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En este documento se plantean ejercicios para desarrollarlos en base a la teoria de convertidores DC DC de la asignatura Electrónica de Potencia

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Introduction to Power Electronics

Coursera course, Fall 2014

University of Colorado, Boulder

Prof. Robert Erickson

Modeling of conduction plus switching losses

A string inverter is a solar photovoltaic inverter whose input is a series-connected

string of PV panels, and whose output is the ac utility grid. The schematic below

depicts a string inverter composed of a dc-dc boost converter that boosts the string

voltage Vpv to an intermediate dc bus voltage Vbus, plus a single-phase inverter that

converts Vbus to the grid voltage vac. Although only two series-connected panels are

shown, a typical system employs 8-10 series-connected panels. A controller (not

shown) operates the dc-dc boost converter at the duty cycle that causes the

maximum available power to be extracted from the series string.

Solar

Photovoltaic

Panels

+

Vpv

iL

L

+ vL

DC-DC

Boost

Converter

it

+

vt

Utility

Grid

Ibus

+ vd

id

iC

C

Vbus

Inverter

+

vac(t)

For
this
problem,
you
must
employ
the
methods
discussed
in
the
Chapter
4
lectures,

to
analyze
this
converter
and
find
analytical
expressions
for
the
output
voltage,

inductor
current,
etc.,
as
well
as
to
derive
an
equivalent
circuit
that
can
be
solved
for

the
converter
efficiency.
You
are
asked
to
enter
math
expressions;
these
expressions

must
be
entered
as
computer-readable
equations
using
the
exact
variable
names
as

defined
below:

Input
voltage
Vpv

Output
voltage
Vbus

Duty
cycle
D

Inductor/series-string
current
IL

DC
component
of
inverter
input
current
Ibus

MOSFET
on-resistance
Ron

Diode
forward
voltage
drop
Vd

Inductor
winding
resistance
RL

Diode
reverse
recovery
time
tr

Diode
recovered
charge
Qr

Switching
period
Ts

The
duty
cycle
D
is
defined
according
to
the
MOSFET
drain-to-source
voltage
vt(t),

as
discussed
in
the
lectures.
Include
the
inductor
copper
resistance
RL,
as
well
as
the

transistor
on
resistance
Ron,
diode
forward
voltage
drop
Vd,
diode
reverse
recovery

time
tr,
and
diode
recovered
charge
Qr,
but
ignore
all
other
sources
of
loss.

When
entering
equations,
these
variable
names
are
case-sensitive
and
must
be

entered
exactly
as
defined
above;
for
example,
D*(Vg-V)/R.
The
complement
of
the

duty
cycle
should
be
entered
as
(1-D).
When
numeric
values
are
requested,
a
single

numeric
value
must
be
entered
that
is
accurate
to
within
plus
or
minus
0.1%
of
the

value
computed
using
the
methods
described
in
lecture

It
is
highly
recommended
that
you
first
sketch
the
converter
circuit
and
work
the

questions
with
pencil
and
paper.
Then
enter
your
answers
into
the
fields
below.

Question
1.
Inductor
volt-second
balance:
enter
the
expression
for
the
average

inductor
voltage.
[5
points]

Question
2.
Capacitor
charge
balance:
enter
the
expression
for
the
average

capacitor
current.
[5
points]

Question
3.
Derive
an
equivalent
circuit
that
models
the
dc
properties
of
the
dc-dc

boost
converter.

If
necessary,
manipulate
your
model
into
the
form
shown
below.
The
quantity
IL
is

the
dc
component
of
the
inductor
current.

Re

Vpv

IL

1:m

+

Ve

Ie

Inverter

Vbus

For
questions
3
to
6,
you
are
asked
to
enter
mathematical
expressions
for
the

elements
in
this
model.
The
effective
turns
ratio
is
a
function
of
only
the
duty
cycle

D,
while
the
effective
loss
elements
Re,
Ve,
and
Ie
are
functions
of
the
duty
cycle
D

and
the
loss
elements.

Enter
your
expression
for
the
effective
turns
ratio
m
in
the
field
below.
[5
points]

Question
4.
The
effective
resistance
Re
depends
on
the
resistive
loss
elements
of

the
converter.
Use
your
model
to
find
an
expression
for
Re,
and
enter
your

expression
below.
[5
points]

Boost converter model

Question
5.
The
effective
source
Ve
also
models
losses
in
the
converter.
Enter
an

expression
for
Ve
in
the
field
below.
[5
points]

Question
6.
The
effective
source
Ie
models
switching
losses
in
the
converter.
Enter

an
expression
for
Ie
in
the
field
below.
[5
points]

Question
7.
For
questions
7-9,
the
element
and
parameter
values
are
as
follows:

Diode
forward
voltage
drop
Vd
=
1.25
V

MOSFET
on
resistance
Ron
=
0.2
ohms

Inductor
winding
resistance
RL
=
0.3
ohms

Diode
reverse
recovery
time
tr
=
55
ns

Diode
recovered
charge
Qr
=
200
nC

Switching
frequency
=
75
kHz

The
dc
bus
voltage
is
Vbus
=
400
V.
The
controller
selects
the
boost
converter
duty

cycle
such
that
the
PV
series
string
operates
at
its
maximum
power
point
of
Vpv
=

280
V,
Ipv
=
IL
=
7
A.

Compute
the
duty
cycle
of
the
boost
converter.
[10
points]

Question
8.
Compute
the
switching
loss,
in
watts.
[10
points]

1

BOOST CONVERTER WITH DIODE FORWARD VOLTAGE DROP (35 POINTS)

Question

9.
Compute

onverter

efficiency.

nter
Ve.fficiency

as
a
number
between

In the boost converter

illustrated

in Fig. 1,the

the cdiode

has forward

voltageEdrop

D You may model this

0
abeing

nd
1.
independent

[10
points]

voltage drop as

of current. All other elements should be modeled as ideal. In this

problem, you
will show how this diode drop changes the equations of the discontinuous conduction

mode.

Question
10.
Questions
10-13
involve
the
boost
converter
illustrated
below.

L

Problem 1.

Vg

DTs

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

iC

Ts

In
the
boost
converter
above,
the
diode
has
forward
voltage
drop
Vd.
You
may

Derive the conditions under which the converter operates in the discontinuous conduction

model

drop
ofas

current.

All
other
elements
should
be

mode.

Expressthis

yourvoltage

result in terms

theindependent

quantities K = 2of

L/RT

s and Kcrit (note that Kcrit may

now modeled
as
ideal.
In
this
problem,
you
will
find
how
this
voltage
drop
changes
the

depend not only on D, but also on other element values) (10 points)

equations
of
the
discontinuous
conduction
mode
of
the
boost
converter.
The

Derive

closed-form

analytical

for the conversion ratio M = V/Vg for both continuous

transistor

duty

cycle
expressions

is
D.

and discontinuous

conduction

modes

(10

points)

Derive
the
conditions
under
which
this
converter
operates
in
the
discontinuous

The element values are: Vg = 5 V, VD = 1 V, fs = 250 kHz, R = 15 , L = 2.5 H. C is large. Plot

conduction

xpress
your
result
in
the
form
K
<
Kcrit
with
K
=
2L/(RTs).
Kcrit
is
a

the conversion

ratio m

Mode.

= V/VE

g for the entire range 0 D 1 (10 points)

function
of
D,
Vd,
and
Vg.
Enter
your
expression
for
Kcrit.

Derive

an pexpression

[10

oints]
for the converter efficiency in discontinuous conduction mode (5 points)

equation of the average inductor voltage in DCM. Your expression should be written

in terms of the input voltage Vg, output voltage V, diode forward voltage drop Vd,

interval 1 duty cycle D1, and interval 2 duty cycle D2. [10 points]

Question 12. Derivation of capacitor charge balance equation: write the equation of

the average capacitor current in DCM. Your expression should be written in terms of

the input voltage Vg, output voltage V, inductance L, load resistance R, interval 1

duty cycle D1, interval 2 duty cycle D2, and switching period Ts. [10 points]

Question 13. Solve your equations to derive an expression for the voltage

conversion ratio V/Vg in DCM. Your expression should depend on the following

variables: D1, Vd, Vg, and K. The square root function is written sqrt(x). It is

strongly suggested that you express your result in a form similar to the DCM boost

converter solution on slide 32 of the Section 5.3 lecture. [10 points]

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