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# PRESSURE

AND
MEASURING
DEVICES
GROUP 3
JOHN VINRAE B. VARGAS
EUGENE MENDOZA
JULIE ANN L. ARAGON
PAOLO RAFAEL MANINGAS
JAYSON PAROHINOG
GIANZ ARVI D.V. MAGLONZO
KRISTA NINA P. OROSCO
PRECIOUS DEL ROSARIO
BSME 4C

Pressure is defined as force per unit area that a fluid exerts on its surroundings. The standard unit
of pressure is the Pascal (Pa), equivalent to one newton per meter squared (N/m 2 )
Types of Pressure: Definitions
Absolute Pressure
Pressure measured relative to an absolute vacuum (absolute zero pressure).
Gauge Pressure
Pressure greater than atmospheric pressure that are measured relative to atmospheric pressure. Gauge
pressure is the difference between the absolute pressure and atmospheric pressure: Pgauge = Pabs - Patm
Vacuum Pressure
Pressure less than atmospheric pressure that are measured relative to atmospheric pressure. Vacuum
pressure equals atmospheric pressure minus the absolute pressure:
Pvac = Patm - Pabs

PRESSURE INSTUMENTS
U-Tube Manometer
-Is a clear U shaped tube partially filled with fluid.
-It is a glass or metal tube with a U bend providing with two legs.

Accuracy
-

+/- 0.5

-Eye level.
-It is important to remember the levels in both legs of U-tube manometers must be read and these
Troubleshooting
-Check for proper zero settings.
-Check internal passages of the meter for particle, which may be blocking flow.
Maintenance
-Tipping the sides of a U-tube manometer.
-Dispose of used indicating fluids and used for cleaning materials.

DIGITAL MANOMETER
The digital manometer can measure gage or vacuum pressures by
venting the low and high ports to atmosphere, respectively, as well as
differential pressure. Each unit has a low and high range, offering
greater resolution and accuracy.

MERCURY BAROMETER
A barometer in which the weight of a column of mercury
in a glass tube with a sealed top is balanced against
that of the atmosphere pressing on an exposed cistern
of mercury at the base of the mercury column, the
height of the column varying with atmospheric pressure.

ANEROID BAROMETER
1843 Lucien Vidie, French scientist, invented and built the aneroid
barometer, which uses a spring balance instead of a liquid to measure
atmospheric pressure. The spring extension under pressure is
mechanically amplified on an indicator system.

## Capsule element pressure gauge

Capsule element pressure gauges are used to measure air and dry
gases at low pressures. They cover measuring spans from 2.5 mbar to
600 mbar. The measuring element consists of two metal diaphragms
soldered together to form a cylindrical bellows chamber.

## STRAIN GAUGE PRESSURE

1938 The bonded strain gauges
developed by E. E. Simmons of
of Technology and AC. Ruge of
of Technology. Simmons was
PIEZOMETER

were independently
the California Institute
Massachuseffs Institute
faster to apply for a patent.

## A piezometer is either a device used to measure liquid pressure in a system by

measuring the height to which a column of the liquid rises against gravity, or a
device which measures the pressure (more precisely, the piezo metric head) of
groundwater at a specific point. A piezometer is designed to measure static
pressures, and thus differs from a pitot tube by not being pointed into the fluid
flow. Observation wells give some information on the water level in a formation,
but must be read manually. Electrical pressure transducers of several types can
be read automatically, making data acquisition more convenient.
BOURDON TUBE
1930 The first pressure transducers were transduction
mechanisms where the movements of diaphragms, springs
or Bourdon tubes are part of an electrical quantity.
Pressure diaphragms are part of a capacitance. The
indicator movement is the tap of a potentiometer.
DIAPHRAGM PRESSURE GAUGES
Diaphragm pressure gauges use circular corrugated diaphragms. The
pressure to be measured is applied at one side. The deflection of the
diaphragm is proportional to the pressure. -Are use to measure gases and
liquids. They cover measuring span from 10 mbar to 40 bar.

## DEAD WEIGHT PRESSURE GAUGE TESTER

A dead weight tester apparatus uses known traceable weights to apply
pressure to a fluid for checking the accuracy of readings from a pressure
gauge.