill places without this circle a greater
;
zenith distance
and therefore the observa
tion fully determines the observer to be on
the
circumference of the small circle
A A' A".
navigator can project this small circle upon a chart, the knowledge that he is upon this circle will be just as valuable to him in enabling him to avoid dangers as the knowledge of either hi*
latitude alone or his longitude alone;
then, the an artificial globe or
If,
since one of the latter elements determines a point to be in a certain circle, without fixing only upon any particular point of that circle.
The small
circle of the
the celestial object as a pole
t
gloue described from the projection 01 we shall call a circle of position.
on the globe at which the sun is vertical (or the The sun's sun's projection on the globe) at a given Greenwich time. hour angle from the Greenwich meridian is the Greenwich
264.
To find
the place
apparent time.
The
into the zenith of all
diurnal motion of the earth brings the sun the places whose latitude is just equal to
Hence the required projection of the a place whose longitude (reckoned westward from Greenwich from 0* to 24*) is equal to the Greenwich apparent time, and whose latitude is equal to the sun's declination at that time.
the sun's declination.
is
sun
265.
to find the circle
ylobe.
of the sun taken at a given Greenwich time, of position of the observer, by projection on an artificial Find the Greenwich apparent time and the sun's decimaaltitude
From an
tion,
and put down oh the globe the sun's projection by the
preceding article. From this point as a pole, describe a small circle with a circular radius equal to the true zenith distance deduced from the observation. This will be the required circle
or position.
266.
The preceding pfoblem may be extended
to
any
celestial
426
object.
CIRCLES OF POSITION.
The
pole of the circle of position will always be the
whose west longitude is the Greenwich hour angle of the A to 24*) and whose latitude is the decliobject (reckoned from nation of the object. The hour angle is found by Art. 54.
place
267.
To find both
the latitude
and
the longitude
of a
*hi]>
First. Take position projected on an artificial globe. of two different objects at the same time by tho Greenwich chronometer. Put down on the globe, by the preceding problem,
by cirdes of the altitudes
their
two cii^cles of position. The observer, being in the circumference of each of these circles, must be at one of their two points of intersection; which of the two, he can generally determine
from an approximate knowledge of his position. Second. Let the same object be observed at two different times, and project a circle of position for each. Their intersection gives the position of the ship as before. If between the observations the ship has moved, the first altitude must be reduced to the second place of observation by applying the correction of Art. 209, formula (380). The projection then gives the ship's position at the second observation.
268.
From an
altitude
time, to find the circle
Mercator chart
are constructed
The
is
body taken at a given Greenwich of position of the observer, by projection on a scale upon which the largest artificial globes
of a
celestial
much
used by navigators.
Fig. 33.
smaller than that of the working charts But on the Mercator chart a circle of
^
.
_L
__
,,
and can only L" be laid down by points. Let L, of latitude (Fig. 33) be any parallels crossed by the required circle. For each
position will be distorted,
L
f
,
of these latitudes, with the true altitude found from the observation and the polar
distance of the celestial
body taken for the Greenwich time, compute the locaj time, and hence the longitude, "by chror nometer" (Art. 257). Let Z, V, I" be the Let A, A', A" be the points whose longitudes thus found. and longitudes are, respectively, L, I ; L V ; L", I" ; latitudes
1 ,
The ship is these are evidently points of the required circle. traced through these consequently in the curve AA'A",
points.
SUMNER'S METHOD.
/
427
points
if
Tn practice it is generally sufficient to lay down only two for, the approximate position of the ship being known,
;
are two latitudes between which the ship may be assumed to be, her position is known to be on the curve AA' somewhere between A and A'. When the difference between L and L' is small, the arc AA will appear on the chart as &
f 1
L and L
straight line.
To find the latitude and longitude of a ship by circles of position a Mercator chart. First. Let the altitudes of two Assume two latitudes emobjects be taken at the same time. between them the ship's probable position, and find two bracing points of each of their two circles of position by the preceding problem, and project these points on the chart. Each pair of
269.
projected on
points being joined by a straight line, the intersection of the two lines is
'
S
A>
B*
very nearly the ship's position. Thus, 1 if one object gives the points A, A
(Fig. 34) corresponding to the latitudes i, Z/, and the other object the f points corresponding to the same latitudes, the ship's position is the point (7, the intersection of AA' and BB*.
,
B
It is, of course, not essential that the same latitudes should be used in computing the points of the two circles; but it is more
may be more fully down by three or more points of each. The altitude of the same object may be taken at two Second. different times, and the circles laid down as before; the usual reduction of the first altitude being applied when the ship changes
laid
convenient, and saves some logarithms. If greater accuracy is desired, the circles
her position between the observations. It is evident from the nature of the above projection that the most favorable case for the accurate determination of the intersection
is
that in which the circles of position intersect at right
Hence the two objects observed, or the two positions anglew. of the same object, should, if possible, differ about 90 in azimuth.
This agrees with the results of the analytical discussion of the method of finding the latitude by two altitudes, Art. 183. If the chronometer does not give the true Greenwich time, the only effect of the error will be to shift the point C towards the east or the west, without changing its latitude, unless the error is
428
CIRCLES OF POSITION.
so great as to affect sensibly the declination which is taken from theEphemeris for the time given by the chronometer. This method
therefore, a convenient substitute for the usual method of finding the latitude at sea by two altitudes, a projection on the sailing
is,
chart being always sufficient for the purposes of the navigator. Instead of reducing the first altitude for the change of the ship s
position between the observations, we may put down the circle of position for each observation and afterwards shift one of them
A 'a
1
_
it is
by a quantity due
L
,
to the ship's run.
Thus,
let
the
first
observation give the
(Fig. 35),
position line
1
ship's course
AA'
represent, in direction
a
and let Aa and length, the
sailed be
and distance
tween
the
observations.
Draw
aa'
Then, parallel being the position line by the second observation, its intersection C with aa f is the required position of the ship at the second observation.
to 270. If the latitude
is
AA'.
BB
f
desired by computation, independently
of the projection,
l
readily found as follows.
Let
first
v
/
2
= the longitudes (of A and B) found from the
'
and
/ ', J a t
second altitudes respectively with the latitude L, .= the longitudes (of A' and ff) found from the same
altitudes with the latitude L',
L =
From
and^'jB'C,
the latitude of C.
Fig. 34
we
have, by the similarity of the triangles
:
AB C
l/_
whence
;;
{,4,:=
B'C
:
BC
L^L+(VOK'i*.)
ship
is
(467)
This formula reduces SUMNER'S method of " double altitudes" to that given long ago by LALANDE (Astronomie, Art. 39P*2, and
Abrtge de Navigation, p. 68). The distinctive feature of SUMNER'S process, however, is that a single altitude taken at any time is made available for determining a line of the globe on vvhich the
situated.
MERIDIAN LINE.
sun by a position be a position line on the chart, derived from an observed altitude by
271.
the
429
line projected
To find
azimuth of
the
on
the chart.
Let
A A' (Fig. 36)
At any point C of this line draw CM perpendicular to AA' and let NCSbe the meriArt. 268.
9
dian passing through C; then the sun's azimuth. The line
CM
SCM is evidently
is,
of course,
drawn on that side of the meridian NS upon which the sun was known to be at the time of
the observation.
The
line,
solution is but approximate, since AA' should be a curve and the azimuth of the normal CM would be different for
different points of
for the
AA
f
.
It
is,
however, quite accurate enough
at
purpose of determining the variation of the compass sea, which is the only practical application of this problem.
CHAPTER
IX.
THE MERIDIAN LINE AND VARIATION OF THE COMPASS.
the intersection of the plane of the meridian with the plane of the horizon. Some of the most useful methods of finding the direction of this line will here be briefly treated of; but the full discussion of the subject belongs
272.
THE
meridian
line is
to geodesy.
star. If the precise instant altitude could be accurately greatest distinguished, the direction of the star at that instant, referred to the horizon, would give the direction of the meridian line but
273.
By
the meridian
passage of a
when
a star arrives at
its
;
the altitude varies so slowly near the meridian that this only serves to give a first approximation.
274.
method
follows.
shadows. good approximation may be made as Plant a stake upon a level piece of ground, and give it a vertical position by means of a plumb line. Describe one or
By
A
430
MERIDIAN LINE.
circles
on the ground from the foot of the stake instants before and after noon when the shadow of the stake extends to the same circle, the azimuths of the shadow east and west are equal. The points of the circle at which the shadow terminates at these instants being marked, let the included arc be bisected the point of bisection and the centre
as a centre.
more concentric
At the two
;
of the stake then determine the meridian line. Theoretically, a small correction should be made for the sun's change of declination,
but
it
would be quite superfluous
in this
method.
275. By single altitudes. "With an altitude and azimuth instrument, observe the altitude of a star at the instant of its passage Over the middle vertical thread (at any time), and read the Correct the observed altitude for refraction. horizontal circle.
Then', if
= the true altitude, = the latitude of the place of observation, = the star's polar distance, p
h
<p
A A'=
we
the star's azimuth, the reading of the horizontal
circle,
have, from the triangle formed by the zenith, the pole, and the star,
i
A
=
COS
"
,5

COS (S
(468)
p)
in
which
In this formula the latitude may be taken with the positive sign, whether north or south, and p is then to be reckoned from the elevated pole consequently, also, A will be the azimuth reckoned
;
from the elevated
It is
pole.
evident that in order to bring the telescope into the plane of the meridian we have only to revolve the instrument through
the angle A, and therefore either A' \ A or A f A, according to the direction of the graduations of the circle, will be the reading of the horizontal circle when the telescope is in the meridian.
The same method can be followed when the azimuth is observed with a compass and the altitude is measured with a sex9 A is the variation of the compass. tant; and then A
MERIDIAN LINE.
276.
431
<p
From rom
the
e< first equation
of
(50),
arid d
being constant,
we have
a dA
and therefore an error
in the
dh
cos h tan q
observed altitude will have the least effect upon the computed azimuth when tan q is a maximum that is, when the star is on the prime vertical. Therelore, in the practice of the preceding method the star should be as far from the meridian as possible.
;
277.
By equal
altitudes
of a star.
Observe the azimuth of a
star
with an altitude and azimuth instrument, or a compass, when at the same altitude east and west of the meridian. The mean of
the two readings of the instrument is the reading when its This is the sight line is in the direction of the meridian.
method of
Article 274, rendered accurate by the introduction
of proper instruments for observing both the altitude and the azimuth.
278. If equal altitudes of the sun are employed, a correction change of the sun's declination is necessary, since equal
for the
azimuths will no longer correspond to equal altitudes.
A'
first
Let
= the east azimuth at the observation, = " west " second d = the declination at noon, v? = the increase of declination from the to the second
4
*
*'
first
observation,
then,
by
(1),
we
have, h being the altitude in each case,
<p
siii sin (d J A#) sin (5 f i Afl) = sin
sin h
sin h
cos
<p
cos
h,
cos A'
^
cos y cos h cos
A
the difference of which gives
2 cos d sin 4 A<5
= U cos
c?
cos h sin J
(A
+ A'}
we
sin J
(A
A)
9
whence, since
accuracy,
A<? is
but a few minutes,
have, with sufficient
A
^.
A
.
a
cos
*"'
<p
cos h sin
A
(46 9)
432
It will
MERIDIAN LINK.
be necessary to note the times of the two observations *<J. If we take half the elapsed time as the hour angle t of the western observation, we shall have, instead of (469), the more convenient formula
in order to find
'
cos
It will
(470)
<p
sin
t
not be necessary to
know
the exact value of
/t,
if
only
the
same
instrumental altitude is
employed
at both observations.
be the readings of the horizontal circle at Now let 4/ and the two observations, then the readings corresponding to equal azimuths are A 'am\ A A9 ) (A
l
}
A
l
and, consequently, the reading for the meridian these, or
is
the
mean
of
We
That is, the reading for the meridian is the mean of the ob* served readings diminished by onehalf the correction (470). here suppose the graduations to proceed from to 360,
left to right.
and from
279. By the angular distance of the sun from any terrestrial object. If the true azimuth of any object in view is known, the direction
The following method is, of course, known also. can be carried out with the sextant alone. Measure the angular distance of the sun's limb from any welldefined point of a distant terrestrial object, and note the time by a chronometer.
of the meridian
Measure also the angular height of the terrestrial point above the horizontal plane. The correction of the chronometer being deduce the local apparent time, or the sun's hour angle t known,
(Art. 54),
and then with the sun's declination 3 and the latitude <p compute the true altitude h and azimuth A of the sun by the
lormnlie (16), or
tan JH
^ = tan<J
cos
t

,
tan
A=
sin
(<p
tanfcosJlf
,
,
M
tanA==cot(^
M)cosA (471)
)
be the apparent position of the terrestrial the apparent place point, projected upon the celestial sphere; the pole and put of the sun, Z the zenith,
Now,
let 0, Fig. 37,
P
;
MERIDIAN LINK.
433
Fig. 37.
D~
the apparent angular distance of the
sun's centre from the terrestrial point
~ the
H
,V
observed distance increased by the sun's seraidiamoter,  the apparent altitude of the point,

a
.= the sun'** apparent altitude, the difference of the azimuth of the
sun and the point,
A'
.=
the azimuth of the point.
altitude h* will be deduced from the true altitude the refraction and subtracting the parallax. Then in by adding the triangle SZO we have given the three sides ZS 90 A',
The apparent
90 found by the formula
A
_ .
ZO 
H,SO = A
tan 8 } a
and hence the
=
H)   sin (s '
sin (5 ^
cos s cos ($
D)
= angle SZO = a can
A') '
be
,._
(472
>
in
which
Then we have
h'+ D)
(4f3)
and the proper sign of a to be used in this equation must be determined by the position of the sun with respect to the object
at the
time of the observation.
is observed, we can dispense with the computation of (471), and compute by the formula (468). The chronometer will not then be required, but an approximate knowledge of the local time and the longitude is necessary in
If the altitude of the sun
A
order to find 3 from the Ephemeris. If the terrestrial object is very remote, it will often suffice to regard its altitude as zero, and then we shall find that (472) reduces to
tan } a
= ]/[tan
J
(D
+
A')
tan
i
(D
A')]
(474)
to
This method is frequently used in hydrographie surveying determine the meridian line of the chart.
EXAMPLE.
of a point
From
C is
in a survey the azimuth a certain point required from the following observation
:
B
=r Chronometer time Chronom. correction
Local
4* 12 m 12
Altitude of
mean time
t
= =4
C
= U=
C=
48
30' 20"
2
Distance of the nearest limb of the
12
Equation of time
Local app. time,
VOL.
I.
=4
=4
6
10
sun from the point
.9
17' 10"
1(J 1
10
Semidiameter
1 .1
D=
48
11
28
434
MERIDIAN LINE.
sun's declination
The
==
<p
+
A
38
58'
50"
;
was S + 4 16' 55", the and hence, by (4T1), we find
h
Kefraction and parallax
h'
=
latitude
was
= 74
36' 36"
= 24 = = 24
37'
1
58"
54
39 52
and, by (472),
a
= 43
a
35' 6"
Now, the sun was on the
right of the object,
and hence
A'=A
= Zl
1'30"
on the left of the Therefore, a line drawn on the chart from line JBC, making with it the angle 31 1' 30", will represent the meridian.
two measures of the distance of the sun from a terrestrial In the practice of the preceding method with the sextant, object. it is not always practicable to measure the apparent altitude of
280.
B
By
the terrestrial object. may then measure the distance of the sun from the object at two different times, and, first com
We
puting the altitude and azimuth of the sun at each observation, we may from these data compute the altitude of the object and
the difference between
its
azimuth and that of the sun
at either
observation, by formulae entirely analogous to those employed in computing the latitude and time from two altitudes, Art. 178,
(304), (305), (306),
and
(307).
the azimuth of a star at a given time. When the time is the azimuth of the star is found by (471): hence we known, Jiave only to direct the telescope of an altitude and azimuth
281.
By
instrument to the star at any time, and then compare the reading of its horizontal circle with the computed azimuth.
This method will be very accurate if a star near the pole is employed, since in that case an error in the time will produce a comparatively small error in the azimuth. It will be most accurate if the star is observed at its greatest elongation, as in the
following article.
A
elongation of a circumpolar star. instant of the greatest elongation we have, by Art. 18,
282.
By
the greatest
At
the
sin
A
= cos d cos?
MERIDIAN LINK.
in

485
which
A
is
this instant the star's
the azimuth reckoned from the elevated pole. At azimuth reaches its maximum, and for a
certain small interval of time appears to be stationary, so that the observer has time to set his instrument accurately upon th
star.
In order to be prepared for the observation, the time of the elongation must be (at least approximately) known. The hour angle of the star is found by the formula
cos
t
= tan
<p
=
tan 3
and from
Art. 55.
t
and the
is
star's right
ascension the local time
is
found,
The
motion.
pole star
preferred, on account of
its
extremely slow
unknown, the direction of the meridian may nevertheless be obtained by observing the star at both its eastern and its western greatest elongations. The mean of the readings of the horizontal circle at the two observations is the reading for
If the latitude
is
the meridian.
283.
One of
direction of the meridian
is
the most refined methods of determining the is that by which the transit instrument
adjusted, or
is
meridian
284.
by which its deviation from the plane of the measured for which see Vol. II.
;
At
sea, the direction
of the meridian, or the variation of
the compass, is found with sufficient accuracy process of Art. 271.
by the
graphic;
436
60LAH KCL1PSES.
CHAPTER
ECLIPSES.
285.
X.
THE term
obscuration, total or partial,
another.
may be applied to anj of the light of one celestial body by But the term solar eclipse is usually confined to an
eclipse,
in astronomy,
eclipse of the sun by the moon; while an eclipse of the sun by one of the inferior planets is called a transit of the planet. An
of the star or planet. by the earth.
eclipse of a star or a planet by the moon is called an occultation lunar eclipse is an eclipse of the moon
A
All these
principles
shall
;
phenomena may be computed upon the same genemJ and the investigation of solar eclipses, with which v^f
will
set out,
involve nearly every thing required in
tiie
other cases.
SOLAR ECLIPSES,
PREDICTION OF SOLAR ECLIPSES FOR THE EARTH GENERALLY.
For the purposes of general prediction, and before entering upon any precise computation, it is convenient to know the limits which determine the possibility of the occurrence of an These limits are determined eclipse for any part of the earth.
286.
in the following problem.
To find whether near a given conjunction of the sun and moon, an eclipse of the sun will occur. In order that an eclipse may occur, the moon must be near the ecliptic, and,
287.
therefore,
orbit.
near one of the nodes of her
Let NS (Fig. 38) be the ecliptic, N the moon's orbit, S the moon's node, the centres of the sun and moon at and
M
NM
that
MR
\*
the time of conjunction in longitude, so a part of a circle of latitude and is perpendicular to
UBNKHAL PREDICTIONS.
N8.
Let
",
437
M
f
,
bo the centres of the sun and
moon when
at
their least true distance,
ft
and put
[
/.
.
the moon's latitude at conjunction ~~ SM, the inclination of the moon's orbit to the ecliptic, the quotient of the moon's motion in longitude divided
by the
<!'
sun's,
the least true distance
S'M'
,
r  the angle
We may
regard jVJ/iV as a plane triangle
;
and, drawing
MP
f
perpendicular to
A >S we
7
y
,
find
SS'
=

ft
tan r
&P
/
tan r
tnd hence
S'P
r'
= = p [(;
,3
(A
1) tan r
1 )*
M'P =
/ar
x
ft
tan a r
+
(1

tan r tan /
A
tan / tan r) 2 ]
To find the value of f for which this expression becomes a minimum, we put its derivative taken relatively to ? equal to zero,
whence
tan Y
= (A
/
tan /
1)2
#
+
A2
tan 2 /
it
which substituted
in the value of T 2 reduces
to
(
I
1)2^
tan 2
^
then
we assume
1'
such that
tan /'
^
/S
tan
I
(475;
we have
for the least true distance
T
=
cos /'
(476)
The apparent distance of the centres of the sun and seen from the surface of the earth may be less than
difference of the horizontal parallaxes of the
if
moon
2*
:
as
two bodies
by the so that
we put
it
= the moon's horizontal parallax,
the sun's
TT'^^
438
SOLAR ECLIPSES.
we have
minimum apparent
distance
<T
(TT
;:')
An
eclipse will occur
is
centres
less
than the
when this least apparent distance of the sum of the semidiameters of the bodies;
and therefore, putting
,s
the moon's semidiameter,
the sun's
"
.$'._ r
we
shall have, in case of eclipse,
or
s
+
s'
(477)
This formula gives the required limit with great precision but, since 7' is small, its cosine does not vary much for different
;
eclipses,
and we may
in
most cases employ
its
mean
value.
We
have, by observation,
From
sec 7'
the
mean
values of 7 and ^
we
find the
mean
value ot
= 1.00472, and the condition (477) becomes
<
(IT
it
+ +
6
*')
X
1.00472
or
,3
<*
fractional
.00472
where the small
term varies between 20" and 30 ;/
have, with sufficient precision for
.
Taking
its
mean
value,
we
all
but very unusual cases,
C478)
FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS.
If in this
489
;r,
formula
we
and
s',
and the
least value of
/9
substitute the greatest values of /T', the limit
s,
<
1
34' 53"
is
the greatest limit of the moon's latitude at the time of conjunction, for which an eclipse can occur.
If in (478)
we
substitute the least values of
TT',
>T,
*,
and
s
f
,
and
the greatest value of
the limit
ft
<1
23' 1ft"
*
is
the least limit of the moon's latitude at the time of conjunction for which an eclipse can fail to occur.
at new moon /9< 1 23' 15", and doubtful between these limits. For the doubtful cases we must apply (178), or for greater precision (477), using the actual values of zr, TT', s, $', ^, and I for the date.
Hence
a solar eclipse
is certain if
impossible if
/3>
1
34' 53",
EXAMPLE. On July 18, 1860, the conjunction of the moon and sun in longitude occurs at 2* 19 .2 Greenwich mean time: will an eclipse occur ? We find at this time, from the Ephemeris,
Ht
p r^
ivhich,
33' 18" 6
being within the limit 1
23' 15", renders an eclipse cer
tain at this time.
Having thus found that an
of the earth,
eclipse will
be
visible in
some
part
we
phenomenon. BESSEL'S,* which is at once rigorous in theory and simple in practice. For the sake of clearness, I shall develop it in a series
of problems.
>
can proceed to the exact computation of the The method here adopted is a modified form of
Fundamental JSquations of
288.
the
Theory of Eclipses.
of the beginning or ending of a solar The observer sees the eclipse at a given place on the earth's surface, limbs of the sun and moon in apparent contact when he is situated
To
investigate the condition
in the surface of a
the two bodies.
Wo
cone which envelops and is may have two such cones
in
contact with
:
* See Astronomic he Nachrichten, Nos. 151, 15*2, and, for the full development of the method with the utmost ngor, VESSEL'S Axtronomische lfntersuchun(jen> Vol. II. HANS EN'S development, based upon the same fundamental equations, but theoretically less accurate,
may
also be consulted with advantage:
it
is
given in Astronom.
Nach., Nos. 339342.
440
First.
SOLAR ECLIPSES.
vertex falls between the sun and the and which is called the penumbral com. An observer at C\ in one of the elements CB V of the cone, sees the points A and B of the limbs of the sun and moon in apparent exterior contact, which is either the first or the last contact; that
The cone whose
moon,
as at K, Fig. 39,
is,
either the beginning or the ending of the whole eclipse.
Fig. 40.
\
Second.
The cone whose vertex
is
direction of the earth), as at V, Fig. 40,
beyond the moon (in the and which is called the
umbral cone, or cone of total shadow. An observer at (7, in the element CVBA, sees the points A and of the limbs of the sun and moon in apparent interior contact, which is the beginning or
B
the ending of annular eclipse in case the observer is farther from the moon than the vertex of the cone (as in the figure), and
which
is
either the beginning or the ending of
is
total
eclipse in
uase the observer
between the vertex of the cone and the
6, at right angles intersection with the cone will
moon.
If
now
a plane
is
to the axis
SVD of
passed through the point
the cone,
its
FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS.
be a circle (the sun and
radius,
441
as spherical)
moon being regarded
whoso
shadow (penumbral or for that point. The condition of the occurrence of one umbral) of the above phases to an observer is, then, that the distance of the point of observation from the axis of the shadow is equal to the
shall call the radius of the
CD, we
The problems which follow radius of the shadow for that point. will enable us to translate this condition into analytical language
289.
shadow.
tial
To find for any given time the position of the axis of the The axis of the cone of shadow produced to the celessphere meets it in that point in whk'h the sun \\ould bo
projected upon the sphere by an observer at the centre of the moon. Let 0, Fig. 41, be the centre of tbe earth $, that of the sun J/, that of
;
;
the
moon.
The
line
MS
produced
to
the infinite celestial sphere meets it in the common vanishing point of all lines
parallel to Mti; that is, in the point Z, in which the line OZ, drawn through the
centre of the earth parallel to
MK^ meets
The position of the axis of the sphere. the cone will be determined by the right
ascension and declination of the point Z. In order to determine the point Z, let the positions of the sun and moon be expressed by rectangular coordinates (Art. 32), of
v'nch the axis of x is the straight line drawn through the centre the earth and the equinoctial points, the axis of y the inters**ction of the planes of the equator and solstitial colure, and Let x be taken as positive t\ e axis of z the axis of the equator. towards the vernal equinox y as positive towards the point of z as positive towards the equator whose right ascension is 90
o*
;
;
the north.
Let
a,
tf,
r
= the right ascension, declination, and distance from
the centre of the earth, respectively, of the moon's
centre,
the.
rr ',<?', r'
ri#ht ascension, declination, and distance from the centre of the earth, respectively, of the sun's centre
;
The
coordinates x,
y, z will be,
by
(41),
442
Of the
r cos
r'
r'
r
SOLAR ECLIPSES.
sun.
Of the moon.
r cos $ cos a r cos $ sin a
r sin
5
ti'
1
ft
cos <*'
sin a'
cos
sin 3'
Now
first,
let
another system of coordinates be taken parallel to the
the origin. The position of the RUAI in this system will be determined by the right ascension and declination of the sun as seen from the moon that is T by
the centre of the
;
moon being
the right ascension and declination of the point Z.
If
we put
#,
G
d =r the right ascension and declination of the point Z, the distance of the centres of the sun and moon,
the coordinates of the sun in the
new system
are
G cos d cos a G cos d sin a G sin d
But these coordinates
;
are evidently equal respectively to the difference of the corresponding coordinates of the sun and moon so that we have in the first system
G
cos
d cos a ==
d
r'
cos
<$'
cosa'
r cos d
cosa
sin a
G G
which
fully
cos d sin a
sin
= =
r
1
cos
#' sin a'
r cos
fl
r'
sin <V
r sin #
determine
a, d,
and
G
in
terms of quantities which
may be derived from the Ephemeris for a given time. But, as a and d differ but little from a/ and 5', it is expedient to put these equations under the following form. (See the Art. 92.) similar transformation,
G
G
cos d sin (a cos d cos (a
sin
a')
a')
=
r cos
r'
<S
^
sin (a
<*')
<5
cos
sin
fl'
 r

cos
cos (a
a')
#
d
.~ r'
<$'
r sin
<$
If these are divided
by
r',
and we put
they become
g cos d sin (a # cos d cos (r/
g sin d

a')
a')
.
b cos
5
sin (a
J
a') a')
1
>
cos $'
b cos
cos (a
(479)
 sin
fi'
& sin 8
j
FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS.
448
where the second members, besides the right ascensions and declinations, involve only the quantity 6, which may be expressed
in
terms of the parallaxes as follows Let
TT
:
= the moon's equatorial horizontal parallax,
== the sun's
(Art. 89)
r
r'
if'
"
"
"
then
we have
sin
sin
TT
If,
further,
TT
O
=: the sun '8
mean
horizontal parallax,
and r f
expressed in terms of the sun's earth, we have, as in (146),
is
mean
distance from the
sin
,
it
= sin
r
TT.

and hence
6
= ^Li
sin
(480)
TT
which is the most convenient form for computing 6, because and ic are given in the Ephemcris, and ;TO is a constant.
290.
rr
about
jfoy,
The equations a and a
7
(479) are rigorously exact, but as b is onlj at the time of an eclipse cannot exceed
1 a/ is a small arc never exceeding 17", which may be 43', a found by a brief approximative process with great precision The quotient of the first equation divided by the second gives
,
tan (a
,
,
a')
=
b COS d SCC

fl'Rlll
r
(a
a') J
a')
1
b cos d sec 3
cos (a
where the denominator
b cos 3 sec d' cos (a this small difference
from unity by the small quantity and, since d and S arc nearly equal, a') may be put equal to t, and we may then
differs
;
r
write the formula thus
:*
a
a'
COS d Sec 3 (a
1
r

a')
6
*
Developing the formula for tan (a ,
l
a') in series,
we have
_
'_
<X
jn
icos
A sec <f'sin (a ..'
a')
r
b
.
2
cos
,,
?
<i
^
sec 2 rf'sin 2 (a  a') .>
^Q
sin 1"
2 sin 1"
0".l)4,
where the second term cannot exceed
and the third term
is
altogether
map
444
If
SOLAH ECLIPSES.
1 and cos (a from the second and third of (479),
we
take cos
(a
a')
~
a')
1,
we
have,
g cos d =. cos
g sin
3'
<5'
b cos 8
b sin
d
whence
^ sin (d
</
<?')
cos (4
= sin = =
')
b sin
1
(<J
<J')
6 cos
(
')
from which follows
tan
or,
7
(c/
*/\ ~ 5') =.
^ si n
('* 
O
6"
^
nearly,*
,/_*'
_ __J* ______
u_
From the above we also have, with sufficient precision for the subsequent application of jr, the formula
The
formulae which determine the point Z, together with the
6r, will,
quantity
therefore, be
a
a'
1
cos d sec d' (a
a')
b
(481
j
lb
= 1
6,
u.id in
many
a
cases
a'
it
will suffice to take the
extremely simple
d')
forms
=
6 (a
a')
d
^ 3'~b(d
291. To find the distance of a given place of observation from the Let the positions of the sun, axis of the shadow at a given time.
preciable.
The formula adopted
a  a'
z_  b cos 6 sec
in the text
is
the
same as
1
d'(a
'
a') (1
2
6)""
6 cos
<f
sec
f
(a
a')
6 cos
<f
sec
'
<f
(a

a')

&c
which, pince cos
rf
the complete series only by terms of the third order
sec <5'may in the second term be put equal to unity, differs from The error of the approximate
formula is, therefore, something less than 0".01. * The error of this formula, as can be easily shown, will never exceed 0".088.
FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS.
the moon, and the observer be referred by rectangular coordinates to three planes passing through the centre of the earth, of
which the plane of xy shall always be at right angles to the axlof the shadow, and will here be called the prhtrijM/ pl<nu>, of reference. Let the plane of yz be the plane of the declination circle
passing through the point Z. The plane of xz will, of course, be at right angles
to the other two.
iij
11
(/>*).
The
axis of z will then be the lino OZ<
Fig. 41, drawn through the centre* of the earth parallel to the axis of the shadow,
and
Z.
will
be reckoned as positive towards
The axis of y will be the intersection, OF, of the plane of the declination circle
will
through / with the principal plane, and be taken as positive towards the
north.
The
axis of
jr
will be the intersection.
OA\
of the plai
a
of the equator with the principal plane, and will be taken us a. positive towards that point, Jf, whose right ascension is 9 Let and #' be the true places of the moon and sun upon
M
90+
the celestial sphere,
/, //,
Pthe
north pole; then,
if
we put

z = the coordinates of the
moon,
we
have, by (Art. 31),
MX = cos M Y z = cos M 'Z
x ~
y
r
cos
r
'
r
r
which, by the formulae of Spherical Trigonometry applied to the
triangles* J!f 'PA",
M'PY, M'PZ, become
*5
,r
=
^=
r
cos
sin
(a,
a
)
?/
r [sin 3
cos d
cos
'5
sin
d cos (a
a)]
a)']
(482)
z = r [sin d sin
d f cos
o
cos d cos (a
or
x

=
zrr
r cos
<5
sin (a
<7
)
y ^=
r [sin (* r [cos ('5

^/)
cos 2
J ;
fl
)
)
f sin (A

//)
cosM(a
cos
(<?
+ d) sin + rf)8in
is
2
J
j
(a

^
a)]
)]
V (482*)
J
l(
and
if
the equatorial radius of the earth
taken as the unit
of
SOLAR ECLIPSES.
r, x,
#, z,
tions,
have the value of by the formula
shall
1
we
r,
required in these equa
The
same
coordinates x and y of the sun in this system are the as those of the moon, and the third coordinate is z G;
+
but tho method of investigation which does not require their use.
we
are here following
Now
,
let
17,
tho coordinates of the place of observation, = the latitude of tho place, <p y>'= tho reduced latitude (Art. 81),
p
^ the
radius of the terrestrial spheroid for the
?>,
;
lati
tude
fj.
the given sidereal time
for tho place of observation, Fig. 41 we had taken would have been the geocentric zenith with the right ascension and declination y', and, tho distance of the place from the origin being />, we should have found
rtien, if in
M
M
r
IJL
7j
=
;r^
p cos y sin (/i f p [sin <p cos d
f
r
p [sin
<f>
sin
d
j
a) cos y sin cos ^>' cos
\
d cos
f/
(p
(/
a)]
#)1
V (483)
)
cos
These equations,
if
we determine
A
cos
and
B by the conditions
a)
A
>1
sin
B
B
cos
^ p cos
~~ p sin ^'
?/
(^t
may be computed under
the form
^' sin
% ~. p cos
(^
a)
^
j
Acos(5
The equations
d)
(482) might ho similarly treated; but the most form for their computation is (482*). accurate The quantity a is the hour angle of the point Z for the meridian of the given place. To facilitate its computation, it is
/JL
convenient to find
first its
value for the Greenwich meridian.
Thus,
fji
if
we put
for
any given Greenwich mean time
T
}
of
the hour angle of the point at the Greenwich meridian, the longitude of the given place,
Z
FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS.
447
we have
fi.
a
~^
<o
To
find fa we have only to convert the into sidereal time and to subtract a.
Greenwich mean time 7
(488) the coordinates of
the
By means of the formulae moon and of the place of
(482)
and
puted for any given time. moon are also those of every point of the axis of the shadow: so
that if
observation can be accurately comNow, the coordinates x and y of the
we put
of the place of observation from the axis
of the shadow,
J
= the distance
we
have, evidently,
z
[The coordinates
and
have also been found, as they will be
required hereafter.]
292.
The
distance
J may be determined under another form,
Flg 42
.
which we shall hereafter iiud useful. Let J/', Fig. 42, be the apparent position of the moon's centre in the celestial sphere as seen from the
the the north pole place of observation where the axis of the cone of shadow point
;
;
P
Z
C1? the meets the sphere, as in Fig. 41 {J projections of the moon's centre and of the place of observation on the principal plane. The distance C^M^ is equal to J, and is the
;
M
projection of the line joining the place of observation and the moon's centre. The plane by which this line is projected contains the axis of the cone of shadow, and
the celestial sphere is, therefore, a great circle which passes through Z, and of which ZM'* is a portion. Hence it follows that C^M^ makes the same angle with the axis
its
intersection with
of y that
M'Z makes with
Q
parallel to the axes of
PZ: so that if we draw C\N and and x respectively, and put y
M,N
=
PZM' ==
we
have, from the right triangle
J cos
***% Q
= **
.=.
y
i
}
)
^ (485)
the
sum
of the squares of which gives again the formula (484).
SULAK KCL1PSES.
293.
To find
the radius
of
the
shadow
on. the
principal plai.e, or on
This radius is eviany giwn plane parallel principal plane. dently equal to the distance of the vertex of the rone of shadow from the given plane, multiplied by the tangent of the angle of the cone. Tn Figs. 3D and 40, p. 440, let be the radius of
to the
EF
shadow on the principal Let plane drawn through C.
the
77
plane,
CD the
radius on a parallel
A*
=
:=.
tho apparent semidiumoter of the sun at its mean distance, the ratio of the moon's radius to the earth's equatorial
radius,
/
c
= the angle of the cone
KVB\
C .=
the distance of the vertex of the cone above the princiVF, pal plane the distance of the given parallel plane above the principal plane
I
= the radius of the shadow on the principal plane = E&\
the radius of the shadow on the parallel plane
DF,
L
If the
CD.
unity,
mean distance we have
of the
sun from the earth
==_
is
taken as
the earth's radius the moon's radius the sun's radius
sin
TT
= k sin ^ MB,
TT
O,
~
O
sin 77
8A,
is
and,
JMS,
remembering
that (J
r'//
found by (481)
the distance
we
easily deduce from the figures
sin II
+
k sin
jr
(486)
9
which the upper sign corresponds to the penumbral and the lower to the qmbral cone. The numerator of this expression involves only constant quantities. According to BESSEL, // 959".788; ENCKE found _ ;T S^.^TllG; and the value of A, found by BURCKHAKDT from O ~= 0.27227 ;* whence we have eclipses and occultations, is k
in
log [sin
log [sin
* The value of
H
Jc
H + k sin
k sin
TT
O]
TT
O]
= 7.6688033 for exterior contacts, ~ 7.6666913 for interior contacts.
tion of
here adopted is precisely that which the more recent investiga(Astron. Ndch., Vol. LI. p. 30) gives for eclipses of the sun. For occultations, a slightly increased value seems to be required.
OUDEMANS
FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS.
44S
Now, taking
the earth's equatorial radius as unity,
we have
VM
~
sin/
(Art. 291)
( 487)
MF =: z
and hence
c
= *A
sin/
the upper sign being used for the the umbra.
penumbra and the lower
foi
We
have, then,
/
L=
fore
= c tan/
(c
~
s tan /
:
k
sec/
C
Cj tan
f
is
I

tan/
For the penumbral cone,
c
L is positive
have L =
always positive, and there
also.
the cone
in For the umbral cone, c negative when the vertex of falls below the plane of the observer, and in this case
we have
shall
total eclipse
(c
:
therefore for the case of total eclipse we tan /a negative quantity. It is usual to )
regard the radius of the shadow as a positive quantity, and therefore to change its sign for this case but the analytical dis;
cussion of our equations will be more general if we preserve the negative sign of as the characteristic of total eclipse. When the vertex of the umbral cone falls above the plane of
L
the observer,
eclipse.
L
is
positive,
and we have the case of annular
For brevity we
shall put
i
I
= tan / =
ic
"
\
(489)
294.
The
analytical
is
expression
of the condition of beginning or
ending of eclipse
or,
by
(484)
and
(489),
(x
It is
2
)
+
2
(y
ij)
=
(I
ity
(490)
(485) for this single one, after putting
(I
convenient, however, to substitute the two equations for J, so that
L
ff) sin
if)
(J
cos
Q=x Q=y
e
7;
}
VOL.
I.
2
450
SOLAR ECLIPSES.
as the conditions
may be taken
which determine the beginning
or ending of an eclipse at a given place.
The equation
by
(491),
is
to
(490), which is only expressed in a different form be regarded as the fundamental equation of the
theory of eclipses.
Art. 292, so long as J is regarded as a positive quanthe position single of the moon's centre at the point Z; tity, and since the arc joining the point #and the centre of the moon
295.
By
Q
is
through the centre of the sun, Q is the common position angle of both bodies. Again, since in the case of a contact of the limbs the arc joining the centres passes through the point of contact, Q will alst) be the position angle of this point when all three
also passes
points on the
same
sun's centre, moon's centre, and point of contact lie side of Z. In the case of total eclipse, however,
and the moon's centre evidently lie on  i in point %; and if / (490) were a positive quantity, the angle Q which would satisfy these equations would still be the position angle of the moon's centre, but would differ 180 from the position augle of the point of conthe point of contact opposite sides of the
tact.
But, since
we
shall preserve the negative sign of
I
i
for total
differ
eclipse (Art. 293), (and thereby give
Q
values which
the
180
from those which follow from a positive value),
of
i
angle
Q
will in all cases be the position angle
the point
of
contact.
29G.
The
quantities
<7,
d, x,
j/,
,
and
may be computed by
the formulae (480), (481), (482), (486), (48T), (488), for any given time at the iirst meridian, since they are all independent of the In order to facilitate the application of place of observation.
the equations (490) and (491), it is therefore expedient to compute these general quantities for several equidistant instants preceding and following the time of conjunction of the sun and
moon, and to arrange them in tables from which their values any time may be readily found by interpolation. The quantities x and ^ do not vary uniformly and in order to obtain their values with accuracy from the tables for any time, we should employ the second and even the third differences in the interpolation. This is effected in the most simple manner by the following process. Let the times for which x and y have been' computed be denoted by TQ  2\ TQ  1*, TQ TQ 4 1\
for
;
,
FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS.
451
;
3T and let the 2*, the interval being one hour of mean time values of x and y for these times be denoted by ar_ 2 :r__i, &c., Let the ?ni#n hourly changes of x and ?/ from the y_ 2 2/i> &c
, ,
+
r be denoted by r and y Then any time 7, + the values of x' and y for the instants T  2*, !T  1*, &c. will be formed as in the following scheme, where c denotes the third difference of the values of x as found from the scries x_ 2 ^i> &c according to the form in Art. 69, and the difference for the The form for instant T is found by the first formula of (77).
epoch
T
to
r=
7
f
.
,
computing
y' is the
Time.
same.
If then
T require x and y for a time 7 and y 7 from the table for this time, and we have
we
1
f
r,
we
take
297.
EXAMPLE.
Compute
the elements of the solar eclipse of
July 18, 1860.
The mean Greenwich time of conjunction of the sun and moon in right ascension is July 18, 2 8 m 56*. The com]>utation of the elements will therefore be made for the Greenwich hours For these hours we take the following ( 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.
/l
quantities from the
American Ephemeris
For the Moon.
:
452
SOLAR ECLIPSES.
For the Sun.
The formulae
I.
to be
employed
the point
will
be here recapitulated,
tbi
convenient reference.
For the elements of
81 r'
Z:
log sin
JT
n
TT
O
7i
O
=s 5.61894
sin
cos
1 b
fl
sec
V (a
a')
or, nearly,
a
=
a!
b (a
o
j
b
1
I
6
II.
The moon's
1
. .
coordinates
:
>
..
,
u_T_
sin
TT
<J
= r cos sin (a a) = sin (5 d) cos (a y cos 2 = r cos (a
x
r
2
}
a) a)
f
r sin (d
r cos (
+
2
(^
c?)
i
sin 1 1 (a a) 2 ~~ a ^ f ^) s^ i C a
<f)
HI. The angle of the cone of shadow and the radius of the
shadow r
For penumbra: or
exterior contacts.
For umbra: or
.
interior contacts
sin/
= [7.668803]
r'g
s
[7.666691]
r'g
c
=z+
k
,
log
A:
= 9.435000,
c
sin/
i= tan/
l=ic
i
=z = tan
sin/
j
l^ic
FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS.
,
458
IV. The values of a, d, x, t/, log and ?, will then he tabulated and the differences x and y formed according to Art. 29G. I give the computation for the three hours I 4 2*, and 3\
f
f
,
in extenso.
I.
Elements of the point Z.
II.
Coordinates
x, y,
and
z.
454
III.
SOLAR ECLIPSES.
Log t and
Z,
for exterior contacts. [Constant log ^7.668803]
IV. The computation being made for the other hours in tuo
same manner, the
results are collected in the following tables.
For the values of the hourly from the above, by Art. 296,
differences of
x and
y,
we
find
FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS.
455
and
for
any given time
T= T +
Q
r,
we have
}
(492)
x^ 0.081244 + afr y= + 0.596075 + /r
Finally,
to
facilitate
the computation of the hour angle p (Art. 291), we prepare the values of fa for each of the Greenwich hours. Thus, for T 1*, we have
a
= fa
<o
~
From
the Ephemeris, July 18, 1860,
Sid.
time at mean noon
7*
t.
46
1
4 .03
Sid. equivalent of 1*
mean
1
9 .86
Greenwich
sid.
time
in arc,
^
a
8
46 13 .89
33' 28"
"
= 131
118
13
M
added
for
2 18 .16 31 10 .19
is
^ =
Thus we form the following
table, to
which
also
future use the value of the logarithm of
pf
= the hourly difference of
/i t
in parts
of the radius;
log
//
= log 54002M5 sin = 9.417986
general prediction
will
I proceed to consider the principal problems relating to the of eclipses, in which the preceding results
be applied.
456
Outline of the
SOLAR ECLIPSES.
Shadow an
the
Surface of the Earth.
298.
given time.
To find the outline of the moon's shadow upon the earth at a This outline is the intersection of the cone of shadow
;
with the earth's surface or, it is the curve on the surface of the earth from every point of which a contact of the sun's and moon's limbs may be observed at the given time. Let
T= the given time reckoned at the
and
first
meridian,
let a, d, x, y, /, and log i be taken from the general tables of the eclipse for this time. Then the coordinates f 37, of any place at which a contact may be observed at the given time must
,
satisfy the conditions (491),
Let
#
i
= the hour angle of the point Z^ = the west longitude of the place;
become
\
then
we have
the equations (483)
rrz
ij
md
p cos ^'sin #
p sin ^'cos p sin ^' sin
C
=
d d
+
p cos p cos
<?' ?>'
d cos # cos d cos d
sin
>
(494)
J
The
five equations in (493)
*'
and
M
fr
C ^'
an d $> an 7
;
ne
(494) involve the six variables f which may be assumed arbi
of course, assumed values that give impossible or imaginary results) then for each assumed value of the arbitrarily (excluding,
trary quantity we shall have five equations,' which fully determine five unknown quantities, and thereby one point of the re
quired curve. I shall take Q as the arbitrary variable. In the present form of the equations (494), they involve the
unknown
f quantity p, which being dependent upon y cannot be determined until the latter is found. This seems to involve the
necessity of at first neglecting the compression of the earth, by
1, and after an approximate value of p' has been putting p and thereby also the value of />, repeating the computation, found, But, by a simple transformation given by BESSEL, this doubk amputation is rendered unnecessary, and the compression of
=
OUTLINE OF THE SHADOW.
457
If
<p
taken into account from the beginning. geographical latitude, we have (Art. 82)
the earth
is
.
is
the
cos <f>'=
 cos
<p

.
,
r
p sm?'
=
~ ^
sin
(1
etij
~
ee sin ' ?>
in
which
log ee
= 7.824409
new
variable
<p
log
If
we
take a
v such that
cos
cos
#. *
=
y^l _
*
y^l
ee)
= 9.9985458
<p

e<?
we
sinV)
shall
have
sin
Y
>,
= i/(l
>/i
cos* ?.)
x
=
sin
ee sina
or
ee} sin
cos ^,
l/(l
= p cos / ^ = sin /
/>
tan
tan p
=5=
<P.
Hence the equations
$
iy
(494)
become
= sin ^ cos d j/(l = sin sin /(1 C
^,
df rf
/? a
cos p, sin ^
^e) ee)
j
cos
^
sin
cos ^ t cos
4 d
cos
cos #
Put
^
f>,
sin
d^
6/
t
= sin
^=r
sin
rf
2
COS
COS d /(1
^e)
/> 2
COB d^
= sin d j/(l = COS
(^
^)
1
j ^ '
The
quantities p l? rfn /?2 rf2 may be computed for the same timea as the other quantities in the tables of the eclipse, and hence obtained by interpolation for the given time. The factors
, ,
/>!
and p2
will
be sensibly constant for the whole
eclipse.
We
now have
= cos
y
I ~=
}
<p l
sin #
p sin ^, cos
/o 2
d
t
p oos p, sin
l
d cos
l
>
sin ^ sil t
d^
+
/> 2
cos
<p l
cosrf, cos ^
Let us put
,,=_
and assume
so that
y
?+
V+
:,'
=
1
(496)
458
or^
SOLAR ECLIPSES.
which
is
equivalent, let us take the system
T^J
= cos = sin
== sin
<f> l
sin #
\
<p l
cos dl
sin
cos
C,
^
dl
+
cos
d cos # ^ cos rfj cos &
<f> l
sin
>
l
(497)
j
)
The quantity
retical
^
differs so little
from
that
we may
i
;
in practice
substitute one for the other in the small
term
but
if theoi*
accuracy
;
is
desired
we can
readily find
(497) give
when
known
for the second
and third of
cos y cos # ~
l
sin
y?j
~
TJ I
sin d^
+
Ct cos
^j
cos
d
l
f Ct sin
d d
t
l
which substituted
C =
/?,
in the value of
C t cos (dj
<i
give
/? 2 TJ I
2)
sin
(rfj
d,)
(498)
Our problem now takes the following form.
the three equations
(I
(I
We
have
first
ifj sin i:j cos
Q Q
=x =y
f
/),
\
^
V
(499)
which for each assumed value of Q determine f ^ M and fr Then we have
,
cos cos
^ ^
sin
*
^
cos
sin
= =
f
ij l
*\
sin
rfj
j
Cj
cos
rf
t
V
J
(500)
i
cos d
+
C sin
rf
which determine
^ and #.
Then
a point of the required outline are found
the latitude and longitude of by the equations
(501)
ee)
To
solve (499), let
sin
/3
and y be found by the equations
sin y ==
a:
I
/?
sin
Q
=a
== o
.
.
.
/9
sin
cos Y
=y
"i
/? /?
^
cos
^i
^
(502)
then
we have
f
^!
rr^
sin
sin
sin y

*
cos y
+ +
*'f
1
8^ n
j^ cos
6 Q
OUTLINE OF THE SHADOW.
l
t
459
,
where we have omitted p as a divisor of the small term ?f cos since we have very nearly p^= 1. Substituting these values
the last equation of (499),
Cj*
in
we
find
ft
== cos* p
2 fC, sin
cos
2
(
Q
r)
(t> )
Neglecting the terms involving
gives
C l= =
a'
as practically insensible, thia
cos
[cos
/?
*
sin
(Q
?)]
In order to remove the ambiguity of the double sign,
let
us put
Z=
then, since
the zenith distance of the point
/*
Z (Art. 289);
we have
#
=
a
is
the hour angle of this point,
<p
cos
Z=
sin
sin
(Z
f
cos
<p
cos d cos #
is
which by means of the preceding equations
reduced to
sin
(60?
<p l
*
Hence cos
Z and
Z
{\
have the same
sign.
But, in order that the eclipse may be visible from a point uzi the earth's surface, we must, in general, have ^less than 90; must be positive, and therefore must be taken that is, cos
^
only with the positive sign. The negative sign would give a second point on the surface of the earth from which, if the earth
were not opaque, the same phase of the
eclipse would also be Tn fact, every element of the cone time. observed at the given of shadow which intersects the earth's surface at all, intersects
it
in
If
two
points,
and our solution gives both
/ f\f\<^ (
points.
we put
f\
*^\
sin I"
(504)
we have
C,
= cos
ft
sin
ft
sin
e
or,
with sufficient accuracy,
C,
= cos
(ft
+
I
e)
(505)
Thus,
(504)
and f being determined by (502), ^ is determined by ft and (505) hence also and TJ by the equations
:
1(506, r
460
SOLAR ECLIPSKS.
is,
The problem
therefore, fully resolved
c
;
but, for the conve
nience of logarithmic computation, let by the equations
c
and
C
be determined
cos
G=
Cj
then the equations (500) become
cos
cos
<f l
sin
#
^
cos #
sin
= = c cos ((7 + eQ
+
^,)
"
V (508)
3
^^r c sin (0
will
The curve thus determined
be the intersection of the
penumbral cone, or that of the umbral cone, with the earth's surface, according as we employ the value of I for the one or the
other.
299. The above solution is direct, though theoretically but 1 approximate, since we have neglected terms of the order of i It can, however, readily be made quite exact as follows. have, by substituting the values of , and ^ in (498), and neg.
We
lecting the term involving the of the same order as 2
t'
product
i
sin (dl
d2), which
is
,
C
=p
2
cos
(ft
+ e)
e'
pi sin
ft
cos y sin (dt
da )
and, putting
=
(jd l
d^) cos Y
i
1
,
we
have, within terms of the order
*
+ +O
in the
is
(509)
The
substitution of this value of
i
term
i
involves only
an error of the order
3
,
which
exact solution of the problem is, and f for each assumed value of Q, by the equations
sin
ft
The altogether insensible. Find fi therefore, as follows.
sin y
sm
then
c
ft
=x y cos Y =
Pi
I
sin
I
=a cosO =b
Q
Pi
and
e'
by the equations
i
, /j *'== (^
,
cos (Q r) = _LL_i

rf a)
j X
cos r
OUTLINE OF THE SHADOW.
461
Find
j?
and
f
a, '
by the equations
sin $' sin
.
/
,
_ a
.
\
t> 2 cos
(/3
+

sin
cos
Y~
b
+
,
eos ?> 2 OS
+
y
e
e f e')
4
1 
e') 

sin
<J)
cosO ~
=? =
>?,
then
we
have, rigorously,
;,
cos
t
and these values of and may then he substituted in (500) which can be adapted for logarithmic computation as before.*
,
jy l}
whether the eclipse is beginor ending at the places thus found. ning point on the earth'? surface which at a given time T is upon the surface of the cone
300. It remains to be determined
A
the next consecutive instant T dT be cone according as the eclipse is beginning or ending at the time T; the former or the latter, according as the 2 distance J 6J ) \/[( x (y yf] becomes at the time T less or greater than the radius of the shadow I /. In the ca*e / is a negative quantity, but by of total eclipse I comparing 2 d with (I if we shall obtain the required criterion for tjll
of
shadow
will
at
+
within or without the
+
+
cases and, therefore, the criterion of beginning or ending, either of partial or of total eclipse, will be the negative or positive value of the differential coefficient, relatively to the time, of the
;
quantity
(a
0'+
(**)'(*':>'
or the negative or positive value of the quantity
* In this problem, as well as in most of the subsequent ones, I have not followed s methods of solution, which, being mathematically rigorous, though as simple as such methods can possibly be, are too laborious for the practical purposes*
BESS EL
1
of mere prediction.
As a refined and exhaustive disquisition upon the whole theory,
BESSEL'S Analyse der Ftrulernisse, in his Astronomische Untersuckungen, stands alone. On the other hand, the approximate solutions heretofore in common use are mostly
the compression of the earth, as well as the augmentation of the quite imperfect moon's semidiameter, being neglected, or only taken into account by repeating the whole computation, which renders them as laborious as a rigorous and direct method.
;
1
have endeavored
to
remedy
this,
by
so arranging the successive approximations,
those are necessary, that only a small part of the whole computation is to be repeated, and by taking the compression of the earth into account, in all cases, from
when
the
tions
commencement of the computation. In this manner, even the first approximaby my method are rendered more accurate than the common methods.
462
SOLAR ECLIPSES.
the.
where we omit
write
#', ;/,
insensible variation of
,
i.
For
brevity, let UB
dv dx &c. lor 7,
&c.
and denote the above quantity
x
by P; then, ~ q ~ (I y
after substituting the values of
ff) cos Q,
=
(*'
(/
if) sin Q,
we have
P= L
in
[(.r'
?
f ') sin
If
Q
+
(/
 V) cos
<2
iC')]
which
L~
P'
I

.
we put
=
(*'
__
*') sin
+
P
(i/'
 V) cos C 
(I'

"O
(510)
we
shall
have
7,P'
The
quantity P will be positive or negative according as L and P' have like signs or different signs. For exterior contacts, and for interior contacts in annular eclipse, L is positive (Art. 293), and hence for these cases the eclipse is beginning or ending according us P' is negative or positive; but for
eclipse,
total
L
being negative,
is positive
we have
beginning
or ending
according as P'
We
must now
or negative. the quantity P'. develop
will
the unit of time, x\ if, l^ 6', rvf the several quantities.
Taking one hour as denote the hourly changes ', //, The first three of these may be
derived from the general tables of the eclipse for the given time; but ?', r/, f ' are obtained by differentiating the equations (494), in which the latitude and longitude of the point on the earth's surface are to be taken as constant. Since & 01, we shall // t
=
have
=
=
;
and hence, putting
dp..

.
^
~
sin 1"
d' :=
dd
d!F
dT
sm
,
we
*'
find
^
= /ip cos ^'cofl
r
==
(i
(
y sin
/Y
d
f~
C cos sin
?)
t*
[
^
sin
</
tf
+
(I
C cos
f
(/
K)
d cos
]
r/
t>
^ //sin J': = [x sin = _ 'co8<7 ^^
pf
^/
/Jt
z'O sin
^/
sin
Q]
d'Z
__
=
A/ [
^
cos d
+
(Z
/T)
cos
^/
sin
Q]
+
d' [y
(I
ff)
cos
OUTLINE
01'
THE SHADOW.
463
Substituting these values in (510), and neglecting terms involving
2 t
and
P'
id'
as insensible,
a'
6'
we have
c'
=
cos
Q
c',
+
V
sin
Q
f
(/t'
cos d sin
Q
d' cos Q)
in
which
a', 6',
and
denote the following quantities:
ft'
= V=
a'
ix cos d
\
y'
+
fj.'
x
sin
d
V (511)
The
values of these quantities may be computed for the same times as the other quantities in the eclipse tables, and their values for any given time will then be readily found by interpolation.
value of
its
For any assumed value of Q, therefore, and with the found by (509), the value of P' may be computed, and
sign will determine whether the eclipse is beginning or ending. In most cases, a mere inspection of the tabulated values
of
<z',
4',
and
c',
combined with a consideration of the value of
determine the sign of but when the place is aeur the northern or southern limits of the shadow, an accur will be necessary; and, since other appliraxe computation of cations of this quantity will be made hereafter, it will be proper
$, will suffice to
1
;
P
P
to give
it
a more convenient form for logarithmic computation.
Put
<
;
then
we have
P'
Since
a'
and
= + e sin (Q E) C/ sin (Q F) (513) F are both very small quantities, and a very precise
a'
,
computation of P' will seldom be necessary when its algebraic sign is alone required, it will be sufficient in most cases to neglect these quantities, and also to put ^ for and then we shall have the following simple criterion for the case of partial or annular
eclipse
:
Jf If
e sin
(Q
E}
E)
t sin (<2
< C / sin the eclipse > C / sin Q, the eclipse
t
,
is
is
beginning.
4
ending
For
total eclipse, reverse these conditions.
301. In order to facilitate the application of the preceding as well as the subsequent problems, it is expedient to prepare the values of d^ log p v dy log p^, a', 6'; ?', e, J5/,/, F, and to arrange
them
in tables.
464
SOLAR ECLIPSES.
eclipse of July 18, 1860, with the we form the following table by the
For our example of the
values of d given on p. 454,
equations (495)
:
The values of #', y', and /', required in (511), derived also from the eclipse tables on p. 454, by the method of Art. 75, are as follows
:
Hence, by (511) we find the values of a', 6', cf to be The values for interior contacts are seldom required.
as follows.
The
values of
6'
these values of
are as follows:
E, /, F, for exterior and c ; and from d'=
e,
,
contacts,
deduced from
25".5 sin 1", by (612),
OUTLINE Of TUB SHADOW.
466
To illustrate the preceding formulae, let us find some of the outline of the penumbra on the earth's surface at points the time 2 h 8 m 12'. For this time, we have
302.
T=
x
y
/
=
+
0.00672
log Pl
0.57409
d
flL
= f 0.53673
l
= 9.99873 = 21 45"
0'
log
/
= 7.66287
The com
= 50 Let us find the points for be arranged as follows putation may
l= Q
30 34 13
and Q
:
=
300.
I.
80
466
SOLAR ECLIPSES.
find
To
places,
we
whether the eclipse is beginning or ending 2A 8m have, from the table on p. 465, for
at these
12',
T=
At the first point, therefore, we have e sin Q E} > ^/ sin and the eclipse is ending. At the second point, we have e and the eclipse is beginning. E) < ^/sin 0in(Q
(
,
,
Rising and Setting Limits.
and setting limits of the eclipse. By these the curves upon which are situated all those points of the earth's surface where the eclipse begins or ends with the
303.
To find
the rising
limits
we mean
sun in the horizon. It will be quite sufficient for all practical purposes to determine these limits by the condition that the
point
Z
0,
is
in the horizon.
f
=
i
and, consequently, by (496),
This gives in (503) we have
cos^
0,
o*
F+V=1
as the condition
(
514 >
which the coordinates of the required points
must
is
satisfy.
Now,
let it
satisfied
be required to find the place where this equation at a given time T. Let x and y be taken for this
have, by putting
/
t
time, then
we
in (499),
sin
/
cos
Q Q
=x =y
ry
Let
m sin M = x m cos M = y
I
I
p p
sin f cos ?
=
}
(515)
then, from the equations
sin
cos
Q Q
=.
m m
sin
cos
M M
p sin Y p cos
/>
}
(518)
we deduce, by adding
F
2
Bi
their squares,
=  r) =
wi
2
2mp cos (3/
I
r)
+
2
RISING AND SETTING LIMITS.
If
467
then
we put
sn
^
=M
?,
we have
H=
(517)
which may always he taken less than 90, but the double sign must be used to ol>tain the two points on the surface of the earth which satisfy the conditions at the given time*
in
H
givei* time,
M, and I are accurately known for the unknown. It is evident, however, from ~ 1, and this value (514) and (515), that we have nearly p may he used in (517) for a first approximation. To obtain a more sin f; then, by (514), we have correct value of 7% let us put.?
In this formula,
T??,
but p
is
r^
cos
p',
and, consequently, since
37
p^
y'
p sin Y p cos Y
= sin
~
PI
cos
/
Hence we have
tan
Y'
~
 p\ tan Y
_
sin p
=
cos
(518)
cos
p the second computation of (517) will With this second value of 7 a still give a very exact value of/. more correct value of p could be found; but the second approxiand with
this value of
mation
of
is
always
sufficient.
With the second value
of
p,
therefore,
P tan Y
}
we
find the final value
f
hy the formula
tan
f
~
and then, substituting the values
(500),
c = sin
p', r^
= cos f
,
^=
0,
in
have, for finding the latitude and longitude of the required points, the formulae
cos y v sin cos v> cos
1
we
ft
ft
= =
.
sin
/ sm
^i
rf,
\ I
cos Y
sin^
w =/i
cos/ cos
tan
tan
</>
?
In the second approximation,
(517) separately for each place.
we must compute
K
and f by
468
304.
SOLAR ECLIPSES;
The sun is rising or setting at the given time at the thus determined, according as $ (which is the hour angle places of the point Z) is between 180 and 360 or between and 180.
To determine whether may have recourse to the
sufficient for the present
the eclipse is beginning or ending, we r (513); and it will usually be sign of
P
problem
is
to put both a f
is
and
in
that expression, according as sin
and then the
eclipse
beginning or ending
(Q

E}
negative or positive.
Now, by
(r
(516),
we
find
/
sin
(Q
E)
= m sin (Jf
sin (7

E}
p
sin
E)
Hence, for points in the rising or setting
Tf
If
limits,
is
is
m
sin sin
(
M

m
(M
E) <^p E) > p
/?
),
the rolipse
beginning,
ending.
sin (7
E)^ the eclipse
the
method of determining and setting limits, it is necessary first to find the rising extreme times between which the time T is to be assumed, or The those limits of T between which the solution is possible. two solutions given by (517) must reduce to a single one when the surface of the cone of shadow has but a single point in
305. In order to apply the preceding
common with
the earth's surface,
i.e.
in the case of
tangency of
the cone and the terrestrial spheroid.
reduce to one only when ^ 0, but if A 0, the numerator of the value of sin ,}/ must also be zero; and hence the points of contact are determined by the
=
=
Now, the two solutions and both values of ^ become = M;
conditions
I
+m
m
p
and
I
m
f
P
=
I
or by the conditions
~ p f
/
and
m
=
p
There may be four oases of contact, two of exterior and two of The two exterior contacts are the first and last, or the beginning and the end of the eclipse generally ; the axis of the shadow is then without the earth, and therefore we must have
interior contact.
for these eases
m = /?+ y
2

P
+
contact corresponds to the last point on the earth's surface where the eclipse ends at sunrise ; the second, But these interior to the first point where it begins at sunset.
first interior
The
RISING AND SETTING LIMITS.
contacts can occur only
469
when
/.
the whole of the
principal plane falls within the earth,
fore,
we must have m
=p
(p (P
shadow on the and for these cases, theretherefore, by
For the beginning and end generally we have,
(515),
+ +
1)
sin
cos
M=x M=y
r
Let
The
the time
when
these conditions are satisfied, and put
T=
in
T.+
which
T
is
the epoch of the eclipse tables, for which the
.
1 values of x and y are x and y Then, x' and y being the hourly changes of x and y for the time T, we have
mean
x
*
ar
=
</o
+ rr' + T^
n sin iV
Putting
m m
sin
JfQ
=x

cos
M
=
jf
n
#
n cos
N=y'
J
j
)
the above conditions become*
(p
\ 1)
in
M
ni Q sin
M
cos
( JP f /)
cos i/ =:
/n
cos i/^
+T +r
(^o
.
n cos
J\T
whence
(JK>
f
/)
sin
(if JV)
(P +
cos
(^
mn sin ^

~w ^) =
=
i//,
sin (if
N)
^)
W1
+
;
o that,
if
we put
sin
M N

we have
/
a
(Jtf5
 JV)
rn n
~

cos 4
cos (Jlf
,
,
~
mrv JVT)
(521)
in
whicn cos
^ may
be taken with either the negative or the
positive sign; and it is evident that the first will give the beginning and the second the end of the eclipse generally. For the two interior contacts we have
iz
(522)
cos 4 cos
(MQ
 JT;
470
SOLAR ECLIPSES.
y//
These interior contacts cannot occur when p I is leas than which would give impossible values of sin ^. sin(Jf N\
In these formulae we at first assume^ ~ 1, and, after finding an approximate value of ^/, we have, hy (517), in which / 0, \ \^: therefore f  Mj and in the present problem
M

N
found by (518), and the second computation of We must (521) or (522) will then give the required times. employ in (523) the two values of ^ found by taking cos ^ with the positive and the negative sign and therefore different values of p will be found for beginning and ending, so that in the second approximation separate computations will be necessary
with which/?
is
;
fur the
two
cases.
f
,
approximation the mean values of x ?/', and / may be used, or those for the middle %of the eclipse. With the approximate values of r thus found, the true values of #', y, and I for the time T=^ 1\ 4 r may be taken for the second
In the
first
approximation. After finding the corrected value of \^, we then have also the T true value of y ~ ^V ^ r eil<^ point, and hence also the
+
&
]
true value of
7*'
by
(518),
with which the
latitude
and longitude
of the points will be computed by (519). For the local apparent time of the phenomenon at each place we may take the value of & in time, which
306.
is
very nearly the sun's hour angle.
When
limits
form two
the interior contacts exist, the rising and setting distinct enclosed curves on the earth's surface.
If we denote the times of beginning and ending generally, determined by (521), by 2^ and Tv and the times of interior con7 tact, determined by (522), by T / and 7y, a scries of points on the rising limit will be found by Art. 303, for a series of times assumed between 7J and 71/, and points of the setting limit for times assumed between Tt and Tv When the interior contacts do not exist, the rising and setting limits meet and form a single curve extending through the whole The form of this curve may be compared to that of the eclipse. series of points upon it will be 8 much distorted. figure found by assuming times between T and Tz
f
A
.
v
307.
EXAMPLE.
Let us find the rising and setting limits of
the eclipse of July 18, 1860.
RISING AND SETTING LIMITS.
First.
rally,
471
we
find the beginning and ending on the earth have for the assumed epoch T^ 2*, page 455,
To
=
gene
m
m
= x = 0.081244 = y = + 0.596075 cos M
sin
Jf
nsin n cos
N=x'=z +
J\T
0.5453
y'=
0.1608
which give
log
m
Jf
IQ
= 9.77930 = 352 19" N) = n9.73938
14'
log n
= 9.75474
25'.8
JNr=,106
^cos
n
For a
first
approximation, taking p
=
1,
we
find,
by
(521),
p
+ = 1.5367
I
log sin 4 ==
cos
w9 .5528
= q=
2.525
cos
Approx. beginning end
T
r
4
= + 2 .434 = 23*.909 = 4 .959
(July 17)
(July 18)
Taking cos ^ negative for beginning and we have then, by (518) and (523),
positive for ending,
For the above computed times we further
log x* f log y
find
= log sin N = log n cos
7i
JV^
logn
9.73664 n9.20538 9.75467 1 06 23' 50"
9.73654
/19.20774
9.75477 106 29' 8"
472
SOLAR ECLIPSES.
therefore, recomputing (521),
For a second approximation,
we
now
find
and by (518)
:
Then, for the latitude and longitude of the points, we have, by (519),
Therefore the eclipse hegins on the earth generally on July 17, 23* 54m .5 Greenwich mean time, in west longitude 102 31' 0" and latitude 34 38' 34", and ends July 18, 4* 57 W .5 in longitude 341 18' 25" and latitude 4 9' 46".
It is evident that for practical purposes the first approximation, which gives the times within a few seconds, is quite sufficient, especially since the effect of refraction has not yet heen taken
into account.
Secondly.
contains all
rise
(See Art. 327.) the computation of the curve which the points where the eclipse begins or ends at sun
We now pass to
or sunset. In the present example, this curve extends N)>ll: through the whole eclipse, since we have m sin (MQ hence the required points will be found for Greenwich times assumed between July 17, 23\91 and July 18, 4A .96. Let us take
the series
T,
0, 0\2, 0\4,
0*.6,
0.8
4.6, 4*.8
The computation being
carried on for all the points at once, the of the corresponding numbers for the sucregular progression cessive times furnishes at each step a verification of its correct
ness.
To
illustrate the
tion for
T= 2\0
p. 464,
use of the formulse, I give the computafull.
nearly in
For
this time,
we
find,
from
p. 454 and
x
y
= m sin M = = m cos M =
0.08124
4 0.59608
I
= 0.53675
log
^=
/?j
21
0'
49"
= 9 99873
RISING AND SETTING LIMITS.
473
and hence
M = 352
Then, by
14'
21"
log
m
= 9.77931
m
= 0.60160
(517),
taking p
/ /
=
_p
1,
we have
ar. co. log 4mp 9.61863 .......... log 9.14098 .......... log 9.97088
+
ra
m
_ = 0.13835 + p = 0.93515
A ^.
2G
49'
Z
log sin*
1
A
8.73049
With
this first
approximate value of
we
find the value of p for
:
each of the two points, by
(518), as follows
To
find whether the eclipse
is
points,
we
beginning or ending at these
have, from p. 465, and
by Art.
304,
In the same manner are found the results given in the following
table
:
474
SOLAR ECLIPSES.
SOLAR ECLIPSE,
July 18, I860.
RISING
AND SETTING
LIMITS.
CURVE OF MAXIMUM
18, I860.
IN
THK HORIZON.
475
riCLlPSE, July
RISING AND SETTING LIMITS.
(<?oii/myf.)
These points being projected upon a chart (see p. whole curve may be accurately traced through them.
504), the
It will
be
seen that the method of assuming a series of equidistant times gives more points in those portions of the curve where the curvature is greatest than in other portions, thus facilitating the
accurate delineation of the curve. This advantage appears to have been overlooked by those who have preferred methods (such, for example, as HANSEN'S) in which a series of equidistant latitudes is assumed.
308. The preceding computations have been made for the penumbra; but we may employ the same method to determine the rising and setting limits of total or annular eclipse by employing in the formuhe the value of I for interior contacts. These limits, however, embrace so small a portion of the earth'*
surface that they are practically of
little interest.
Oaroe of
309.
Maximum
in the
Horizon.
Tojind
the curve
on which
at sunrise or sunset,
When
,
coordinates are f
5,
and
the maximum of the eclipse is seen a point of the earth's surface whose is not on the surface of the cone of
shadow, but at a distance J from the axis of the cone, we have
the conditions (485),
J n J cos
/
=* f
Q
=y
j)
1 )
(
524 / >
476
SOLAR ECLIPSES.
The amount of obscuration depends upon the distance by is immersed within the shadow, that is, upon tlu distance L J, L being the radius of the shadow on the parallel from the principal plane. For the plane at the distance maximum of the eclipse, therefore, we have the condition
which the place
dL
dA
dT
dT
Differentiating the above equations relatively to the time, and denoting the derivatives of x, y, &c. by accents, as in Art. 300,
we have
S in
Q
JcoBC =.
eo.O+J.tae.^^y
which give
<U
=
U
,
.

^') sin ^>
,

,
+
,
(</
r,
j
cos
The equation
L
/
if gives
JT
ami, therefore,
/'_
or,
tC'
(a^
f') sin
(y~ V)cosQ =
(525;
by (510), ' JV
P'^0
(526)
This
tiie
therefore, the general condition which characterizes maximum of the eclipse at a given time. In the present
is,
problem we have also the condition that the sun is in the horizon, 0. for which we may, as in Art. 303, substitute the condition f 1 Since, however, the instant of greatest obscuration is not subject to any nice observation, a very precise solution of the problem is quite unimportant, and we may be satisfied with the approximate solution obtained by supposing 0, and at the same The condition a! in P'. time neglecting the small quantity (526) will then bo satisfied when in (513) we have
=
sin
(Q
or
E)
=
Q
that
is,
when
Q ^
E
^ 180 + E
CURVE OF MAXIMUM IN THE HORIZON.
Hence, for any given time, the conditions (524) become
J Win
+z
477
J cos
E=y
E=X
$
iy
which with the condition
f
2
+
V=
1
must determine the required points of our curve.
is
its
here
known
for the given time,
tabulated values,
but J
is
The angle E obtained from being directly unknown. Putting, as in the
bin y
c
vj
preceding problem,
m m
we have
bin
cos
M M
jr
/> /)
~
y
cos f
;;
J sin
.+;
E
/<,'
m
r.r;
/J<
sin
f'OS
M
J7
/>
;
sin y
J COS
p COS/'
sin (j
whence
:
J
m sin (M  E) = w COB J/ ./)
r^z
(
COS
^) ^)
Therefore, putting
^
4

y
J,
we have
sin
m 
sin (Jtf
(527
Hh J r^
)
m
cos
(
Jf 
A)
1
p cos
4,
of these equations \\ill give two values of ^, since we ^ with the positive or the negative sign but, as may those places satisfy the problem which are actually within only the shadow, we must have J I, or, at least, A not greater than L
The
first
take cos
;
<
I must, therefore, be excluded so that in general we shall have at a given time but one solution. It will be quite accurate enough, considering the degree of precision above assigned, to employ in (527) a mean value of JP,
:
That value of
^
which would give
J>
or, since
But,
p falls between p and unity, to take log p = Jlog p r if we wish a more correct value, we have only to take
l
r
=4 +E
;
(528)
and then find p as
puted.
in (518)
after
which (527) must be recom
478
SOLAE ECLIPSES.
(527),
Having found the true value of $ by
and of ? by
(528) f
we then have f by
the equation
tan
/~
p i tan Y
and the latitude and longitude of each point of the curve by (519), The limiting times between which the solution is possible will
be
in
known from the computation of the rising and setting limits, which we have already employed the quantity m sin (M jf);
and the present curve will be computed only for those times for which m sin (M E] < L These limiting times are also the same as those for the northern and southern limiting curves, which will be determined in Art. 313.
310.
The degree of obscuration
is
usually expressed
is
by the
fraction of the sun's apparent
as to
diameter which
covered by the
;
moon's dise. When the place is so far immersed in the penumbra be on the edge of the total shadow, the obscuration is total in this case the distance of the place from the edge of the
penumbra is equal to the absolute difference of the radii of the penumbra and the umbra, that is, to the algebraic sum /> + Z/ n L denoting the radius of the umbra (which is, by Art. 293,
{
negative); but in any other case the distance of the place within J: hence, if the penumbra is denotes th degree of
L
D
obscuration
diameter,
we
expressed shall have, very nearly,

as
a
fraction
of the
sun'
.
apparent
L D.= ~~Ii
+L
(529)
t
This formula
may also be used when the eclipse is annular, in which case J/j is essentially positive and even when J is zero, and the eclipse consequently central, the value of D given by the formula will be less than unity, as it should be, since in that ease there is no total ob/curaticn. In the present problem we have
;
D^
in
'
'
~~
+
(529*)
'
which
I
and
,
are the radii of the
penumbra and umbra on
the principal plane, as found by (488).
EXAMPLE. In the eclipse of July 18, 1860, compute the curve on which the maximum of the eclipse is seen in the horizon.
CURVE OF MAXIMUM IN THE HORIZON.
479
In the computation of the rising and setting limits, the 0\6 quantity m &>in(M~jE) was less than unity only from 4 .2: so that the present curve may be computed for the to
T~
T=
fc
series of times 0\6,
computation we may
.8 4\0, 4\2. For an approximate take log p Jlog f\=^ 9.9994, and employ only four decimal places in the logarithms throughout. A The computation for T 2 is as follows. For this time we
7t
=
have already found
(p.
473)
log
M
E E
m
9.7793
352
14 337
14'.4
Hence, by (527),
log
m sin (
M M
E)
logp
17.3 57.1 n9 3538
9.9994__
~w9.3544 9.9886 9.9880 9.7463
log
w m
log sin $ log cos 4 log p cos $
cos(Jf
cos
(
E)
E}
cos
M
+ 0.5575
f
0.9727 0.4152
p
^
J
taken with the negative sign we should is greater than I. Taking it, therefore, with the positive sign only, we have
Here,
if
cos
^ were
find
J
1.5302,
which
13
log
4'.3
fll
= 9.9987
we
find,
+
log tan Y log tan f
13. 8.3271 8.3258
1
with which
by
(519),
w
App. time
=#
<p
176 28 211 69
37'.2
31.2 54
1
in
time
11M6 W .5
Sunset.
express the degree of obscuration according to (529*) have, taking the mean values of I and ^ (p, 454),
I
To
we
=
0.5366
0.0092
/
J
= 0.1214
==
0.1214
/ j
^ ^
=
==
0.5274
all
6T5274
In the same manner
the following results are obtained:
480
SOLAR ECLIPSES.
July
18,
SOLAR ECLIPSE,
I860.
IN
CURVE OF MAXIMUM OF THE THE HORIZON.
ECLll'81.
Degree of Obscuration.
D
0.30
.76
.97
.74
_____ _j5(L
.31
.23 .18
.21
.28 .37
.50
.67
.89
.87
.48
Northern and Southern Limiting Curves.
811. To Jind'the northern and southern limits of the eclipse on the These limits are the curves in which are situated mrth's surface. all the points of the surface of the earth from which only a single
moon can be observed, the moon appearing to puns either wholly south or wholly north of the sun. They may also be defined as curves to which the outcontact of the discs of the sun and
line of the
shadow
is
at all times in contact during its progress
across the earth.
solution of this problem is derived from the consideration that the simple contact is here the maximum of the eclipse, so
The
that
we must
have, as in (526),
and consequently, by
(518),
a' f e sin
(Q
J0)
= C/sin (Q
FV
(5301
NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN LIMITS.
481
For any given time T, therefore, we are to find that point of shadow on the surface of the earth for which the value of Q and its corresponding satisfy this equation. This can be effected only indirectly, or by successive approxima* tions. For this purpose, we must know at the outset an approximate value of Q; and therefore, before proceeding any further, we must show how such an approximate value may be found. We can readily determine sufficiently narrow limits between which Q may be assumed. For this purpose, neglecting a' in (530), as well as JF, which are always very small, we have,
the outline of the
approximately,
eain(Q
E)
= C/sin
and
Q
1.
The extreme
sin
(Q
E)
~
values of
0,
are
and therefore
for a first limit
The first we have
gives
Q
The second
=
E
or
Q
= 180 + E
gives
e sin
(Q
E} =/%in Q
whence
tan (0 i
E)
= *L+JL tan E
ef
4 f
Put
tan 4
~A
f
f

then the equation tan (Q
limits
$E)
or
tan
^
gives for our second
4^44
To compute ^
Q
= 180 + E +
i
4
readily, put
tan
v

tnen
tan 4
(531
v
= tan (45
f
v)