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TUM School of Management

Production and Supply Chain Management


Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Quality Engineering & Management


Session 3.1: The Normal Distribution

Dr. Holly Ott


Production and Supply Chain Management
Chair: Prof. Martin Grunow
TUM School of Management

Holly Ott

Quality Engineering & Management Module 3

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Learning Objectives
Discuss the Normal probability distribution for continuous random
variables, the context in which it is useful, and its important
characteristics.
Use the standard normal distribution table to calculate population
proportions.
Perform the transformation of any normally distributed random
variables to the standard normal and calculate population
proportions.
Understand the effect of centering a process and reducing the
variability of a process

Holly Ott

Quality Engineering & Management Module 3

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

The Normal Distribution


A random variable X is said to have the normal distribution with
parameters and 2, if its probability density function is given by:

1
f (x ) =
e
2

1 x 2

, < x < , > 0

X ~ N(,2)

2012 from "A First Course in Quality Engineering: Integrating Statistical


and Management Methods of Quality" by K.S. Krishnamoorthi. Reproduced
by permission of Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, a division of Informa plc.
Holly Ott

Quality Engineering & Management Module 3

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Holly Ott

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Quality Engineering & Management Module 3

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

The Normal Distribution


f(x)

1. It is asymptotic with respect to


the x-axis
2. It is symmetric with respect to
a vertical line at x =
3. The maximum value of f(x)
occurs at x =
x

The graph of the normal pdf.

4. The two points of inflexion


occur at distances on each
side of

2012 from "A First Course in Quality Engineering: Integrating Statistical


and Management Methods of Quality" by K.S. Krishnamoorthi. Reproduced
by permission of Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, a division of Informa plc.
Holly Ott

Quality Engineering & Management Module 3

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

The Normal Distribution


f(x)

x
Holly Ott

Quality Engineering & Management Module 3

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Practice
If you are interested, you can now watch a
video of a normally distributed variable.
Then continue to the next Lecture 3-1-2.

Holly Ott

Quality Engineering & Management Module 3