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# Homework

## Assignment #4: Chapters 4 and 5

Introduction to Power Electronics
Coursera course, Fall 2014
Prof. Robert Erickson

Modeling of conduction plus switching losses

A string inverter is a solar photovoltaic inverter whose input is a series-connected
string of PV panels, and whose output is the ac utility grid. The schematic below
depicts a string inverter composed of a dc-dc boost converter that boosts the string
voltage Vpv to an intermediate dc bus voltage Vbus, plus a single-phase inverter that
converts Vbus to the grid voltage vac. Although only two series-connected panels are
shown, a typical system employs 8-10 series-connected panels. A controller (not
shown) operates the dc-dc boost converter at the duty cycle that causes the
maximum available power to be extracted from the series string.

Solar
Photovoltaic
Panels
+
Vpv

iL

L
+ vL

DC-DC
Boost
Converter
it

+
vt

Utility
Grid
Ibus
+ vd

id

iC
C

Vbus

Inverter

+
vac(t)

For this problem, you must employ the methods discussed in the Chapter 4 lectures,
to analyze this converter and find analytical expressions for the output voltage,
inductor current, etc., as well as to derive an equivalent circuit that can be solved for
the converter efficiency. You are asked to enter math expressions; these expressions
must be entered as computer-readable equations using the exact variable names as
defined below:
Input voltage Vpv
Output voltage Vbus
Duty cycle D
Inductor/series-string current IL
DC component of inverter input current Ibus
MOSFET on-resistance Ron
Diode forward voltage drop Vd
Inductor winding resistance RL
Diode reverse recovery time tr
Diode recovered charge Qr
Switching period Ts

The duty cycle D is defined according to the MOSFET drain-to-source voltage vt(t),
as discussed in the lectures. Include the inductor copper resistance RL, as well as the
transistor on resistance Ron, diode forward voltage drop Vd, diode reverse recovery
time tr, and diode recovered charge Qr, but ignore all other sources of loss.

When entering equations, these variable names are case-sensitive and must be
entered exactly as defined above; for example, D*(Vg-V)/R. The complement of the
duty cycle should be entered as (1-D). When numeric values are requested, a single
numeric value must be entered that is accurate to within plus or minus 0.1% of the
value computed using the methods described in lecture

It is highly recommended that you first sketch the converter circuit and work the
questions with pencil and paper. Then enter your answers into the fields below.

Question 1. Inductor volt-second balance: enter the expression for the average
inductor voltage. [5 points]

Question 2. Capacitor charge balance: enter the expression for the average
capacitor current. [5 points]

Question 3. Derive an equivalent circuit that models the dc properties of the dc-dc
boost converter.

If necessary, manipulate your model into the form shown below. The quantity IL is
the dc component of the inductor current.

Re
Vpv

IL

1:m
+

Ve

Ie

Inverter

Vbus

For questions 3 to 6, you are asked to enter mathematical expressions for the
elements in this model. The effective turns ratio is a function of only the duty cycle
D, while the effective loss elements Re, Ve, and Ie are functions of the duty cycle D
and the loss elements.

Enter your expression for the effective turns ratio m in the field below. [5 points]

Question 4. The effective resistance Re depends on the resistive loss elements of
the converter. Use your model to find an expression for Re, and enter your
expression below. [5 points]

Boost converter model

Question 5. The effective source Ve also models losses in the converter. Enter an
expression for Ve in the field below. [5 points]

Question 6. The effective source Ie models switching losses in the converter. Enter
an expression for Ie in the field below. [5 points]

Question 7. For questions 7-9, the element and parameter values are as follows:
Diode forward voltage drop Vd = 1.25 V
MOSFET on resistance Ron = 0.2 ohms
Inductor winding resistance RL = 0.3 ohms
Diode reverse recovery time tr = 55 ns
Diode recovered charge Qr = 200 nC
Switching frequency = 75 kHz
The dc bus voltage is Vbus = 400 V. The controller selects the boost converter duty
cycle such that the PV series string operates at its maximum power point of Vpv =
280 V, Ipv = IL = 7 A.

Compute the duty cycle of the boost converter. [10 points]

Question 8. Compute the switching loss, in watts. [10 points]
1
BOOST CONVERTER WITH DIODE FORWARD VOLTAGE DROP (35 POINTS)

Question
9. Compute
onverter
efficiency.
nter Ve.fficiency
as a number between
In the boost converter
illustrated
in Fig. 1,the
the cdiode
has forward
voltageEdrop
D You may model this
0 abeing
nd 1. independent
[10 points]
voltage drop as
of current. All other elements should be modeled as ideal. In this
problem, you will show how this diode drop changes the equations of the discontinuous conduction
mode.
Question 10. Questions 10-13 involve the boost converter illustrated below.

L

## Fig. 1 Boost converter of

Problem 1.

Vg

DTs

(a)

(b)
(c)
(d)

iC

Ts

In the boost converter above, the diode has forward voltage drop Vd. You may
Derive the conditions under which the converter operates in the discontinuous conduction
model
drop ofas
current.
All other elements should be
mode.
Expressthis
yourvoltage
result in terms
theindependent
quantities K = 2of
L/RT
s and Kcrit (note that Kcrit may
now modeled as ideal. In this problem, you will find how this voltage drop changes the
depend not only on D, but also on other element values) (10 points)
equations of the discontinuous conduction mode of the boost converter. The
Derive
closed-form
analytical
for the conversion ratio M = V/Vg for both continuous
transistor
duty
cycle expressions
is D.
and discontinuous
conduction
modes
(10
points)

Derive the conditions under which this converter operates in the discontinuous
The element values are: Vg = 5 V, VD = 1 V, fs = 250 kHz, R = 15 , L = 2.5 H. C is large. Plot
conduction
xpress your result in the form K < Kcrit with K = 2L/(RTs). Kcrit is a
the conversion
ratio m
Mode.
= V/VE
g for the entire range 0 D 1 (10 points)
function of D, Vd, and Vg. Enter your expression for Kcrit.
Derive
an pexpression
[10
oints] for the converter efficiency in discontinuous conduction mode (5 points)

## Question 11. Derivation of inductor volt-second balance equation: write the

equation of the average inductor voltage in DCM. Your expression should be written
in terms of the input voltage Vg, output voltage V, diode forward voltage drop Vd,
interval 1 duty cycle D1, and interval 2 duty cycle D2. [10 points]

Question 12. Derivation of capacitor charge balance equation: write the equation of
the average capacitor current in DCM. Your expression should be written in terms of
the input voltage Vg, output voltage V, inductance L, load resistance R, interval 1
duty cycle D1, interval 2 duty cycle D2, and switching period Ts. [10 points]

Question 13. Solve your equations to derive an expression for the voltage
conversion ratio V/Vg in DCM. Your expression should depend on the following
variables: D1, Vd, Vg, and K. The square root function is written sqrt(x). It is
strongly suggested that you express your result in a form similar to the DCM boost
converter solution on slide 32 of the Section 5.3 lecture. [10 points]