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PROBLEM 2.

1
Two forces are applied to an eye bolt fastened to a beam. Determine
graphically the magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the
parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION
(a)

(b)

R = 8.4 kN

We measure:

= 19
R = 8.4 kN

19

PROBLEM 2.2
The cable stays AB and AD help support pole AC. Knowing that the
tension is 500 N in AB and 160 N in AD, determine graphically the
magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces exerted by the stays
at A using (a) the parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION

We measure:

= 51.3, = 59

(a)

(b)

We measure:

R = 575 N, = 67
R = 575 N

67

PROBLEM 2.3
Two forces P and Q are applied as shown at point A of a hook support.
Knowing that P = 15 lb and Q = 25 lb, determine graphically the
magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the parallelogram law,
(b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION
(a)

(b)

R = 37 lb, = 76

We measure:

R = 37 lb

76

PROBLEM 2.4
Two forces P and Q are applied as shown at point A of a hook support.
Knowing that P = 45 lb and Q = 15 lb, determine graphically the
magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the parallelogram law,
(b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION
(a)

(b)

We measure:

R = 61.5 lb, = 86.5

R = 61.5 lb

86.5

PROBLEM 2.5
Two control rods are attached at A to lever AB. Using trigonometry and
knowing that the force in the left-hand rod is F1 = 120 N, determine
(a) the required force F2 in the right-hand rod if the resultant R of the
forces exerted by the rods on the lever is to be vertical, (b) the
corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION

Graphically, by the triangle law

F2 108 N

We measure:

R 77 N
By trigonometry: Law of Sines
F2
R
120
=
=
sin
sin 38 sin

= 90 28 = 62, = 180 62 38 = 80
Then:
F2
R
120 N
=
=
sin 62 sin 38 sin 80
or (a) F2 = 107.6 N
(b)

R = 75.0 N

PROBLEM 2.6
Two control rods are attached at A to lever AB. Using trigonometry and
knowing that the force in the right-hand rod is F2 = 80 N, determine
(a) the required force F1 in the left-hand rod if the resultant R of the
forces exerted by the rods on the lever is to be vertical, (b) the
corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION

Using the Law of Sines

F1
R
80
=
=
sin
sin 38 sin

= 90 10 = 80, = 180 80 38 = 62
Then:
F1
R
80 N
=
=
sin 80 sin 38 sin 62
or (a) F1 = 89.2 N
(b) R = 55.8 N

PROBLEM 2.7
The 50-lb force is to be resolved into components along lines a-a and
b-b. (a) Using trigonometry, determine the angle knowing that the
component along a-a is 35 lb. (b) What is the corresponding value of
the component along b-b ?

SOLUTION

Using the triangle rule and the Law of Sines

sin
sin 40
=
35 lb
50 lb

(a)

sin = 0.44995

= 26.74
+ + 40 = 180

Then:

= 113.3
(b) Using the Law of Sines:

Fbb
50 lb
=
sin
sin 40
Fbb = 71.5 lb

PROBLEM 2.8
The 50-lb force is to be resolved into components along lines a-a and
b-b. (a) Using trigonometry, determine the angle knowing that the
component along b-b is 30 lb. (b) What is the corresponding value of
the component along a-a ?

SOLUTION

Using the triangle rule and the Law of Sines

(a)

sin
sin 40
=
30 lb
50 lb
sin = 0.3857

= 22.7
(b)

+ + 40 = 180
= 117.31
Faa
50 lb
=
sin
sin 40
sin
Faa = 50 lb

sin 40
Faa = 69.1 lb

PROBLEM 2.9
To steady a sign as it is being lowered, two cables are attached to the sign
at A. Using trigonometry and knowing that = 25, determine (a) the
required magnitude of the force P if the resultant R of the two forces
applied at A is to be vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION

Using the triangle rule and the Law of Sines

Have:

= 180 ( 35 + 25 )
= 120

Then:

P
R
360 N
=
=
sin 35 sin120 sin 25
or (a) P = 489 N
(b) R = 738 N

PROBLEM 2.10
To steady a sign as it is being lowered, two cables are attached to the sign
at A. Using trigonometry and knowing that the magnitude of P is 300 N,
determine (a) the required angle if the resultant R of the two forces
applied at A is to be vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION

Using the triangle rule and the Law of Sines

(a) Have:

360 N
300 N
=
sin
sin 35
sin = 0.68829

= 43.5
= 180 ( 35 + 43.5 )

(b)

= 101.5
Then:

R
300 N
=
sin101.5 sin 35
or R = 513 N

10

PROBLEM 2.11
Two forces are applied as shown to a hook support. Using trigonometry
and knowing that the magnitude of P is 14 lb, determine (a) the required
angle if the resultant R of the two forces applied to the support is to be
horizontal, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION
Using the triangle rule and the Law of Sines

(a) Have:

20 lb
14 lb
=
sin
sin 30

sin = 0.71428

= 45.6
= 180 ( 30 + 45.6 )

(b)

= 104.4

Then:

R
14 lb
=
sin104.4 sin 30

R = 27.1 lb

11

PROBLEM 2.12
For the hook support of Problem 2.3, using trigonometry and knowing
that the magnitude of P is 25 lb, determine (a) the required magnitude of
the force Q if the resultant R of the two forces applied at A is to be
vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.
Problem 2.3: Two forces P and Q are applied as shown at point A of a
hook support. Knowing that P = 15 lb and Q = 25 lb, determine
graphically the magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the
parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION
Using the triangle rule and the Law of Sines

(a) Have:

Q
25 lb
=
sin15 sin 30
Q = 12.94 lb

= 180 (15 + 30 )

(b)

= 135

Thus:

R
25 lb
=
sin135 sin 30
sin135
R = 25 lb
= 35.36 lb
sin 30
R = 35.4 lb

12

PROBLEM 2.13
For the hook support of Problem 2.11, determine, using trigonometry,
(a) the magnitude and direction of the smallest force P for which the
resultant R of the two forces applied to the support is horizontal,
(b) the corresponding magnitude of R.
Problem 2.11: Two forces are applied as shown to a hook support. Using
trigonometry and knowing that the magnitude of P is 14 lb, determine
(a) the required angle if the resultant R of the two forces applied to the
support is to be horizontal, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION
(a) The smallest force P will be perpendicular to R, that is, vertical

P = ( 20 lb ) sin 30
= 10 lb
(b)

P = 10 lb

R = ( 20 lb ) cos 30
= 17.32 lb

13

R = 17.32 lb

PROBLEM 2.14
As shown in Figure P2.9, two cables are attached to a sign at A to steady
the sign as it is being lowered. Using trigonometry, determine (a) the
magnitude and direction of the smallest force P for which the resultant R
of the two forces applied at A is vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude
of R.

SOLUTION
We observe that force P is minimum when is 90, that is, P is horizontal

Then:

or P = 206 N

And:

(b) R = ( 360 N ) cos 35

or R = 295 N

14

PROBLEM 2.15
For the hook support of Problem 2.11, determine, using trigonometry, the
magnitude and direction of the resultant of the two forces applied to the
support knowing that P = 10 lb and = 40.

Problem 2.11: Two forces are applied as shown to a hook support. Using
trigonometry and knowing that the magnitude of P is 14 lb, determine
(a) the required angle if the resultant R of the two forces applied to the
support is to be horizontal, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION
Using the force triangle and the Law of Cosines

2

= 636.8 lb 2
R = 25.23 lb

10 lb
25.23 lb
=
sin
sin110
10 lb
sin =
sin110
25.23 lb
= 0.3724
So:

= 21.87

Angle of inclination of R, is then such that:

+ = 30
= 8.13
R = 25.2 lb

Hence:

15

8.13

PROBLEM 2.16
Solve Problem 2.1 using trigonometry

Problem 2.1: Two forces are applied to an eye bolt fastened to a beam.
Determine graphically the magnitude and direction of their resultant
using (a) the parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION
Using the force triangle, the Law of Cosines and the Law of Sines

We have:

= 180 ( 50 + 25 )
= 105

Then:

R 2 = ( 4.5 kN ) + ( 6 kN ) 2 ( 4.5 kN )( 6 kN ) cos105

2

= 70.226 kN 2
or
Now:

R = 8.3801 kN

8.3801 kN
6 kN
=
sin105
sin
6 kN
sin =
sin105
8.3801 kN
= 0.6916

= 43.756
R = 8.38 kN

16

18.76

PROBLEM 2.17
Solve Problem 2.2 using trigonometry

Problem 2.2: The cable stays AB and AD help support pole AC. Knowing
that the tension is 500 N in AB and 160 N in AD, determine graphically
the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces exerted by the
stays at A using (a) the parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION
From the geometry of the problem:

= tan 1

2
= 38.66
2.5

= tan 1

1.5
= 30.96
2.5

Now:

And, using the Law of Cosines:

R 2 = ( 500 N ) + (160 N ) 2 ( 500 N )(160 N ) cos110.38
2

= 331319 N 2
R = 575.6 N

Using the Law of Sines:

160 N
575.6 N
=
sin
sin110.38
160 N
sin =
sin110.38
575.6 N
= 0.2606

= 15.1
= ( 90 ) + = 66.44
R = 576 N

17

66.4

PROBLEM 2.18
Solve Problem 2.3 using trigonometry

Problem 2.3: Two forces P and Q are applied as shown at point A of a

hook support. Knowing that P = 15 lb and Q = 25 lb, determine
graphically the magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the
parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION
Using the force triangle and the Laws of Cosines and Sines
We have:

= 180 (15 + 30 )
= 135
Then:

R 2 = (15 lb ) + ( 25 lb ) 2 (15 lb )( 25 lb ) cos135

2

= 1380.3 lb 2
R = 37.15 lb

or
and

25 lb 37.15 lb
=
sin
sin135
25 lb
sin =
sin135
37.15 lb
= 0.4758

= 28.41
Then:

+ + 75 = 180
= 76.59
R = 37.2 lb

18

76.6

PROBLEM 2.19
Two structural members A and B are bolted to a bracket as shown.
Knowing that both members are in compression and that the force is
30 kN in member A and 20 kN in member B, determine, using
trigonometry, the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces
applied to the bracket by members A and B.

SOLUTION
Using the force triangle and the Laws of Cosines and Sines

= 180 ( 45 + 25 ) = 110

We have:
Then:

R 2 = ( 30 kN ) + ( 20 kN ) 2 ( 30 kN )( 20 kN ) cos110
2

= 1710.4 kN 2
R = 41.357 kN

and
20 kN
41.357 kN
=
sin
sin110
20 kN
sin =
sin110
41.357 kN
= 0.4544

= 27.028
= + 45 = 72.028

Hence:

R = 41.4 kN

19

72.0

PROBLEM 2.20
Two structural members A and B are bolted to a bracket as shown.
Knowing that both members are in compression and that the force is
20 kN in member A and 30 kN in member B, determine, using
trigonometry, the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces
applied to the bracket by members A and B.

SOLUTION
Using the force triangle and the Laws of Cosines and Sines
We have:
Then:

= 180 ( 45 + 25 ) = 110
R 2 = ( 30 kN ) + ( 20 kN ) 2 ( 30 kN )( 20 kN ) cos110
2

= 1710.4 kN 2
R = 41.357 kN

and
30 kN
41.357 kN
=
sin
sin110
30 kN
sin =
sin110
41.357 kN
= 0.6816

= 42.97
Finally:

= + 45 = 87.97
R = 41.4 kN

20

88.0

PROBLEM 2.21
Determine the x and y components of each of the forces shown.

SOLUTION
20 kN Force:
Fx = + ( 20 kN ) cos 40,

Fx = 15.32 kN

Fy = + ( 20 kN ) sin 40,

Fy = 12.86 kN

Fx = ( 30 kN ) cos 70,

Fx = 10.26 kN

Fy = + ( 30 kN ) sin 70,

Fy = 28.2 kN

Fx = ( 42 kN ) cos 20,

Fx = 39.5 kN

Fy = + ( 42 kN ) sin 20,

Fy = 14.36 kN

30 kN Force:

42 kN Force:

21

PROBLEM 2.22
Determine the x and y components of each of the forces shown.

SOLUTION
40 lb Force:
Fx = ( 40 lb ) sin 50,

Fx = 30.6 lb

Fy = ( 40 lb ) cos 50,

Fy = 25.7 lb

Fx = + ( 60 lb ) cos 60,

Fx = 30.0 lb

Fy = ( 60 lb ) sin 60,

Fy = 52.0 lb

Fx = + ( 80 lb ) cos 25,

Fx = 72.5 lb

Fy = + ( 80 lb ) sin 25,

Fy = 33.8 lb

60 lb Force:

80 lb Force:

22

PROBLEM 2.23
Determine the x and y components of each of the forces shown.

SOLUTION
We compute the following distances:
OA =

( 48)2 + ( 90 )2

= 102 in.

OB =

( 56 )2 + ( 90 )2

= 106 in.

OC =

(80 )2 + ( 60 )2

= 100 in.

Then:
204 lb Force:

Fx = (102 lb )

48
,
102

Fx = 48.0 lb

Fy = + (102 lb )

90
,
102

Fy = 90.0 lb

Fx = + ( 212 lb )

56
,
106

Fx = 112.0 lb

Fy = + ( 212 lb )

90
,
106

Fy = 180.0 lb

Fx = ( 400 lb )

80
,
100

Fx = 320 lb

Fy = ( 400 lb )

60
,
100

Fy = 240 lb

212 lb Force:

400 lb Force:

23

PROBLEM 2.24
Determine the x and y components of each of the forces shown.

SOLUTION
We compute the following distances:
OA =

( 70 )2 + ( 240 )2

OB =

( 210 )2 + ( 200 )2

= 290 mm

OC =

(120 )2 + ( 225)2

= 255 mm

= 250 mm

500 N Force:
70
Fx = 500 N

250

Fx = 140.0 N

240
Fy = +500 N

250

Fy = 480 N

210
Fx = +435 N

290

Fx = 315 N

200
Fy = +435 N

290

Fy = 300 N

120
Fx = +510 N

255

Fx = 240 N

225
Fy = 510 N

255

Fy = 450 N

435 N Force:

510 N Force:

24

PROBLEM 2.25
While emptying a wheelbarrow, a gardener exerts on each handle AB a
force P directed along line CD. Knowing that P must have a 135-N
horizontal component, determine (a) the magnitude of the force P, (b) its
vertical component.

SOLUTION

(a)

P=

Px
cos 40

135 N
cos 40
or P = 176.2 N

(b)

Py = Px tan 40 = P sin 40
= (135 N ) tan 40
or Py = 113.3 N

25

PROBLEM 2.26
Member BD exerts on member ABC a force P directed along line BD.
Knowing that P must have a 960-N vertical component, determine (a) the
magnitude of the force P, (b) its horizontal component.

SOLUTION

(a)

P=
=

Py
sin 35
960 N
sin 35
or P = 1674 N

(b)

Px =
=

Py
tan 35
960 N
tan 35
or Px = 1371 N

26

PROBLEM 2.27
Member CB of the vise shown exerts on block B a force P directed along
line CB. Knowing that P must have a 260-lb horizontal component,
determine (a) the magnitude of the force P, (b) its vertical component.

SOLUTION

We note:
CB exerts force P on B along CB, and the horizontal component of P is Px = 260 lb.
Then:
Px = P sin 50

(a)
P=

Px
sin 50

260 lb
sin50

= 339.4 lb
(b)

P = 339 lb

Px = Py tan 50
Py =

Px
tan 50

260 lb
tan 50

= 218.2 lb

27

Py = 218 lb

PROBLEM 2.28
Activator rod AB exerts on crank BCD a force P directed along line AB.
Knowing that P must have a 25-lb component perpendicular to arm BC of
the crank, determine (a) the magnitude of the force P, (b) its component
along line BC.

SOLUTION

Using the x and y axes shown.

Py = 25 lb

(a)

Then:

P=
=

Py
sin 75
25 lb
sin 75
or P = 25.9 lb

(b)

Px =
=

Py
tan 75
25 lb
tan 75
or Px = 6.70 lb

28

PROBLEM 2.29
The guy wire BD exerts on the telephone pole AC a force P directed
along BD. Knowing that P has a 450-N component along line AC,
determine (a) the magnitude of the force P, (b) its component in a
direction perpendicular to AC.

SOLUTION

Note that the force exerted by BD on the pole is directed along BD, and the component of P along AC
is 450 N.
Then:
(a)

P=

450 N
= 549.3 N
cos 35
P = 549 N

(b)

Px = ( 450 N ) tan 35
= 315.1 N
Px = 315 N

29

PROBLEM 2.30
The guy wire BD exerts on the telephone pole AC a force P directed
along BD. Knowing that P has a 200-N perpendicular to the pole AC,
determine (a) the magnitude of the force P, (b) its component along
line AC.

SOLUTION

(a)

P=

Px
sin 38

200 N
sin 38

= 324.8 N
(b)

Py =

Px
tan 38

200 N
tan 38

or P = 325 N

= 255.98 N
or Py = 256 N

30

PROBLEM 2.31
Determine the resultant of the three forces of Problem 2.24.
Problem 2.24: Determine the x and y components of each of the forces
shown.

SOLUTION

From Problem 2.24:

F500 = (140 N ) i + ( 480 N ) j
F425 = ( 315 N ) i + ( 300 N ) j

F510 = ( 240 N ) i ( 450 N ) j

R = F = ( 415 N ) i + ( 330 N ) j
Then:

= tan 1
R=

330
= 38.5
415

( 415 N )2 + ( 330 N )2

= 530.2 N

R = 530 N

Thus:

31

38.5

PROBLEM 2.32
Determine the resultant of the three forces of Problem 2.21.
Problem 2.21: Determine the x and y components of each of the forces
shown.

SOLUTION

From Problem 2.21:

F20 = (15.32 kN ) i + (12.86 kN ) j
F30 = (10.26 kN ) i + ( 28.2 kN ) j
F42 = ( 39.5 kN ) i + (14.36 kN ) j
R = F = ( 34.44 kN ) i + ( 55.42 kN ) j
Then:

= tan 1
R=

55.42
= 58.1
34.44

( 55.42 kN )2 + ( 34.44 N )2

= 65.2 kN
R = 65.2 kN

32

58.2

PROBLEM 2.33
Determine the resultant of the three forces of Problem 2.22.
Problem 2.22: Determine the x and y components of each of the forces
shown.

SOLUTION
The components of the forces were determined in 2.23.
Force

x comp. (lb)

y comp. (lb)

40 lb

30.6

25.7

60 lb

30

51.96

80 lb

72.5
Rx = 71.9

33.8
Ry = 43.86

R = Rxi + Ry j
= ( 71.9 lb ) i ( 43.86 lb ) j
tan =

43.86
71.9

= 31.38
R=

( 71.9 lb )2 + ( 43.86 lb )2

= 84.23 lb
R = 84.2 lb

33

31.4

PROBLEM 2.34
Determine the resultant of the three forces of Problem 2.23.

Problem 2.23: Determine the x and y components of each of the forces

shown.

SOLUTION
The components of the forces were
determined in Problem 2.23.

F204 = ( 48.0 lb ) i + ( 90.0 lb ) j

F212 = (112.0 lb ) i + (180.0 lb ) j
F400 = ( 320 lb ) i ( 240 lb ) j
Thus

R = Rx + R y
R = ( 256 lb ) i + ( 30.0 lb ) j
Now:
tan =

= tan 1

30.0
256

30.0
= 6.68
256

and
R=

( 256 lb )2 + ( 30.0 lb )2

= 257.75 lb

R = 258 lb

34

6.68

PROBLEM 2.35
Knowing that = 35, determine the resultant of the three forces
shown.

SOLUTION
300-N Force:
Fx = ( 300 N ) cos 20 = 281.9 N
Fy = ( 300 N ) sin 20 = 102.6 N
400-N Force:
Fx = ( 400 N ) cos55 = 229.4 N
Fy = ( 400 N ) sin 55 = 327.7 N
600-N Force:
Fx = ( 600 N ) cos 35 = 491.5 N
Fy = ( 600 N ) sin 35 = 344.1 N

and
Rx = Fx = 1002.8 N
Ry = Fy = 86.2 N
R=

(1002.8 N )2 + (86.2 N )2

= 1006.5 N

Further:
tan =

= tan 1

86.2
1002.8

86.2
= 4.91
1002.8

R = 1007 N

35

4.91

PROBLEM 2.36
Knowing that = 65, determine the resultant of the three forces
shown.

SOLUTION
300-N Force:
Fx = ( 300 N ) cos 20 = 281.9 N
Fy = ( 300 N ) sin 20 = 102.6 N
400-N Force:
Fx = ( 400 N ) cos85 = 34.9 N
Fy = ( 400 N ) sin 85 = 398.5 N
600-N Force:
Fx = ( 600 N ) cos 5 = 597.7 N
Fy = ( 600 N ) sin 5 = 52.3 N

and
Rx = Fx = 914.5 N
Ry = Fy = 448.8 N
R=

( 914.5 N )2 + ( 448.8 N )2

= 1018.7 N

Further:
tan =

= tan 1

448.8
914.5

448.8
= 26.1
914.5

R = 1019 N

36

26.1

PROBLEM 2.37
Knowing that the tension in cable BC is 145 lb, determine the resultant of
the three forces exerted at point B of beam AB.

SOLUTION
Cable BC Force:
Fx = (145 lb )
Fy = (145 lb )

84
= 105 lb
116
80
= 100 lb
116

100-lb Force:
Fx = (100 lb )

3
= 60 lb
5

Fy = (100 lb )

4
= 80 lb
5

156-lb Force:
Fx = (156 lb )

12
= 144 lb
13

Fy = (156 lb )

5
= 60 lb
13

and
Rx = Fx = 21 lb,
R=

Ry = Fy = 40 lb

( 21 lb )2 + ( 40 lb )2

= 45.177 lb

Further:
tan =

= tan 1

40
21

40
= 62.3
21

R = 45.2 lb

Thus:

37

62.3

PROBLEM 2.38
Knowing that = 50, determine the resultant of the three forces
shown.

SOLUTION
The resultant force R has the x- and y-components:
Rx = Fx = (140 lb ) cos 50 + ( 60 lb ) cos85 (160 lb ) cos 50
Rx = 7.6264 lb

and
Ry = Fy = (140 lb ) sin 50 + ( 60 lb ) sin 85 + (160 lb ) sin 50
Ry = 289.59 lb

Further:
tan =

= tan 1

290
7.6

290
= 88.5
7.6

R = 290 lb

Thus:

38

88.5

PROBLEM 2.39
Determine (a) the required value of if the resultant of the three forces
shown is to be vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude of the resultant.

SOLUTION
For an arbitrary angle , we have:
Rx = Fx = (140 lb ) cos + ( 60 lb ) cos ( + 35 ) (160 lb ) cos

(a) So, for R to be vertical:

Rx = Fx = (140 lb ) cos + ( 60 lb ) cos ( + 35 ) (160 lb ) cos = 0

Expanding,
cos + 3 ( cos cos 35 sin sin 35 ) = 0
Then:
tan =

cos 35
sin 35

1
3

or
cos 35

= tan 1

sin 35

1
3

= 40.265

= 40.3

(b) Now:
R = Ry = Fy = (140 lb ) sin 40.265 + ( 60 lb ) sin 75.265 + (160 lb ) sin 40.265
R = R = 252 lb

39

PROBLEM 2.40
For the beam of Problem 2.37, determine (a) the required tension in cable
BC if the resultant of the three forces exerted at point B is to be vertical,
(b) the corresponding magnitude of the resultant.

Problem 2.37: Knowing that the tension in cable BC is 145 lb, determine
the resultant of the three forces exerted at point B of beam AB.

SOLUTION
We have:
Rx = Fx =

84
12
3
TBC + (156 lb ) (100 lb )
116
13
5
Rx = 0.724TBC + 84 lb

or
and
Ry = Fy =

80
5
4
TBC (156 lb ) (100 lb )
116
13
5

Ry = 0.6897TBC 140 lb

(a) So, for R to be vertical,

Rx = 0.724TBC + 84 lb = 0
TBC = 116.0 lb

(b) Using
TBC = 116.0 lb
R = Ry = 0.6897 (116.0 lb ) 140 lb = 60 lb
R = R = 60.0 lb

40

PROBLEM 2.41
Boom AB is held in the position shown by three cables. Knowing that the
tensions in cables AC and AD are 4 kN and 5.2 kN, respectively,
determine (a) the tension in cable AE if the resultant of the tensions
exerted at point A of the boom must be directed along AB,
(b) the corresponding magnitude of the resultant.

SOLUTION

Then
(a) Require

Ry = Fy = 0:

( 4 kN ) cos 25 + ( 5.2 kN ) sin 35 TAE sin 65 = 0

TAE = 7.2909 kN

or

TAE = 7.29 kN
(b)

R = Fx
= ( 4 kN ) sin 25 ( 5.2 kN ) cos 35 ( 7.2909 kN ) cos 65

= 9.03 kN
R = 9.03 kN

41

PROBLEM 2.42
For the block of Problems 2.35 and 2.36, determine (a) the required value
of of the resultant of the three forces shown is to be parallel to the
incline, (b) the corresponding magnitude of the resultant.
Problem 2.35: Knowing that = 35, determine the resultant of the
three forces shown.
Problem 2.36: Knowing that = 65, determine the resultant of the
three forces shown.

SOLUTION

Selecting the x axis along aa, we write

Rx = Fx = 300 N + ( 400 N ) cos + ( 600 N ) sin

(1)

(2)

(a) Setting Ry = 0 in Equation (2):

tan =

Thus

600
= 1.5
400

= 56.3
(b) Substituting for in Equation (1):

Rx = 300 N + ( 400 N ) cos 56.3 + ( 600 N ) sin 56.3

Rx = 1021.1 N
R = Rx = 1021 N

42

PROBLEM 2.43
Two cables are tied together at C and are loaded as shown. Determine the
tension (a) in cable AC, (b) in cable BC.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram

AC =

(16 in.)2 + (12 in.)2

= 20 in.

BC =

( 20 in.)2 + ( 21 in.)2

= 29 in.

Then, from the Free Body Diagram of point C:

Fx = 0:
or
and
or

TBC =
Fy = 0:

16
21
TAC +
TBC = 0
20
29

29 4
TAC
21 5
12
20
TAC +
TBC 600 lb = 0
20
29

12
20 29 4

TAC +
TAC 600 lb = 0

20
29 21 5

TAC = 440.56 lb

Hence:
(a)

TAC = 441 lb

(b)

TBC = 487 lb

43

PROBLEM 2.44
Knowing that = 25, determine the tension (a) in cable AC, (b) in
rope BC.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram

Force Triangle

Law of Sines:
TAC
T
5 kN
= BC =
sin115 sin 5 sin 60
(a)

TAC =

5 kN
sin115 = 5.23 kN
sin 60

TAC = 5.23 kN

(b)

TBC =

5 kN
sin 5 = 0.503 kN
sin 60

TBC = 0.503 kN

44

PROBLEM 2.45
Knowing that = 50 and that boom AC exerts on pin C a force
directed long line AC, determine (a) the magnitude of that force, (b) the
tension in cable BC.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram

Force Triangle

Law of Sines:
FAC
TBC
400 lb
=
=
sin 25 sin 60 sin 95
(a)

FAC =

400 lb
sin 25 = 169.69 lb
sin 95

FAC = 169.7 lb

(b)

TBC =

400
sin 60 = 347.73 lb
sin 95

TBC = 348 lb

45

PROBLEM 2.46
Two cables are tied together at C and are loaded as shown. Knowing that
= 30, determine the tension (a) in cable AC, (b) in cable BC.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram

Force Triangle

Law of Sines:
TAC
TBC
2943 N
=
=
sin 60 sin 55
sin 65
(a)

TAC =

2943 N
sin 60 = 2812.19 N
sin 65

TAC = 2.81 kN

(b)

TBC =

2943 N
sin 55 = 2659.98 N
sin 65

TBC = 2.66 kN

46

PROBLEM 2.47
A chairlift has been stopped in the position shown. Knowing that each
chair weighs 300 N and that the skier in chair E weighs 890 N, determine
that weight of the skier in chair F.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram Point B

AB = tan 1

9.9
= 30.51
16.8

BC = tan 1

12
= 22.61
28.8

Thus, in the force triangle, by the Law of Sines:

Force Triangle

TBC
1190 N
=
sin 59.49 sin 7.87
TBC = 7468.6 N

In the free-body diagram of point C (with W the sum of weights of chair

and skier) the geometry gives:

CD = tan 1

1.32
= 10.39
7.2

Hence, in the force triangle, by the Law of Sines:

Force Triangle

W
7468.6 N
=
sin12.23 sin100.39

W = 1608.5 N
Finally, the skier weight = 1608.5 N 300 N = 1308.5 N
skier weight = 1309 N

47

PROBLEM 2.48
A chairlift has been stopped in the position shown. Knowing that each
chair weighs 300 N and that the skier in chair F weighs 800 N, determine
the weight of the skier in chair E.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram Point F

EF = tan 1

12
= 22.62
28.8

DF = tan 1

1.32
= 10.39
7.2

Thus, in the force triangle, by the Law of Sines:

Force Triangle

TEF
1100 N
=
sin100.39 sin12.23
TBC = 5107.5 N

In the free-body diagram of point E (with W the sum of weights of chair

and skier) the geometry gives:

AE = tan 1

9.9
= 30.51
16.8

Hence, in the force triangle, by the Law of Sines:

Force Triangle

W
5107.5 N
=
sin 7.89 sin 59.49
W = 813.8 N
Finally, the skier weight = 813.8 N 300 N = 513.8 N
skier weight = 514 N

48

PROBLEM 2.49
Four wooden members are joined with metal plate connectors and are in
equilibrium under the action of the four fences shown. Knowing that
FA = 510 lb and FB = 480 lb, determine the magnitudes of the other two
forces.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram

Resolving the forces into x and y components:

Fx = 0: FC + ( 510 lb ) sin15 ( 480 lb ) cos15 = 0
or FC = 332 lb
Fy = 0: FD ( 510 lb ) cos15 + ( 480 lb ) sin15 = 0
or FD = 368 lb

49

PROBLEM 2.50
Four wooden members are joined with metal plate connectors and are in
equilibrium under the action of the four fences shown. Knowing that
FA = 420 lb and FC = 540 lb, determine the magnitudes of the other two
forces.

SOLUTION

Resolving the forces into x and y components:

Fx = 0: FB cos15 + ( 540 lb ) + ( 420 lb ) cos15 = 0

or

FB = 671.6 lb
FB = 672 lb

Fy = 0: FD ( 420 lb ) cos15 + ( 671.6 lb ) sin15 = 0

or FD = 232 lb

50

PROBLEM 2.51
Two forces P and Q are applied as shown to an aircraft connection.
Knowing that the connection is in equilibrium and the P = 400 lb and
Q = 520 lb, determine the magnitudes of the forces exerted on the rods
A and B.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram

Resolving the forces into x and y directions:

R = P + Q + FA + FB = 0
Substituting components:
R = ( 400 lb ) j + ( 520 lb ) cos 55 i ( 520 lb ) sin 55 j

In the y-direction (one unknown force)

400 lb ( 520 lb ) sin 55 + FA sin 55 = 0

Thus,
FA =

400 lb + ( 520 lb ) sin 55

= 1008.3 lb
sin 55
FA = 1008 lb

In the x-direction:

( 520 lb ) cos55 + FB FA cos 55 = 0

Thus,
FB = FA cos 55 ( 520 lb ) cos 55
= (1008.3 lb ) cos 55 ( 520 lb ) cos 55
= 280.08 lb

FB = 280 lb

51

PROBLEM 2.52
Two forces P and Q are applied as shown to an aircraft connection.
Knowing that the connection is in equilibrium and that the magnitudes of
the forces exerted on rods A and B are FA = 600 lb and FB = 320 lb,
determine the magnitudes of P and Q.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram

Resolving the forces into x and y directions:

R = P + Q + FA + FB = 0
Substituting components:
R = ( 320 lb ) i ( 600 lb ) cos 55 i + ( 600 lb ) sin 55 j

+ Pi + ( Q cos 55 ) i ( Q sin 55 ) j = 0

In the x-direction (one unknown force)

320 lb ( 600 lb ) cos 55 + Q cos 55 = 0
Thus,
Q=

320 lb + ( 600 lb ) cos 55

= 42.09 lb
cos 55

Q = 42.1 lb
In the y-direction:

( 600 lb ) sin 55 P Q sin 55 = 0

Thus,
P = ( 600 lb ) sin 55 Q sin 55 = 457.01 lb
P = 457 lb

52

PROBLEM 2.53
Two cables tied together at C are loaded as shown. Knowing that
W = 840 N, determine the tension (a) in cable AC, (b) in cable BC.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram

From geometry:
The sides of the triangle with hypotenuse CB are in the ratio 8:15:17.
The sides of the triangle with hypotenuse CA are in the ratio 3:4:5.
Thus:
3
15
15
Fx = 0: TCA + TCB ( 680 N ) = 0
5
17
17
or
1
5
TCA + TCB = 200 N
5
17

(1)

and
Fy = 0:

4
8
8
TCA + TCB ( 680 N ) 840 N = 0
5
17
17

or
1
2
TCA + TCB = 290 N
5
17

(2)

Solving Equations (1) and (2) simultaneously:

(a)

TCA = 750 N

(b)

TCB = 1190 N

53

PROBLEM 2.54
Two cables tied together at C are loaded as shown. Determine the range
of values of W for which the tension will not exceed 1050 N in either
cable.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram

From geometry:
The sides of the triangle with hypotenuse CB are in the ratio 8:15:17.
The sides of the triangle with hypotenuse CA are in the ratio 3:4:5.
Thus:
3
15
15
Fx = 0: TCA + TCB ( 680 N ) = 0
5
17
17
or
1
5
TCA + TCB = 200 N
5
17

(1)

and
Fy = 0:

4
8
8
TCA + TCB ( 680 N ) W = 0
5
17
17

or
1
2
1
TCA + TCB = 80 N + W
5
17
4

(2)

TCB = 680 N +
TCA =

17
W
28

25
W
28

Now, with T 1050 N

TCA : TCA = 1050 N =

25
W
28

W = 1176 N

or
and

TCB : TCB = 1050 N = 680 N +

or

W = 609 N

54

17
W
28
0 W 609 N

PROBLEM 2.55
The cabin of an aerial tramway is suspended from a set of wheels that can
roll freely on the support cable ACB and is being pulled at a constant
speed by cable DE. Knowing that = 40 and = 35, that the
combined weight of the cabin, its support system, and its passengers is
24.8 kN, and assuming the tension in cable DF to be negligible,
determine the tension (a) in the support cable ACB, (b) in the traction
cable DE.

SOLUTION
Note: In Problems 2.55 and 2.56 the cabin is considered as a particle. If
considered as a rigid body (Chapter 4) it would be found that its center of
gravity should be located to the left of the centerline for the line CD to be
vertical.
Now
Fx = 0: TACB ( cos 35 cos 40 ) TDE cos 40 = 0
or
0.0531TACB 0.766TDE = 0

(1)

and
Fy = 0: TACB ( sin 40 sin 35 ) + TDE sin 40 24.8 kN = 0
or
0.0692TACB + 0.643TDE = 24.8 kN

(2)

From (1)
TACB = 14.426TDE
Then, from (2)
0.0692 (14.426TDE ) + 0.643TDE = 24.8 kN
and
(b) TDE = 15.1 kN
(a) TACB = 218 kN

55

PROBLEM 2.56
The cabin of an aerial tramway is suspended from a set of wheels that can
roll freely on the support cable ACB and is being pulled at a constant
speed by cable DE. Knowing that = 42 and = 32, that the tension
in cable DE is 20 kN, and assuming the tension in cable DF to be
negligible, determine (a) the combined weight of the cabin, its support
system, and its passengers, (b) the tension in the support cable ACB.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram

First, consider the sum of forces in the x-direction because there is only one unknown force:
Fx = 0: TACB ( cos 32 cos 42 ) ( 20 kN ) cos 42 = 0
or
0.1049TACB = 14.863 kN
(b) TACB = 141.7 kN
Now
Fy = 0: TACB ( sin 42 sin 32 ) + ( 20 kN ) sin 42 W = 0
or

(141.7 kN )( 0.1392 ) + ( 20 kN )( 0.6691) W

=0
(a) W = 33.1 kN

56

PROBLEM 2.57
A block of weight W is suspended from a 500-mm long cord and two
springs of which the unstretched lengths are 450 mm. Knowing that the
constants of the springs are kAB = 1500 N/m and kAD = 500 N/m,
determine (a) the tension in the cord, (b) the weight of the block.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram At A

First note from geometry:

The sides of the triangle with hypotenuse AD are in the ratio 8:15:17.
The sides of the triangle with hypotenuse AB are in the ratio 3:4:5.
The sides of the triangle with hypotenuse AC are in the ratio 7:24:25.
Then:
FAB = k AB ( LAB Lo )
and
LAB =

( 0.44 m )2 + ( 0.33 m )2

= 0.55 m

So:
FAB = 1500 N/m ( 0.55 m 0.45 m )
= 150 N
Similarly,
Then:

( 0.66 m )2 + ( 0.32 m )2

= 0.68 m

FAD = 1500 N/m ( 0.68 m 0.45 m )

= 115 N
(a)
Fx = 0:

4
7
15
(150 N ) + TAC (115 N ) = 0
5
25
17

or
TAC = 66.18 N

57

TAC = 66.2 N

PROBLEM 2.57 CONTINUED

(b) and
Fy = 0:

3
24
8
(150 N ) + ( 66.18 N ) + (115 N ) W = 0
5
25
17
or W = 208 N

58

PROBLEM 2.58
A load of weight 400 N is suspended from a spring and two cords which
are attached to blocks of weights 3W and W as shown. Knowing that the
constant of the spring is 800 N/m, determine (a) the value of W, (b) the
unstretched length of the spring.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram At A

First note from geometry:

The sides of the triangle with hypotenuse AD are in the ratio 12:35:37.
The sides of the triangle with hypotenuse AC are in the ratio 3:4:5.
The sides of the triangle with hypotenuse AB are also in the ratio
12:35:37.
Then:
Fx = 0:

4
35
12
( 3W ) + (W ) + Fs = 0
5
37
37

or
Fs = 4.4833W
and
Fy = 0:

3
12
35
( 3W ) + (W ) + Fs 400 N = 0
5
37
37

Then:
3
12
35
( 3W ) + (W ) + ( 4.4833W ) 400 N = 0
5
37
37
or
W = 62.841 N
and
Fs = 281.74 N
or
W = 62.8 N

(a)

59

PROBLEM 2.58 CONTINUED

(b) Have spring force
Fs = k ( LAB Lo )
Where
FAB = k AB ( LAB Lo )
and
LAB =

( 0.360 m )2 + (1.050 m )2

= 1.110 m

So:
281.74 N = 800 N/m (1.110 L0 ) m
or L0 = 758 mm

60

PROBLEM 2.59
For the cables and loading of Problem 2.46, determine (a) the value of
for which the tension in cable BC is as small as possible, (b) the
corresponding value of the tension.

SOLUTION
The smallest TBC is when TBC is perpendicular to the direction of TAC

Free-Body Diagram At C

Force Triangle

= 55.0

(a)
(b)

TBC = ( 2943 N ) sin 55

= 2410.8 N
TBC = 2.41 kN

61

PROBLEM 2.60
Knowing that portions AC and BC of cable ACB must be equal, determine
the shortest length of cable which can be used to support the load shown
if the tension in the cable is not to exceed 725 N.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram: C
( For T = 725 N )

Fy = 0: 2Ty 1000 N = 0
Ty = 500 N
Tx2 + Ty2 = T 2
Tx2 + ( 500 N ) = ( 725 N )
2

Tx = 525 N

By similar triangles:
BC 1.5 m
=
725
525
BC = 2.07 m
L = 2 ( BC ) = 4.14 m
L = 4.14 m

62

PROBLEM 2.61
Two cables tied together at C are loaded as shown. Knowing that the
maximum allowable tension in each cable is 200 lb, determine (a) the
magnitude of the largest force P which may be applied at C, (b) the
corresponding value of .

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram: C

Force Triangle

Force triangle is isoceles with

2 = 180 85

= 47.5
P = 2 ( 200 lb ) cos 47.5 = 270 lb

(a)

P = 270 lb

(b)

= 180 55 47.5 = 77.5

63

= 77.5

PROBLEM 2.62
Two cables tied together at C are loaded as shown. Knowing that the
maximum allowable tension is 300 lb in cable AC and 150 lb in cable BC,
determine (a) the magnitude of the largest force P which may be applied
at C, (b) the corresponding value of .

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram: C

Force Triangle

(a) Law of Cosines:

P 2 = ( 300 lb ) + (150 lb ) 2 ( 300 lb )(150 lb ) cos85
2

P = 323.5 lb
P = 324 lb

Since P > 300 lb, our solution is correct.

(b) Law of Sines:
sin
sin 85
=
300
323.5
sin = 0.9238
or

= 67.49
= 180 55 67.49 = 57.5
= 57.5

64

PROBLEM 2.63
For the structure and loading of Problem 2.45, determine (a) the value of
for which the tension in cable BC is as small as possible, (b) the
corresponding value of the tension.

SOLUTION
TBC must be perpendicular to FAC to be as small as possible.
Free-Body Diagram: C

(a) We observe:

Force Triangle is
a right triangle

= 55

= 55

TBC = ( 400 lb ) sin 60

(b)
or

TBC = 346.4 lb

65

TBC = 346 lb

PROBLEM 2.64
Boom AB is supported by cable BC and a hinge at A. Knowing that the
boom exerts on pin B a force directed along the boom and that the tension
in rope BD is 70 lb, determine (a) the value of for which the tension in
cable BC is as small as possible, (b) the corresponding value of the
tension.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram: B

TBD + FAB + TBC = 0

(a) Have:

where magnitude and direction of TBD are known, and the direction
of FAB is known.

= 90.0

(b) Have

TBC = ( 70 lb ) sin (180 70 30 )

= 68.93 lb
TBC = 68.9 lb

66

PROBLEM 2.65
Collar A shown in Figure P2.65 and P2.66 can slide on a frictionless
vertical rod and is attached as shown to a spring. The constant of the
spring is 660 N/m, and the spring is unstretched when h = 300 mm.
Knowing that the system is in equilibrium when h = 400 mm, determine
the weight of the collar.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram: Collar A

Fs = k ( LAB LAB )

Have:
where:
LAB =

( 0.3 m )2 + ( 0.4 m )2

LAB = 0.3 2 m

= 0.5 m

Fs = 660 N/m 0.5 0.3 2 m

Then:

= 49.986 N
For the collar:
Fy = 0: W +

4
( 49.986 N ) = 0
5
or W = 40.0 N

67

PROBLEM 2.66
The 40-N collar A can slide on a frictionless vertical rod and is attached
as shown to a spring. The spring is unstretched when h = 300 mm.
Knowing that the constant of the spring is 560 N/m, determine the value
of h for which the system is in equilibrium.

SOLUTION
Fy = 0: W +

Free-Body Diagram: Collar A

or

Fs = 0

Fs = k ( LAB LAB )

Now..

Then:

( 0.3)2 + h2

hFs = 40 0.09 + h 2

or

where

LAB =
h 560

( 0.3)2 + h2

LAB = 0.3 2 m

0.09 + h 2 0.3 2 = 40 0.09 + h 2

(14h 1)

0.09 + h 2 = 4.2 2h

hm

Solving numerically,
h = 415 mm

68

PROBLEM 2.67
A 280-kg crate is supported by several rope-and-pulley arrangements as
shown. Determine for each arrangement the tension in the rope. (Hint:
The tension in the rope is the same on each side of a simple pulley. This
can be proved by the methods of Chapter 4.)

SOLUTION

(a)

T =

1
( 2746.8 N )
2
T = 1373 N

(b)

T =

1
( 2746.8 N )
2
T = 1373 N

(c)

T =

1
( 2746.8 N )
3
T = 916 N

(d)

T =

1
( 2746.8 N )
3
T = 916 N

Fy = 0: 4T ( 280 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 = 0

(e)

T =

1
( 2746.8 N )
4
T = 687 N

69

PROBLEM 2.68
Solve parts b and d of Problem 2.67 assuming that the free end of the
rope is attached to the crate.

Problem 2.67: A 280-kg crate is supported by several rope-and-pulley

arrangements as shown. Determine for each arrangement the tension in
the rope. (Hint: The tension in the rope is the same on each side of a
simple pulley. This can be proved by the methods of Chapter 4.)

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram of pulley
and crate
(b)

T =

1
( 2746.8 N )
3
T = 916 N

(d)

Fy = 0: 4T ( 280 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 = 0

T =

1
( 2746.8 N )
4
T = 687 N

70

PROBLEM 2.69
A 350-lb load is supported by the rope-and-pulley arrangement shown.
Knowing that = 25, determine the magnitude and direction of the
force P which should be exerted on the free end of the rope to maintain
equilibrium. (Hint: The tension in the rope is the same on each side of a
simple pulley. This can be proved by the methods of Chapter 4.)

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram: Pulley A

Fx = 0: 2P sin 25 P cos = 0
and
cos = 0.8452

or

= 32.3

= +32.3

For

or P = 149.1 lb

32.3

= 32.3

For

Fy = 0: 2P cos 25 + P sin 32.3 350 lb = 0

or P = 274 lb

71

32.3

PROBLEM 2.70
A 350-lb load is supported by the rope-and-pulley arrangement shown.
Knowing that = 35, determine (a) the angle , (b) the magnitude of
the force P which should be exerted on the free end of the rope to
maintain equilibrium. (Hint: The tension in the rope is the same on each
side of a simple pulley. This can be proved by the methods of Chapter 4.)

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram: Pulley A

Fx = 0: 2 P sin P cos 25 = 0
Hence:
sin =

(a)

1
cos 25
2

or = 24.2

(b)
Hence:

2P cos 24.2 + P sin 35 350 lb = 0

or

P = 145.97 lb

72

P = 146.0 lb

PROBLEM 2.71
A load Q is applied to the pulley C, which can roll on the cable ACB. The
pulley is held in the position shown by a second cable CAD, which passes
over the pulley A and supports a load P. Knowing that P = 800 N,
determine (a) the tension in cable ACB, (b) the magnitude of load Q.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram: Pulley C

Fx = 0: TACB ( cos 30 cos 50 ) ( 800 N ) cos 50 = 0

(a)
Hence

TACB = 2303.5 N
TACB = 2.30 kN
Fy = 0: TACB ( sin 30 + sin 50 ) + ( 800 N ) sin 50 Q = 0

(b)

( 2303.5 N )( sin 30 + sin 50 ) + ( 800 N ) sin 50 Q = 0

Q = 3529.2 N

or

73

Q = 3.53 kN

PROBLEM 2.72
A 2000-N load Q is applied to the pulley C, which can roll on the cable
ACB. The pulley is held in the position shown by a second cable CAD,
which passes over the pulley A and supports a load P. Determine (a) the
tension in the cable ACB, (b) the magnitude of load P.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram: Pulley C

P = 0.3473TACB

or

(1)

Fy = 0: TACB ( sin 30 + sin 50 ) + P sin 50 2000 N = 0

1.266TACB + 0.766P = 2000 N

or

(2)

(a) Substitute Equation (1) into Equation (2):

1.266TACB + 0.766 ( 0.3473TACB ) = 2000 N
Hence:

TACB = 1305.5 N
TACB = 1306 N

(b) Using (1)

P = 0.3473 (1306 N ) = 453.57 N

P = 454 N

74

PROBLEM 2.73
Determine (a) the x, y, and z components of the 200-lb force, (b) the
angles x, y, and z that the force forms with the coordinate axes.

SOLUTION
(a)

Fx = ( 200 lb ) cos 30 cos 25 = 156.98 lb

Fx = +157.0 lb
Fy = ( 200 lb ) sin 30 = 100.0 lb
Fy = +100.0 lb
Fz = ( 200 lb ) cos 30 sin 25 = 73.1996 lb
Fz = 73.2 lb

(b)

cos x =

156.98
200

or x = 38.3

cos y =

100.0
200

or y = 60.0

73.1996
200

or z = 111.5

cos z =

75

PROBLEM 2.74
Determine (a) the x, y, and z components of the 420-lb force, (b) the
angles x, y, and z that the force forms with the coordinate axes.

SOLUTION
(a)

Fx = ( 420 lb ) sin 20 sin 70 = 134.985 lb

Fx = 135.0 lb
Fy = ( 420 lb ) cos 20 = 394.67 lb
Fy = +395 lb
Fz = ( 420 lb ) sin 20 cos 70 = 49.131 lb
Fz = +49.1 lb

(b)

cos x =

134.985
420

x = 108.7
cos y =

394.67
420

y = 20.0
cos z =

49.131
420

z = 83.3

76

PROBLEM 2.75
To stabilize a tree partially uprooted in a storm, cables AB and AC are
attached to the upper trunk of the tree and then are fastened to steel rods
anchored in the ground. Knowing that the tension in cable AB is 4.2 kN,
determine (a) the components of the force exerted by this cable on the
tree, (b) the angles x, y, and z that the force forms with axes at A which
are parallel to the coordinate axes.

SOLUTION

(a)

Fx = ( 4.2 kN ) sin 50 cos 40 = 2.4647 kN

Fx = +2.46 kN
Fy = ( 4.2 kN ) cos 50 = 2.6997 kN
Fy = 2.70 kN
Fz = ( 4.2 kN ) sin 50 sin 40 = 2.0681 kN
Fz = +2.07 kN

(b)

cos x =

2.4647
4.2

x = 54.1

77

PROBLEM 2.75 CONTINUED

cos y =

2.7
4.2

y = 130.0
cos z =

2.0681
4.0

z = 60.5

78

PROBLEM 2.76
To stabilize a tree partially uprooted in a storm, cables AB and AC are
attached to the upper trunk of the tree and then are fastened to steel rods
anchored in the ground. Knowing that the tension in cable AC is 3.6 kN,
determine (a) the components of the force exerted by this cable on the
tree, (b) the angles x, y, and z that the force forms with axes at A which
are parallel to the coordinate axes.

SOLUTION

(a)

Fx = ( 3.6 kN ) cos 45 sin 25 = 1.0758 kN

Fx = 1.076 kN
Fy = ( 3.6 kN ) sin 45 = 2.546 kN
Fy = 2.55 kN
Fz = ( 3.6 kN ) cos 45 cos 25 = 2.3071 kN
Fz = +2.31 kN

(b)

cos x =

1.0758
3.6

x = 107.4

79

PROBLEM 2.76 CONTINUED

cos y =

2.546
3.6

y = 135.0
cos z =

2.3071
3.6

z = 50.1

80

PROBLEM 2.77
A horizontal circular plate is suspended as shown from three wires which
are attached to a support at D and form 30 angles with the vertical.
Knowing that the x component of the force exerted by wire AD on the
plate is 220.6 N, determine (a) the tension in wire AD, (b) the angles x,
y, and z that the force exerted at A forms with the coordinate axes.

SOLUTION
(a)

Fx = F sin 30 sin 50 = 220.6 N (Given)

F =

220.6 N
= 575.95 N
sin30 sin50
F = 576 N

(b)

cos x =

Fx
220.6
=
= 0.3830
F
575.95

x = 67.5
Fy = F cos 30 = 498.79 N
cos y =

Fy
F

498.79
= 0.86605
575.95

y = 30.0
Fz = F sin 30 cos 50
= ( 575.95 N ) sin 30 cos 50
= 185.107 N
cos z =

Fz
185.107
=
= 0.32139
F
575.95

z = 108.7

81

PROBLEM 2.78
A horizontal circular plate is suspended as shown from three wires which
are attached to a support at D and form 30 angles with the vertical.
Knowing that the z component of the force exerted by wire BD on the
plate is 64.28 N, determine (a) the tension in wire BD, (b) the angles x,
y, and z that the force exerted at B forms with the coordinate axes.

SOLUTION
(a)

Fz = F sin 30 sin 40 = 64.28 N (Given)

F =

(b)

64.28 N
= 200.0 N
sin30 sin40

F = 200 N

Fx = F sin 30 cos 40
= ( 200.0 N ) sin 30 cos 40
= 76.604 N
cos x =

Fx
76.604
=
= 0.38302
F
200.0

x = 112.5

Fy = F cos 30 = 173.2 N
cos y =

Fy
F

173.2
= 0.866
200

y = 30.0

Fz = 64.28 N
cos z =

Fz
64.28
=
= 0.3214
F
200

82

z = 108.7

PROBLEM 2.79
A horizontal circular plate is suspended as shown from three wires which
are attached to a support at D and form 30 angles with the vertical.
Knowing that the tension in wire CD is 120 lb, determine (a) the
components of the force exerted by this wire on the plate, (b) the angles
x, y, and z that the force forms with the coordinate axes.

SOLUTION
(a)

Fx = (120 lb ) sin 30 cos 60 = 30 lb

Fx = 30.0 lb
Fy = (120 lb ) cos 30 = 103.92 lb
Fy = +103.9 lb
Fz = (120 lb ) sin 30 sin 60 = 51.96 lb
Fz = +52.0 lb

(b)

cos x =

Fx
30.0
=
= 0.25
F
120

x = 104.5
Fy

cos y =

103.92
= 0.866
120

y = 30.0
cos z =

Fz
51.96
=
= 0.433
F
120

z = 64.3

83

PROBLEM 2.80
A horizontal circular plate is suspended as shown from three wires which
are attached to a support at D and form 30 angles with the vertical.
Knowing that the x component of the forces exerted by wire CD on the
plate is 40 lb, determine (a) the tension in wire CD, (b) the angles x, y,
and z that the force exerted at C forms with the coordinate axes.

SOLUTION
(a)

Fx = F sin 30 cos 60 = 40 lb (Given)

F =

40 lb
= 160 lb
sin30 cos60
F = 160.0 lb

(b)

Fx
40
=
= 0.25
F
160

cos x =

x = 104.5
Fy = (160 lb ) cos 30 = 103.92 lb
cos y =

Fy
F

103.92
= 0.866
160

y = 30.0
Fz = (160 lb ) sin 30 sin 60 = 69.282 lb
cos z =

Fz
69.282
=
= 0.433
F
160

z = 64.3

84

PROBLEM 2.81
Determine
the
magnitude
and
F = ( 800 lb ) i + ( 260 lb ) j ( 320 lb ) k.

direction

of

the

force

SOLUTION
F =

(800 lb )2 + ( 260 lb )2 + ( 320 lb )2

F = 900 lb

cos x =

Fx
800
=
= 0.8889
F
900

x = 27.3

cos y =

Fy

y = 73.2

cos z =

260
= 0.2889
900

Fz
320
=
= 0.3555
F
900

85

z = 110.8

PROBLEM 2.82
Determine
the
magnitude
and
direction
F = ( 400 N ) i (1200 N ) j + ( 300 N ) k.

of

the

force

SOLUTION
F =

( 400 N )2 + ( 1200 N )2 + ( 300 N )2

Fx
400
=
= 0.30769
F
1300

cos x =
cos y =

Fy
F

cos z =

1200
= 0.92307
1300

Fz
300
=
= 0.23076
F
1300

86

F = 1300 N

x = 72.1
y = 157.4
z = 76.7

PROBLEM 2.83
A force acts at the origin of a coordinate system in a direction defined by
the angles x = 64.5 and z = 55.9. Knowing that the y component of
the force is 200 N, determine (a) the angle y, (b) the other components
and the magnitude of the force.

SOLUTION
(a) We have

( cos x )2 + ( cos y )

+ ( cos z ) = 1 cos y
2

= 1 cos y

2
) ( cos z )2

Since Fy < 0 we must have cos y < 0

Thus, taking the negative square root, from above, we have:
cos y = 1 ( cos 64.5 ) ( cos 55.9 ) = 0.70735
2

y = 135.0

(b) Then:
F =

and

Fy
cos y

200 N
= 282.73 N
0.70735

Fx = 121.7 N

Fz = F cos z = ( 282.73 N ) cos 55.9

Fy = 158.5 N
F = 283 N

87

PROBLEM 2.84
A force acts at the origin of a coordinate system in a direction defined by
the angles x = 75.4 and y = 132.6. Knowing that the z component of
the force is 60 N, determine (a) the angle z, (b) the other components
and the magnitude of the force.

SOLUTION
(a) We have

( cos x )2 + ( cos y )

+ ( cos z ) = 1 cos y
2

= 1 cos y

2
) ( cos z )2

Since Fz < 0 we must have cos z < 0

Thus, taking the negative square root, from above, we have:
cos z = 1 ( cos 75.4 ) ( cos132.6 ) = 0.69159
2

z = 133.8

(b) Then:

F =
and

Fz
60 N
=
= 86.757 N
cos z
0.69159

F = 86.8 N

Fx = 21.9 N

Fy = F cos y = ( 86.8 N ) cos132.6

Fy = 58.8 N

88

PROBLEM 2.85
A force F of magnitude 400 N acts at the origin of a coordinate system.
Knowing that x = 28.5, Fy = 80 N, and Fz > 0, determine (a) the
components Fx and Fz, (b) the angles y and z.

SOLUTION
(a) Have
Fx = F cos x = ( 400 N ) cos 28.5

Fx = 351.5 N

Then:
F 2 = Fx2 + Fy2 + Fz2

( 400 N )2

So:

= ( 352.5 N ) + ( 80 N ) + Fz2
2

Hence:
Fz = +

( 400 N )2 ( 351.5 N )2 ( 80 N )2

Fz = 173.3 N

(b)
cos y =
cos z =

Fy
F

80
= 0.20
400

Fz 173.3
=
= 0.43325
F
400

89

y = 101.5
z = 64.3

PROBLEM 2.86
A force F of magnitude 600 lb acts at the origin of a coordinate system.
Knowing that Fx = 200 lb, z = 136.8, Fy < 0, determine (a) the
components Fy and Fz, (b) the angles x and y.

SOLUTION
Fz = F cos z = ( 600 lb ) cos136.8

(a)

= 437.4 lb

Fz = 437 lb

Then:
F 2 = Fx2 + Fy2 + Fz2

So:

( 600 lb )2 = ( 200 lb )2 + ( Fy )

Hence:

Fy =

+ ( 437.4 lb )

( 600 lb )2 ( 200 lb )2 ( 437.4 lb )2

= 358.7 lb

Fy = 359 lb

(b)
cos x =
cos y =

Fy
F

Fx
200
=
= 0.333
F
600

358.7
= 0.59783
600

90

x = 70.5
y = 126.7

PROBLEM 2.87
A transmission tower is held by three guy wires anchored by bolts at B,
C, and D. If the tension in wire AB is 2100 N, determine the components
of the force exerted by the wire on the bolt at B.

SOLUTION
JJJG
BA = ( 4 m ) i + ( 20 m ) j ( 5 m ) k

BA =
F = F BA

( 4 m )2 + ( 20 m )2 + ( 5 m )2

= 21 m

JJJG
BA 2100 N
( 4 m ) i + ( 20 m ) j ( 5 m ) k
= F
=
BA
21 m
F = ( 400 N ) i + ( 2000 N ) j ( 500 N ) k

Fx = +400 N, Fy = +2000 N, Fz = 500 N

91

PROBLEM 2.88
A transmission tower is held by three guy wires anchored by bolts at B,
C, and D. If the tension in wire AD is 1260 N, determine the components
of the force exerted by the wire on the bolt at D.

SOLUTION
JJJG
DA = ( 4 m ) i + ( 20 m ) j + (14.8 m ) k

DA =
F = F DA

( 4 m )2 + ( 20 m )2 + (14.8 m )2

= 25.2 m

JJJG
DA 1260 N
( 4 m ) i + ( 20 m ) j + (14.8 m ) k
= F
=
DA
25.2 m
F = ( 200 N ) i + (1000 N ) j + ( 740 N ) k

Fx = +200 N, Fy = +1000 N, Fz = +740 N

92

PROBLEM 2.89
A rectangular plate is supported by three cables as shown. Knowing that
the tension in cable AB is 204 lb, determine the components of the force
exerted on the plate at B.

SOLUTION
JJJG
BA = ( 32 in.) i + ( 48 in.) j ( 36 in.) k

BA =

( 32 in.)2 + ( 48 in.)2 + ( 36 in.)2

F = F BA

= 68 in.

JJJG
BA 204 lb
( 32 in.) i + ( 48 in.) j ( 36 in.) k
= F
=
BA
68 in.
F = ( 96 lb ) i + (144 lb ) j (108 lb ) k

Fx = +96.0 lb, Fy = +144.0 lb, Fz = 108.0 lb

93

PROBLEM 2.90
A rectangular plate is supported by three cables as shown. Knowing that
the tension in cable AD is 195 lb, determine the components of the force
exerted on the plate at D.

SOLUTION
JJJG
DA = ( 25 in.) i + ( 48 in.) j + ( 36 in.) k

DA =

( 25 in.)2 + ( 48 in.)2 + ( 36 in.)2

F = F DA

= 65 in.

JJJG
DA 195 lb
( 25 in.) i + ( 48 in.) j + ( 36 in.) k
= F
=
DA
65 in.
F = ( 75 lb ) i + (144 lb ) j + (108 lb ) k

Fx = 75.0 lb, Fy = +144.0 lb, Fz = +108.0 lb

94

PROBLEM 2.91
A steel rod is bent into a semicircular ring of radius 0.96 m and is
supported in part by cables BD and BE which are attached to the ring at
B. Knowing that the tension in cable BD is 220 N, determine the
components of this force exerted by the cable on the support at D.

SOLUTION
JJJG
DB = ( 0.96 m ) i (1.12 m ) j ( 0.96 m ) k
DB =
TDB = T DB

( 0.96 m )2 + ( 1.12 m )2 + ( 0.96 m )2

= 1.76 m

JJJG
DB
220 N
( 0.96 m ) i (1.12 m ) j ( 0.96 m ) k
=T
=
DB 1.76 m
TDB = (120 N ) i (140 N ) j (120 N ) k

(TDB ) x

95

= +120.0 N, (TDB ) y = 140.0 N, (TDB ) z = 120.0 N

PROBLEM 2.92
A steel rod is bent into a semicircular ring of radius 0.96 m and is
supported in part by cables BD and BE which are attached to the ring at
B. Knowing that the tension in cable BE is 250 N, determine the
components of this force exerted by the cable on the support at E.

SOLUTION
JJJG
EB = ( 0.96 m ) i (1.20 m ) j + (1.28 m ) k
EB =
TEB = T EB

( 0.96 m )2 + ( 1.20 m )2 + (1.28 m )2

= 2.00 m

JJJG
EB
250 N
( 0.96 m ) i (1.20 m ) j + (1.28 m ) k
=T
=
EB
2.00 m

(TEB ) x

= +120.0 N, (TEB ) y = 150.0 N, (TEB ) z = +160.0 N

96

PROBLEM 2.93
Find the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the two forces shown
knowing that P = 500 N and Q = 600 N.

SOLUTION
P = ( 500 lb ) [ cos 30 sin15i + sin 30 j + cos 30 cos15k ]

= ( 500 lb ) [ 0.2241i + 0.50 j + 0.8365k ]

= (112.05 lb ) i + ( 250 lb ) j + ( 418.25 lb ) k
Q = ( 600 lb ) [ cos 40 cos 20i + sin 40 j cos 40 sin 20k ]

= ( 600 lb ) [ 0.71985i + 0.64278j 0.26201k ]

= ( 431.91 lb ) i + ( 385.67 lb ) j (157.206 lb ) k
R = P + Q = ( 319.86 lb ) i + ( 635.67 lb ) j + ( 261.04 lb ) k

R=

( 319.86 lb )2 + ( 635.67 lb )2 + ( 261.04 lb )2

= 757.98 lb
R = 758 lb

cos x =

Rx
319.86 lb
=
= 0.42199
R
757.98 lb

x = 65.0
cos y =

Ry
R

635.67 lb
= 0.83864
757.98 lb

y = 33.0
cos z =

Rz
261.04 lb
=
= 0.34439
R
757.98 lb

z = 69.9

97

PROBLEM 2.94
Find the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the two forces shown
knowing that P = 600 N and Q = 400 N.

SOLUTION
Using the results from 2.93:
P = ( 600 lb ) [ 0.2241i + 0.50 j + 0.8365k ]

= (134.46 lb ) i + ( 300 lb ) j + ( 501.9 lb ) k

Q = ( 400 lb ) [ 0.71985i + 0.64278 j 0.26201k ]

= ( 287.94 lb ) i + ( 257.11 lb ) j (104.804 lb ) k

R = P + Q = (153.48 lb ) i + ( 557.11 lb ) j + ( 397.10 lb ) k
R=

(153.48 lb )2 + ( 557.11 lb )2 + ( 397.10 lb )2

= 701.15 lb
R = 701 lb

cos x =

Rx
153.48 lb
=
= 0.21890
R
701.15 lb

x = 77.4
cos y =

Ry
R

557.11 lb
= 0.79457
701.15 lb

y = 37.4
cos z =

Rz
397.10 lb
=
= 0.56637
R
701.15 lb

z = 55.5

98

PROBLEM 2.95
Knowing that the tension is 850 N in cable AB and 1020 N in cable AC,
determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces
exerted at A by the two cables.

SOLUTION

JJJG
AB = ( 400 mm ) i ( 450 mm ) j + ( 600 mm ) k

AB =

( 400 mm )2 + ( 450 mm )2 + ( 600 mm )2

= 850 mm

JJJG
AC = (1000 mm ) i ( 450 mm ) j + ( 600 mm ) k

AC =

TAB = TAB AB = TAB

= 1250 mm

JJJG
( 400 mm ) i ( 450 mm ) j + ( 600 mm ) k
AB
= ( 850 N )

AB
850 mm

TAB = ( 400 N ) i ( 450 N ) j + ( 600 N ) k

TAC = TAC AC = TAC

JJJG
(1000 mm ) i ( 450 mm ) j + ( 600 mm ) k
AC
= (1020 N )

AC
1250 mm

R = TAB + TAC = (1216 N ) i ( 817.2 N ) j + (1089.6 N ) k

R = 1825.8 N

Then:
and

cos x =
cos y =
cos z =

R = 1826 N

1216
= 0.66601
1825.8

x = 48.2

817.2
= 0.44758
1825.8

y = 116.6

1089.6
= 0.59678
1825.8

z = 53.4

99

PROBLEM 2.96
Assuming that in Problem 2.95 the tension is 1020 N in cable AB and
850 N in cable AC, determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant
of the forces exerted at A by the two cables.

SOLUTION

JJJG
AB = ( 400 mm ) i ( 450 mm ) j + ( 600 mm ) k

AB =

( 400 mm )2 + ( 450 mm )2 + ( 600 mm )2

= 850 mm

JJJG
AC = (1000 mm ) i ( 450 mm ) j + ( 600 mm ) k

AC =

TAB = TAB AB = TAB

= 1250 mm

JJJG
( 400 mm ) i ( 450 mm ) j + ( 600 mm ) k
AB
= (1020 N )

AB
850 mm

TAB = ( 480 N ) i ( 540 N ) j + ( 720 N ) k

TAC = TAC AC = TAC

JJJG
(1000 mm ) i ( 450 mm ) j + ( 600 mm ) k
AC
= ( 850 N )

AC
1250 mm

TAC = ( 680 N ) i ( 306 N ) j + ( 408 N ) k

R = TAB + TAC = (1160 N ) i ( 846 N ) j + (1128 N ) k
R = 1825.8 N

R = 1826 N

cos x =

1160
= 0.6353
1825.8

x = 50.6

cos y =

846
= 0.4634
1825.8

y = 117.6

1128
= 0.6178
1825.8

z = 51.8

Then:
and

cos z =

100

PROBLEM 2.97
For the semicircular ring of Problem 2.91, determine the magnitude and
direction of the resultant of the forces exerted by the cables at B knowing
that the tensions in cables BD and BE are 220 N and 250 N, respectively.

SOLUTION
For the solutions to Problems 2.91 and 2.92, we have
TBD = (120 N ) i + (140 N ) j + (120 N ) k
TBE = (120 N ) i + (150 N ) j (160 N ) k

Then:
R B = TBD + TBE

= ( 240 N ) i + ( 290 N ) j ( 40 N ) k
and

R = 378.55 N

cos x =

RB = 379 N

240
= 0.6340
378.55

x = 129.3
cos y =

290
= 0.7661
378.55

y = 40.0
cos z =

40
= 0.1057
378.55

z = 96.1

101

PROBLEM 2.98
To stabilize a tree partially uprooted in a storm, cables AB and AC are
attached to the upper trunk of the tree and then are fastened to steel rods
anchored in the ground. Knowing that the tension in AB is 920 lb and that
the resultant of the forces exerted at A by cables AB and AC lies in the yz
plane, determine (a) the tension in AC, (b) the magnitude and direction of
the resultant of the two forces.

SOLUTION
Have
TAB = ( 920 lb )( sin 50 cos 40i cos 50 j + sin 50 sin 40 j)
TAC = TAC ( cos 45 sin 25i sin 45 j + cos 45 cos 25 j)

(a)
R A = TAB + TAC

( RA ) x

( RA ) x

= Fx = 0:

=0

or
TAC = 1806.60 lb

TAC = 1807 lb

(b)

( RA ) y

( RA ) y

( RA ) z

= Fz :

= 1868.82 lb

( 920 lb ) sin 50 sin 40 + (1806.60 lb ) cos 45 cos 25

( RA ) z

= 1610.78 lb

RA = (1868.82 lb ) j + (1610.78 lb ) k
Then:
RA = 2467.2 lb

RA = 2.47 kips

102

PROBLEM 2.98 CONTINUED

and
cos x =
cos y =
cos z =

0
=0
2467.2

x = 90.0

1868.82
= 0.7560
2467.2

y = 139.2

1610.78
= 0.65288
2467.2

z = 49.2

103

PROBLEM 2.99
To stabilize a tree partially uprooted in a storm, cables AB and AC are
attached to the upper trunk of the tree and then are fastened to steel rods
anchored in the ground. Knowing that the tension in AC is 850 lb and that
the resultant of the forces exerted at A by cables AB and AC lies in the yz
plane, determine (a) the tension in AB, (b) the magnitude and direction of
the resultant of the two forces.

SOLUTION
Have
TAB = TAB ( sin 50 cos 40i cos 50 j + sin 50 sin 40 j)
TAC = ( 850 lb )( cos 45 sin 25i sin 45 j + cos 45 cos 25 j)
(a)

( RA ) x

( RA ) x

=0

TAB = 432.86 lb

TAB = 433 lb

(b)

( RA ) y

( RA ) y

( RA ) z

= Fz :

= 879.28 lb

( 432.86 lb ) sin 50 sin 40 + (850 lb ) cos 45 cos 25

( RA ) z

= 757.87 lb

R A = ( 879.28 lb ) j + ( 757.87 lb ) k
RA = 1160.82 lb

cos x =
cos y =

RA = 1.161 kips

0
=0
1160.82

x = 90.0

879.28
= 0.75746
1160.82

y = 139.2

757.87
= 0.65287
1160.82

z = 49.2

cos z =

104

PROBLEM 2.100
For the plate of Problem 2.89, determine the tension in cables AB and AD
knowing that the tension if cable AC is 27 lb and that the resultant of the
forces exerted by the three cables at A must be vertical.

SOLUTION
With:

JJJG
AC = ( 45 in.) i ( 48 in.) j + ( 36 in.) k

AC =

TAC = TAC AC = TAC

= 75 in.

JJJG
AC
27 lb
( 45 in.) i ( 48 in.) j + ( 36 in.) k
=
AC
75 in.

TAC = (16.2 lb ) i (17.28 lb ) j + (12.96 ) k

and

JJJG
AB = ( 32 in.) i ( 48 in.) j + ( 36 in.) k

AB =

TAB = TAB AB = TAB

= 68 in.

JJJG
AB
T
= AB ( 32 in.) i ( 48 in.) j + ( 36 in.) k
AB 68 in.

TAB = TAB ( 0.4706i 0.7059 j + 0.5294k )

and

JJJG
AD = ( 25 in.) i ( 48 in.) j ( 36 in.) k

( 25 in.)2 + ( 48 in.)2 + ( 36 in.)2

= 65 in.

JJJG
T
= AD ( 25 in.) i ( 48 in.) j ( 36 in.) k

105

PROBLEM 2.100 CONTINUED

Now
= TAB ( 0.4706i 0.7059 j + 0.5294k ) + (16.2 lb ) i (17.28 lb ) j + (12.96 ) k

+ TAD ( 0.3846i 0.7385 j 0.5538k )

Since R must be vertical, the i and k components of this sum must be zero.
Hence:

(1)

(2)

Solving (1) and (2), we obtain:

TAB = 244.79 lb,

TAB = 245 lb

106

PROBLEM 2.101
The support assembly shown is bolted in place at B, C, and D and
supports a downward force P at A. Knowing that the forces in members
AB, AC, and AD are directed along the respective members and that the
force in member AB is 146 N, determine the magnitude of P.

SOLUTION
Note that AB, AC, and AD are in compression.
Have

and

d BA =

( 220 mm )2 + (192 mm )2 + ( 0 )2

d DA =

(192 mm )2 + (192 mm )2 + ( 96 mm )2

dCA =

( 0 )2 + (192 mm )2 + ( 144 mm )2

FBA = FBA BA =

= 292 mm
= 288 mm

= 240 mm

146 N
( 220 mm ) i + (192 mm ) j
292 mm

= (110 N ) i + ( 96 N ) j
FCA = FCA CA =

FCA
(192 mm ) j (144 mm ) k
240 mm

= FCA ( 0.80j 0.60k )

FDA = FDA DA =

FDA
(192 mm ) i + (192 mm ) j + ( 96 mm ) k
288 mm

P = Pj

With
At A:

i-component:

F = 0: FBA + FCA + FDA + P = 0

(110 N ) + 0.66667 FDA = 0

or

FDA = 165 N

j-component:

(1)

k-component:

0.60FCA + 0.33333 (165 N ) = 0

(2)

Solving (2) for FCA and then using that result in (1), gives

107

P = 279 N

PROBLEM 2.102
The support assembly shown is bolted in place at B, C, and D and
supports a downward force P at A. Knowing that the forces in members
AB, AC, and AD are directed along the respective members and that
P = 200 N, determine the forces in the members.

SOLUTION
With the results of 2.101:
FBA = FBA BA =

FBA
( 220 mm ) i + (192 mm ) j
292 mm

= FBA [ 0.75342i + 0.65753j] N

FCA = FCA CA =

FCA
(192 mm ) j (144 mm ) k
240 mm

= FCA ( 0.80 j 0.60k )

FDA = FDA DA =

FDA
(192 mm ) i + (192 mm ) j + ( 96 mm ) k
288 mm

P = ( 200 N ) j

With:

At A:

i-component:

(1)

j-component:

0.65735FBA + 0.80FCA + 0.66667 FDA 200 N = 0

(2)

k-component:

0.60FCA + 0.33333FDA = 0

(3)

Solving (1), (2), and (3), gives

FBA = 104.5 N,

FCA = 65.6 N,

FDA = 118.1 N
FBA = 104.5 N
FCA = 65.6 N
FDA = 118.1 N

108

PROBLEM 2.103
Three cables are used to tether a balloon as shown. Determine the vertical
force P exerted by the balloon at A knowing that the tension in cable AB
is 60 lb.

SOLUTION
The forces applied at A are:
TAB , TAC , TAD and P

where P = Pj . To express the other forces in terms of the unit vectors

i, j, k, we write
JJJG
AB = (12.6 ft ) i (16.8 ft ) j
AB = 21 ft
JJJG
AC = ( 7.2 ft ) i (16.8 ft ) j + (12.6 ft ) k
AC = 22.2 ft
JJJG
AD = (16.8 ft ) j ( 9.9 ft ) k
JJJG
AB
and
TAB = TAB AB = TAB
= ( 0.6i 0.8j) TAB
AB
JJJG
AC
TAC = TAC AC = TAC
= ( 0.3242i 0.75676 j + 0.56757k ) TAC
AC
JJJG
= ( 0.8615 j 0.50769k ) TAD

109

PROBLEM 2.103 CONTINUED

Equilibrium Condition
F = 0: TAB + TAC + TAD + Pj = 0
Substituting the expressions obtained for TAB , TAC , and TAD and
factoring i, j, and k:

( 0.6TAB + 0.3242TAC ) i + ( 0.8TAB 0.75676TAC

+ ( 0.56757TAC 0.50769TAD ) k = 0
Equating to zero the coefficients of i, j, k:
0.6TAB + 0.3242TAC = 0

(1)

0.8TAB 0.75676TAC 0.8615TAD + P = 0

(2)

(3)

Setting TAB = 60 lb in (1) and (2), and solving the resulting set of
equations gives
TAC = 111 lb
P = 239 lb

110

PROBLEM 2.104
Three cables are used to tether a balloon as shown. Determine the vertical
force P exerted by the balloon at A knowing that the tension in cable AC
is 100 lb.

SOLUTION
See Problem 2.103 for the figure and the analysis leading to the linear algebraic Equations (1), (2), and (3)
below:
0.6TAB + 0.3242TAC = 0

(1)

0.8TAB 0.75676TAC 0.8615TAD + P = 0

(2)

(3)

Substituting TAC = 100 lb in Equations (1), (2), and (3) above, and solving the resulting set of equations
using conventional algorithms gives
TAB = 54 lb
P = 215 lb

111

PROBLEM 2.105
The crate shown in Figure P2.105 and P2.108 is supported by three
cables. Determine the weight of the crate knowing that the tension in
cable AB is 3 kN.

SOLUTION
The forces applied at A are:
TAB , TAC , TAD and P
where P = Pj . To express the other forces in terms of the unit vectors
i, j, k, we write
JJJG
AB = ( 0.72 m ) i + (1.2 m ) j ( 0.54 m ) k ,
AB = 1.5 m
JJJG
AC = (1.2 m ) j + ( 0.64 m ) k ,
AC = 1.36 m
JJJG
AD = ( 0.8 m ) i + (1.2 m ) j ( 0.54 m ) k ,
JJJG
AB
and
TAB = TAB AB = TAB
= ( 0.48i + 0.8 j 0.36k ) TAB
AB
JJJG
AC
TAC = TAC AC = TAC
= ( 0.88235j + 0.47059k ) TAC
AC
JJJG
= ( 0.51948i + 0.77922 j 0.35065k ) TAD
Equilibrium Condition with W = Wj
F = 0: TAB + TAC + TAD Wj = 0
Substituting the expressions obtained for TAB , TAC , and TAD and
factoring i, j, and k:

112

PROBLEM 2.105 CONTINUED

Equating to zero the coefficients of i, j, k:
0.8TAB + 0.88235TAC + 0.77922TAD W = 0
0.36TAB + 0.47059TAC 0.35065TAD = 0
Substituting TAB = 3 kN in Equations (1), (2) and (3) and solving the
resulting set of equations, using conventional algorithms for solving
linear algebraic equations, gives
TAC = 4.3605 kN
W = 8.41 kN

113

PROBLEM 2.106
For the crate of Problem 2.105, determine the weight of the crate
knowing that the tension in cable AD is 2.8 kN.
Problem 2.105: The crate shown in Figure P2.105 and P2.108 is
supported by three cables. Determine the weight of the crate knowing that
the tension in cable AB is 3 kN.

SOLUTION
See Problem 2.105 for the figure and the analysis leading to the linear algebraic Equations (1), (2), and (3)
below:
0.8TAB + 0.88235TAC + 0.77922TAD W = 0
0.36TAB + 0.47059TAC 0.35065TAD = 0
Substituting TAD = 2.8 kN in Equations (1), (2), and (3) above, and solving the resulting set of equations
using conventional algorithms, gives
TAB = 3.03 kN
TAC = 4.40 kN
W = 8.49 kN

114

PROBLEM 2.107
For the crate of Problem 2.105, determine the weight of the crate
knowing that the tension in cable AC is 2.4 kN.
Problem 2.105: The crate shown in Figure P2.105 and P2.108 is
supported by three cables. Determine the weight of the crate knowing that
the tension in cable AB is 3 kN.

SOLUTION
See Problem 2.105 for the figure and the analysis leading to the linear algebraic Equations (1), (2), and (3)
below:
0.8TAB + 0.88235TAC + 0.77922TAD W = 0
0.36TAB + 0.47059TAC 0.35065TAD = 0
Substituting TAC = 2.4 kN in Equations (1), (2), and (3) above, and solving the resulting set of equations
using conventional algorithms, gives
TAB = 1.651 kN
W = 4.63 kN

115

PROBLEM 2.108
A 750-kg crate is supported by three cables as shown. Determine the
tension in each cable.

SOLUTION
See Problem 2.105 for the figure and the analysis leading to the linear algebraic Equations (1), (2), and (3)
below:
0.8TAB + 0.88235TAC + 0.77922TAD W = 0
0.36TAB + 0.47059TAC 0.35065TAD = 0

Substituting W = ( 750 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 = 7.36 kN in Equations (1), (2), and (3) above, and solving the
resulting set of equations using conventional algorithms, gives
TAB = 2.63 kN
TAC = 3.82 kN

116

PROBLEM 2.109
A force P is applied as shown to a uniform cone which is supported by
three cords, where the lines of action of the cords pass through the vertex
A of the cone. Knowing that P = 0 and that the tension in cord BE is
0.2 lb, determine the weight W of the cone.

SOLUTION
Note that because the line of action of each of the cords passes through the vertex A of the cone, the cords all
have the same length, and the unit vectors lying along the cords are parallel to the unit vectors lying along the
generators of the cone.
Thus, for example, the unit vector along BE is identical to the unit vector along the generator AB.
Hence:
It follows that:

AB = BE =

65

cos 45i + 8 j sin 45k

TBE = TBE BE = TBE

65

cos 30i + 8j + sin 30k

TCF = TCF CF = TCF

65

cos15i + 8 j sin15k
TDG = TDG DG = TDG

65

117

PROBLEM 2.109 CONTINUED

F = 0: TBE + TCF + TDG + W + P = 0

At A:

Then, isolating the factors of i, j, and k, we obtain three algebraic equations:

i:

or

TBE
T
T
cos 45 + CF cos 30 DG cos15 + P = 0
65
65
65

j: TBE

k:

or

8
8
8
+ TCF
+ TDG
W = 0
65
65
65

TBE + TCF + TDG W

or

(1)

65
=0
8

(2)

TBE
T
T
sin 45 + CF sin 30 DG sin15 = 0
65
65
65

(3)

With P = 0 and the tension in cord BE = 0.2 lb:

Solving the resulting Equations (1), (2), and (3) using conventional methods in Linear Algebra (elimination,
matrix methods or iteration with MATLAB or Maple, for example), we obtain:
TCF = 0.669 lb
TDG = 0.746 lb
W = 1.603 lb

118

PROBLEM 2.110
A force P is applied as shown to a uniform cone which is supported by
three cords, where the lines of action of the cords pass through the vertex
A of the cone. Knowing that the cone weighs 1.6 lb, determine the range
of values of P for which cord CF is taut.

SOLUTION
See Problem 2.109 for the Figure and the analysis leading to the linear algebraic Equations (1), (2), and (3)
below:

i : TBE cos 45 + TCF cos 30 TDG cos15 + 65 P = 0

j: TBE + TCF + TDG W

65
=0
8

k : TBE sin 45 + TCF sin 30 TDG sin15 = 0

(1)
(2)
(3)

With W = 1.6 lb , the range of values of P for which the cord CF is taut can found by solving Equations (1),
(2), and (3) for the tension TCF as a function of P and requiring it to be positive (> 0).
Solving (1), (2), and (3) with unknown P, using conventional methods in Linear Algebra (elimination, matrix
methods or iteration with MATLAB or Maple, for example), we obtain:
TCF = ( 1.729 P + 0.668 ) lb
Hence, for TCF > 0
or

1.729 P + 0.668 > 0

P < 0.386 lb
0 < P < 0.386 lb

119

PROBLEM 2.111
A transmission tower is held by three guy wires attached to a pin at A and
anchored by bolts at B, C, and D. If the tension in wire AB is 3.6 kN,
determine the vertical force P exerted by the tower on the pin at A.

SOLUTION
The force in each cable can be written as the product of the magnitude of
the force and the unit vector along the cable. That is, with
JJJG
AC = (18 m ) i ( 30 m ) j + ( 5.4 m ) k
AC =

(18 m )2 + ( 30 m )2 + ( 5.4 m )2

TAC = T AC = TAC

= 35.4 m

JJJG
AC
TAC
(18 m ) i ( 30 m ) j + ( 5.4 m ) k
=
35.4 m
AC

TAC = TAC ( 0.5085i 0.8475j + 0.1525k )

JJJG
AB = ( 6 m ) i ( 30 m ) j + ( 7.5 m ) k

and
AB =

( 6 m )2 + ( 30 m )2 + ( 7.5 m )2

TAB = T AB = TAB

= 31.5 m

JJJG
AB
TAB
( 6 m ) i ( 30 m ) j + ( 7.5 m ) k
=
AB 31.5 m

TAB = TAB ( 0.1905i 0.9524 j + 0.2381k )

JJJG
AD = ( 6 m ) i ( 30 m ) j ( 22.2 m ) k

Finally

( 6 m )2 + ( 30 m )2 + ( 22.2 m )2

= 37.8 m

JJJG
( 6 m ) i ( 30 m ) j ( 22.2 m ) k
=

120

PROBLEM 2.111 CONTINUED

With P = Pj, at A:

F = 0: TAB + TAC + TAD + Pj = 0

Equating the factors of i, j, and k to zero, we obtain the linear algebraic
equations:
i : 0.1905TAB + 0.5085TAC 0.1587TAD = 0

(1)

(2)

k : 0.2381TAB + 0.1525TAC 0.5873TAD = 0

(3)

In Equations (1), (2) and (3), set TAB = 3.6 kN, and, using conventional
methods for solving Linear Algebraic Equations (MATLAB or Maple,
for example), we obtain:
TAC = 1.963 kN

P = 6.66 kN

121

PROBLEM 2.112
A transmission tower is held by three guy wires attached to a pin at A and
anchored by bolts at B, C, and D. If the tension in wire AC is 2.6 kN,
determine the vertical force P exerted by the tower on the pin at A.

SOLUTION
Based on the results of Problem 2.111, particularly Equations (1), (2) and (3), we substitute TAC = 2.6 kN
and solve the three resulting linear equations using conventional tools for solving Linear Algebraic Equations
(MATLAB or Maple, for example), to obtain
TAB = 4.77 kN

P = 8.81 kN

122

PROBLEM 2.113
A rectangular plate is supported by three cables as shown. Knowing that
the tension in cable AC is 15 lb, determine the weight of the plate.

SOLUTION
The (vector) force in each cable can be written as the product of the
(scalar) force and the unit vector along the cable. That is, with
JJJG
AB = ( 32 in.) i ( 48 in.) j + ( 36 in.) k
AB =

( 32 in.)2 + ( 48 in.)2 + ( 36 in.)2

TAB = T AB = TAB

= 68 in.

JJJG
AB
T
= AB ( 32 in.) i ( 48 in.) j + ( 36 in.) k
AB 68 in.

TAB = TAB ( 0.4706i 0.7059 j + 0.5294k )

JJJG
AC = ( 45 in.) i ( 48 in.) j + ( 36 in.) k

and
AC =

( 45 in.)2 + ( 48 in.)2 + ( 36 in.)2

TAC = T AC = TAC

= 75 in.

JJJG
AC
T
= AC ( 45 in.) i ( 48 in.) j + ( 36 in.) k
AC
75 in.

TAC = TAC ( 0.60i 0.64 j + 0.48k )

JJJG
AD = ( 25 in.) i ( 48 in.) j ( 36 in.) k

Finally,

123

= 65 in.

PROBLEM 2.113 CONTINUED

JJJG
T
= AD ( 25 in.) i ( 48 in.) j ( 36 in.) k

With W = Wj, at A we have:
F = 0: TAB + TAC + TAD + Wj = 0
Equating the factors of i, j, and k to zero, we obtain the linear algebraic
equations:
i : 0.4706TAB + 0.60TAC 0.3846TAD = 0

(1)

(2)

k : 0.5294TAB + 0.48TAC 0.5538TAD = 0

(3)

In Equations (1), (2) and (3), set TAC = 15 lb, and, using conventional
methods for solving Linear Algebraic Equations (MATLAB or Maple,
for example), we obtain:
TAB = 136.0 lb

W = 211 lb

124

PROBLEM 2.114
A rectangular plate is supported by three cables as shown. Knowing that
the tension in cable AD is 120 lb, determine the weight of the plate.

SOLUTION
Based on the results of Problem 2.111, particularly Equations (1), (2) and (3), we substitute TAD = 120 lb and
solve the three resulting linear equations using conventional tools for solving Linear Algebraic Equations
(MATLAB or Maple, for example), to obtain
TAC = 12.59 lb
TAB = 114.1 lb
W = 177.2 lb

125

PROBLEM 2.115
A horizontal circular plate having a mass of 28 kg is suspended as shown
from three wires which are attached to a support D and form 30 angles
with the vertical. Determine the tension in each wire.

SOLUTION
Fx = 0: TAD sin 30 sin 50 + TBD sin 30 cos 40
+ TCD sin 30 cos 60 = 0
Dividing through by the factor sin 30 and evaluating the trigonometric
functions gives
0.7660TAD + 0.7660TBD + 0.50TCD = 0

(1)

Similarly,
Fz = 0: TAD sin 30 cos 50 + TBD sin 30 sin 40
TCD sin 30 sin 60 = 0
or

0.6428TAD + 0.6428TBD 0.8660TCD = 0

(2)

From (1)
Substituting this into (2):

TBD = 0.3573TCD

(3)

(4)

Now,
Fy = 0: TAD cos 30 TBD cos 30 TCD cos 30

+ ( 28 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 = 0
or

126

PROBLEM 2.115 CONTINUED

Using (3) and (4), above:

TCD + 0.3573TCD + TCD = 317.2 N

Then:

TBD = 46.9 N
TCD = 135.1 N

127

PROBLEM 2.119
A force P is applied as shown to a uniform cone which is supported by
three cords, where the lines of action of the cords pass through the vertex
A of the cone. Knowing that the cone weighs 2.4 lb and that P = 0,
determine the tension in each cord.

SOLUTION
Note that because the line of action of each of the cords passes through the vertex A of the cone, the cords all
have the same length, and the unit vectors lying along the cords are parallel to the unit vectors lying along the
generators of the cone.
Thus, for example, the unit vector along BE is identical to the unit vector along the generator AB.
Hence:
AB = BE =

cos 45i + 8j sin 45k

65

It follows that:
cos 45i + 8 j sin 45k
TBE = TBE BE = TBE

65

cos 30i + 8j + sin 30k

TCF = TCF CF = TCF

65

cos15i + 8 j sin15k
TDG = TDG DG = TDG

65

At A:

132

PROBLEM 2.119 CONTINUED

Then, isolating the factors if i, j, and k we obtain three algebraic equations:
i:

TBE
T
T
cos 45 + CF cos 30 DG cos15 = 0
65
65
65

or
j: TBE

k:

or

8
8
8
+ TCF
+ TDG
W = 0
65
65
65

TBE + TCF + TDG =

or

(1)

2.4
65 = 0.3 65
8

(2)

TBE
T
T
sin 45 + CF sin 30 DG sin15 P = 0
65
65
65

TBE sin 45 + TCF sin 30 TDG sin15 = P 65

(3)

With P = 0, the tension in the cords can be found by solving the resulting Equations (1), (2), and (3) using
conventional methods in Linear Algebra (elimination, matrix methods or iterationwith MATLAB or Maple,
for example). We obtain
TBE = 0.299 lb
TCF = 1.002 lb
TDG = 1.117 lb

133

PROBLEM 2.120
A force P is applied as shown to a uniform cone which is supported by
three cords, where the lines of action of the cords pass through the vertex
A of the cone. Knowing that the cone weighs 2.4 lb and that P = 0.1 lb,
determine the tension in each cord.

SOLUTION
See Problem 2.121 for the analysis leading to the linear algebraic Equations (1), (2), and (3) below:
TBE cos 45 + TCF cos 30 TDG cos15 = 0

(1)

(2)

TBE sin 45 + TCF sin 30 TDG sin15 = P 65

(3)

With P = 0.1 lb, solving (1), (2), and (3), using conventional methods in Linear Algebra (elimination, matrix
methods or iterationwith MATLAB or Maple, for example), we obtain
TBE = 1.006 lb
TCF = 0.357 lb
TDG = 1.056 lb

134

PROBLEM 2.121
Using two ropes and a roller chute, two workers are unloading a 200-kg
cast-iron counterweight from a truck. Knowing that at the instant shown
the counterweight is kept from moving and that the positions of points A,
B, and C are, respectively, A(0, 0.5 m, 1 m), B(0.6 m, 0.8 m, 0), and
C(0.7 m, 0.9 m, 0), and assuming that no friction exists between the
counterweight and the chute, determine the tension in each rope. (Hint:
Since there is no friction, the force exerted by the chute on the
counterweight must be perpendicular to the chute.)

SOLUTION
From the geometry of the chute:
N=

N
( 2 j + k ) = N ( 0.8944 j + 0.4472k )
5

As in Problem 2.11, for example, the force in each rope can be written as
the product of the magnitude of the force and the unit vector along the
cable. Thus, with
JJJG
AB = ( 0.6 m ) i + (1.3 m ) j + (1 m ) k
AB =

( 0.6 m )2 + (1.3 m )2 + (1 m )2

TAB = T AB = TAB

= 1.764 m

JJJG
AB
TAB
( 0.6 m ) i + (1.3 m ) j + (1 m ) k
=
AB 1.764 m

TAB = TAB ( 0.3436i + 0.7444 j + 0.5726k )

JJJG
AC = ( 0.7 m ) i + (1.4 m ) j (1 m ) k

and
AC =

( 0.7 m )2 + (1.4 m )2 + ( 1 m )2

TAC = T AC = TAC

= 1.8574 m

JJJG
AC
TAC
( 0.7 m ) i + (1.4 m ) j (1 m ) k
=
AC 1.764 m

TAC = TAC ( 0.3769i + 0.7537 j 0.5384k )

F = 0: N + TAB + TAC + W = 0

Then:

135

PROBLEM 2.121 CONTINUED

With W = ( 200 kg )( 9.81 m/s ) = 1962 N, and equating the factors of i, j,
and k to zero, we obtain the linear algebraic equations:
i : 0.3436TAB + 0.3769TAC = 0

(1)

(2)

(3)

Using conventional methods for solving Linear Algebraic Equations

(elimination, MATLAB or Maple, for example), we obtain

N = 1311 N
TAB = 551 N
TAC = 503 N

136

PROBLEM 2.122
Solve Problem 2.121 assuming that a third worker is exerting a force
P = (180 N)i on the counterweight.
Problem 2.121: Using two ropes and a roller chute, two workers are
the instant shown the counterweight is kept from moving and that the
positions of points A, B, and C are, respectively, A(0, 0.5 m, 1 m),
B(0.6 m, 0.8 m, 0), and C(0.7 m, 0.9 m, 0), and assuming that no friction
exists between the counterweight and the chute, determine the tension in
each rope. (Hint: Since there is no friction, the force exerted by the chute
on the counterweight must be perpendicular to the chute.)

SOLUTION
From the geometry of the chute:
N=

N
( 2 j + k ) = N ( 0.8944 j + 0.4472k )
5

As in Problem 2.11, for example, the force in each rope can be written as
the product of the magnitude of the force and the unit vector along the
cable. Thus, with
JJJG
AB = ( 0.6 m ) i + (1.3 m ) j + (1 m ) k
AB =

( 0.6 m )2 + (1.3 m )2 + (1 m )2

TAB = T AB = TAB

= 1.764 m

JJJG
AB
TAB
( 0.6 m ) i + (1.3 m ) j + (1 m ) k
=
AB 1.764 m

TAB = TAB ( 0.3436i + 0.7444 j + 0.5726k )

JJJG
AC = ( 0.7 m ) i + (1.4 m ) j (1 m ) k

and
AC =

( 0.7 m )2 + (1.4 m )2 + ( 1 m )2

TAC = T AC = TAC

= 1.8574 m

JJJG
AC
TAC
( 0.7 m ) i + (1.4 m ) j (1 m ) k
=
AC 1.764 m

TAC = TAC ( 0.3769i + 0.7537 j 0.5384k )

F = 0: N + TAB + TAC + P + W = 0

Then:

137

P = (180 N ) i

Where
and

W = ( 200 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 j

= (1962 N ) j
Equating the factors of i, j, and k to zero, we obtain the linear equations:
i : 0.3436TAB + 0.3769TAC 180 = 0
j: 0.8944 N + 0.7444TAB + 0.7537TAC 1962 = 0
k : 0.4472 N 0.5726TAB 0.5384TAC = 0

Using conventional methods for solving Linear Algebraic Equations

(elimination, MATLAB or Maple, for example), we obtain
N = 1302 N
TAB = 306 N
TAC = 756 N

138

PROBLEM 2.123
A piece of machinery of weight W is temporarily supported by cables AB,
AC, and ADE. Cable ADE is attached to the ring at A, passes over the
pulley at D and back through the ring, and is attached to the support at E.
Knowing that W = 320 lb, determine the tension in each cable. (Hint:
The tension is the same in all portions of cable ADE.)

SOLUTION
The (vector) force in each cable can be written as the product of the (scalar) force and the unit vector along
the cable. That is, with
JJJG
AB = ( 9 ft ) i + ( 8 ft ) j (12 ft ) k
AB =

( 9 ft )2 + (8 ft )2 + ( 12 ft )2

TAB = T AB = TAB

= 17 ft

JJJG
AB
T
= AB ( 9 ft ) i + ( 8 ft ) j (12 ft ) k
17
ft
AB

TAB = TAB ( 0.5294i + 0.4706 j 0.7059k )

and

JJJG
AC = ( 0 ) i + ( 8 ft ) j + ( 6 ft ) k

AC =

( 0 ft )2 + (8 ft )2 + ( 6 ft )2

TAC = T AC = TAC

= 10 ft

JJJG
AC
T
= AC ( 0 ft ) i + ( 8 ft ) j + ( 6 ft ) k
AC 10 ft

TAC = TAC ( 0.8 j + 0.6k )

and

JJJG
AD = ( 4 ft ) i + ( 8 ft ) j (1 ft ) k

( 4 ft )2 + (8 ft )2 + ( 1 ft )2

= 9 ft

JJJG
( 4 ft ) i + ( 8 ft ) j (1 ft ) k
=
9 ft

139

PROBLEM 2.123 CONTINUED

Finally,

JJJG
AE = ( 8 ft ) i + ( 8 ft ) j + ( 4 ft ) k

AE =

( 8 ft )2 + (8 ft )2 + ( 4 ft )2

TAE = T AE = TADE

= 12 ft

JJJG
( 8 ft ) i + ( 8 ft ) j + ( 4 ft ) k
=
12 ft
AE

With the weight of the machinery, W = W j, at A, we have:

F = 0: TAB + TAC + 2TAD Wj = 0
Equating the factors of i, j, and k to zero, we obtain the following linear algebraic equations:

(1)

0.4706TAB + 0.8TAC + 2 ( 0.8889TADE ) + 0.6667TADE W = 0

(2)

(3)

Knowing that W = 320 lb, we can solve Equations (1), (2) and (3) using conventional methods for solving
Linear Algebraic Equations (elimination, matrix methods via MATLAB or Maple, for example) to obtain
TAB = 46.5 lb
TAC = 34.2 lb

140

PROBLEM 2.124
A piece of machinery of weight W is temporarily supported by cables AB,
AC, and ADE. Cable ADE is attached to the ring at A, passes over the
pulley at D and back through the ring, and is attached to the support at E.
Knowing that the tension in cable AB is 68 lb, determine (a) the tension
in AC, (b) the tension in ADE, (c) the weight W. (Hint: The tension is the
same in all portions of cable ADE.)

SOLUTION
See Problem 2.123 for the analysis leading to the linear algebraic Equations (1), (2), and (3), below:

(1)

0.4706TAB + 0.8TAC + 2 ( 0.8889TADE ) + 0.6667TADE W = 0

(2)

(3)

Knowing that the tension in cable AB is 68 lb, we can solve Equations (1), (2) and (3) using conventional
methods for solving Linear Algebraic Equations (elimination, matrix methods via MATLAB or Maple, for
example) to obtain
(a) TAC = 50.0 lb
(b) TAE = 162.0 lb
(c)

141

W = 468 lb

PROBLEM 2.128
Solve Problem 2.127 assuming y = 550 mm.

Problem 2.127: Collars A and B are connected by a 1-m-long wire and

can slide freely on frictionless rods. If a force P = (680 N) j is applied at
A, determine (a) the tension in the wire when y = 300 mm, (b) the
magnitude of the force Q required to maintain the equilibrium of the
system.

SOLUTION
From the analysis of Problem 2.127, particularly the results:
y 2 + z 2 = 0.84 m 2
TAB =
Q=

680 N
y

680 N
z
y

With y = 550 mm = 0.55 m, we obtain:

z 2 = 0.84 m 2 ( 0.55 m )

z = 0.733 m
and
TAB =

(a)

680 N
= 1236.4 N
0.55
TAB = 1.236 kN

or
and
Q = 1236 ( 0.866 ) N = 906 N

(b)

Q = 0.906 kN

or

147

PROBLEM 2.129
Member BD exerts on member ABC a force P directed along line BD.
Knowing that P must have a 300-lb horizontal component, determine
(a) the magnitude of the force P, (b) its vertical component.

SOLUTION

(a)

P sin 35 = 300 1b
P=

300 lb
sin 35
P = 523 lb

(b) Vertical Component

Pv = P cos 35
= ( 523 lb ) cos 35
Pv = 428 lb

148

PROBLEM 2.130
A container of weight W is suspended from ring A, to which cables AC
and AE are attached. A force P is applied to the end F of a third cable
which passes over a pulley at B and through ring A and which is attached
to a support at D. Knowing that W = 1000 N, determine the magnitude
of P. (Hint: The tension is the same in all portions of cable FBAD.)

SOLUTION
The (vector) force in each cable can be written as the product of the (scalar) force and the unit vector along
the cable. That is, with
JJJG
AB = ( 0.78 m ) i + (1.6 m ) j + ( 0 m ) k
AB =

( 0.78 m )2 + (1.6 m )2 + ( 0 )2

TAB = T AB = TAB

= 1.78 m

JJJG
AB
TAB
( 0.78 m ) i + (1.6 m ) j + ( 0 m ) k
=
AB 1.78 m

TAB = TAB ( 0.4382i + 0.8989 j + 0k )

and

JJJG
AC = ( 0 ) i + (1.6 m ) j + (1.2 m ) k

AC =

( 0 m )2 + (1.6 m )2 + (1.2 m )2

TAC = T AC = TAC

= 2m

JJJG
AC TAC
( 0 ) i + (1.6 m ) j + (1.2 m ) k
=
AC
2m

TAC = TAC ( 0.8 j + 0.6k )

and

JJJG
AD = (1.3 m ) i + (1.6 m ) j + ( 0.4 m ) k

(1.3 m )2 + (1.6 m )2 + ( 0.4 m )2

= 2.1 m

JJJG
T
= AD (1.3 m ) i + (1.6 m ) j + ( 0.4 m ) k
2.1 m

149

PROBLEM 2.130 CONTINUED

Finally,

JJJG
AE = ( 0.4 m ) i + (1.6 m ) j ( 0.86 m ) k

AE =

( 0.4 m )2 + (1.6 m )2 + ( 0.86 m )2

TAE = T AE = TAE

= 1.86 m

JJJG
AE
TAE
( 0.4 m ) i + (1.6 m ) j ( 0.86 m ) k
=
AE 1.86 m

TAE = TAE ( 0.2151i + 0.8602 j 0.4624k )

With the weight of the container W = Wj, at A we have:
F = 0: TAB + TAC + TAD Wj = 0
Equating the factors of i, j, and k to zero, we obtain the following linear algebraic equations:
0.4382TAB + 0.6190TAD 0.2151TAE = 0

(1)

(2)

0.6TAC + 0.1905TAD 0.4624TAE = 0

(3)

Knowing that W = 1000 N and that because of the pulley system at B TAB = TAD = P, where P is the
externally applied (unknown) force, we can solve the system of linear equations (1), (2) and (3) uniquely
for P.
P = 378 N

150

PROBLEM 2.131
A container of weight W is suspended from ring A, to which cables AC
and AE are attached. A force P is applied to the end F of a third cable
which passes over a pulley at B and through ring A and which is attached
to a support at D. Knowing that the tension in cable AC is 150 N,
determine (a) the magnitude of the force P, (b) the weight W of the
container. (Hint: The tension is the same in all portions of cable FBAD.)

SOLUTION
Here, as in Problem 2.130, the support of the container consists of the four cables AE, AC, AD, and AB, with
the condition that the force in cables AB and AD is equal to the externally applied force P. Thus, with the
condition

and using the linear algebraic equations of Problem 2.131 with TAC = 150 N, we obtain

(a)

P = 454 N

(b) W = 1202 N

151

PROBLEM 2.125
A container of weight W is suspended from ring A. Cable BAC passes
through the ring and is attached to fixed supports at B and C. Two forces
P = Pi and Q = Qk are applied to the ring to maintain the container is
the position shown. Knowing that W = 1200 N, determine P and Q.
(Hint: The tension is the same in both portions of cable BAC.)

SOLUTION
The (vector) force in each cable can be written as the product of the
(scalar) force and the unit vector along the cable. That is, with
JJJG
AB = ( 0.48 m ) i + ( 0.72 m ) j ( 0.16 m ) k
AB =

( 0.48 m )2 + ( 0.72 m )2 + ( 0.16 m )2

TAB = T AB = TAB

= 0.88 m

JJJG
AB
TAB
( 0.48 m ) i + ( 0.72 m ) j ( 0.16 m ) k
=
AB 0.88 m

TAB = TAB ( 0.5455i + 0.8182 j 0.1818k )

and
JJJG
AC = ( 0.24 m ) i + ( 0.72 m ) j ( 0.13 m ) k

AC =

( 0.24 m )2 + ( 0.72 m )2 ( 0.13 m )2

TAC = T AC = TAC

= 0.77 m

JJJG
AC
TAC
( 0.24 m ) i + ( 0.72 m ) j ( 0.13 m ) k
=
0.77 m
AC

TAC = TAC ( 0.3177i + 0.9351j 0.1688k )

At A:

F = 0: TAB + TAC + P + Q + W = 0

142

PROBLEM 2.125 CONTINUED

Noting that TAB = TAC because of the ring A, we equate the factors of
i, j, and k to zero to obtain the linear algebraic equations:
i:

( 0.5455 + 0.3177 ) T

+P=0

P = 0.2338T

or
j:

( 0.8182 + 0.9351) T

W = 0

W = 1.7532T

or
k:

( 0.1818 0.1688) T

+Q =0

Q = 0.356T

or
With W = 1200 N:

T =

1200 N
= 684.5 N
1.7532
P = 160.0 N
Q = 240 N

143

PROBLEM 2.126
For the system of Problem 2.125, determine W and P knowing that
Q = 160 N.

Problem 2.125: A container of weight W is suspended from ring A.

Cable BAC passes through the ring and is attached to fixed supports at B
and C. Two forces P = Pi and Q = Qk are applied to the ring to
maintain the container is the position shown. Knowing that W = 1200 N,
determine P and Q. (Hint: The tension is the same in both portions of
cable BAC.)

SOLUTION
Based on the results of Problem 2.125, particularly the three equations relating P, Q, W, and T we substitute
Q = 160 N to obtain
T =

160 N
= 456.3 N
0.3506
W = 800 N
P = 107.0 N

144

PROBLEM 2.127
Collars A and B are connected by a 1-m-long wire and can slide freely on
frictionless rods. If a force P = (680 N) j is applied at A, determine
(a) the tension in the wire when y = 300 mm, (b) the magnitude of the
force Q required to maintain the equilibrium of the system.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagrams of collars

For both Problems 2.127 and 2.128:

( AB )2
(1 m )2

Here

= x2 + y 2 + z 2

= ( 0.40 m ) + y 2 + z 2
2

y 2 + z 2 = 0.84 m 2

or

Thus, with y given, z is determined.

Now
AB =

JJJG
AB
1
=
( 0.40i yj + zk ) m = 0.4i yk + zk
AB 1 m

Where y and z are in units of meters, m.

From the F.B. Diagram of collar A:
F = 0: N xi + N zk + Pj + TAB AB = 0
Setting the j coefficient to zero gives:
P yTAB = 0
With P = 680 N,
TAB =

680 N
y

Now, from the free body diagram of collar B:

F = 0: N xi + N y j + Qk TAB AB = 0

145

PROBLEM 2.127 CONTINUED

Setting the k coefficient to zero gives:
Q TAB z = 0
And using the above result for TAB we have
Q = TAB z =

680 N
z
y

Then, from the specifications of the problem, y = 300 mm = 0.3 m

z 2 = 0.84 m 2 ( 0.3 m )

z = 0.866 m
and
TAB =

(a)

680 N
= 2266.7 N
0.30
TAB = 2.27 kN

or
and
Q = 2266.7 ( 0.866 ) = 1963.2 N

(b)

Q = 1.963 kN

or

146

PROBLEM 2.116
A transmission tower is held by three guy wires attached to a pin at A and
anchored by bolts at B, C, and D. Knowing that the tower exerts on the
pin at A an upward vertical force of 8 kN, determine the tension in each
wire.

SOLUTION

From the solutions of 2.111 and 2.112:

TAB = 0.5409 P
TAC = 0.295P
Using P = 8 kN:

TAB = 4.33 kN
TAC = 2.36 kN

128

PROBLEM 2.117
For the rectangular plate of Problems 2.113 and 2.114, determine the
tension in each of the three cables knowing that the weight of the plate is
180 lb.

SOLUTION

From the solutions of 2.113 and 2.114:

TAB = 0.6440 P
TAC = 0.0709 P
Using P = 180 lb:

TAB = 115.9 lb
TAC = 12.76 lb

129

PROBLEM 2.118
For the cone of Problem 2.110, determine the range of values of P for
which cord DG is taut if P is directed in the x direction.

SOLUTION
From the solutions to Problems 2.109 and 2.110, have

TBE + TCF + TDG = 0.2 65

TBE sin 45 + TCF sin 30 TDG sin15 = 0

(2)
(3)
(1 )

Applying the method of elimination to obtain a desired result:

Multiplying (2) by sin 45 and adding the result to (3):

or

(4)

Multiplying (2) by sin 30 and subtracting (3) from the result:

TBE ( sin 30 + sin 45 ) + TDG ( sin 30 + sin15 ) = 0.2 65 sin 30
or

130

(5)

PROBLEM 2.118 CONTINUED

Substituting (4) and (5) into (1) :
1.2903 1.7321TDG P 65 = 0
TDG is taut for P <

1.2903
lb
65

or 0 P < 0.1600 lb

131

PROBLEM 2.132
Two cables tied together at C are loaded as shown. Knowing that
Q = 60 lb, determine the tension (a) in cable AC, (b) in cable BC.

SOLUTION
Fy = 0: TCA Q cos 30 = 0

Q = 60 lb

With

TCA = ( 60 lb )( 0.866 )

(a)

TCA = 52.0 lb
Fx = 0: P TCB Q sin 30 = 0

(b)

P = 75 lb

With

TCB = 75 lb ( 60 lb )( 0.50 )
or TCB = 45.0 lb

152

PROBLEM 2.133
Two cables tied together at C are loaded as shown. Determine the range
of values of Q for which the tension will not exceed 60 lb in either cable.

SOLUTION
Fx = 0: TCA Q cos 30 = 0

Have

TCA = 0.8660 Q

or

TCA 60 lb

Then for

0.8660Q < 60 lb
Q 69.3 lb

or

Fy = 0: TCB = P Q sin 30

From
or

TCB = 75 lb 0.50Q

For

TCB 60 lb
75 lb 0.50Q 60 lb
0.50Q 15 lb

or

Q 30 lb

Thus,

30.0 Q 69.3 lb

Therefore,

153

PROBLEM 2.134
A welded connection is in equilibrium under the action of the four forces
shown. Knowing that FA = 8 kN and FB = 16 kN, determine the
magnitudes of the other two forces.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram of
Connection

Fx = 0:

3
3
FB FC FA = 0
5
5

FA = 8 kN, FB = 16 kN

With

FC =

4
4
(16 kN ) (8 kN )
5
5
FC = 6.40 kN

Fy = 0: FD +

3
3
FB FA = 0
5
5

With FA and FB as above:

FD =

3
3
(16 kN ) (8 kN )
5
5
FD = 4.80 kN

154

PROBLEM 2.135
A welded connection is in equilibrium under the action of the four forces
shown. Knowing that FA = 5 kN and FD = 6 kN, determine the
magnitudes of the other two forces.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram of
Connection

Fy = 0: FD

3
3
FA + FB = 0
5
5

FB = FD +

or

3
FA
5

FA = 5 kN, FD = 8 kN

With

FB =

5
3

6 kN + ( 5 kN )
3
5

FB = 15.00 kN

Fx = 0: FC +
FC =
=

4
4
FB FA = 0
5
5

4
( FB FA )
5
4
(15 kN 5 kN )
5
FC = 8.00 kN

155

PROBLEM 2.136
Collar A is connected as shown to a 50-lb load and can slide on a
frictionless horizontal rod. Determine the magnitude of the force P
required to maintain the equilibrium of the collar when (a) x = 4.5 in.,
(b) x = 15 in.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram of Collar

(a)

Triangle Proportions

Fx = 0: P +

4.5
( 50 lb ) = 0
20.5
or P = 10.98 lb

(b)

Triangle Proportions

Fx = 0: P +

15
( 50 lb ) = 0
25
or P = 30.0 lb

156

PROBLEM 2.137
Collar A is connected as shown to a 50-lb load and can slide on a
frictionless horizontal rod. Determine the distance x for which the collar
is in equilibrium when P = 48 lb.

SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram of Collar

Triangle Proportions

Hence:

Fx = 0: 48 +

x =

or

50 x
400 + x 2

=0

48
400 + x 2
50

x 2 = 0.92 lb 400 + x 2

x 2 = 4737.7 in 2
x = 68.6 in.

157

PROBLEM 2.138
A frame ABC is supported in part by cable DBE which passes through a
frictionless ring at B. Knowing that the tension in the cable is 385 N,
determine the components of the force exerted by the cable on the
support at D.

SOLUTION
The force in cable DB can be written as the product of the magnitude of the force and the unit vector along the
cable. That is, with
JJJG
DB = ( 480 mm ) i ( 510 mm ) j + ( 320 mm ) k
DB =
F = F DB

( 480 )2 + ( 510 )2 + ( 320 )2

= 770 mm

JJJG
DB
385 N
( 480 mm ) i ( 510 mm ) j + ( 320 mm ) k
= F
=
DB
770 mm
F = ( 240 N ) i ( 255 N ) j + (160 N ) k

Fx = +240 N, Fy = 255 N, Fz = +160.0 N

158

PROBLEM 2.139
A frame ABC is supported in part by cable DBE which passes through a
frictionless ring at B. Determine the magnitude and direction of the
resultant of the forces exerted by the cable at B knowing that the tension
in the cable is 385 N.

SOLUTION
The force in each cable can be written as the product of the magnitude of the force and the unit vector along
the cable. That is, with
JJJG
BD = ( 0.48 m ) i + ( 0.51 m ) j ( 0.32 m ) k
BD =

( 0.48 m )2 + ( 0.51 m )2 + ( 0.32 m )2

TBD = T BD = TBD

= 0.77 m

JJJG
BD
TBD
( 0.48 m ) i + ( 0.51 m ) j ( 0.32 m ) k
=
BD 0.77 m

TBD = TBD ( 0.6234i + 0.6623j 0.4156k )

and
JJJG
BE = ( 0.27 m ) i + ( 0.40 m ) j ( 0.6 m ) k

BE =

( 0.27 m )2 + ( 0.40 m )2 + ( 0.6 m )2

TBE = T BE = TBE

= 0.770 m

JJJG
BD
TBE
( 0.26 m ) i + ( 0.40 m ) j ( 0.6 m ) k
=
BD 0.770 m

TBE = TBE ( 0.3506i + 0.5195 j 0.7792k )

Now, because of the frictionless ring at B, TBE = TBD = 385 N and the force on the support due to the two
cables is
F = 385 N ( 0.6234i + 0.6623j 0.4156k 0.3506i + 0.5195 j 0.7792k )

159

PROBLEM 2.139 CONTINUED

The magnitude of the resultant is
F =

( 375 N )2 + ( 455 N )2 + ( 460 N )2

= 747.83 N

or F = 748 N
The direction of this force is:

x = cos 1

375
747.83

or x = 120.1

y = cos 1

455
747.83

or y = 52.5

z = cos 1

460
747.83

or z = 128.0

160

PROBLEM 2.140
A steel tank is to be positioned in an excavation. Using trigonometry,
determine (a) the magnitude and direction of the smallest force P for
which the resultant R of the two forces applied at A is vertical, (b) the
corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION
Force Triangle

(a) For minimum P it must be perpendicular to the vertical resultant R

P = ( 425 lb ) cos 30
or P = 368 lb
R = ( 425 lb ) sin 30

(b)

or R = 213 lb

161