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cs.

MICROSCOPY
THEORY

CONSTRUCTION,

THE

OF

USE

AND

THE

MICROSCOPE

EDMUND

BY
L.R.C.P.
PAST

CLUB,

LOND., M.R.C.S.

PRKSIDENT

OF

of

Author
of

With

J.
THE

SPITTA

ENG., F.R.A.S., F.R.M.S.


QUEKETT

MICROSCOPICAL

and Joint Author


Photomicrograph)',

"Jln Atlas of

Bacteriology

from OriginalNegatives
83 Half-tone
Reproductions
and

255

Text Illustrations

LONDON

JOHN

MURRAY,

ALBEMARLE
1920

STREET,

W.

FIRST

SECOND

EDITION

EDITION

August

1907

January

1909

....

THIRD

February

EDITION

Al.L

Ullillls

Kt"EKVBD

1920

DEDICATED

MEMBERS
AND

COUNCIL
TO

THE

THE

OF

MICROSCOPICAL,

QUEKETT

CLUB

IN

this

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xiii

EDITION

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and

the

same

Optical

Aperture
Numerical

the
Abbe
"

and

Depth

by

described

Cheshire

"

of Focus

defined

ments
Arrange-

The

and

Care

their

between
of

of

tions
Correc-

cussed,
dis-

the

Objectives

"Dry"
.

57

Objective

an

by

and

Constructions

fully discussed

and
of

and

Fine

Passage

"

Difference

the

Systems

Aperture

"

various

Portion

Objectives

"

CHAPTER

Numerical

The

described

Substage

Apochromatic

of

Description

Homogeneous"

30

the

and

Semi-apochromatic

IV

(continued)
through

Portion

and

Stages,

CHAPTER

Rays

Opticians

different

Microscope

of

Varieties

"

discussed"

Models

Stages,

Magnitude

III

the

Continental

Adjustments,

Compound

Focal

Opticians

CHAPTER

English

"

Series

the

founded

are

The

II

Methods

Microscopes

Simple

of

of

Microscope

Simple

consists

Lens

CHAPTER

The

kinds

explained

ascertaining

for

Action

different

them

Lens

Methods

"

Their

"

The

"

through
A

"

defined

Law

Light-rays

Deviation

Conjugate

"

Length

of

Path

Minimum

of

Angle

The

explained"

the

and

enumerated

Lenses

Light

of

Rays

upon

of

Method

explained

by

How
"

to

Apertometers

suggested

by

Mr.

ascertain
after

Conrady
79

CONTENTS
VI

CHAPTER

PAGE

icnian
of

Path

Construction

the

and

Kamsden

of the

Diameter

ascertain

the

Eyepiece

when

with

employed

Evaluation

The

Methods,

Abbe

and

104

VII

of

Objectives and

and

the

Oculars

by the
usefulMagnification

limits of

19

VIII

CHAPTER

their

the

CHAPTER

".ionaland

and

Simple
Compento
explained" How
Beam
Emergent
issuingthrough an
different
of
Objectives
Aperture

ys through
Circle discussed

the

Magnification"

their

both

The

:ig"

Kamsden

and

Varieties

and

the

Special Properties ot
Conversion
of
each
Obtaining their Numerical
Aperture
F
The
Cone
ratio"
and
Numerical
Aplanatic
Aperture into the
Diameter
Focal
of
ascertain
its
The
various
how
to
Length
for different Objectives The
their suitability
and
Condensers
Condensers,

Substage

"

"

"

"

"

"

its Abuse

Diaphragm,

Substage

and

Use

IX

CHAITKK
Methods

of

Illumination:
lectric

the

Lamps by

Monochromatic

142

Bull's-eyeMicroscopist's
ordinary

(".onion. Barnard,

Light, its Uses

and

and

Oil

how

obtained

-Various

of

for Low
Powers
Dark-ground Illumination
and
Mr.
"Differential
Colour
Illumination
""The
Khcinberg's
N
of Dark-ground
tension
for use
Illumination
with High
Powers
Method"
'entopf's
Oblique Light, its Theory and UseIllumination
of Opaque
Objects" Theory and Use of Polarised
ht,its varieties and how they are employed
.160
ins

[AFTER
On

the

Use

of the

Microscope"
issed

:.d

thods
terns

Corre"

relative

Illumination

and

Merits
the

of

the

Lon,

Adjustment

of

the

Removing

the

th

lomogeneous"
:.ser-Obtaining Critical Lighting

of doii

-Centring

"

The

Objective
"

Focussin.

"

^s

"

Find::
tive-

positions on

scopical
Micro-

CONTENTS

xx

XVII

H.MTKK

"

PAGE

Microscopical Accessories,and

how

to

"

correcting several

upon

delations

API"

Concerning

of the

of

Fiel4

the

Area

any

specialocular

and

Object

between

with

View

any

to ascertain

How

"

Faults

common

its Accessories"

and

roscope

449

.....

XVIII

LPTER
Hints

them

use

with in

met

using the

Plates

the

472

to ascertain
Image" How
given objective used with

Distance

Working

the

of

an

484

objective

ADDENDA

489

ngements

On

Binocular

Attachment

Wave-length

Screens

Watson-Conrady

The

the

of Short

use

of

Depth

How

Index

Illuminants

by

the

use

of Denser

Media

493

in the

:mens

Mountii
The

Powerful

is increased

Focus

492
with

of

Visibility

Annul
Rhein'

498

Usin^

the

ffl over

Colour

of the

Summary

erning

the

improve the- Definition


required in Different Objectives

Ocular

Corrections

to

r'ferent Colours

in

Microscopical

Objectives

502

lengths in

Convert!:
"sd

into

Tenth-metres
.

nberg's Kyepiecc Micrometers,

Waves

per

Inch

and

502

....

Stage

Micrometers, Crosslines,

licroscope

et"

503

Eyepieces.

New

501

503
504

;ip for the

Objectives

New

Some
Abbe-

Traviss

Microscope by

505

.....

505

Mr

Immersion

Oil

506

Jame"

itistmcnt

On'

506
507

....

Index

508
of

the

Different

i.

ecus

the
i

of

Coir

n.ttc

the
.........

Number

in

Tenth

of

Waves

with

tl

met:

to

the

509

CONTENTS

xxi

PAGE

Some

Specially

Good

for

Substances

the

Polariscope
.

Crystalline

for

Objects

use

with

Convergent

Polarised

.510

Light

.510

Two

Table

New

of

Natural

LIST

ADDRESS

which

of

Methods

most

Adjusting

Tube-Length

510

Sines

OF

of

511

VARIOUS
their

OPTICIANS,

objectives

are

with

the

corrected
.

INDEX

for

tube-length
.

.512
.

513

OF

LIST

TEXT

ILLUSTRATIONS

List

For

of

Plates

536.

page

see

PAGE

FIGURE

1.

Different

2.

Snell's

kinds

of

Lenses
"

of

3.

Path

4.

Various

5.
6.

Oblique

an

of

kinds

of
Path

"

Law

through

Ray
Prisms,

Glass

with

Parallel

Sides

6
.

Refractive

Summit,

showing

and

Angle,

Base

each

of

consists

Lens

7.

Collective

8.

9.

Radiant

11.

Owvergent

12.

Different

the

Rays

8
....

form

Focus

....

the

of

Focus

forms

Lens

an

Image

side

opposite

causes

away

Prisms

Length

on

...

to

Focal

Length

further

Deviation"

of

"Angle

Superimposed

the

twice

Focal

the

10

approach

to

Lens

the

on

side

opposite
Parallel

of

series

at

moved

10.

and

converging

placed

twice

at

of

Lens

Radiant

Prism

through

Rays

II

forming

Rays

True

how

Light:

of

Focus

dealt

with

Lens

by

II

Convex

Lens

12
...

Points

dealt

with

by

Ascertaining

14.

Ascertaining

the

Object

from

Light

situated

not

the

on

Axis

how

Lens

Focal

True

Object

an

Collective

the

13.

15.

of

14
of

Length

Lens

making

by

Image

and

size

same

15

Length,

the

Focal

the

Magnification

in

approximately,
of

with

Object

an

Apartment.

an

15

19

19

Magnifier

Hand

,,

!6.
,,

,,

17.

Looking

18.

The

the

at

within

Object

19.

Magnification

20.

The

Eye

21.

The

Case
their

of

to

Concerning

23.

Dissecting

Simple

the

Lens

Objects

Two

Convex

of

Lens

Object

an

20

Focus

Object

an

Diameter

Apparent

22.

of

,,

by

Focus

the

applied

formed

Image

the

beyond

placed

,,

Aerial

used

as

Microscope

to

the

Beam

Emergent

21

the

to

22

Magnifier
distance

same

similar

which

in

Eye

Simple

the

at

seen

placed

Eye
Unaided

the

to

exactly

position

best

the

and

that

Eye

of
should

22
...

their

the

of

Ratio

Magnification
be

placed

24

with
24

Microscopes

26
26

24-

25-

"

"

,*

,,

27

26.

28
"

27.

Zeiss's

28.

Mr.

,,

Hand
Nelson's

Magnifier
Hand

..........

Magnifier

29
29

The

through

same

and

Ocular,

; m

61

ILLUSTRATIONS

TKXT

OF

LIST

an

Condenser

Achromatic

Apochromatic Objective,

"

or

59

...

.;,MT

Ocular,
59

.........

62

..........

icction

63.

tkm

62

..........

63

...........

63

........

66.

Sine-Law

.........

...

ilfilment of the

Sinc-I.

.........

I--w
........

69.

70.

.....

.66
"

67
nine

74.

an

-mitcd

Colour- part of Apochr"


of

"s

the

of

cause

the

outside

Aeneous

Objectives

....

the

Colours

Focus

...

pcrccivc-dwhen

70

72

ILLUSTRATIONS

TEXT

OF

LIST

xxv

PACE

FIGURE

77.

After

compared.
78.

SnelPs

Passage of the
Abbe's
"

B.

in

Light

84.

and

Dry

of

Use

Objectives;

Homogeneous

89
94

Apertometer

Cheshire's

99

....,...*"

IO2

of Focus

Eyepiece ;

Huyghenian

Ordinary

97"

Apertometers

B.

of

Path

Monochromatic

Ray

of

Light

JOS

85. Passage of Red


Holoscopic

Blue

and

Path

87.

Passage

of

Rays

through Compensating Huyghenian and


io5

Oculars

of Monochromatic

86.

Ray

and

Red

Blue

through
Rays

ordinary Ramsden

an

through

Compensating

loS

Ocular

Ramsden

Eyepiece
88.

Colours

at

HO

explainedin

Edges of the Diaphragm

ordinaryUn-achromatic

Ocular

112

89.

Colours

90.

Over-corrected

91.

Ramsden

at

of the

Edges

,,

,..

"

"

113
.

115
115

...

Il6
"

"

95.

Magnification

96.

"

"

.119

"

120

97.

Abbe's

98.

Aplanatic Condenser

99.

Over-corrected

Imaginary

added

Lens

to

the

Microscope: Explanation

Uncorrected

101.

Under-corrected

102.

Iris Frame

148
148

ditto

148

ditto

158
163

Bull's-eyeIlluminators

104.

105.

164

"

"

and

Bull's-eyeIlluminator
Electric Lamp

107.

Gordon's

108.

Watson's

Argus

Lamp

Electric

166

Lamp

Johnstone Stoney's Heliostat

no.

The

111.

Traviss's

112.

Wenham's

113.

Leitz's reflecting
Condenser

114.

Zeiss's Condenser

115.

Beck's

116.

Diffraction

117.

Set of Appliances for

Monochromatic

Expanding

165

combined

............

109.

Author's

Central

.167

168

Light Arrangement.
Stop

After

Baiter

.170
174

178

Paraboloid
for

Dark-ground

Illumination

with

High

183

Powers

184
184

"

of

132

148

ditto

100.

8.

113

"6

94-

1 1

Ocular.

Achromatic

Circle

93-

106.

Diaphragm

explained in

Eye-lens

92.

103 "

83

Fluid

Depth of Focus
830. Magnificationin Depth

83A "

Objectiveequalsthe Semi-Diameter
Length
by the equivalentFocal

an

Law

Immersion
81.

tive
Objec-

2-mm.

89

79.
80.

82A

1-40 N.A.

77
of

divided

Pencil

Emerging

of the

1-30 and

Zeiss

that N.A.

Proof

Mathematical

of

Lens

Construction of the Front

Light

with
the

an

Ultra-microscopicparticle

190

Investigationof Ultra-microscopicparticlesin

Fluids, as proposed by Siedentopf and


Zsigmondy
Passage of Rays of Light through a High-power Condenser
Light is used

190

....

when

Oblique
193

xxvi

OF

LIST

ILLUSTRATIONS

TEXT

PAGZ

FIGURE

119.

Diagrammatic Representation
the

at

Back

angulatum
120.

on

I^ens

of

the

Stage

Direct

of
N.A.

an

and

seen
as
Spectral Beams
Objective, with Pleurosigma

1*40

194

196

Oblique Light

196

121.
,,

197

122.
"

"

197
124.

,,

198
126.
127.

Diagrammatic Representationof Oblique Light


Method
of IlluminatingOpaque
Arrangement (in plan) of One

200

Objects

203

Secoi
"

205

,,

,,

Third
,,

"

,,

130.

,,

,,

131.

132.

133.

206

ical

ical

134

\\.f-on

135.

"

136.

Nicol's

137.

Polarised

207

.,

207

Illuminator

Vertical

New

,,

Illuminator

Conrady
i.ight

Sons

208

.....

(Full Size)
Vertical

New

"

by Watson

Illuminator

208

Illuminator

209
21

Prism

Light;
of

ngement

Parallel

Crossed

and

for

Microscope

"Rings" and "Brushes"


Zeiss's Objective-changers
"Facility" Changer by Watson

Planes

214

using Convergent

Polarised

Light

to

show

139.
140.
141.

Kye-.shade
Betting a Circular

.219
240

"

Sons

243
244

Stage

in

Alignment

with

the

Optical

Axis

",

Use

247

""

"

,.

248

of Vernier

^50
"

Binocular

151.

Abbe's

15^.

Puwell's

After

Microscope.

Swift

of Binocular

Form

150.

Stereo-

P.inocular

251

"

....

Microscope
258

;ece

Prism

260

After

ter.

154.

247

"

,"

146.

The

Watson
n,

their relative
155.

Botanical

1 60.

Microscope

values

.201

Double

Mu,

graphicallyexplained

and

the

Tenth-Metre:
268

...

Microscope

"oj.e

....

272

^
.

icy

163I'

'!"

211

and

Histology
"

,,

280
2i)I

LIST

xxviii

241.

TEXT

........

Uinocular

Beck's

A.

lath

Glass

246.

ILLUSTRATIONS

.,

,,

2.JJ.
244

OF

of

:iocular

in

Rays

......

increasing

247.

of

Path

.nociilar

'

Rays

.......

Attachment

493

rent

Colours
...

249.

How

250.

Annul

251.

Rhei:

255.

Depth

of

l-'ocus

is

the

i:

use

"
.

........

'

496

MICROSCOPE

THE

CHAPTER

INTRODUCTORY

word

THE

(small)

and

magnifies
A

rather

intended
small

an

ordinary

of

two

the

instrument

an

The

that

be

examined,

to

second

of

ends

form

the

ocular

consists

"

lenses,"

further

eyepiece
in

its

magnified
For

is

venience
con-

held

are

turn,

of

image

eyepiece.

or

of

one

inverted

an

and

which,

tube

of

being

image

objective

the

use

opposite

this

possessing

microscope

sets

or

and

images

erect

everybody

to

to

handle,

magnified

"

lenses

"

suitable

"

serves

called

set,

in

compound.

or

several

or

compound

lenses

"

objective,

lens

familiar

lens."

the

"

obtaining

way

separated

in
the

words

simple

"

"

other

for

the
"

kinds

two

each

to

in

pocket

called

the

of

name

single

used

objects

object

by

be

widely

which,

of

of

close

to

of

be

may

consists

simple

mounted

the

is

Greek

two

object.

an

microscope

The

is

(to see),

o-fcoTreco

from

derived

Microscope,

at

attached

to

stand."

"

The

word
hence

several
A

it

the

explain

the

of

for

calls

immediate

an

before

advisable

be

meaning

used

and

term

tion,
explana-further

proceeding

to

and

name

to

describe

the

varieties.

lens

ground

is the

and

property

passing
curves

above

will

medium"

the

"

lens

"

in

polished
of

these

causing
to

to

rays

may

of

piece

glass
"

which

from

together

or

having

manner,

light

be

of

form

in

specific

converge

faces

circular

usually

through
on

given

name

or

distant

diverge

spherical,

other
its

parent
trans-

two

faces

imparts

to

after

point

The

apart.

cylindrical,
I

it

or

of

that

on

is

'.

rise

plane.
shown
the

because

"lano-convcx,
:
a

the

third, having

concave

other

is called

"

The

the

on

fourth, with
:icavc

meniscus

or

the

on

first is

each

and

of

sides

which

is

concave,

plano-concave;

concave

both

; the

one

surfaces

the

eighth
although of

arc

all thinner.

arc

!
"it

ither

object to form

be received

on

conca\

real

or

convi

should
at

:id the

properties pe

although

curvature

their

former

is

be

concave

that

centres, whereas

arc

collective

all

termed

lc:

in

they
bt from

"

the

and

noticed

object,/V.
latter

one

which

collectively

arc

images.

is

curve

because

1
!

diverging

surface

image of the

; whereas

screen

or

each
It

The

and

nounced
pro-

double

ruling

different

as

live,

gc:

will

can

and

of

are

all thicker

are

more

sixth

convex,

curvature.

and

I.

concave,

dissimilar
3 and

4, 5, 6

they

convex

crossed

convex

crossed

numh

seventh

termed

the

5
Fig.

second

side

one

is the

the

because

the

converging meniscus.

or

concavo-convex,

on

lenses,

bi-convex,

the other

surface

convex

face

of

or

is similar

the

spherical

with

kinds

double

that

other, or

side

convexo-concave

both

of

different

eight

the former

"

the

being plane

fifth is

the

combination

on

side

one

The

The

curve

convex

first type

with

to

F'ig.I

in

LENSES

only

another

with

side

one

it is

but

parabolic nature,
microscoj

surface

OF

FORMS

DIFFERENT

In

the

description that

and

follows

so

the

do

not

double

clou!

the

by

these

two

tyj

es

apply

equally

to

REMARKS

INTRODUCTORY

defects

certain

of

nature

of the

the thickness

that
The

of

curves

the

called

being

circle,of

lenses

is

of

curve

from

each

of

such

is

is called

arc,

its

the

centres

the

axis,or

assumed

given centres,

and

an

and

negligible.

be

to

as

curvature,"

joining such

line

It is also

small

described

are

centre

the

The

aberrations.

the lens is called

of

body

"

which

curvature."

lens

called

so

only by the degree

them

differ from

which

remainder,

the

LIGHT

ON

radius
the

passing through

the

of

the

principalaxis

"

of

radius

"

lens."

explaining the

Before

how

lenses,showing
those

from

in

in

another,

light-rays through different


bent differently
the beams
are
of

passage
case

one

be

it will

the

for

necessary

context

to

few
followed
to make
a
introductory remarks
intelligibly
in
the subject of light in general, and
refraction
upon
upon
not
particular; but the reader must
expect in what immediately
be

follows

simple

as

the

for that

manner,

in

find

to

The

is

given

in another

issuing from
size,naturallydiverge in
the

from
is

very

consistingof

that

obtained

of

beam

any

or

this
in

ray

it will

again

path, until

it will be

Change

will

given

medium

with

another

is called

in

nature

medium

fresh

be

held

in

mind.

be

vessel

The

on.

be

It will

containing

less

the

dense,

bent

aside,

bending,

when

on

ever,
how-

of

cause

of

water

and

entrance

refraction,

advantage
of

alteration
and

its

be different.

medium

is the

of this
point out briefly the nature
brought about
by the change of medium,
descriptionto have to resort to Fig. 2.
ABCD

by

extent

is

it

be

only

can

propagation along

such

to

Let

light as
here, that

or

such

medium,

again if the density of


density,then, of the medium

this should

more

; after

bent
of

object

later

to

if

divergence

some

hereafter,

its rectilinear
a

it

to

but

always straight until

is

refraction

with

the
such

small

small

remarked

be

referred

be

noted

resume

it meets

just

of

point ;

sun,

reflection, and

or

that

safely regard

exist

not

the

as

It may

exception

one

undergoing what
new

such

be

to

comparatively

may

matter

pencil meets

with

when,

does

refraction

by

diffraction,but

path

we

parallelrays.

"?#verging light

and

illuminant

infinitesimal

so

from

all directions

lightfallingupon

distant

illuminant, assumed

an

rays

consider

we

in

possible.

as

way

rigidly mathematical
part of this work, but rather

treated

matter

for

AC

now

direction

purposes

the

water

of

REFRACTION,

SNELL'S

LAW

line ;

BD,

drawn

at

the

beam

and

the

medium

new

into

the

line

refraction

at

E,

for the

Suppose

it

is

incident

at

E, for the

ction
Sncll

made

another

from

using

cases

he

substances

were

substituted

he

had

found

its

exam;

found

manufacture,

and

found

called

for

sine

In

to
so

be

in all books

water

the

"

from

;;/

came

out

;/.

also

is

to

other

will

at

of

tin

n"

lh"
]

'3-

..

the

that,

same,

Other
substance

Flint

If the

is. the
holds

lines, wo,

'icsc

the incident

ratio bet

good,

reader

wee

whether

Inn

given substance.

;//

the
;//',

or

each

; that

fact

watet*

subject.
"

and

glass, for
164, according to its
Mibstanccs,
complete

index.

the

upon

the
-

mutant

point

vm

the

was

and

water,

i'54
the

from

come

ot

that in

is

less, and

quantity.

It will

be
of

to

there

there

the

by

discovered

about
with

on

about

other

"

the

lengths

greater

refractive

special

iay

the

it is incident

;;/E

index of
refractive

the

with

;//,

when

then

The

/.

air and

mathematically inclined, he
"'/", really
represent the sines

and

at

he

be

"

of

;/'.

taken, whether

were

This

["33.

ED

what

Now

angles

in all

nts"

at

divided, the

and

the

will be found

meeting

;/

quotient obtained.
wherever

;"'E,

on

passes

course

strike

to

;;/'along

at

ray

the

along

found

it

investigationconcerning this bending


liich their path can
always be predicted.
BE
line from m
at
to meet
a
right angles at 0,

measured

were

will be

no

uninterruptedly

But

is

celebrated

drew

and

beam

for

"

water,

ED.
at

say

"

When

only instance
it undergoes

when

to

following
position

angles

there

the

"

bending

no

other

All

along
perpendicularly into

referred

AC,

incident

is

refraction

any

E.

at

is

to

referred to this line.

are

at

Normal,

right angles

it

cutting

the

li^ht

the

LAW

SNELL'S
from

starts

ray

where

calculate

can

from
make

the

an

angle ;zE/,so

that

the

tables

ordinary

gives

is the

idea

operose

refracted

different

at

of

The

glass

the

need

One

It will

and

into

pass

if

is

the

when

total reflection

"

to

get

We

have

of the ray
in the
If

out

is

ray

ray

the

glasstowards

be incident

that is denser
the

with
1

The

author's

at

refractive

substance

law

when

good

to

rays
kind

one

modifications

the

"

angle

If this

A, say

"

"

be

true,
This
suffer

to

There

last

is the

critical

Z'.

at

that

xl

at

at #?

is said

so

again

of the

index

is

one

allows

limiting angle."

or

normal

of

of

the

the kind

of

the

Fig.

water
"

compound.
are

the

course

; but

it is bent

it is

diagram
permission of
the

surface

its

entering a
bending of course

vitreous
and

the

upon

it continues

in

as

because

amount

of this paragraph
with

say

"

NN,

The

air.

E, becomes

to

starting,say,

all,and

at

direction

any

Photomicrography,

many
the

point to notice is that the path


by the density of the glassemployed

the normal

than

are

beginning

along EC.

the

become

But

certain

ray

piece of glass having parallel sides,


uninterruptedly just as it did in the case

of

structing
con-

lens.1

of the
in the

is

first

largelyaffected

passes

holds

still nearer

starts

one

then, the

manufacture

this

where

from

to

colours

passing from

to

at

seen,

in

details

;z',passing

graze

this is called

mind

problem,

with

E, for it appears
angle, then, it is very evident, which
ray

from

different

"

find 0*5

simply put,

same

course

that

the water

of

out

get

off

fact,the

the

so

happen

air and

place

to

mentioned.

will

the

dividing by

intensely intricate.

Seeing

m't what

to

cannot

ray

be

remark.

will take

what

"

here

not

more

refracted

of

another, although then

to

marked

computer's

the

air,and

into

water

tables, we

Although

reversed, of

"

starting

strike

and

our

calculations, as

angles ;

let

by

be

must

matter

calculations
law

same

from

which

30"

As

after

we

is

to

more

concerned, becomes

are

underlying these

pass

once

in real

exceedingly

end.

that

natural

that

lenses.

new

lenses

multiplying

that

required to find the


;*E correctly. We
take
of
out
sine of 45", and
find, roughly

draw

the

now

AD,

arc

example,

45".

can

30",so

the

It

position of the line ^E.


that
mainly pervades

find the
the

of

sine

quite evident

For

of

Resorting

0*5.

us

BC.

say,

and

is 07,

speaking,it
4

we

is

It

will strike

ray
in

given point
angle mEo,

any

'.

vi

or

taken

if

by

medium
varies
But
from

the
the

Scientific Press.

beam

emerging

glass then

quits the
in which

to

opposite direction as
and
incident
emerging

in the

it

the

rays

continuation

direct

of

instead
of

other

glass,or
been

have
-;

results

is called
not

are

prism

contained

be

may

""

sides

that

meet

defined

straight line.

entered

another

with

the

If,

piece

direction

would

change

not

parallelsides, but

the

conditions

of

is in

the

being modified,

which

the

form

the

together

meet

summit

summit

medium

transparent

of

the

being joined together by


prism. The
angle enclosed

the
to

surfaces

is called

below

is termed

at

prism, the

boundary
by the two

the

Yc1.

composing

the

of

can

the

ray
be

arc

in

in

other

optically as

it

the

glass ; hence
parallel,although not in

are

QS, and

"

amount

medium.

new

limiting

of

same

similar.

between

separated ends

the

accordance

prism,

end, forming what

one

tin

the

dense,

medium

differentdensity,its

however, the glass has

of what

the

of

less

from

same

again

air, it had

directly in

refraction

When,

form

vt

medium

changed

of

the

into

ay

air,the

deviated

was

the

with

one

emerging

back

an'

medium

the

re-enter

it is bent

started, so

it

this time

leaving the glass is bent


it is entering the air,

on

normal, because

the

SIDES

PARALLEL

WITH

GLASS

1'

Uld

in contact

struck

prism, OI)
normals

The

is known,

prism
be

the

as

the
to

the

incident

the

summit,

refractive
and

the

index
normal

previously

incident

beam,

base, and
of

the

rcfracmedium

drawn, the path

shown.

Let

ABC

and

the

dotted

respective surfaces

with

which

ray

OD,

on

entering

the

in

lines

they
glass,is

of

case

opposite direction
periphery. When

the
the

of

negative

dispersive or

the

computing

the

consider

to

necessary

course

words, the base.\s turned

in other

is turned

summit

the

one,

LENS

OF

CONSTRUCTION

PRISMATIC

exact

path

number

of

towards

of the
these

in

it is

ray

prisms

as

only consisting theoreticallyof the actual strip of


little prism may
glass occupied by the ray in question. Each
and
its plane surface
also be said to possess
coinciding w.th
and
infinite,

thin

same

"

of

urfaccs
to

small
infinitely

of these

any

little further

theoretical

planes

will

consideration

size.

suffice

line

Fig.
or

of

any

when

these

produced will take


arrive together to
so

and

the

dicular
perpen-

its Normal.

that all

show

to

^-"^ ^CENTRE

CURVATURE

or

in Fig. 6, for example,


NT///,
of

path

meet

drawn

6.

N', N",

normals,

analytically

is called

""""

the

infinite number

an

now

and

one

be

may

regation of

consi

But

being

front

lens

curved

ii.itthe

both

itself

surface

lens

"luting the

the

what

at

of

radius

is called

curvature,

the

centre

of

ture.

Collective
upon
on

side

one

the

lenses, it has

other

to

form

been

(Fig. 7).

This

the

is called

rays

distant
sufficiently

position

plane of focus."
and

of

image

an

the

stated, converge
where
the

When

the

falling
object

im

object

rrned
is very

di-

the focal plane resulting


irallcl,

the/

"cal

plane, and

its distance

from

the

lens

/v?/ foca:
the

suitably placed
;

screen

oint of union

is

rays

meet

to

known

of the rays

form

the

ing
"

th"

image
the

on

the

object,"

LENGTH

FOCAL

form

cannot

so

it may

"

positive lenses which do


focal length of a negative
to
for it is intended
imply

form

"

2-in.

negative
and

negative

for

piece

one

were

of

advantage

has

"

on

the

at

the

that

nomenclature
But

images.

has
such

differentiated

are

conventional

lens

phrase

meaning,

speak of
lective
neutralising the col-

of

property

the

we

say

"

If, therefore, a 2-in.


positive one.1
positive be placed in juxtaposition,and
through them, it is neither magnified nor
if they
lenses
act
two
as
just the same

glass with

of

lens

real
"

; hence

screen

2-in.

2-in.

object looked

diminished,

"

of

power

an

object

an

state they
to at once
illogical
the other and designated by the same

as

"

of

image

dispersive,and

very

seem

from

one

real

"

already stated, are

have

Negative lenses, we

LENS

OF

This

parallelsides.
If he

by the practicaloptician.

fact

has

an

is taken

unknown

PLANE
OF

Focus

Fig. 7,

negative lens, and he desires to ascertain its focal length, he


it until, when
keeps trying several
positives with
looking
both
lenses
at an
through
to
object,such object ceases
shake,"
it is called, when
he
the
When
this result
as
lenses.
moves
"

is

obtained, he

knows

he

has

neutralised

focal lengtJiof the positive lens


called
with
focal
In

the

lens

The

set

of

same

this

the
is

purpose
be

can

negatives of

done
known

lengths.

describingthe
to

positive by using

negative, and
for

necessary

focal length of the negative.

unknown

an

the

know
called

are

rays

which

are

incident

venient
entering and leaving a lens it is conbeing spoken of. Rays fallingupon
or

while
affluent,

those

quitting it

definition covers
foci of positive as
well
Really, the same
if
focus
virtual
be
lenses,
a
accepted for the concave.
"

"virtual"

is

"

explained

hereafter.

as

are

negative
The

term

terme

together
which

that

"diverging." Kays
With

pencil further
they

to

respect

run

than

But

lens

it

leave

they
entering strongly convergent
a

concave

ing

The

been

it has

lens

the

from

object
"

this

have

have

traversed

in

converge,
the

as

varies

luminant, as

or

it,

convergence.

is formed

image

from

passed through
of light
the case

in

"

are

image, but

an

radiant

or

rays

lens

convex

said, to form

which

at

of the

:on

rays

incident

diminished

with

"

from

designated
diverging or

rays

divergent, or

and

without

side

when

and

"converging,"

principal focus

its

closer

apart

lens, when

convergent.

emerge

side

convex

away

further

by
"parallel."

called

are

called

are

and

further

separate

converging

advance

they

as

become

that

effluent. Kays

or

closer

DISTANCES

IMAGE

AND

OBJECT

io

most

distance
with

the

it is sometimes

Fig. 8.
called

it will

"

be

tfl between

If
of

radiant

consideration
an

image

object

and

be

placed

at

let it be

to

will

be

be

of

to

the

be

now

four

to

twice

on

the

to

nearer

till to

irallcl

other

it.

from

from

away

If K

be

than

the

rays

of the

of the

lens

at

the

distance

The

focal

the

lens

.nd

coining

t""

of

It is

"

twice

lens.

so

on

from

that
not

If

C,

position
be

the

still further

moved

The

lens

distance, then, from

length

the

under

now

length

side

I.

id
of the

which

for convenience

"

Fig. 8, where

in

io.

as

the focal

is shown

further

relation

first instance

the

in

times

distance

given

to

equals that

moved
ted

I dra

This

lens

equal

equal

the

its im

said

formed

'h.

in detail

explain

to

the
K

description

well

until
it

now

of

may

thal
Lebe

occupied
lying in t/tc

possible

to

place

FOCUS

PRINCIPAL
R

at

the

sufficient

their rays
of

focus

the

or

sun

lens

is often

positionsof R
radiant
be placed
the

stars

LENS

ii

be

truly parallel,so
usually selected, as

to

rays
are

hence

the

principal

the

solar

focus."

rays

issue

parallelon

"

of

as
spoken
Seeing
I are
theoreticallyinterchangeable,if the

and

focus

the

at

sensibly parallel:

called

be

may

the

or

moon

the

for

distance

OF

I the

the

Fig. 9.
Hence

side.

other

rule

'

placed in the principalfocus


'

be
it

and

and

radiant

image

relation

certain

But

neither

where

9,

side"

other

the

on

in

of

That

"

radiant

issue

from
8

seeing that the


focal
lengths bear

parallel,and
other, for

the

to

one

preceding diagrams, Figs.

the

interchangeable, the

are

if

lens,parallelrays

are

rays

stated,

be

may

increases

one

as

the

RAYS

PARALLEL

PRINCIPAL

FOCAL

LENGTH

Fig.

diminishes, and

other
of

conjugate

as

be

Although
at

times

foci,by which
the

lens

This

on

one

within
to

is meant,

side, where

is effected

; hence

versa

and

are

spoken

foci.1

hardly
desirable

vice

10.

the

If

of

scope

ascertain

the

be

object

an

work

microscopy, stillit may


positions of the conjugate
on

relative

is the image

placed
formed

on

by solvingthe simple equation


"

i
"

/'

at

given

the other

distance
side ?

from

LIGHT

CONVERGENT

12

have

We
that
from
beams

the

in

is not

condition

it

of

deals

that

the
It

sunlight.

upon

beams

with

in

with

produces

distance

case

joined

set

forth

more

in

been

having

less

or

met

that

rays

those

on

individual
remains

yet

^wvergent

are

II,

cast

there

by the

have
ion

the

focusscd

of C

cc

shortens

//, for

would

they

i:

change,

occur

be

of

I'

at

the

focal
C

course

is

falling upon

C,

C'.

This

lens

the

left alone, but


.so

therefore
been

have

focusscd

the

focal

th

parallel

of

focus

shorter

at

entirely brought
distance

the

the

that
a

rays

is

understood,

ii

length,

has

the

red, U

lenses

ii.

rays

had

be

condition

auxiliary lens

I instead.

at

it may

several

shown

are

rays

Fig.
would

where

nearly together. Such

where

Fig.

but

nature,

lens-systems

certain

of

formation

are

now

lens

effect
a

LENS

it.

the

in

great

so

POSITIVE
convex

the

effect it has

what

shown

upon
Such

at

as
parallel,

are

be

to

placed

radiant

also

^//verging,and

are

how

discussed

now

AND

This

K.
about

object

from

by
the

/the

J length.
priii
following example which

:"S

Let

Hence
on

ihc

the

might

in

occur

microscopical

con-

equal 204, / equal '2 in.,when


conjugate focus is easily found

will

by

be

found

to

be

tl, from

tal.

the

lens

1 with

the

ot;

mentioned

that

when

is
"

"

it

'

;on,
to

50

diameters.

in

"

hence

in

the

above

rase

the

is
;unj"litif.ition

LIGHT

CONVERGENT
the

recollect,

to

of

convergency

may

placed

at

fall upon

rays

at

It

changes

great

of
such

how

rule

lens

additionally

be

It

apart.

are

the

is

it

this

with

the

that

other

their

forth

set

are

moreover

in

be

to

the

the

facturing
manu-

careful

so

the

all

relative

exact

in

binations
com-

distance

account,

it

how

by

and

had

said

rays

the

by

lens-systems,the optician has


shall
precisely
components
occupy

positionone

of

manner,

modified

on

been

path

this

in

obtain

has

of

the

as

convex

would

what

in

associated

lenses

components

from

effected

be

can

can

inferred

be

readily

can

13

be

been

Hence

question.

of parallel,
as
"/2vergentinstead
placed at F, the principalfocus.

would

LENS

focus?
plane which lies within its principal
the reader, if a radiant
further
were
just remind
(within the true focus) the rays issuing from

focusses them
We

in

converging

WJien

"

beams

the

POSITIVE

AND

computer's

formula.
The
1.

in

be tabulated
now
following five principlesmay
When
collective lens they
a
parallelrays enter

focus

at

distance
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21

magnified, and which


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Fig. 19 let AB
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MICROSCOPE

SIMPLE

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Fig. 20.
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real

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MICROSCOPE

SIMPLE

THE

24

represent this distance, f the

focal

length of the lens

d the
and
of distinct
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being considered
C and K.
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of the observer
vision
figured as that between
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the
the
at
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proceeding from
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the virtual
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after passing the lens C to form
x
must,
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image, have the same

Fig.

"

21

"

Fig. 21.
A'B'

from

the distance

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ot

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Fig. 22,

placed

eye

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that

"

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observer, and

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;

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opticalformula

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lens

A'B'

respectively. They

Fig. 22.
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.re

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of

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"

5:-^?=AB:
1

Tins the situation

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vision.

of distinct

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virtual

MICROSCOPE

SIMPLE

THE

The

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CK

aby or

A'B'

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to

of the same
consequently appears
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to

referred

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it

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25

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.

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the

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The

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into

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-y,
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even

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magnification

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instead

microscopist :

the

at all unless

; but

of

vision,

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four

length

mind

directlyproportional

distance

distance

see

focal

correct
practically

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might be just able

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to

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by

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figure.1

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with

"

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for that

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20

placed

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remarks
actual

be

to

short-sighted one

Before

of

long-sighted person

vision

the fraction

properly represented by

be

the distance

object for

an

d.

of distinct vision
It

"

error

would

as

; for

be
for

longer,
place.

took

for positive
simple magnificationformula, however, is rigorouslycorrect
lenses of any focal length if the eye be placed at the posteriorfocal plane.
See Appendix.

The

THE

SIMPLE

Fig. 23.
focal

length,which

before

he

5 in. does

can

with

his naked

Fig. 24.-

DissectingStage.

"

he has to

means

examine

MICROSCOPE

it

as

well

eye.

as

As

use

the
an

lens to

magnify four times

short-sightedobserver
illustration,
supposing

Large Dissecting Microscope.

at
we

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:"

}"

5, and

d=

with

the

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angular

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nearly,if not quite the same


The
simple microscope is used
dissectingmicroscope, of

by different makers,
The

the
show

the

of
are

needed

instrument

different

Figs. 25

for this
is held
varieties
and

by
of

26, are

in

two

as

the

more

tfoth
all

Image.

an

known

one

endless

variety

microscope.
especially for

the

microscope ; and as both


actual optical portion of
support.

arrangement.
among

is

hand

suitable

added

would

high powers

forms, the

there

for the

purpose,

20.

long-sighted, see
objects
and
distinctness.
facility

is used

preparing specimens

Erected

with

then

with

measurement

of

at

or

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other

dissecting microscope

purpose
hands

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individual

object

lenses

that with

see

formula

short-sighted observer,

question the

in

viewed

long-sighted

the

with

the

Dissecting Microscope

observers, whether

as

length, taking the

for

lens

Consequently with the lens


have
approximately the same
individuals.

focal

27

place of the object,to be

the

find

"we

"

half

of

lens

MICROSCOPE

SIMPLE

THE

The

Figs. 23
next

this type of

two

and

24

trations,
illus-

microscope

SIMPLE

THE

because
but

they

hand

microscopes
be

implies, to
for

diseases,

are

in

the

as

purpose

preceding,
instruments

reality compound

fixed

They
from

in

to

Mr.

times,

30

Nelson

with

magnifier fitted
the

upon

illuminate

object
At

it.

Another

after
on

this

out

the

the

by

fashion

Continent.

in
of

form
Messrs.
of

the
It

handle.
of

and

Fig

useful

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Watson

"

Sons

"

Brucke

is

5 to

quite

with

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but

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room

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Its
renders

hand

28.

very

most

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consulting

laboratory.

fication

(30

field

view.

of

to

90), a

designed

magnifier
great

large frontal

it

pocket

Lastly, Koristka
has

size,

for

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the

said,

minimum

if in.,

inconvenient

10

tional,
excepis

magnification.
x

much

working-

being,
in.

very

type,

The

distance

use,

to

variable

"

in.

light

28.

diameters.

on

so

magnifies from

hand

reflect

of

powers

silvered

to

be

of
"

loups

same

lens

may

skin

27.

examination

times

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form

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under

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very

brought

much

the

It is illustrated

arrangement.

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extended

an

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Fig.

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"

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dropping

designed

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all

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in

different

of

made

are

highest

are

shown

as

are

readily suggest

The

description

handle,

and

name

examining

which

reader.

this
a

in

men

their

as

only,

purposes

the

of

hand

medical

by

to

intended,

are

the

by

for other

and

microscopes
Zeiss,

used

use

themselves

used

same

29

erecting eyepieces.

The

been

the

optically speaking they

with

the

for

used

are

MICROSCOPE

range

of Milan

compound

giving
of

distance,

ampliand

an

Fig.

27.

extensive

III

CHAPTER

THE

Tin:

compound

both

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There

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in

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embracing
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uld
The

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illustrated

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firms

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"

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in-

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in

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Knglish

Continental

typical

cl

shown

recent

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called

usually
that

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arc

being

whilst

ind,

to

forms

different

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be

to

in

by

many

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microscope

course,

but

types

"

difficult

pattern

the

of

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primitive

made

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each,

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long-tube
leal

of

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speak

although,

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than
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in

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appearance,

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designed

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used

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more

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models,

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both

is

term

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arc

very

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microscope

construction

when

MICROSCOPE

COMPOUND

30.

name-

affixed
It

to

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different
for

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bcdi

metal

Mechanical

of

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of

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n

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draw-tubes,

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1 the

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microscope
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entire

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to

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that

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"s

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sake

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the

of

portions:

.o

The

parts

simple,

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30

and

auxi!

with

its

32

THE

CONTINENTAL

MODEL

OF
BY

Eyepiece

or

CARL

MODEL).

(LATEST

MICROSCOPE
ZEISS.

Ocular.

Draw-tube.

Objective Changer.

Revolving

Stage

lifts off

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to
required,
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i.ot

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canite
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slab.

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ZEISS,JENA

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to

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axis

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with

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required

THE

6. The

The Foot

horse-shoe
not

33

substage,including the diaphragm and


fine adjustment.

5. The

1.

MICROSCOPE

COMPOUND

now

much

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in favour
of

union

arranged that

Fig.
the

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as

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Fig. 29,

mentioned.

legs, it will

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or

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In the

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30.

in

shown

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pattern

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may

mirror.

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is

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strument
in-

from

placed completely horizontal ; whilst,


Continental
model, two supports usually rise up vertically
which
end
in a pivot arranged for the
the
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same

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be inclined

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in the

through

Tube

entire

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increased.

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it, by which

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The
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Continental

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in.

English form

long-tubed instrument,

of

about

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in

model

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"

that

longer
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in

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12

be

to

"draw"1

on

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called
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in

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other

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usually provided to tighten

is

use

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handle

arrangement,

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rapidly becoming the fashion,


of
by the use of a third tube, usually articulatingby means
the
a
special rack and
pinion with the ^/raw-tube, to make
instrument
to 12
or
capable of being extended
13 in.,but closed
to

5 in.,a very

to

of

end

The

great convenience,
the

tube

provided with

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'8 in.

out
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casting
screw
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objectives,both
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will be

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later

much

easilyand

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draw

"

draw-tube

Internal

1*27 in.,or

of
to

microscope

the

end

diameter, small
32'2S

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fit

to

lighter

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slide

"

is contained

millimetre

cloth

all

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into
usually divided
in its fitting
within
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Messrs. Bausch
fitting,

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fitting,"and
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draw-tube

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of

Draw-tube?

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This

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to

the

inch.

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similar

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kind,

the

be

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to

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will hereafter

does

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diameter

as

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from

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sm

upper

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size,'917 in,,or 23*3

millimetres.

Large

millimetres.

size,

addition, for it

py great

of

diameter

make

Continental

which

advantages.1
Microscopical Society

1.

may

Royal

The

docs

:id

eye

be

should

draw-tube

interchange of
other
fittingsthat

careful

sending orders by ;
being taken
impression in wax
Body articulates with
3. Tlu

in

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Whatever

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ihc

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This

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of

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what

movement.

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instrument

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all

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into

diameter

exact

the

from

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way

pinion

heads.

of

hence

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are

corresponding
body. Several

future

in

recommending

of

movement

absence

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by

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certain

oculars

consists

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arrangement,

manufacture,

the

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fit into

that

other, and
i

old

tube

tube

pinion, forming part of the


construction
arc
adopted by

forms

adjustment,

coarse

size,

mistakes.

prevent
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the

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down

stating its
Xeiss

to

in

present the arrangement

At

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than

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draw-tubes, 'which

different-sized

for

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manufacturers,

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to

seem

oculars

American

the

is

draw-tube
the

course,

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and

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not

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tube

the

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"

it does

seems

plain spring-brassone

stiff like the

Bausch

MICROSCOPE

COMPOUND

:K

34

"

whole, is furnished

.c

later

on.

Long-

and

Short

tube

STAGE

THE

possessing

of instrument

exists

doubt
and

rack

point,to
(and rack) are

slides

3$

motion, such

accurately fitted.

the

upon

if the

see

rack

coarse

description and

best

the

of

MICROSCOPE

THE

OF

the

It is

tube

filled with

should

be

well, if any

completely
heavy

out

grease

"

sign"for it is probably there to cover


up
and
loose fitting.
a bad
be simple or
(sometimes called
compound
4. The Stage may
former
merely consists of a solid piece of
mechanical). The
thick brass fixed at right angles to the body, in such
a
position
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beneath
affords

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the

end

middle

by

large

manufacturers

make

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furthest

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serves

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In

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simple

complicated
furnished
These

and

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from

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with

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square-

shaped, but

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by

verniers

millimetre

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of

and

How
to

to

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more

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side

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of slides
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to

two

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to

These
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capable
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afford

devoted

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to

In
ments
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portions of

specimen1

chapter

usually

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of the units of measurement

stage,

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screws,

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of

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highest grade,

side

particular part

this is

the discussion

model

Continental

from

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sleeve

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motions

two

English

fractions

Besides

neath
Under-

use.

ment,
looking through the instruright angles to the optical axis and

at

in the

registeringsome

reference.

that, by

superstructure

with

seen

the

observer

an

down

and

be

in

estimate

diaphragm.

so

heads,

In

objective

instruments, however, the

arranged

to

mentally

can

often

or

instruments

to

he

of the

front

condenser
of

movements,

stage

of stage may

milled

up

of

form

is

with

the

the

form

are

from

substage

best

the

permitting the microscopist,when


focussing
of the slip containing the specito lay hold
men,
that by liftingit up and
thumb
and
so
finger,

gently

completely through the stage


body of the instrument, converting
into
It
a
U-shaped
opening.

mentioned

it lies from

distance

the

of

power,

very

perforated
light from

slit

broad

from

purpose

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down

of

passage

it

springs are supplied with this form of


holding the specimens firmly to it. Some

hole

high

It is

specimen.

for the

hole

objective,that

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stage for clipping and

on

the

to

the

takes

that

tube

the

support

Two

mirror.

the

of

convenient

in the

bad

means

for

future

very
the

best

purpose

by microscopists.

it is usual

of instruments
revolve

again added
To

turning
it

in

centring

the

In the

Continental

it

the reader

enable

acentric

being

movement.

small

no

the

instruments

to

apparatus,

to

regret

we

view

add

opticalcentrality when

to

stage

of

act

quit entirelythe field of

to

stands

English

vernier

opticalaxis truly is

the

the

specimen

say

this

ment
adjust-

conspicuous by its absence, whilst in the best


is nearly always present
Very little reflection

is often

will

adjust

that

desired, a

of circular

amount

specimen

to

screws

necessary.

through

by the verniers,

notes

the desired

position,which

objects of

the

values

valueless

hunt

to

if the

again

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to

indicate

the

over

away

hence

specimen
with

If, however,

stage.

places

consequence

practicallydoes

mechanical

becomes

stage

previously obtained

different slides

on

become

special
microscopisthas

the

it upsets

and

that

understand

to

use,

interest

the

direction

to

superstructure

so

usual, therefore, in the finest constructed

of

instrument,

imperfectlymade

some

causes

the

about

turn

stage

and

matter,

registerthe

to

make

of

in any

round

turned

be

may

for the entire

nowadays

opticalaxis

the

on

STAGE

COMPOUND

THE

36

of the

one

the

find

to

stage

can

especiallybefore noting a new


always kept central
position
be
reset
absolute
to
or
can
immediately
centralityby means
in question,the
of the screws
present readings taken, as well
all the old ones
other slides,
will always be correct
on
and
as
be

"

"

correspondinglyuseful.1
Whether
or

of

the

stage is better in its round

rectangular shape

facilitates the

form

stages,

square

the

answers

The

size

specialuse

best suited
In
up

many

the

stage

wear

and

some

How

as

opinion.

circular

best

the

square

The

round

motion

about

English stands,
is

means

the

even

usually provided

the

microscope is

it should

later
for

somewhat

stage varies

the

with
which

on

according

to

what

be

applied ; for instance, in


exceedingly large, but this matter
considering the class of microscope

be
when

to

special purposes.

instruments
and

also

tear

the

arrangements
in

the

loss of

the different movements.


1

of

or

purpose.
of

bacteriology
is discussed

in

of

matter

recording

opticalaxis, although
their

is

form

to set

the stage

different

If not
"

in

way

central

are

slides

the

screws

abused, these
"

is

provided
of

the

to

mechanical

which
are

take

produce

very

fullyexplainedlater

on.

useful,

AUXILIARY
BY

rectangular

Both
effected
vertical

(fixed

which

against
by

the

points

which

grip

fixed bar, 'when


; the

is rotated
on

small

two

either

of

end

which

pinion

and

; the

upon

in

the

raised
bar

the

slip

order

to

it

move

slide

the

pressed

upon

cork

slide, and

the

the
bar

movement

press

tipped with

are

the

horizontal

the

is

slide

rack

the

BAKER.

movement)

spring clip, and

is mounted
for

carries

horizontal

to

CHARLES

37

are

pinion,

which

of

one
as

movements

and

rack

by

STAGES

along

milled

actually
surfaces
to

head
rests
at

minimise

friction.

Fig.

but
to

many

have

manufacturers
been

have

unfairly or

so

By

31.

found

adjustments of
ignorantly employed,

BAUSCH

"

that

injury

LOMB.

rectangular

The
rack
a

this nature

pinion, as

and

in time.
surface

the

the

microscope

adjustable,permitting
various

60

not

wear

rests

upon
and

stage,
with

contact

stop against which

The

will

that

by

make

to

the

if desired.

condenser

long

impossible

in immersion

both

are

object slide

The

of

used

be

may

it is

movement

worm-screw

loose

movements

The

sizes.
the

range,

the

the

slide

rests

object carrier has

extra

being 35

movements

is

of slides of

use

and

respectively.

mm.

The

is held

stage

by

in

solid metal

place

on

the microscope

clamp.

Fig. 32.
to

the

slides of

almost

they now

no

permanent

nature

longer add them

to

has

resulted

sequently
con-

their instruments,

STAGES

AUXILIARY
BY

OTTO

HIMMLER.

BERLIN.

this arrangement

In

ment
move-

one

is
endless
whilst

by

an

screw,

is

other

the

by rack and

pinion.
clamped
the microscope
to
quite easily.
It

All

stages

stand, in other

hitherto
words

considered
are

fixtures

Bv

have

been

be

can

built

the

into

forming part of

the

instru-

This
and

arrangement

the

preceding

are

: ;

shape of

nt

milled

heads
:

by

some

is

the
the

pre-

micro-

scop

ihcir

circular

stage, make

the

Continental

top plate to

firms

how-

lift off to

STAGES

AUXILIARY

40

In

of

(made

attached

the

to

down"

diameter
without

or

unclcrsurface

the

on

further

from

the

into

of

the

of

sleeve,

or

receive

iris

which

"

microscope

It is

grips

The

wl

be

to

what

in

be

may

called

special

any

tlv
placed upon
the edges like

it

position by
It

in

movement

vertical

the

is

an

then
of

means

has

long

both

zontal
hori-

direction*.

is crude,

arrangement

with
a

fixed

without

general

scope

primitive form

somewhat

it.1
.1

rather

better

class

of

microscope, however,

\\;

beneath,

but

of

means

turned

which

':""(! with

down

the

convention

reader
"

who

motions

always

not

the

sleeve

.chcd

it

the

is

kind

of

thumbscrew

by
when

thumb

and

cs

commencing

the

ot

the

in

or

lowers

the

and

that

construction

con

of thr
means

to

in

it

fittingcontaining
The

is

incd

"

whole

accordance

stage

immediately

upon

in

and

mechanism

of

sliding bar;

of

range

and

specimen

this

thumbscrew.

the

be

can

clamped

of

bringing

special feature

ry

of i

and

SONS.

fitting.

Up

the

and

of

"

meant

slip containing

to

is sufficient

and

diaphragm)

is

it

but

Abbe

an

instead.

stage

The

any

English

microscope, or carrying it away


further
performed by pushing the condenser
.ut again by hand, unassisted
by pul

stage

it,is

the

to

nearer

by

the

"

substage proper is
representative being
to

an

i"y

condenser

placed

only

all, its

correct

with

the

type

moti"

the

grand classes

two

either

at

the

condenser

her

up

evidence

in

not

sleeve

of

make

the

really

into

Continental.

the

and

kinds

all

!c

direction

substage.

confuse
The

the
former

up

by

STAGES

AUXILIARY

fittingis

of the
be

to

in

its

to

whole

aside

out

the

when

that

the

use

turned

and

such

of

the

original position

rotated
The

way.

is

notified

By

CARL

is not

condenser

be

fittingcan

41

by

this

upon
of

return

required
the

screw

fitting

click, by which

the

ZEISS.

Fig. 37.
The

milled

this pattern of
movement

The
the

be

peculiar

applied

to

effected

with

mechanism

of
the

the

cause

traversing stage and

may

movement

which

heads

the

purposes

of

either the
this stage

sliding pieces
of

"

right

or

are

positionsin turning.

co-axial
The

in

lateral

left hand.

guarantees
fulfils all

sliding pieces

the

their relative

considerably greater security

requirements

of

movable

in

stage when

finder."

microscopistunderstands
in

and

of

movement

retain

the

condenser

the

optical axis of the instrument.


fittingnot being usually provided with

centringthe condenser,

such

as

we

is

once

more

replaced

Owing, however,
the

shall

means

shortly

of

to

the

accurately

this
explain,

"

"

regarded
is somewhat
of

this

Hard

rough.
that

design, so

is apt

wear

when

microscope

the

arrangement

spoil

to

only be

must

whole

the

effort,as

approximate

an

as

optical axis

the

with

centrality

to

return

SUBSTAGES

ENGLISH

THE

42

efficiency

the

is intended

to

be

Fig. 38.

employed

in

rough

laboratorywhere
t"" be
expected,we
a

known

We

have

and

shaky,

it

that

so

more

than

when

the

frequent
do

sometimes

recommend

not

once

and

become

fittingwas

its

adoption.

troublesome

very
"

rather

clicked

"

home

the

ATSON.

ything but central,a condition

condenser
sufficient

to

objective.

lessen

The

"

.cnt

may
and

"od

be

40.

seen

of

things quite

performance
in

of

the

Fig. 38, other

ENGLISH
To

be

then, is
how

SUBSTAGE

able
a

such

process

excellence

It is shown

Fig.
A

handy
in

stage

In

the

contrivance

ordinary

and

by SWIFT,
tube

best

mechanism

of

stands,

Son, recognising
a

for the

little

neat

special object

differentlymounted.

42

41.

arranged

fitting beneath

Arranged

to

the

of

cheap microscopes.

the

"

cheap

introduced

just suitable

Figs. 41

43

these

Swift

is,have

and

in

in

Messrs.

and

fittingof great

fit into

condenser

desideratum,

important

in view.

the

centre

to

ARRANGEMENTS

better

form
the

the

of

body

of

the

instrument

what

is

technically called

is

"

BY

type.

slipped into

understage
Also

the

sleeve

fitting of

by SWIFT.

the

however,

The
complicated.
(Fig. 43) to be prolonged into
is provided with
which
tailpiece,"

is

seen

cheap

be

instruments,

English

substage

to

far

more

WATSON.

Fig. 43The

Substage

fitted to

as

rack, the

carefully cut

illuminating apparatus
to

raise

or

lower

precision. In

some

the

the

Edinburgh

engaging

itself,which
whole

instances

Microscope.

pinion being fixed


thus

substage
an

Student's

with

enables
ease,

the

in

the

operator

delicacy, and

auxiliaryarrangement

called

SUBSTAGE

CONTINENTAL

THE

44

adjustment to the substage is also


microscopist to perform these up and down
speaking
greater delicacy. Later, when

added

fine

taken

iment
our

opinion of recent
fine adjustment,

own

this

extra

which

ring
they

into
serve

the

with

for the

purpose

of

of

the

the

handle
how

to

and

open

they are
suitable position.1
the

English

fixed

into

cannot

be

care
:

the

the

actual

model

when

iris

desired

so

the

by

iris,\\lun

the

to

different in this respect.


The
mirror
(concave and

ring placed

which

is made

The

iris dia-

be

is

little

show

to

found

in

usually rigidly

which

it

mean

we

tJic optical axis, special


when

instrument.

illuminatingapparatus,

coloured

microscope

pinpoint,shall

in

condenser

or

often

that

so

in the

drops

provided with
graduations

by

of

xactly opposite
of

the

vogue,

cut)

may

out

found

condenser

diaphragm

maker,

reduced

of

be

purpose.

It is

shut

or

this

optical axis

form

the

the

ring.

quite
(two

screws

additional

leaves, whilst

opened

exercised
the

.tout

the

in

the
in

it

Special diaphragms

be

to

illuminatingapparatus,

shifted

being

this

close

much

In

used

especially for

out

placed beneath

is

and

the

instrument.

dropped into
(not shown

condenser

in

turn

be

can

headed

of

in

recommend

to

to

the

change

accurately centring

which

design

out

still

of

use

believe

now

usually

arc

the

used

we

milled

optical portion

optical axis

beneath

Eig. 43)

of

the

with

motions

point

we

small,

the

pieces of glass

for

whereas

which

rticular

to

in

shown

are

shall

we

years

Three

expense-.

unnecessary
of

whole,

as

enable

to

But
the

we

of

case

which

is

plane surfaces)in

indicate

shall

show

the

made

nental
Conti-

entirely

English type
"ub^tagc is usually held to the tailpiecefixed in the body of
the instrument, by a double-jointed arm
permitting movement
the

of

substai

.illyadopted type

y different

is that

original:

has advanced

in favour

so

ufacturcrs
h in

rmu

de
1

by Carl

"

all Coir

in

but

(Fig.

by

45

it is
It
.

rrc

adopting the
cc

design

article

(notably V

upon

the

use

and

the

"n

abuse

of

"

Sons)

with

SubstagcCondenser.

arc

new

CONTINENTAL

THE
models

SUBSTAGE

45

microscopes that they have brought

of short-tube

out

; at

these
that they are
so
immediately
they have constructed
desired.
After
capable of receiving this class of substage when
of close acquaintance, we
bound
several
in common
are
years
least

justiceto

of

it has

certain

is

of

the

the

is

It

the

by

of

this

we

Abbe

firm, have

same

to

make

always
the

to

screws

achromatic

each

their

densers,
con-

self-

own

for this

up

are

bound

are

have

we

centring

the

is true

arrangement.

design, we

in its construction

centring arrangements

contained

of

neatness

absence

condenser.

made

as

omission

one

that

regretted,and
sleeve

and

workmanship

this

superior ; but whilst saying

no

there

admit

satisfied with

than

more

are

excellence

For

to

we

say

deficiency

Fig. 44.
Centring appliance

of which
to

this

have

the

on

one

complain,

we

substage

Objective as

to

would

an

for, with

pay

for all.

do

Condenser

it is

surely

but

addition

in

for

To

(fullsize).

expense

unnecessary
each

condenser, when
this

remedy

omission

drops into the sleeve of


centring fittingwhich
the
primarily designed for using
condenser, which, though
(and so in consequence
supplied with
objectives as condensers
the nosepiece),will take an
the same
the
universal fitting,"
as
firm

the

sell

"

just as

English condenser
R.
used

J.

"

for

Neither

years
of

great

Centred

with

these
Abbe

chromatic
too

make

Beck

with

well

as

similar

pleasure ;
self-centring devices
great

sold

condensers
diameter.

The

the Continental

Messrs.

objective(Fig.44).
class of fittingwhich
an

can

by Zeiss,

consequence

better.

nothing

want

we

have

we

be

used

because
is

microscope, which

they
seems

with

they

are

cannot
a

the
of
be

serious

ight and

to

one

Continental

of the

SUBSTAGE

CONTINENTAL

THE

46

which

we

very

earnestly call

the

attention

opticians.1

lowered
is raised
or
by
illuminating apparatus
which
actuates
a
turning a neatly milled handle (S in Fig. 45),
rack let into the tailpiece,easily seen
i a
pinion that c;
whole

The

in the

figure.

collectivelybe said to consist of


iris diaphragm,
hold the condenser,8(ii)
an

substagc may
three parts:

to

and
1

\\V

a
(iii)

in

Continental

th.it most

admit

mounted

mi;

simple tubes, but

"ranxcmcnt*
1

It

is

useful

^cope,

to

36*8 mm.
;

whilst

we

know

condensers
the

can

illuminators

be

purchased

forbids

their

mentioned.

have
the

chromatic

ti

.cter

"

; Rcichert

anil the

Lcitz is lets than

of

this sleeve
r"

is,in

the

similar,viz. 387^

either,being 50*5

mm.

Zeiss

ADJUSTMENT

FINE

THE

48

of

difficultyin obtaining a consensus


should
have
a
fairlyrapid screw
would
are

is

not

for

that

seem

what

(probably)

yet

the

on

other

C.

BAKER,

in the

micrometer

nulled

head

works

through

fiftythreads
socket

which

threads

two

of

The

with

the

different

pitch

fixed
the

is

socket

inch

the

works

attached

inch, and

the

to

other

through
the

to

the

nearest

screw

forty threads

to

and

LONDON.

screw.

has

screw

size

commensurate

are

consists of

This

the

where

hand

HOLBORN,

HIGH

244,

slow

high, too

very

depth of objects

BY

one

purposes

the

it

whether

to

as

exceptionallyfine. It
where
the magnifications

or

microscopist calls

the

troublesome

certain

opinion

of

screw

movable

body

of

the

microscope.
tfect of
raise

lower

or

inch,

whilst

revolving the
the

the

other

carrying the

body

to

the

inch,

the

turns

to

being iJ0 of
the

Fig. 46."

THE

milled

CAMPBELL

too

slow

difficultyis

same

met

pitch

an

milled

forty

screw

thread

the

at

of

speed

for

fine

possible to

I'scrs

"

have

fine

ment
adjust-

objectivesdo

"":

the

on

finer the

they

ground-

H.whcn

;nifi-

tu
.

the

of

SCREW.

is

or

fifty

-tphy the

ct:

"ul

the

ment
adjust-

rotation

every

to

socket
of

rate

felt

is
to

the

the

""i

with.

turns

causes

travel

inch

head

head.

DIFFERENTIAL

"uld be
with

first

Jters,

or

a-

it

by which

both

requirements

are

satisfied in

FINE

THE
that

by

quick

of

means

several

firms

Whatever

the

by

head

double

of

motion

slow

or

ADJUSTMENT

the

(one

49

is effected.

screw

adopted,

arrangement

of the

one

supplied

of I1ine

"

LOMB.

38, Hatton

yj,

section

Cross

leading pomts

BAUSCH

English Agent"

section

It is

large),

nowadays.

BY

Vertical

the other

and

small

of Fine

Garden, E.C.i.

Adjustment.

Adjustment.

Fig- 47The

micrometer

the

weight

the

screw

of

the

body,

limit

of

with

set

plus

subjected

motion.

spring
Lateral

is smoothness
when

at

it should
of

this

rapped.

of

rest."
not

By
go

book),
To

is

or

make

strain

equal only

between

the

tension

compressed

when

the

motion

action.

even

the

of

the

friction

spring

the

adjustment

is

resistance

or

and

brought

Another

of

focus
when

trial,Van

great

that when

by
the

feature
an

itself

(see

tube

is

Heurck's

is

nearer

does

"

in

the

of

weight

the

by an original device, which


liabilityto relaxation and wear.

this is meant
out

to

is eliminated
their

springs, with

and

screws

to

difference

the

the

as

the

of

body

is thus

adjustment,

the
fixed triangularportion of the arm,
directlyupon
by a spiral spring, and
microscope being balanced

acts

screw

the

to

its

away

stability

object is focussed,
hints

at

the

end

tapped or the table


test-objectis a good

ADJUSTMENTS

FIXE

VARIOUS

CORNHILL,

CK,

made

upon

method

patented

new

invented

Ashe.

Mr.

by

which

II

cradle

the

moves

lever

strong
carries

body

the

of the

microscope

which

is

with

slides

"

the

".h milled

through
with

by

outer

an

of "

distance

The

the

moving
complete
milled

or

,'" in.

me

the

or

other

the

fine

head

milled

adjustments

the

to

be

may

put

can

B has

limb

for

fine

adjusti

of

"

supporting

ally
|

tuali)

Is of
the

base

scope,
micro-

of the

the

upon

of

micrometer

rrn

of

the

the

upright

microscope.
ir
'ii

it

with

sup-

accurately

so

il

column

filtc"i
of

minimum
the

ment
move-

bcini;
at

screw

the

top

this

"

such

as

way

"

com-

"ugh ii.
of
.

the

tube

through

'_

mm.,

and

B, read

scarcely

moderately
as

powers

for

be

head

screwing

of
overstated.

A
it

to

either

moment

giving

it,
in

inch

an

volution.
re-

and

with

of

convenience

by

body

complete

movement

of

coarse

fine thread,

any

such

fine

provided

head

screw

sJ0

steel

works

is

the

only

milled

the

in

to

on

MC

inch

an

The

lenses.

out

of

used,

very

by
screw

comparatively

be

may

it

revol-

screu

this

which

At

;;ping

has

body

"nt

by clamping

revolution.

head

^ in.,

or

is moved

carries

adjustment

line

B,

screw

revolved

when

head

lever

E,
side

upper

head

when

cradle.
limb

the

drives

which

screw,

screw

.md

48.

in

the

the

upon

bl

the
of

milled
a
large graduated
F.
at
folding indicator

The

fitting

D,

on

The

C.

lever

in

acting

spring

of

means

projecting portion

cradle

The

by

the

$ in.
A

or

in.

such

or
an

Hy
milled

tightly down,

BY

ADJUSTMENTS

FINE

VARIOUS

(SpecialForm.}

LEITZ, WETZLAR

E.

Fig. 51.
The

milled

two

wheel
mounted
the

d.

gear

prevents

gear-wheel

with

heads

drum

are

mounted

on

provided with a worm


spiralspring pressing against

portion is enlarged

and

any

is

lost

in

motion

heart-shaped

cam

the

On

this

The

the

cam

in

(Fig.50),which
latter

in

on

rests

the

the

drives
the

roller

the

axle is

shaft

same

steel

central

its turn

journals into which

Mounted

gear.

worm

/.

axle

an

gear.
of
one

with

g, fitted

the support kt which


in its turn
carries the microscope tube.
a
By its weight and
spiralspring the latter presses on the cam
f, and effects a direct vertical movement.
The
periphery of the heart-shaped cam
/ is exactly symmetrical and mathematically
The
distance
traveled
the lowest
sides from
to the highest point,
correct.
by its curved
and vice versa, is 3 mm.
Sixty teeth are cut in the entire periphery of the gear-wheel d,
the number
elevation
or
being
corresponding to one side of the heart-shaped cam
3 mm.
of "
tooth
movement
o'i
or
mm.
30, therefore
i
means
a
mm.
Owing to the drum
divided
being attached to the axle a and its head
into 100
divisions,each of these equals

on

*ooi

mm.

This adjustment (seealso Fig. 51) is


claims the following advantages :

By
no

virtue of its unique construction


limit to the motion
of the micrometer

as

the work

The
of

the

movement

screw,

which

and

accurate

reliable, and

is continuous
may

be turned

; there

forward

is

besides, it

absolutely
backward

or

requires.

movement
mm.

exceedingly

As

extends
another

in

an

exact

advantage we
specimen, for should

ratio
may
the

to

the

mention

revolution
it is almost

of

the

cam

for

impossibleto

distance
break

the

with the cover-glass


in contact
cover-glassof the
objectivecome
and assuming the knob
and
is of aluminium
is turned
the tube, which
still further, then
very light,would
simply rest on the specimen without breaking the cover-glass,as the
latter will easilystand
the small pressure of the tube and the fine spiralspring.

VARIOUS

"SRS.

POWELL

ADJUSTMENTS

FINE
"

GREENIIAM

EMSDALE,

LEALAND,

'.on

Road,

London,

N.

LONDON,

ROAD,

N.\V.}

1
Fig. 52some
adjustment, although devised
of the
modern
necessities
microscopist of

This

;is

itself, the

construction

being
Hv

KKK

so

siill seems
forty years
ago,
most
exacting nature.

to

the

exceedingly
HART,

the

meet

The

diagram

simple.

This

fine
of

means

adjustment
a

which

following
the

milled

:"

head

\\hich

of

which

spindle

cut

actuates

rotation

the
roller

In

this

of
and

ment
adjust-

feature

it-licacy

obtained.
the

The

micrometer

endless

an
a

fine
.

durabilityis

or

it the tube.

the

is

is raised

with

manner

the

By turning

is

screw

!, and

by

in

operates

manner

on

is

micrometer

new

\\hich

one,

of

nee,

as

the

only

required.
downward

!:ght weight
of

is

the

aluminium

tube,

the

i, and

excet

re-

injury
.ilmost

impose

should
e

Ail

the

into

come

bearing

surfaces

are

of

iianism
is

pro:
cope.
i

"

SWIFT

By

Model

(Fig.54) the opticaltube, which


vee"
gun-metal bar, sliding in
grooves
screw

with

first order

of the

engages

the

is

that

side-shake

slow

to

with

lever

with

stud

inner

the

top of the
and

is

the

near

of time

are

free
the

it

to

meter
microlever

running
box

hard

which

B,

sliding

The

taking

so

wear,

up

impossible in

the

at

vertical

fulcrum.

for

adjustments

loss

of

surface

on

LONDON.

ROAD,

box

horizontal

acting

head

D.

provided

bar

of

pulley fixed

steel

is fitted below

milled

is

53

used.)

soldered

; B

"

body, in which

still

has

A, A

of the

COURT

TOTTENHAM

SON,

(Old

back

ADJUSTMENTS

FINE

VARIOUS

this form

motion.

SWIFT'S

NEW

MODEL.

Fig- 54-

Fig-

(The

55

attachment
delicate

to

screw

hardened
to

that

raise

Fig. 55-

or

affords

devoid

by

steel

head

most

of all lateral

of
of

means

acts

depress
the

Model)." By

New

the

by
the

tube

fine

in

an

pillar, a

series

refined

shake.

the

point
of

of

levers

manner

movements

"

WATSON

BY

ADJUSTMENTS

FINE

VARIOUS

LONDON.

HOLBORN,

"

(Standard Pattern.)

Ixxly is raised

ft

of

milled

point, acting

Etecl
of

fixed

head

which

2^

in.

the

the

of

that

fulcrum

of

the

movement

the

weight carried

the

to

of

screw

trolling
con-

bear

to

instrument.

of

to

which

size

the
is

of

placed

body takes
by the n.

the

(5ft"*"/

The

ordinary
point

ts

at C,
fittings

and

the

touching
thread

coarse

of

parted

and
Icvrr

by
to

each

by

This

the

to

low

"

stand

-ml

severe

plete
com-

additional
one

F,

at

touching

the

"

"

rotation

is

about

arrangement

powers
threaded

each

ordinary
.

U-sr

of

spcr

An

-ad

for it will be observed

eoaru

for

250*1

"

"

liy the

:':"or
of

bead

dhc.ulA.

70*.

ingenious,

use

it* in.

complete

about

mi,
e

milled

attached

G.

at

microscope

the

controlling

the

U actoated

will.

with

1-

about

arm

is shown

this

;' fast and

"

contact

with

to

revoluti

lever

lever
of

is

t\0

that rapid

brought about
screw
(the thrca

offers every reason


and tear.
wear

in.

cxc

is

for

showing

construction

Adjustment.

Fine

"

\"y

the

slow

the
as

sliding fitting in which


place,

\\

ably
ia consider-

56.
Standard

the

hardened

reduced.

Microscope,

the

This,

turning

The
a

the

had

h.-ngth according

.xjssiblc

perfect dovetailed

the

case.

actuates

screw

in

:ying

in

movement

body

of the

milled-head

surfaces

contact

polished)against a point

appear

important

not

(the

means

hardened

long.

sight it would

weight

by
a

lever

body-s'i lc,

tin-

to

this
entire

s"

and

about
fitting,
first

on

attached

At

to

lowered

or

motion.)

of

Watson's

FINE

VARIOUS

56

is

mechanism

the

This
the

will

always
be

be

to

best

ADJUSTMENTS

BY

figures

the

follow

that

ment.
instru-

the

of

body

by examining

seen

microscopes

ii.

in the

found

senting
repre-

the

towards

end

(Latest Pattern.)

/KISS.

wheel,

worm

of

means

situated

the

at

serves

in

head.

The

with

the

endless

is

and
all

the

both

depressing

and

in

the
for

convenient

of the

coarse

parallel, and

turn

to

movement

As
heads

and

direction, the change

most

side
in-

outside.

are

elevating

tube

the

carrier,

milled

fine

the

adjustments

the

two

protected against
from

of

in

in

the

is enclosed

thus

axes

used

of

crane-shaped

damage

the

screw

acting upon

screw,

the

and

mechanism,

exception

heads

milled

as

whole

is
of

end

screw,

sense

by

screw,

lower

micrometer

the

as

movable

endless

an

the

same

from

one

other
the

is

hand

operator.

Fig- 59of

this

book, but the details

m*k"

of

the

fine

inclusive,a short

'-59

bcin;:
t

with

fine

Addenda.

each

adjustments by different

illus!

adjustment by

Swift

The
"

Son

description

closer iwill

be

found

the

in

the

CHAPTER
PORTION

OPTICAL

THE

WHATEVER

part

its different

of

of

the

of

dependent
do

we

wish

not

the

of

the

objectives

effect

the

scantily filled,expense

should

student

he

the
the

part
ing
build-

its

good,

can

ever

It

is

if his

that

be stinted

the

come
over-

important
be

pocket

the

on

in

is but

part

objective,

purchase of

stand.

Objective

The

in

together
the

mount

fit the

to

in

speaking

of

the

mechanical

adoption

by

all

opticians

of

necessity

this

of

of each

special requirements
matter
The

is 7644
number

complete

of

fact,

diameter

in., the
of

of

the

effective

threads

to

specification
Soc.,

application to

p.
the

230,

the

inch
limits

1915.

Secretaries

case,

which

structed
con-

7822

is

36"

see

in.,

in

57

the

the
as

objective, by

is

the

in.

The
For

screw.

Royal
be

thread

core

'0277

of

form

may

to

without

days,

The

pitch
of

Dies

suit

to

olden

is '8 in.
the

Whitworth

Society.

The

microscopist

The

Transactions
and

when

constitutes

adapters

screw-thread
is

size
the

unavoidable.1

Sizing Taps
of the

so

Continental,

or

supplemental

objective

being

microscope.

it enables

English

diameter

and

the

regulation

that

frequently

was

of

portion

employing

day

present

of

nosepiece

fitting already described

interchange objectives, whether


the

the

upon

placed

"

seeing

convenience,

great

very

the

lenses

numerous

is screwed

universal

"

for

term

"

combinations

all

tube,

collective

"

brass

as

and

has, especially with

sacrifice

to

and

cally,
emphati-

so

with

objective.

not

compelled

be

may

do

that

this, so

the

rest

ignore

we

it

bad

recollect

the

whatever
the

by

produced

this

to

however

eyepiece,

no

that

merely

to

for

then
but

for

one,

but

ance
perform-

seeing that

saying

course

the

object, all

nothing

of

effect, for

final

In

complete

magnification,

the

of

thought

if it had

as

the

refinement

the

in

true

of

image

be

it to

ocular,

apochromatic
secondary

the

perfection.

its

upon

played by
up

of

utilityof

course

part

construction

and

beauty

finally rest

is of

greater

details

real

must

This

the

power,

beauteous

are

whole

objective.

separating
the

as

perfect

the

or

still the

MICROSCOPE

the

by

played

given stand,

THE

OF

adjustments,

taken

instrument

be

may

workmanship

and

IV

scopical
Micro-

obtained

on

THE

58

condenser

ige

in

diagrammatically
represent
and
K

simple

compound

field

lens

through it,fall

upon

the

or

cl

and

of

speak

it

as

in

to

threads

work

lens, called

furnish

to

to

The

least

two,

but

usually of

affixed

here

need

at

the

the

history

The

of the

of

is cut
is

called his

with

the

instrument

this

and

"

polished

English

; but

Fluorite,
of

of

out

it should

curious

be

mineral

being
an

inch

recoil'

in

by

in

now

often

found

itivelylow
hat

that, in

stated

the

the

very

construction
late Professor

modern

objective

of

hundrcdths,

the

alum

interior
in
index

of

any

is almost

refraction
as

the

greatest

ro

to

objective,as

he

semi-apochromats.
of

of

somctini"

"

:th the
are

which

scii

terms

; hen.

differing

possessing

interposed in

objectives invented

apochromatic

of

characteristics

vith

dispersic

for

or

lenses them-

glasses

order

lenses

the

as

arrangement

individual

various

and

urns

Of

is

thirty-six

screw

collectivelyknown

the

objective

di!

Fluorite

instrument.

already explained,

fitting. By

unique properties,are

incc

small

have

we

combination

of the
to

make, whether

any

possessing certain
be only mentioned

peculiar type

highest

tube

lenses

more,

the

attached

purpose

Universal

or

ground

definite and

Abbe,

this

several

enables

of the

end

Constructivelyit

will.

addition, lenses
the

to the

objectivesof

are

ties

brass, which

nosepiccc, which,

components
"

of

mount

nosepicce

used

be

present day.

the inch, furnishing what

bvious
can

the

definite diameter, and

ersal

having

of the observer.

eye

it in

fittingfor
the

called

bored

be

to

actual

The

at

suitable

whole

of

this

last

the

enter

eyepiece, and,
and

the

they

seen

find

we

of

composed

held

is

the

next

to

of

scope

be

illuminator.

etiology,together with a descriptionof the first conceptions


subsequent developments of the objective,but merely to

and

as

the

within

not

them

transmits

'(^ns,which

of

dry condenser,

immersion

and
will

objective,it

the

from

with

combination

apochromatic objective

an

merging

is

60

Figs.

achromatic

an

passed through the


through the object, as shown
and
61, which
respectively

and

to

on

off

that, reflected

rays

have

illuminant,

the

from

mirror

the

lens, gathers the

front

its

of

means

OBJECTIVE

and

efficacious.

This
an

peculiar

extremely

59

APOCHROMATIC.

ACHROMATIC.

(HUYGHENIAN
OCULAR)
N
Axis*.

'

ACHROMATIC
CONDEN5E.R

(COMPLNSATING
V

OCULAR

)
'

Axia^l

HOLOS

OIL

CONDENSER

Fig.62,

THE

60

afterwards
of

user

the

always,

highest

as

that

be

"

is

any

nearly

sometimes

"

treated

rudely

or

upon

cannot

should

careful

front, which

the

pressed

not

he

manner

said, hemispherical

already

have

we

Especially

be

powers

-hemispherical

himself.

for

correct

in

adjustments

its

easily upset

very

may

OBJECTIVE

break
it, is quite an
it, or
even
matter,
easy
damage
and occurs
surprisinglyquickly with but the slightestblow.
of magnification in
in their respectivepowers
Object!
for

to

direct

be

to

ibet,

adopt

far better

last-named
as

plan,that of affixingto
method
is decidedly the
magnifying

vision

distinct

of

be

course

for each

The

but

iblc
f

ry

for the

at

of

the

if the

catalogue

has

objective,which
is too

what

with

quantity even
objectivehas

high

is set

combination

(see end

of this

;ilthickness

"d

of

immediately
distance

focal

down

length

in

this

matter

and

and
and

be

later

search

unscientific.
how

to

it is

entered

of similar

perimentally
ex-

into

in this work,

on

distance," which

is

focal

length.
adjusted by the maker

and

to

be

lenses

(a

should

be

used

with

and

explained

term

exercised

nally about

the

contrary

be

can

it,with

that

the

.v-tubc
inch

being used,
or

in

to

ocular

being

To
i:

millimetres, so

be

and, if the

'!/ mm.,

made

the

direction

;!lythin.

cover

:i

be taken

"working

cover-

thereby by pushing

specimen,

venient,
con-

objective'smagnification be

objective

care

length.

the performance of the


exactly correct, otherwise
1 it may
be entirelyruined
icrably ir
for a
chapter). Each
objective is also corrected

be thicker, the draw-tube

cover

its

the

nomenclatures

it is intended

length later),great

some

former

especiallyif "dry"

powers,

be

the

by

of

and

conventional

"

be corrected

to

more

rational

then

use.

others

their focal

explained

those

draw-tube

of

length

and

letters
; whilst

is troublesome
an

in

them

the

to

long

fullydiscussed
is meant
by

it is

draw-tube

the

mm.

precise magnification of

11 as

with

250

done, and

obtained
here

or

means

kinds

on

so

can

power

either

using

desired, the maker's


made

in.

10

"

question. When
cannot

different

I, 2, 3, and

numerals

approximately, by dividing

known
of

the

suitable

some

objectives by definite

their

the

by

or

length,so

distinguish the

to

opticians call

Some

This

adopted

focal

their

with

accordance

the

correct

error

/;/ sr'/i/,
nearer

employed
of

certain
il to

find

that

it

can

it

the

to

if the
exact

graduated
be

set

to

OF

USE

THE

DRAW-TUBE

61

of the
objective may
require
length that the correction
will be then
the microscopist thereby knowing the combination
conditions
for its performance.
placed under the most favourable
the image not appear
clear and
After this is done, should
sharply
the
be
from
arises
it
a
objective
good one)
probably (if
defined,
thickness
for which
the
the cover-glass not
being of the same
any

combination

pulled

out

should

at

corrected

was

in,

pushed

or

the

render

once

and,

in

the

alter

to

to

is

just described, which


good as possibleunder

manner

performance

existingcircumstances.
Objectives are computed

this,the draw-tube

as

fulfil three

orders

of

condition,

derived
are
distinguishing names
the apochromaticl The
and
first
achromatic, semi-apochromatic
in the present day, excepting
be obsolete
to
be said now
may

which, indeed,

from

for

perhaps

the

power

placed in
they now

that

of

of

the Schott

invented
of

consummation

the

indeed,

like

one

inches

two

or

glass (often collectively

opticians,recognising the new


their hands, have
recomputed their lens systems
approximately fulfil the requirements of the
The
merit, called
semi-apochromatism.
apo-

series

chromatic

powers

glass")

"Jena

order

next

"

introduction

called

so

low

very

the

for since

their

most

the

by

theoretical

late
and

Professor

Abbe

constructive

represents

skill,all

lengths
wave-

focus, but owing to their necessarily


coming to one
used
for everyday work,
enhanced
price are not as commonly
for special occasions
the greatest possible
when
being reserved
definition
is required, or
resolution
when
or
an
object has to
be photographed.2
See
Corrections
Addenda,
required for
"

different
1

types,"etc.

It will

be

observed

for

is because

This

no

introduced

objectiverecently
chromat.

that

mention

by

the

the

is here
firm

of

combination

made
Carl

is not

of yet another

Zeiss,called
for

use

the

lightrays

of

employed

with

275
use
2

their
light,

may

objectivebe
the

to

/i/i, all lenses


with the same

We

camera,

only
Rohr

only)

for

of correction
for
at will,the lack
wave-length chosen
because
be
to
being obviously
they are solely meant
monochromatic
light. Such
objectivesare at present only

aberration

violet

Von

definite

chromatic

manufactured

Mono-

but
visually,

The
photographic purposes.
specialfeature of this system by
described
union
of rays (sphericalcorrection
as
a
very perfect

is

type of

be

employed

correction

being

for

being

appliancesarranged
made

constructed

as

out

of

matter

molten

for the

of fact for

use
a

quartz, the

of ultra

wave-length
oculars

for

being of the same


material,but out of the crystalform.
in
what
we
explain passing
by saying,that if an ordinary
mean,
used, and the objectsharply focussed on the ground glass of
in the
the resulting image on
the
negative,taken
ordinary

Then,

too, in

secondary

the

comment

bound

are

all

have

that

admit

Ilimmler,
recently

manufactured

images,

and

excellent

image

too

which,

the

at

of

moment

objectives is

of

orders

is

however,

Icntial

the

not

address

subject by

the

to

in

easy

do

to

attempt

an

difference

theoretical

the

demonstrate

beautiful

to

the

\ve

being

so,

the

Quekctt

elect,

very

of

production

way
the

furnish

focus, exhibit

between

simple

"

Watson,

that

semi-apochromats

deceive
to
secondary colour as almost
the
and
\ve
heartily congratulate them
upon
excellent
of such
combinations
performance.

To

of

and

Swift, Reichert,

little

so

colours

all the

our

mention

to

not

of

its

saying this,however,
Zciss, Lcitz, Koristka, Bausch

Notwithstanding

to

and

Lomb,

the

renders

holds

apochromat

absence

entire

the

spectrum

upon.

the

study of diatoms,

the

for
perfection,

to

OBJECTIVES

OF

CORRECTIONS

62

these
what

three

follows,

substance

of

Club

Microscopical

upon

Author.

should
master
commencing, however, the reader
(if
the
the
with
few
troducto
inhe be not
subject)
already acquainted
and
spherical aberration, coma,
r.iphs upon
chromatic
aberration, for by so doing the subsequent remarks
Before

far better

will be

Aberration

Spherical
inherent

understood.

in

every

is

uncorrcctcd

term

refers

which

which

lens, by

'"n

rays

is

condition

that

meant

63.

Fi"
the

to

focus
j-ortion,

tl.

than

through

T
,

lore

will
.,

eye

central
be

found

in

foo:

ig.62.
distinrilyout

of

focus, because

the

chemical

rays

;, loved,
""- on

the

If

the

:ined.

belt of

narrow

of

zones

for the

the

that

/91;

makes

angles

of the

the

a1

angle

II

SINE-

same

the

as

ratios

be

follows

more

measures

Here

58'

22"

and

"390

the

the

the

the

and

"195

11"

just

"

been

of

the

to

is

and

a2

the

as

to

of

the

To

"2, let

what

ratio

"fulfilment

that

out

points

of

of

the

is

that

said

\i"il

foints

///

of

the

of

tJic

'120.

the

mination
exa-

they

suppose

respectively

arc

viz,

"

sine-law."

It

outside

the

beauty

axis

of

the

fulfilled

object,it

and

.'nict

lation

'ti-fulfilmcnt
call

to

the

sue).

how

coma.

To

the

cau-cs

begin

with,
i

"

dt

I-

it should
it

has

confined

defect

lying

image

be

to

before

coma

the

further

which

as

55', is

Extending

us

of

sines

same

it remains

strictlyn

\vc

be

sine-

"

make

at

is

good image of

be)

the

ratio

y92. If, then,

of

speak

I.

sine-!

axis,

the

angle ft1shall

sine

/91, assumed

15',the

pointed

lens, but

"

$2 respectively

being fulfilled.

as

ratio

angles

from
of

bears

"

sine

"ailed

"ly

"**

sine-law

it is evident
to

are

of

let us, for example, say


the angle "!
intelligible,
ascertained
13" 54', the sine of which
by the tables

whilst

10 ;

"

left hand

that

of the

sine

angle

being designated

and

equally proportionate, we

the

condition," or

The

Fig. 66.

of

sine

a2

of

two

LAW

the

only

"

the

side

number

great

very

on

this

is

the

to

AA'

lens

clear, a

considered.

called

are

extremely

an

is made

right

sine-law

bears

lens

axis
the

on

for ray

Now

side.

ich

a1, that

of

up

being

the

to

the meaning

made

are

refer

to

make

lighthouse

with

call

we

the

whilst

sine

being

as

present purpose

ray

the diagram

simply

that, to

so

like,in fact,

"

which

glass ;

considered

be

should

#*,but

ol and

between

included

CORRECTION

SINE-LAW

THE

64

muv

ted, and
r

be
!

hen,

it may

mentioned

the
V

the

THE

SINE-LAW

magnificationof

circumstances,

the

with

dealing
the

ray

II, does

ray

the

magnify

the

outside

the

the

ray

in

question

particular lens
magnify the object twice ;

the

same,

lens

this

strip of

narrow

magnifies twice,
likewise.
If,however,
of

65

of

the

the

and

hence

the

object
to

that
will

be

ing
contain-

observed

not

these

do

zones

from

coming

rays

focus

not

more

o2, containing

is that

focus, say,

lens

zone

the

been

be

to

or,

sine-law

lens, the effect

come

may

and

have

we

the

under

the

on

same

F', whilst

at

ray

F".

II is at
In

that

with

I"

points

point; for

object

ol" that

zone

computer

not

so

would

the

accurate,

by

the

CORRECTION

Fig. 67, the sine-law

being supposed

to have

been

fulfilled,

Fig. 67.
it is

are
quite evident that the two zones
yielding exactly the
same
both focussing at
to be
magnification,for they are seen
the same
point F' ; whilst in the next illustration (Fig. 68),the
are
having neglected the sine-condition, the zones
computer
shown
F'
the
and
other
at
coming to different foci one
"

F".

at

It is obvious

would

be

for

how

definition ; and

the

^^

disastrous

such

if bad

of

state

for two

zones

things
only

L
Fig. 68.
it

be if all the zones


easilyimagined how bad it would
of the object-glasswere
have
We
should
being considered.
line extending from
F' to F"
instead
of two
points. But even
can

be

yet

the

not

ever

trouble
occur

is

not

quite

rendering
making
just spoken about

"

at

alone

confusion

their
to

end.

an

evil

of

class

genii

apparent

spread

out

more

defect

associate

confounded,"

worse

presence
be

other

This

their

by causing
and

does
selves,
them-

fluences
evil inthe

line
into

more

ABERRATION

CHROMATIC

66

like

something

wJmt

constitutes
due

Coma.

comefs

tail
effect

curious

the non-fulfilment

to

or

photomicrographs,Fig. 3,

Aberration.

Chromatic

of

Plate

appearance
probably

the sine-law

III.,and

Fig.

i,

is another

This

"

for the

name

errors

performance of lenses, in this case being due


the different paths pursued by lightof differingwave-lengths.
simplifywhat follows, let us take first quite a simple lens, of

which

To

called

this

I V.

Plate

to

tail

is

in two

is shown

comet's

astigmatism

either

to

"

in

it is mounted

presume

us

such, indeed,

length

focal

short
Let

in the

occur

with

met

as

cell,so

nosepiece of the microscope, and


the eye-end
ground glass is placed over
the

to

having

ocular

focussed

and

colour

one

then

that

we

that

can

piece

of

an

the

eyepiece.
attach
of

it

finely

draw-tube, the

well-defined

object being

using different apertures of the


employing mono-chromatic
light first of

glass screen

succession, and

in

lens

this

on

first removed.

been

in

"

of another

sphericalunder-correction,

discloses

"

the

fact that, owing

to

only get reasonably sharp images


with a small aperture of the lens, and
generally owing to coma,
of the field.
If,with a small opening,
only in or near the centre
we

try other

now

that

and

colour

focus

with

also
a

of

colours
of

alteration

an

the

the

in

spectrum

focal

the

that

we

adjustment

different

is

required

coloured

tube-length, differ

constant

other

colours

largestimage;
by examining Fig. 69.

size, for

in

is the

each
in

the

red

smallest
it

yields

is better

stood
under-

simple uncorrected

lens

in between.

for

images, when

the
reallyrequires a longer focal length and furnishes
image, the violet having the shortest focal length,whilst
the

find

succession, we

This

If*
UNACHROMATIC
SPCCTRDM

HCVERSLD
"T

OVCRCORRCCTION

Fig. 69.
E
the

is

beam

of

white

lens,acting as
colours.

at

V,

some

of the

Fig. 70.

light entering it ;
prism, breaks

Red

focusses

other

on

colours

up
the

the

and

K1

white

axis

A A'

being omitted

the

point where

lightinto
at

R, and

its

ponent
com-

violet

for clearness

of

CHROMATIC

CORRECTION
This

diagrammatic representation.
A

lens.
simple uncorrected
effected by combining a convex
the

radii and

four

the

glassesenable
at the

for

To

correct

fulfilthe

demands

(2)

the

(3) To cause
nearly upon

the

words,

concave

two

to

of

rays

colour

one

focus

to

sphericalaberration

remove

is chosen

being spoken of

for

coma

of

once

flint ;

"

preferred colour

"

with

at

the

"

wave-length that

colour, any

one

the

as

"

lens

marginal

in other

point

same

is

of

dispersive properties of the

to

and

performance

improvement

crown

computer

central

the

(1) Bring

is the

great

different

the

67

the

sine-law

the

of

rays

for

other

point

same

colour

same

this

"

the

"vords, to

preferred colour

colours

on

in other

to

axis

; and

concentrate

those

as

of

very
the

ferred
pre-

colour.
The
the

of
the

lens

is

word.

colour,

Fig. 70, where

in

violet

the

red

so

have

call

If

we

the

has

shortest

this

total

examine

ordinary

sense

over-corrected

in

of

things shown
focal length and

state

the

assumed
we

in

computer

shall

has

longest ;

achromatic

the

we

aberration.

chromatic

be

to

If, however,
of

matter

said

now

over-correction

Figs. 71, 72,

and

for
73

we

.,

ACHROMAT.SEBrcpQREEN
VISUAL

"oMBERCORRECrED*

SUOHTtY

ACHROMATISM

ORDINARY/ACHROMATIC

Fig

Fig. 72.

71-

shall

quickly notice that the focal length


always the shortest ; so the spectrum
be

folded

yellow-green

which

"

objectives
and

point, for

and

orange

violet.1

blue

will
are

Achromatisation

be

have

the

green

what

"

said

colour

has

been

be

focal

shortest
further

to

visual

for

taken

together,and

folded

be

selected

usually
to

seen

for

the

is

preferredcolour
justly

may

should

is, in fact, that

yellow-green

"

length ;

that

at

over

of the

on

red

termed

we
see
slightlyunder-corrected
depicted
ordinary achromatic
in Fig. 72.
the preferred colour
has
Here
again the shortest
focal length,a blending of yellow and blue coming next, whilst
a

"

red
1

and
The

violet

are

reader

Objectives

"

which

is

seen

still further

especially invited
will

make

what

has

on.

to

read

been

lens
the

said

corrected

chapter
of

more

on

for the

"Testing

interest.

ACHROMATISM

68
blue

in
ordinary photographic objective is drawn
focal length, because
the shortest
Blue
is seen
to have
preferred colour; green and violet are joined up next;

ray

an

"

73.
the

"

the

red, outstanding, has

whilst

longest focal length


find

shall

work,

best

foll"

ultra-violet

and

yellow

by

of all.

the

making

the

in

that

BLUE

ACM.OHAT.MO~,

ponents

thin,

very

else

or

by
^YWIT06HAPHICoBJICTIVt

carefully proportioning
comp

also

equalityof

focal

be

in

borne

will

images
corrected

be

the

of

be

their

well

effe

of

of

become

these

on

power

number

which

rent,

If

test

we

angu!

lure,

are

ordinary

an

colour

blue-violet

although
and
the

have

we

marginal
rays

for

from

to

computer,
troubles

lens

of

with

zones

of

It is the

sphci

with

which

the

optician has

moderate

work

the

to

most

in

suitable

curved
soon

powers.

considerable

find

we

"

of
the

lens

the

central

focus,
do

not

This

all

case

corrected

elements

lightof

the
of

the

in
be

is

with

scquc:

.ochromatic

so,

defect

formidable

to

pov

that,

same

do

deal, even

jorrcctcd
and

an

monochromatic

under-corrected.

by comb:
concert

on

aion," but,

of

in

make

his

limit

not

being yellow-green for


for photo-visual purposes,

called
"

of

follows:

blue

be

objective

the

strongly

spherical aberration
to
come
by making them

found

corn-

imperfections

achromatic

.ic

tries to

the

th"

being generally
often

purely photographic

cured

rays,

as

selected

instruments, greenish
and

of other

previously detailed,

as

such

length,say

lines,where

rapidly place

condary aberrations
i

focal

when

aberrations

serious

directlythe computer

necessary,

bccoii

all the

have

relativelylong

but

lenses

combinations,

Such

size.
to

differentlycoloured

Indeed,
approximations.
icar
enough perfection if

first

objectiveof high

approximately,

very

the

that

means

said

and

:/.e

rate

any

different colours, which, it should

same

best, are

in

at

for the

also

mind,

their

at

seen

produce,

length

the

thicknesses,

relative

tlu ir

v^iv"

ic-v

com-

wave-lei

acting

ACHROMATISM
of

that

the

preferred colour, we

different

from

for them

spherical aberration
the

approximation,
correction

for

secondary

aberration

importance

the

of

use

further

pointed

3. If

proceed

we

the

the

that

that

the

of

first

under-

This

been
of

could

out

kind

of

called

in

by the

tion,"
spherical aberrabe

not

properties

from

cured

that

of this remark

outcome

to

tint

focus, light of

of

somewhat

differences

we

find

without

which

the

was

was

starting

curious

have

the

sensible

no

colour

fashion

be

focal

shortest

shows

adjustment
light of nearly

considerably different
If

the

lens

does, and
be

will

for
found

before

have

explained ;
the other colours, focussing at greater distances, blending, and in
curious
pairs,bright red being united with blue, and, at a still

to

length, as

ence
differ-

corrected

preferred colour,

work, yellow-green, the

visual

focal

of

that whilst

preferred colour

the

as

for

test

colours,

different

same

in

even

blue.

has

and

differences

different
The

find

microscopical objectives,next

chromatic

of

for

shall

Jena glass factory.

the

with

over-correction

"

glass

generally

last mentioned,

in existence.

then

in

he

corrected,

being

is, in

Abbe

which

is not

defect
and

the

to

Professor

late

of

red

69

is

the

only

as

This

has

been
defect

most

serious

an

indifferent

objective.
the

old

kinds

the

to

of

spherical zones
for

third

The

these

of
are

the

in

earlier

glass will

correction

in
see
indigo or violet, as we
called
the
secondary spectrum, and
ranks
in telescopic objectives,but

with

greater distance, deep red

Fig. 71.

often

we

be

types

of

this

and

type

particularlywhere
oblique pencils are used.
class

photomicrography

"

at

large
It

these

chromatic
serious

any

rate

of

cone

is needless
lenses

are

the

as

for

scopical
micro-

made

achromats

secondary aberrations.
found
be reasonably
to

the

usefulness

of

with

great offenders

found

the
preferred colour, but
sphericalaberration
are
generally so
the

of

manufacture

In
well

with

regard

these

the

corrected

differences

greatly to
accurate

of

reduce

work,

light is employed or
to
say that for high-

simply

useless.

of the Jena glass


already said, the introduction
has changed the position of all things optical,for now
find
we
the computer
are
can
spherically
produce objectives which
the other
corrected
for two
colours
of only one, whilst
instead
find ouralmost
selves
wave-lengths are
perfectly corrected ; so we
As

we

have

face

to

face

with

an

objective free

from

chromatic

ACHROMATISM

70

defect

no

These

made.

been

of

that

the

"heir

This

diatoms

with

and

spectrum,

is

drum

sccoi

table

of

vcment

modern

makes

aberration," the
"_; only

secondary

the

be

should

It
further

of

"cad

Powell

colour.
best

the

in

secondary

besides

the

This

tyj

the

as

highest

correction

of

spherical
entirely eliminated,

is

|L

un

are

R'Y*B

:niCOLO*

apochromatic objective,photobe

Messrs.

that

can

have

excellent

the

differences

spectrum

the

itest

colours1

three

for

of

most

of

it rank

chromatic

one

;y

as

computation,

as

Messrs.

shows

image

of

photomicrography

because

screen

the

"

of

for

course,

entirely eliminated

and

zones

"

type is reallya

apochromatic objective,which

They

we

"

Holoscopic

"

but, of

:icral purposes,

show

same

Sometimes

achromatic

new

just

achromatic

the

Type," being

the

"

hers.

the

"

makers.

scmi-apochromatics of other
such
as
entirely hew
names,
Modern
" Sons, or the
"n

has

should

made,

names

many

Improved

"

well

mention

secondary spectrum.

pure

under

market

the

which

objectives,if

new

except

in

appear

of

spherical aberration

of

differences

tak"

PART^APOCMtOHATIC

rtfMf

SYTTCM

COLORS

ht
"ut

alter

focus

or

improvement
of

If

glance

we

tmmatically rcprcsci
objectives necessitate

all

As

adjustment.

ocular,

it

may

be

well

here

to

the

certainly improves

better class

ot

the

special

function

its

the

of

use

the

pensating
com-

of

performance

the

omatics.
tic with

Hiiygcnian

of

use

describe

tood),especially as
c

Fig. 74

at

"

an

ordinary

an

object of strong
test-plate. \Vc

find.
of

to

the

fi"

excellent

our
in

immense

is, )""

the

of

amount

marginal

'ruing re

in

primary

parts of

in Apr
colours.
irs

rcrcnt

(irrinition

the

the

centre

colour
field.
nnd

(that
No

Addenda

ACHROMATISM

(6)

Should

be

computed

so

for all colours

The

full

apochromatic
from

(7) Freedom
In

carrying

mind

that

given

entitled

apochromatic,
of the

be

achromatic, from

an

from

and

all

"

it is essential

should

objective must

an

show

secondary spectrum.

corrections

aberrations

the

further

must

the

these

out

when

; whilst

eyepieces

(d)

tions
give equal magnificaused
with compensating

to

as

be

free

corrected

the

from

first five to

the

See Addenda.
apochromatic.
in
Although scarcely
logical connection

the

in

in

order

first three

to

become

semi-

the true

merit

to

seven

bear

to

be

application

term

hand, still it is of interest

add

to

that

with

the

subject in

study of the

ing
follow-

diagrams (Figs. 75A, B, C, and D) will furnish the reader


with
an
a
explanation of the colours perceived when
highsemi-apochromatic is employed upon such minute objects,
power
and
for example, as
diatoms
and
is lowered
beneath
the focus
raised

above

To

deal

with

is the

axis

to

AA'

it.

make
a

meaning more
point of lightas shown

and

the

FIQ.

75A

it is

figure.
colours
apple

OJTSIDC
roc.ua

01

Tuaxy
P-.v

Figs. 75

green

(by

(by the
union
sake.

of

the

the

F, whilst

F', whilst
focus

of
the

and

orange

Yellow-green
at

red

of

rays

the

being the

yellow
focus

and

I;/ comes

yellow
being

blue

beams

purple

green.
into

green)
only

of

red

When

view;

are

and

purple
the

shown,

the

uniting

cleai
and

lens
at

F' ;

so

violet, lies outside


the

therefore
hence

and

for

omitted

coining from

seen

focus

and

violet) arc

and

are

Dtrinco

A, B, c, D.

of

combination

the

admixture

focussing
that

venient
con-

in the

The

lens.

BOTH

clear

our

if

obj"

section

were

AND

DRY

IMMERSION

OBJECTIVES

73

point, the centre, sharplydefined,


with red and violet mixed, with yellow and
be coloured
would
kind
of halo, as shown
outside
union
as
a
diagramgreen in
the objective to
the
Pushing back
matically in Fig. 756.
is still sharply defined, but
the colour
plane of F, the centre
changed

is

in

shown
focus

the

that

at

apple

to

purple as
within

made

be

possibleto

of

green,

in

shown

the

Fig. 750.

halo

is

composed of
lowering further,actually

Fig. 750 ; whilst


the yellow and

(the visual focus


find a fuzzy ill-defined
of apple
centre
fuzzy halo of purple lying outside it

already spoken of),we


surrounded
by a
green
as

whereas

It is obvious

green

in

why the

Fig. 756

centre

is the focussing point


the position selected
sharp, because
is equally sharply
also why the centre
of the purple rays ; and
that plane is the focussing
defined at F in Fig. 75A, because
of both
point of the apple green ; whilst the fuzzy appearance
is

colours, apple
the
in
a

and

green

purple, as

figure),is owing

same

to

within

seen

both

focus

the

images being

focus

of

out

(in

the

experiment really well with


a
on
slipshould be used,
microscope,a faint point of mercury
but the phenomena
better
are
that

situation.

To

witness

with

seen

All

telescopeand

objectives

into two

star.

divided

are

kinds, whether

they be

achromatic, semi-apochromatic
or

apochromatic

and

immersion.

the

called

"

To

dry

understand

explanation that

follows,

the reader, if a

beginner,should

refer back, and

read

what

is said

about

light and its refraction


until the subject of prisms is
This being done,
commenced.
the

the
Fig. 76.
two

be

grasped.
Let

about
an

difference

between

types of lenses

will

of

the

easily

Consider

be

1-5, and

incident

following explanation

ray

Fig. 76.
of
the
#?zw-glass, having a refractive index
AB
L the front lens of the objective; also consider

fallingupon

the

cover-glassat

B.

As

it enters

the
of

air, a
much

bent

DIC, therefore, is of

any

lying

rays

have

cy

of

chance

no

be

DE

along

AB.

to

It will

now

consideration, that

of the

edge

figure)will

the

it in

the

and

DN',

previous normal,

further

much

case

normal

course

parallel to

course

DE

between

the

the

again into

passes

the

its

continuing

without

readily understood,

be

BN,

(as in

at

from

away

towards

lass, thus

the

dry lens) it

bent

is

so

precept already laid


normal
BN, and follow

it arrives

using

been

it has

as

enter!

on

when

medium,

rarer

When

BD.

as

happens

what

as

shown

path

the

to

towards

refracted

be

it must

down,

OBJECTIVES

air,according

than

medium

denser

IMMERSION

AND

DRY

74

lost

objective(where
the

to

microscope,

front

entering the

lens

of

the

objective.
the

index

refractive

same

A'

from

the

as

D'just the
But

D.

the

as

refractive

same

for similar

emerging

index

path uninterruptedlyin
the object glass to gather
its

the

lost when

the

on

//

is

ray

then

obvious

why

the

of

the

immersion

the

the

enables
that

rays

for the

sake

were

of

parison,
com-

of the

instead

system

to

fluid of

F, which

to

diagram)

starting

left,it continues

ivhole of the

(as shown,

the

refracted

it has

air

has

refracted
was

enters

straight line

up

side

other

D'

at

and

ray

be

AB

as

substance

entered

it will

reasons

ray

the

as

at

lens

Following

let the

right hand,

Arriving

and

same

viz. i-5.

"

the

oil, which

cedar

cover-glass

the

at

considered.

be

place between

we

fluid,say

diagram, commencing

the

to

of

drop

"s

if

happens

what

consider

But

much

gives

oil.

more

light.
Theoretically, then, it is
much

so

pass

light
be

must

dry objectives cannot

why

seen

immersion

as

because

ones,

lost without

interpositionof

the

substance
opticallyto join up the
homogeneous
this reason
the objective and
Kor
the cover-g]
"s

often

are

and
arc

or

"homogeneous

as

obviate
vith

pr"
"

correction

milled

brought

nearer

that

out

bending of

it is to

or
a

the

so

often

turning

of

already pointed

have

thickness,

spoken

this
what

BD

immersion

portionof the
together to

vary

that

dry

is

called

collar,"which
mount,

systci

is
the

accommodate

in

cover-glasses vary

as

may

some

between

gap

,-

"

the

all

in

lenses

direct
of

ance,
accord-

high

power

"cover-glass adjustment,"
so

that, by

contrived
lenses

the

are

separated

system

to

the

THICKNESS

CORRECTING

well

for the

and,

to

facilitate his

of

stated

the

best

is advised

he

same,

Plate

4A,

enables

This

him

obtain

to

Carl

Zeiss, consisting

to

slip)

practise getting
of the
definition of the lines of silver deposit on
any
succession, whilst

all in

objective. When

the

collar "to

finest results,he

then

the

figures on
learn

if he

his eye

to

only by

to

he

reading

adjusts his

"

and

turns

thinks

if

sees

process

acquired

art

an

he

the

plate,and

educate

to

he

compares

repeating the
he will

the

learning

thicknesses.

or

the

to

I.) from
cover-glasses (cemented on

several

of

covers

It
is
cover-glass mentioned.1
practise the use of this adjustment,

test-plate(Fig.

Abbe

an

student

75

the

of

thicknesses

different

COVER-GLASS

OF

has

obtained

the

on

collar with

they approximately

is wrong,

which

by

the

spond,
corremeans

ment,
recognise a perfect adjustconstant
practice. Before
"

"

the
draw-tube
should
it is to be recollected,
commencing operations,
the objective
be set exactly correct for the tube-lengthfor which
if the objective
It need
is constructed?
scarcely be added, even

adjustment, he will have valuable


be gained in trying to
much
experience may
practice,and
the best visual
obtain
images of the lines of the plate by
as
already explained.
pushing in or pulling out the draw-tube

provided

be not

with

collar

Unfortunately, however, the student, in this instance, has no


have
we
at his disposal of verifying his results,as
means
just
paring
collar,by comusing a correction
explained obtains when
the

It

be

may

the

figures on

arrangement,

to

interesting to those
learn that moving a

thickness

of

to

the

front

of
oppositedirection,

course,

for
of

extra

the

system

the components,
of under-

by

the

causes

cover

in the

correction

extra

objective with

of

combination

produce
described,serves

serves

pushing in the draw-tube


microscopistsprefer doing

cover.

when

to

the

collar

of the

on

the

the

details

upwards
other

plate.3

to

of

the

correct

components

; whilst

turning in the
separation. Approximating
to

introduce

small

amount

the 0-z/"?r-correction caused

balances

Exactly
no

know

approximation

system, which
a

like to

collar from, say, ten

of the

lens

manner

in the

thickness

an

who

those

same

correction

adjustment

is present.

by

Some

adjustment be perfectly
is introduced,
of rtk-centring
of the components
made, a certain amount
which
interferes with the performance of the objective. See footnote,p. 78.
2
from
the
distance
the nosepiece
By the length of the tube is meant
of the objectiveto the upper
shoulder
end of the draw-tube.
at the milled
3
be recollected
It should
that although usually the figures marked
on
still
small
the
that
collar '' are
a
occasionally
approximately
correct,
very
"

error

may

be

present.

this

because,

unless

the

collar

is caused

One
of

oil forms

cedar

the

small

any
so

point should

more

such

collars,althou

relate to

not

as

which

at

whole,

hence

of the focal

mistake

often

very

inch

an

is the

single lens

of

measurement

from

length,and

the

is

cover-glass

mention

we

the

this because

by beginners,that they think

made

that

at

opticians leads combinations


it should
lerably,hence
the working-distance of
by

works

were

bination
com-

distance

from

the

cover-

Ti^-and -jj^
working-distanceis between
The
computation of objectivesby different

instead

is furnished

the

the

to

real

the

whereas

fact,it

hence

combination

but

component,

if,in

as

twelfth, for example, works

to

in

vary

be

this respect
borne

further

focal

follow

not

that

mind

objectiveof given

an

particular maker, it does

one

in

somewhat

length
all it

at

focal length)made
(although of the same
"1ij)'crcnt
optician. It is a subjectof regret that all firms do
for another

same

by the

is

who

student
.nee

is

handled,

cd

for if such

the moment

by the

making

objective

microscopic

as

shorter

be

owing
because

an

such

unusually

thick
es

"

to

so

"n

when

dealing

of
with

this
"

that

familiar
It may

speak"

the

and

to

use

the

in

possessed
which

accident

an

"

before the

indistinctlyseen,
of

all the

arises

course,

available

come

kind, special directions

How

lens

with

occur

cover-glass. This,

up"

long

carefully

too

with

employed

i"efore it can
accident

not

short

be

of

laboratories, where

often

:itly more

"

long

overlooked

use

perhaps than

one

happen with surprisingrapidity.


before it can
object is focusscd, or even
to

in

very

commonly

more

is

and

tool

free distance
"

The

purchase.

often

matter

particularlynoticeable

mien

at

and

great recommendation,

objectives,for

their

of

give the working-distance


ifl a

the

systems,

objectiveis composed of
length it is said to possess does

lenticular

one

exactly that
i

use

make

an

as

length mentioned;

focal

the
:cc

the

not

cover-glass adjustment
point out occasionallythey

shall

we

lenses,the focal

any

taken

not

cover-glassesdoes

of

in mind

borne

different

many

not

of

presence

it is obvious

so

using homogeneous

on

!d be

of

system,

the

of service.

are

so

As

usually supplied with

not

are

homogeneous

when

difference

much

overlooked.

be

not

in thickness

OBJECTIVES

OF

ING-DISTANCE

KK

;6

to

a
are

free
focus.

given

Microscope,"which

WORKING-DISTANCE
should

in

obvious

is

"

more

such

very

less

or

attempting

to

and

is much

sensitive

more

consequently demands

of lower

one

high-power oil-immersion
front,it
/^//^r-hemispherical

objective

an

shock,"

using, than

in

care

that

by

accident

of

consequence

requiring

systems

before

77

(page 221).

powers

Further,

OBJECTIVES

by the student

carefully read

be

high

use

OF

where

power,

much

the

to

more

front, being

more
only ^mz-spherical,permits of being so much
tightly
This
is very
held in its mount.
seen
readily
by examining
On
the
hand
is
an
Fig. 77 (afterZeiss).
right
objectiveof lower

Fig. 77.
than

power

of the

that
"

shown
"

mount

in

left ; the

the

on

one

from

case

difference

in

the

the other

that of

ness
thickis very

obvious.1
have

We

previouslysaid that, as

objectives
"

Lealand

save

Powell

"

reasons

already given

certain

"

of those

some

made

; but

we

rule, no

with

geneous
high-power homo-

manufactured

correction

feel bound

to

say

"

Messrs.

collars, for

the

that at times,

have

found

on

the

recognising the
rather than
by alterations
adjustments by this means,
length.
in these
elsewhere
this chapter, and
Throughout
1

by

tion
utilityof using the correcPowell
Lealand
"
our
apochromatic, and of
of making
the
it affords
greater convenience

occasions, we

collar with

are

tube-

pages,

it

aperture,"usually written N.A., has not been


refrain from
introducing it in the text ; but we may
explained as yet, we
mention
that the right-hand part of the
of
the mounting
diagram shows
with
an
objective of N.A.
1*30, whilst the left is that of a combination
an

As

the

term

aperture of N.A.

numerical

of

1*40.

CORRECTION

TUBE-LENGTH

78
has

they will
the

(for

of

fear

dry

be

work

in

the

the

upon

of

case

be

when

first instance
lens

front

be

can

nearer

easily done

mount

whereas

length of
the

the

the

cell

than

the

before

wiped
of cambric

from

the

surface-clean,and

absolutelybe avoided, as

in

at

once

the

hemispherical

of

the

system,

further

screw

shall

be

of

the

an
a

which
to

the

increase

in

the

one

greater

system.2
should

Xylol.

with

be
fine

Spirits of

the

contrived

of

mixing

Index

ee
J

of

collar

brings

about

If this

be

alteration
(

from
of

sixth

convert

oil called
"Van

to

with

long

Nelson
"

collar

it may

to

necessary

into

be

the

tube-length

the

short

to

will

the

in the

ration
"i" ular

attention

innately,

in

long
the

book

tube

collar

tube-length

is called

unemled

be

all

to

the

be

from,
that

may
of

circulating amongst
it

to

be

employed

by
the

be
twt

so

moving

to

(which

required

no

more,

Vice

?v

result.

slight

by reversing
23,

to

components
;

required.
18

useful

thereabouts
the

effected

say,

matter

the

combination

is

that
can

times

at

separate

tube

short

sold

'transformer.'"

adjustment,

tube

has

oil.

cedar

Mersol."

Heurck's

it is only

things, viz., turning

m.'ikin

:oi

late, Mr.

from, say, 18 to 10 or
adjustment backwards
a
see
separation,
footnote,p. 75) produces
and
the collar will turn
not
quite satisfactory,

of

hungc

order

for reference

that, seeing

to
sufficiently

Of

lens.

immersion

new

using

When

recollect

the

the

must

cement

fluid

of

piece

wine
the

it dissolves

fully
care-

holding the front in situ, and so do certain forms


The
microscopist had better buy the immersion
maker

that

so

"

removed

systems

instances

in

on

new

gently touched

some

will

bringing

implies

rest

with

(moistened only)

as

correction

cell

it

lens

so

the

necessitating

front

certain

optician

which

that

with, all immersion

finished

When

often

"

that

more

components

second

made

in

can

the

manner,

in

the

been

readily effected
objectives into long-tube

mentioned

other

wise
other-

circumstance

by
be

can

consists

the

mount

bearing

distance

is

by making
in

the

arranged

opposite

merely
to

of

short-tube

it

has

tube-length

one

with

corrected, or

are

mention

no

These

the

in

employed

best, this being especially

text)

and

changing

understood

the

for

other.1

than

combinations

but

the

readjusted

they

their

at

systems

corrected

instances
to

for which

complicating

combinations

be

objectives must

perform

not

with

case

that

draw-tubes

length of

the

stated

been

often

the

subsequently

nere-

lining spiritsof wine,

microscopies

its author

NUMERICAL

80

APERTURE
the

offering explanation, that


and

in

not

to

respect

diameter

throughout,

the

in

versd\ but

of aperture

increase

in the

length of the system, hence


before spoken of has nothing to

lens

question, and

aperture
far

the

for

use

aperture,"but
focal

lens to the

To

ution.

In

it

by

gone

years

that its formation

explanation

the

that

image

with

of

"

the

diameter

to

Thus

the

term

this

why
of

the

the

which

back

formation

same

and

way

by the

the

photographic

the

refraction

after the

fashion

In the

":;^cr hold

been

found

explain the

by
value

of

objectiveby directlycomparing
"

with

the

"aperture
y

good,

that

an

"

without

"

of

the

of

the

and

the

of

the

in the

the
to

have

to

it Ins

science

to

microscopical

th"

iiy

The

in

fications
quali-

compari-

far

function

the

distant

because

of the

so

in

shown

seems

telescope.

understood,

increase

be

error

would,

aperture

it

light,just

could

"

"

details

as

in

by applying

exponents

some

wing

laws

moon

image of
ordinary cam-

it otherwise

was

manner,

of the

an

It

looking through

of

present day this

than

convenient

and

compare

of

or

on

as

same

bee's

dioptric

same

ray

same

of

the eye

of

same

ground glass

lens.

the

image of the sun


image of the minute

displayed to

as

the

telescope.

structure

good in explaining the formation


upon

the

by

formed

upon

geometrically traceable

was

govern

with

delicate

formed

the

delicate diatom,

microscope,

dependent

of the

that

and

image

explainablein

was

was

formation

the

telescope;

hold

front

system.

into

that the

obtains

as

of the

microscope

the
;

the

assumed

microscopical objective was

thought

most

first enter

must

was

of

in

of the

to

and
improves definition,light-grasp,

so

this, we

method

and

lens

microscopicalimage.

of the

the

do

the

upon

offered

been

system

back

effective semi-diameter

of the

length

lens

same

different.

depends

special use
has

is

sufficient

the

lenses, or

(in a sense)

of

or

explanation

no

the ratio

in

increase

restricted

the

"

it

diameter

requirements of the designer of the

the

meet

made

only

is

the

the

of the

do

In

of the

of

part
the

focal

the

system,"

of about

are

semi-diameter

of the

ratio

or

diameter

most

"

front.

of aperture

of

for the

here

the

to

microscopical objective

Increase

back

lenses

increase

increase

the

with

corresponds

"

any

so

applied

speciallens

telescopicobjectivethe

system of

vice

is

term

each

NUMERICAL

APERTURE

81

But to
improves definition,light-grasp,and separating power.
have
the
student, as we
already pointed out, it
commencing
that forms
his first
is justthis comparison, improperly qualified,
stumbling-block.
Having then asserted that the production of the image by
is not

instruments

these two

similar, to what

then

is the formation

Professor
Abbe, whose
microscopical image due?
knowledge was
only equalled by his
profound mathematical
complete acquaintance with practical optics, was
engaged for
in vigorously attacking the problem, and
he found
years
many
that the perfection of the image produced by the microscopical
entirelydependent on the quantity of diffracted
objectivewas
light1emanating from the objectthat was grasped by the objective
of the

transmitted

and

to

the

observer's

He

eye.

his

proved

theory
silvered glass

of artificial rulingson
experimentally by means
that when
the
giving regular diffraction spectra, and showed
of
these
into the objective was
number
spectra admitted
and
diminished
more
more
by the insertion of suitable stops
behind
fell off

and

more

vanished

definition and

the
objective,

the

when

until

more

only

eventually

spectrum,

one

resolution

of the

all traces

the

or

rulings

of structure

direct

light only,

admitted.

was

So

far,then, the only point

fact the
1

diffracted

more

rectilinear

be

to

light that

held
be

can

propagationof light on

is the

by the reader
Emitted

which

and

trans-

geometrical theory
directlyexemplified
of shadows, is only approximately true.
in the formation
So long as objects
and
of
fair
the
size
are
concerned,
departure from rectilinear
apertures
propagationis small ; but when small objectsor apertures are dealt with,and
their size becomes
with the wave-length of
commensurable
especiallywhen
light(equal to about sTrfonrof an inch), it becomes
quite obvious that they
have
the
round
Familiar
a scattering
or
effecton
lightpassing
through them.
flame
of a small
when
seen
examples are the appearances
through a
of
feather or through a piece
material such as a silk-handkerchief.
fine woven
small
thus
which
is
scattered
by
objects or apertures is called
Light
number
of similar objectsor apertures
a considerable
diffracted
light. When
small
intervals
as
to form
at
are
so
a
arranged
equally
regular pattern,
still more
the diffracted
a
striking appearance
light assumes
by being

of

The

optical instruments

broken

up

into

is based, and

series of isolated

which

the

is most

beams, which

when

derived

from

white

prismatic colours and are then called diffraction-spectra.


for by the
are
easily and
completely accounted
appearances
undulatorytheory of light; they are treated t"f in Chapter XV., to which the

light show
All

the

these

reader

is referred

for further

information.

NUMERICAL

82

mitted

the

by

the

the

angle embraced

greater the
olden

in

mistake

then

resolution
of

the

from

Abbe

of
judicious tilting

which

actual

on

led him

the

trial

the
be

to

the

objective the
shall speak of

we

that

was

thought

rays

the

by

made

was

object
showed

to be

not

take

sine

of half that

place

the

definition

and

in

should

be

the

the

do
His

case.

actual

likewise,
studies
did

improvement

angle

of aperture

increased, but

This

sine of half

the

angle.

the
back

the

; but

the

as

angle, called sin U


also conjointly proved, with

angle),he
another
mathematician,
was
equal to the ratio of the semiin the upper
diameter
of the emerging pencil,measured
focal
for simplicity
to the focal length, which
plane of the objective,
be said to be the same
and fairlyclose approximation may
as
(where

the

as

was

obliquity
high-angled
justlyremarked

for he
false,

to

that

This

again

in

objectiveor specimen
found

it

wider

objective in

the

to

was

better.

increase

the

to

definition

the

then, the

improvement

due

further, for he found

not

It is obvious,

resolution.

days, and

objectives. This
a

better

microscopicalobjective,the

and

known

APERTURE

is

ratio of the
lens to

half

the focal

length.

shall see, their numerical

uniting of the front


the
this

specimen by

whose

of

sin U

whether

it be

of

n"

then, it will be further

shown

for numerical

of all

aperture

for it is evident
of what

has

such

been

air is ro, which

whereas

its

whether

dry

places such
1

thos"

For

or

"

will be
In

read

formula

homogeneous,

to

at

concise

be
be

dry

the

in

Fig. 78 let L
Let F
object C.

the

way

into

of

with

no

change

desirous
a

lenses,whether
in

on

once

mathematical
form"

For

dry

convenience,
of

Abbe

homogeneous,

or

their

validity

the index

(as

values

enables

simple and
proof, a

for which

employed,

affects the
ones

the

at

all

of

all),

lenses,

directly compared, and

be
a

into

final formula

not

comparison

argument

oil.

does

introduction

is,we

requires the

of the fluid

index
cedar

concerning

therefore

the

speak later of

we

introduction

this is the

introduction

said

dry lenses

construction

the

glycerine,or

water,

of

aperture

objective to the cover-glassof


refractive index,
fluid of proper

refractive

the

when

; but

demands

special construction

formula

some

for

ratio

complete

of the

lens

means

"

This

aperture

homogeneous systems,

effective

of the

semi-diameter

am

scientific basis.1

consideration
indebted

to

of the following
Mr.

Conrady

interest.
a

lens, or

the

point

system
where

of

lenses,producing an
focal plane
the upper

image
cuts

the

I of

an

axis

APERTURE

NUMERICAL

83

be
not
Referring again to the diffraction spectra, it must
imaginary or theoretical ; they can
easily
thought they are
without
studied
and
special accessories
by focussing
be seen
of N.A.
i'2O
or
a
1-40, on
high-aperturedobjective,say, one

marginal

is the

then, if CD

the

receiving,El

after

ray

same

pencil which the lens


refraction,if a and /3 are

of the

ray

is
the

capable
angles

of

of

Fig. 78.
the refractive index of the medium
n
refraction,
M
the magnificationof the image formed
in which the object C is embedded,
at I, and/ the equivalent focal length of the lens or
system of lenses,we
dioptricformula,
have, by a fundamental

divergence

before

after

and

I. FI

In order

to

demands

be

lens

aplanatic,the

/3is always

equal

sin

sin /3.

angle, and

small

its sine,or

to

FG

Introducingthis

sensibly

FG

II,we

get

"

FG

FG

as

of sin /3 into

value

III.

sin

its tangent

take

may

we

"

sine- condition,which

fulfil Abbe's

must

"

1 1.

Now

Mf.

is the numerical

sin

aperture

of the

emerging penciltaken
proof we require,viz. :

of

in the

our

^rrr

-j-

focal

of the

is the

FG

lens, and

upper

semi-diameter
XT

semi-diameter
the

forms

III

plane, hence

emerging pencil

equivalent focal length


That

/3 is always

objectivecannot
7 in. (with such

than

^
larger
hence
lens),
large

be
a

angle

small

follows

in.; the

this

the

tube-length

lens

back

less

is seldom

of

an

than

"

2"

"

"

from

52'.

For

this angle the cosine

'9987 ;
to

near

remark

"

which

enough unityfor
the above

purposes

proof includes

ratio of sine

is the
of N
any

sort

A.

to

tangent

measurements.

of

objectives.

"

is about

It is needless

DIFFRACTION

84

SPECTRA

Pleurosigma angulatum, and then, after removing the eyepiece


and
the tube
closingthe iris diaphragm a little,
by looking down
a

when

central

six diffraction
occasions

many

whether

the

gratings

as

of the

the

grating

until

used

alone

beam

of

words

image,

"

Dr.

the

Dallinger,

and

to

on

prove

by obtaining

the

tainable
ob(which were
readily recognised that
off from

cut

are

entering

disappear from
central
dioptrically

the lines
the

remains, all detail vanishes.

portion of the book

this

do

so

tried

Abbe

last, when

at

objective has been removed


altogether."
power
In

not,

or

by the late Professor


Carl Zeiss),
when
it was
diffraction phenomena

the formation

the

correct

was

with

surrounded

seen

spectra (Fig. 5, Plate I.). This has been


in pre-war
times, by those anxious

into

formed

lightwill be

used

these

more

of direct

statement

from
the

beam

Indeed,

image appears
the microscope

it would

be out

if

as

has

to

use

the

lost its

of

place to give
referred
these experiments in further detail,although they are
be out of place to give
not
to frequentlyelsewhere, but it may
of these classical experiments more
the accredited
or
summary
less in the Professor's

of the rays

the reunion
of the
"

of

lightemanating

from

different

points

object.

That

the greater part of the

to

the

through

the

is

an

small

words

own

image produced by the microscopicalobjectiveof


objectis not geometrically produced in its entiretyby

That

"

due

diffracted

that

rays

objective,and

the

perfectionof
collected

are

not

by and

much

so

final

the

to

image
passed
direct

ones.

That

"

whole
of

of the

into

if the

is that

smaller
less

the
the

loss of
number

faithful

objectis

with

the

object unless

the

phenomena (which the object is capable


the objective. The
direct
of
consequence

coarse

is the

the

the

these

diffraction

beams

direct

light that

; in

the

not

received

ing
object accord-

other

words,

the

accepted and passed by the objective the


in an
the detail
resulting image. When

compared with
diffracted light lies

of the

be

phenomena

image differs from

the

as

whole

is of sensible

of

whole

then
by the objective,
to

identical

diffraction

yielding)pass

this

is not

image

an

so

wave-length of light,the

close

to

the

corresponding

all that
low-power objectiveswill admit
the correspondence between
brightness. Hence
even

FORMATION

image is

objectand

close.

very
the

with

IMAGE

OF

85

when

But

becomes

perhaps equal to a mere


be closely watched
fraction of it, the diffraction spectra must
ingly.
accordof the image estimated
and the probable verisimilitude

commensurate

or

in

more

image formed
dots separated by
the

lie further

phenomena

the direct

from

the field of view

two

as

diffraction

interval,the

minute

objects, such

small

or

fact that

is the

point,too,

Another
of very

wave-length,

detail

the

rays

in the

than

of

case

in

out

objects

the
separated by larger intervals,hence
a
high
greater importance still that the objectiveshould have

in which

the details

N.A.

as

so

enable

to

possibleof

are

in the

made

details

to

respect

in

as

as

many

adds, speaking

further

"

easily resolved
"

as

as

Pleurosigma angulatum, that until an objectivebe


believe the final image (provided
he cannot
of N.A.
2-o
of

case

of

too,

gather

and

all-important rays." He

these

especially with

more

catch

it to

that

course,

medium

have

regarded

as

immersion

slip, its cover-glass, and

the

be
of refraction)
can
requisiteindex
absolutely faithful reproduction of the original

also
an

the

object.
hoped the

it is

But

by

reader

the

why

will understand

now

possessed by a lens (within limits to be


hereafter defined) is of such importance, and see, too, the utility
with
consistent
of giving to every
objective the highest amount
its initial magnification.
The
of thought is so
evolution
rapid that the intelligent
of

increase

reader

N.A.

now

may

If

following question.
objective the

an

light-grasp and
of

image
their

make
to

half-inch

that of the

is

that

of

this

large back

lens

At

of

which

has

example, why not


equal in point of fact

; and

highest

present the

were

indeed

even

largerdiameter

12-mm.

if that

could
were

of tube, the

not

got

be
over

It is

'65.

possibleto
such

demand

description,it would

know

we

Watson's

aperture of about

combination

make

for

; say,

an

to

faithful

manufacturers

lens

First, supposing it
of this

give

we

render

to

aperture of 1*40,

an

lens that the

with

not

the

ask

resolving,the greater its

of

J-in. apochromatic and

ordinary microscope
instruments

aperture

it becomes

do

properly

very

the

higher N.A.

twelfth

Zeiss's

reason.

compute

with

best

holoscopic,each
for

of

powers

and

more

able

more

object, why

the

lower

the

its power

more

the

further

step

go

used

on

an

by using

suiting of aperture

86
to

has

power

highest order

objects" say

two

distance

and

of

which

lines

two

be said

may

be

to

an

such
"

of

of

po\ver

is

200

eyepiece would

an

With

overdoing

this

tion
magnifica-

as

really-^Jozr*n- apart appear to the eye in


of
interval
if separated by an
^l^ in., and

the

lines

of

than

being

these, say

them

by

at

normal

interval

an

of

not

much

as

be

sufficient

be

of

^i^

as

would

closer

but

eye

microscope

so

inch, would

the

to

70,000

magnificationwould

the

because

by

seen

an

not

image "),but

good apochromatic.

for

probably

performance

capable

obtained,

most

the

resolve

to

of usefulness

the limit

rotten

as

be able

to

normal

held at
^J7 in. apart when
objective of i-in. focal length

beyond

(as

is known

what

about

"

Secondly,

supposed

magnifying

ordinary achromatic
cause

is

With

in.

10

eyepiece,

10

APERTURE

NUMERICAL

definite limit of usefulness.1

of the very

eye

TO

LIMIT

be

lines

invisible,

to

separate

inch,

an

the

interestingas well as instructive for the student to consider


him
with the
the following remarks, as
more
conversant
they will make
said.
has
been
Seeing that the N.A. of a dry
practicalutilityof what
the
semi-diameter
is
ratio
of the
the
of
available
practically
objective
is
of
it
find
the
the
back
lens
focal
the
to
N.A.
to
required
length,
Aperture
back
whose
lens
of a given dry objective whose
focal length is \ in. and
1

be

It may

f in.

measures

(1)

N.A.

---

conversely, supposing
of

aperture

an

have

we

=y=i

(i

such

be

must

the

:"

A)

inch

an
2

focal

length

as

must

with

half-inch
be

diameter

would

of '3 N.A.

"). With

objectiveshould

an

used
the

We

".

have

now

"

'6;

\ in. focal

diameter

of

length
the

is said to

have

lens?

Here

back

"

viz. three-tenths
were

N.A.

diameter

Again

then

given objectiveof

'6, what

semi-diameter

(2)

the diameter

Half

across.

of 95,000
a

20

with

raised,we
of its back

10

lines to the

lens

shown,
must

-"$

hence

"

of the ideal lens


about

inch, or

eyepiece its magnifying


eyepiece 10, but to make
have

the

lens g in. diameter


requireaback
(because
eyepiece,the magnifying power being 100,
three-tenths

resolve

|-in.

to

needs

Further, if the half-inch

be

at

would

it resolve

'6.

about

28,500.

power

least

made

But

be

do

i" in.
of N.A.

too

now

200,

50,000

to

of N.A.

If

the

"

inch

the

lines its N.A.

this

by (2) the
large for any

microscope.
1-40 as previously
lens
and
of, at least, ig in. diameter
requireaback
an
spoken of, it would
which
is
in
of
of
service
be
to
equal
meant,
eyepiece
27 to
resolving
any
; by
in. 1*40 with
of
the
in. with
or
a
a
f.2
|
eyepiece,
performance
5
power
the
would
It
then
lines sufficiently
only just separate
a 7 eyepiece.
of
the
view
in
field
of
the
in.
microscope the limit of
"2n
apart
appear
for it
normal
a microscope made
vision,and would
were

the

DRY

OBJECTIVES

of the

formation

microscopical image, opticians, as


previously remarked, basing their belief that wide-

true

have

we

AND

IMMERSION

OIL

88

their superiority in definition


the
to
angled objectives owed
they could receive the rays from
angle of obliquityat which
of the part played by the
the object, and
not
being aware
diffraction* spectra, had
striven for years
to increase
religiously

angle of which
of efficiencywas

this aperture
increase

an

its

refractive

cover-glasses.But
and

and

the

the

was

this

about,

that led to

one

index

why

brought

was

lens

cover-glass of the

interpositionat first of
most
finally and
perfectlyby

glycerine,but
because

front

the

continuity between
specimen by the

speak. They found, too, that


produced by continuing the optical
we

was

remained

only

of

most

ment
improveof

matter

oil,

of

such

of difference

great deal

that

how

and

so,

by

cedar-wood
as

same

then

water,

surmise

opinion.

By

able
patient practice and computation with the glasses then availthey had brought up the receiving angle of the dry
objective to what appeared its final limit, viz. to about 170" ;

and

what

in this direction

they said,

more,

could

be

expected

made?

or

Yet

the fact remained


such

gave

results!

improved
indeed

Here

it due?

time

as

was

went

Why

on
was

situation

that

the oil immersion

it?

And

which

the

about

170"

To

their

as

absurd

mathematical
upon
enable

the

gather
in

environment

reader

of

else

greater

practicalway
must

simple

follow

to

or

the

sion
oil-immer-

angle than

180",

of facts.

we

the

at

rays

the face

this

subject

declared,

computers

on

understand

the

able
insuper-

and

objectivesmust
was

was

another.
thought one
thing
some
dry objective did not, after all,gather the rays at

Either

which

of

seemed

difficulty.Some

what

to

what

digress

refraction
comes

without

and

of

after

for

moment

light
and

subject intelligibly.1
A, B, C, D in Fig. 79 represent the outlines
drawn
at
vessel,AC
being the water
line,and BD

any

so

to

as

understand

the

Let

it

to

passing

This

earlier
the

with

from

portion of
part

annoyance

the

of this
of

present

B
the

to

through E,

subject

work,

having

to

argument.

but

has

it is

refer back

which

of

right angles

direction

really been furnished


interpolated here to
at some
length before

circular

is called
in

before
save

he

the

the
can

continue

LAW

SHELL'S
"

"

perpendicular

"

the

normal," all angles being referred

or

the

into

is incident

beam

the

When

undergoes

is

there

medium,

new

bending

water,

uninterruptedlyfollowing
it is incident

when

But

is refraction

there

"

the

strike

point

the

refraction

"

it passes
of

beam

the
at

will be

it is incident

m'

at

E, for the

at

into

on

position" say

E, for the

at

perpendicularly
the only instance

course

other

any

Suppose

n.

is also

there

then

at

for

"

to

refraction

no

it

no

along

where

line

ED.

along

found

to

along ?;/E,

will be

ray

the

found

"'.

at

Fig.
Snell made
of

the

have

and

discovery, about

day,

the

Now

angles

quotients, in all
viz. 1-333.

This

all

cases
was

to

vi

meeting

and

divided

what

he

were

explained,

of

with

lenses

should

we

which,

not

in the

familiar.

so

line from

from

obtained.

wherever

are

we

measured

were

be

to

grand computations

another

np

investigationconcerning this bending


be
it
their path can
predicted. Were

by which

the

So.

celebrated

first drew

He

and

his

had

present

o,

rays,

for

not

was

to

line.

this

m}L

89

BE

meet

ED
one

at

/.

by the other

discovered

taken, whether

using
called

water

the

and

right angles at
The
lengths om

at

was

the

from

air,came

Refractive

out

Index

quotient
fact

or

m't the

the
of

that

same,
water.

substances

Other

each

glass,for

Flint

1*64, according

to

1*54

OBJECTIVES

tried,and

were

index.

refractive

IMMERSION

AND

DRY

90

substance

instance, is found

its manufacture,

to

substances, complete lists being found

and

between

ratio

the

that

starting from
E

given point in
an
angle mEo,

BC.

the

of

can

sine

45".

It is

draw

nE

is,

good,
now

after
let

example,

of

our

that

4 to 3, holds

For

say,

we

the

the other

from

comes

45", and
multiply that by 3 and

tables
and

is 07,

speaking, it

that

of

sines

quite evident
will strike AD,

ray

so

will at

It is

m.

or

the

of the

out

where

angle "E/,

the

take

We

any
make

to

find

to

from

starts

the

upon

with

one

is about

"/, which

calculate

can

we

strike

om

the ray

whether

light striking E

and

other

that, continuing

definite ratios

certain

incident

the

wherever

with

on

all books

in

so
riEp respectively,

precept, the sines bear

so

;;/, really represent the

lines, vwy

BE;//

angles

and

special

be about

to

mathematically inclined, he

be

reader

these

see

once

the

If

subject.

its

had

;;/

required
correctly.

find, roughly
divide

by

4,

find O'5
Resorting to our book again, we
off from
be marked
D to
that 30" must
is the sine of 30",so
find the line nE.
Although, simply put, this is the maxim
in constructing
which
mainly pervades the optician'smind
which

gives

o-5.

us

lenses, as

new

refracted
lenses
law

The

when

the

the

problem,

pass

One

remark

more

ri

Seeing that
happens
and
if one
of the

to

for it appears

evident, which
called
kinds
Let

the
of
us

A, say

nearer

again
is the

"critical"

with

at

is said
z''.

"

or

at
to

This

is

allows

////////
'ng

ray

angle"

to

and

the

take

cannot

out

is known

air

place
get

reflexion

get

made.

into

angle then,

one

to

;//, what

to

will

ray

suffer "total

the

good

be

to

pass

true, what
~?

But

modifications.

yet

It will

xt

many

passing from

refracted

becomes

There

last, that

has

are

beginning

when

certain

subject

If this be

EC.

all,and

at

water

where

equally holds

course,

then

startingabout

ray

still

starts

to

colours

from

same

into air,and

the

on

passing

along

graze

is the

the water

glass to another, although

one

ingly
exceed-

intensely intricate.

calculations

from

become

details

different

law, reversed, of

same

rays

the

calculations,as
becomes

concerned,

arc

fact

angles, and

different

at

underlying

end.

real

in

operose

of

matter

"

out

at

it is very
; this is

for

all

glass.
now

see

how

these

remarks

apply

to

our

subject.

DRY

Consider

it

follow

be

the

path

shown

again
DN'

normal,
DE

will

be

now

that any

rays

lying between

DE

touches

the

DE'

(where

microscope,
of the

readily understood,
it in

they have

as

away

BN,

the

without

much

the

air

previous
along
AB.

to

It

consideration,

edge of the objective


will

diagram)
of

and

normal

course

parallel

course

our

into

passes

its

B.

(as in the

the

continuing

chance

no

at

to

BN

from

towards

and

objective.

normal

dry lens)it

bent

been

the

air, according
the

bent

refractive

cover-glass at

it arrives

entering the glass,thus


therefore, is of
; DE,

on

to

is

so

of

the

towards

using

"

lens

upon
than

When

when

it had

as

front

ray

BD.

medium

much

as

the

medium

as

91

cover-glass,having

refracted

happens

rarer

"

the

denser

OBJECTIVES

incident

an

must

it

be

1*5, and

AB

of what

case

Let

about

enters

precept

IMMERSION

80.

consider

Also
As

Fig.
of

index

AND

be

lost

the

to

entering the front lens

objective.

But

let

lens and

the

has the

consider

us

what

cover-glass
refractive

happens

if

place between

we

drop of fluid, say,

index

as

the

notice

now

cedar

the

oil, which

viz. 1-5.
cover-glass itself,
Follow
the diagram, commencing
at the right hand, and
sider
conthe ray
A'.
starting from
Arriving at B, it will be
refracted
D' just the same
to
and
for similar reasons
AB
as
same

refracted

was

emerging
as

the

in

up

D.

to

D7

at

ray

substance

air,as

shown

This

from

of

the

rarer

certain

up

they might be

upon

unless
to

up
to

happens.

which

in

the

sense

lightenters

digression for

think, to text-books
in

detail

oil.

be

explain

to

of the

mind

the
so

explicitas
stand
under-

difficult to

from

pared
com-

medium

denser

being
is

the

may

to

entered

ray

moment

not

subject, which

carefullyexplained

index

path uninterruptedly
the object-glassto gather

present themselves

this

the

its

diagram, instead of

when

As

refractive

same

lost when

were

of the rays,

difficulties which
we

enables

of the

side

leads

student, owing,

fluid of the

that

rays

bunching

one,

what

left,it continues

the other

the

F, which

to

gathering
with

enters

it has

straightline
the whole

But

commencement

end.

Startingfrom
of

another

the

the

ether

waves

being that colour

dependent

upon

the number

is their

remarkable

of the most

beginning,one

extreme

effects,as
of such

seen

waves

motion

rapidity of
by

the

eye,

tures
fea-

are

entering the

eye

alone
in

light is caused

Red

of time.

second

APERTURE

OF

ANGLE

92

about

by

lightby about 678 billions of these


strikingthe retina in that interval.

violet
and

miles

180,000

second,

calculate

we

entering the eye


light travels in air

waves

As

wave-length for

the

that

vri^jth of

that of violet about

and

urJwth

light is about

red

so

billions and

400

length. But in denser media, however, such


of waves
oil,light travels slower, and as the number
it
colour is an unchangeable quantity,so the slower
in

inch

shorter

the

is

here

just

become,

waves

that

for text-books
in

colour

instead
in

eye

puzzle often presents

by

produced

Bearing this

why

colour

no

of

when

bunched

in

up

remaining constant,
Seeing that

immersion

velocity of light in air


alteration

actual

medium.

It

of

flint of index

in dense

becomes

now

both

obvious, too,

evident, without

can

Lastly,

more

is

after the

formerly

used

the

"angle"

not

of the

such

or

number

like; or
of

waves

same.

further

ratio of the

the

with

same

with

the

the

relative
would

spoken
nature

The

merits.

one

the

in

It is
the

turn

equally

immersion

that

ones,

them

to

which

by

show

case,
"

the

immersion
"

angle

apply, because,

of in
as

dry

will

of these

not

gives

definition.

the

p.

explanation,why

diffraction

admitted

'35

latter

the

former.

consideration

introduction

to

systems

the

are

rays

possible

small

their

be

seeing and

compete

never

arose

the
as

than

systems

stood
under-

light traverses

shortened

it becomes

r667

"bunching up" in the immersion


much
more
light chiefly due to

improves

be

now

called

this
so

can

in any
given substance, so
in different media
is found

that

to

be

may

se,

by
wave-length
in
index
air by the refractive
of the
wave-length
D
Thus
light is "59 fi wave-length in air,but

dividing the
new

index

refractive

changes

entering the

waves

the

the

the colour continues

beginner,

wave-length per

films of oil

systems,

It

same.

that

when

is caused

alteration

differingrefractive index,

lenses

the

mind, it

in

the

moves

itself to

of

in the number

for each

the

of

glass or

as

remains

understand

to

alteration

any

only by changes
second.

him

frequently lead

are

of

the colour

but

an

as

in

angle in oil"

as

that
difficulty

systems
of
a

of

paring
com"

aperture
matter

air,for

They

as

of

fact,

example,
could

is

never

Continued
for ever
compared.
now
misunderstandings were
arisingin comparing the performance of the different objectives
"the
and
the cedar-oil immersion.
dry, the water, the glycerine,

SIN

refractive

if the

that

whether

"

be

could

index

of

the

with

Calling the

sin U, instead

of sin U

objectivescould

be made

taken

was

cedar

immersion

refractive

Professor

to

fluid

air, glycerine, or

compared

at once

manner.

93

thought, however, occurred

brilliant

oil"

the

n,

into

sideration
con-

dry objectives
in

systems

index

Abbe,

scientific

equation became

the Numerical
only, and this he termed
Aperture of the objective. For air n is only i, for cedar oil 1-52,
and
on.
so
By this ingenious idea, then, comparisons of all
n

example

for

Take

dry lens of 60"


sin

Again,
because
.*.

sin

an

because

each

one

If

wish

to

opposite

the

half

2U

of

30

Once

the
2

-329;

and

19*25

From

therefore
X

what

1*52

1-52
"329

'5 N.A.

dry objectiveof 60" angle is


(where n
1-52)of 38*5"angle,
a

sin

dry

in

the

opposite

*5, therefore

"

of Natural

it must

Sines
be

not

is

has

oil immersion

N.A.

1*52 and

sin

sin

38*5",which
been

"

"

by

'5.

angle
U

is

really

is

required its

'5, sin

"

the

seen

of '5

is found

(which

forgotten that

has

19*25

find its

to

sin

therefore

i,

"

we

manner,

wish

-5 N.A., and

one,

Tables

Here

*5,

angular aperture, hence the aperture


60", the angular aperture required.

angular aperture.
=

oil)

of

N.A.

Because

An

more.

*5 N.A.

of *5.

30". But

19*25"

problems

*5

of cedar

that

compute

'5 in the

30"

"

38-5" angle has

sin

N.A.

objectivebeing

30", hence

index

oil immersion
has

sin

of

1*52

"

"

angular aperture.

Now

dry objectiveto be

suppose

The

"

readily seen

equivalent to

may

sin

of *5, because

oil immersion

it is

we

N.A.

(the refractive

1*52

scientific basis.

and

true

upon

has
I

an

Thus

at once

the

tables),

gives the result required.

said,

it will

be

understood

now

the

essential
1.

qualitiesof an objectivethat depend on its N.A. are :


with a given magnifiBrightness of Image : this increases
cation
the square
of the
other things being equal
as
"

"

aperture.
2.

Resolving and
the N.A.

Defining Power
; whilst

it will be

"

in direct
seen

later

proportion with
on

that

"

APERTOMETER

ABBE'S

94

There

homogeneous

the

thick

glass about

the

above

downwards

a) is

small
the

to

disc

of

be shifted around

are

one

square
view). To

angle of 45".
silvered glasswith

side and
this

use

and

the

of

now

stem

the

with

focusscd

used, and
is

called,

are

then

bevelled

the

the

objective

length

of

ordinarily in

placed

on

the
use.

the

tl

at

other

\ n

(see

b in

stage
the

of

the

of

edges

circular

edge

two

of the

the

the

side

with

the

portion is
towards

little ho!

ired,

draw-tube
The

the

/"/",

micro

piece backwards

to

(marked

in its centre,
which

that

The

hole

placed

the

manner

instrument.

from

is bevelled

platesof metal,

the

upon

or

of

the

on

apparatus,

chord

the

edge

pointed

thick.

inch

an

the centre

small

Two

outer

graduated surface uppermost


(fixedvertically)in such a
forwards,

Near

an

the

piece of

81.

silvering is removed.

can

half

and

segmental

glass becomes

of

consists

This

Abbe,

Professor

by

purpose

diameter,

Fig.

where

for

two

lenses, is by using

of

types

for

in. in

the

part where

objectives,and

dry

(Fig. 81).

Apertometer

called

both

to

devised

special apparatus

The

OBJECTIVE.

AN

OF

systems.

first,applying

The

for

methods

three

are

N.A.

THE

factors),

it.

being inverselyproportionalto
ASCERTAINING

the amount

other

with

present (but in company

of N.A.

with

intimately associated

is

Depth of Focus

3. TJic

an

same

indi"

glass,as

eyepiece
when

as

7"

shown

arc

in

APERTOMETER

CHESHIRE'S

96
the

between

troubles

two

in

actually happened

false N.A.

our

when

case

followingmethods

about
To

obtained.

were

when

being only discovered

mistake

look

the observer

the

of the

one

results

different
low

let

powers,

first focussing,

after the

microscope

'3,

sixth, the

check

first fault with

the

remedy

down

applying as

This
N.A.

achromatic

an

be described, when

to

inch

testingan

apochromatic quarter-inch, and

an

be obtained.

may

the auxiliary lens, using no


regulate the indices without
eyepiece at all ; whilst to avoid the latter trouble it is best by
far to employ an
ocular having no diaphragm on
all occasions.
The
student
should
read some
interesting suggestionsmade
of the apertometer
in
contained
by Dr. Hartridge upon the use
337, Part ^Journal Roy. Mic. Soc.,1918.
page
and

Another

the

use

at

and

method

ascertaining the numerical


aperture is by
of a device
fessor
Prosuggested by Mr. F. J. Cheshire, now
the Imperial Institute,
South
Kensington. This simple

yet efficient contrivance

(1904), to
other

which

details.

of concentric

placed

project

an

observation

directly.

values

of

the

into

small

5O-mm.

The

second

in

Leitz

the

docs

used

and

number

spaced and

so

which

they form

this

plane of

upper

on

The

focal

up

objective,

circles,from

visible,the
circle

so

the eye.

N.A.

corresponds

to

0-9.

is read
to

an

Intermediate

observation

of the

image

is made

cither

by (i)

plane

with
fittingthe top of the draw-tube
(2) by fittinga low-power eyepiece"

and

admirably

projectthe apertometer
circle of the microscope,in
also

smallest

to O'2, and

by

it to

be

of

are

diagram

of which

first and

the

the

focal

upper

number

eyepiece
peep-hole ; or

the aid of

consists

equi-distant,equi-thick concentric

diagram

removing

the

estimated

are

for mathematical

which

paper,

that when

of the

of O'l, the

on

paper

microscope, at a certain distance


object plane of the objective to be tested, the

of

number

is referred

stage of the

usual

N.A.

in

Briefly,the apertometer

the

as

off

reader

circles,drawn

on

the

circles

the

in thickness

graduated
below

is described

ventor
by the int\\t Journal of the Quekett Microscopical
Club, Vol. IX.

in

is

of

"

with

image
which

in the

circle

stop and

2-mm.

it

high-powerpocket magnifier.

eye-ring
can

The

be

or

using

Kamsdcn

observed
draw-tube

with
may

Abbe
auxiliary microscope (as in the
apertometer) by fittingits lower end with an objective suitably
stopped to give a tclcccntric system.
as

an

CHESHIRE'S
The
sold

simple

circles

the

Holborn

drawn

are

97

this apertometer, shown

of

form

of

by Baker

APERTOMETERS

on

the

modification
lower

in

Fig. 82A,

is

(Fig. 82B), in which


of

surface

thick

disc

highly refractive glass adapted for use with dry and immersion
of Cornhill, London.
is sold by R. " J. Beck
objectives,
another
method
With
only, there yet remains
dry powers
which is also exceedingly simple and effective.1
Lay upon the table two pieces of white paper, using a black
of

Fig. 82A.

Fig. 82B.

background,

with

their

straight inner edges parallelto one


another
and
definite distance (say 20 cm.
for lenses of N.A.
a
rule
hold
over
a
O'5O, less for low-angled ones) apart, then
the table about midway
the two
between
vertically
pieces
upon
of paper.
tested
Next
hold
the objective to be
vertically
1

Although

this

idea

may

have

occurred

to

others

angular aperture
microscopical objectives,we
suggested to obtain their numerical
aperture by Mr.
of

at the

South
Imperial Institute,

from
Photomicrography^

which

for

believe

Conrady,

obtaining
it
now

was

the

first

Professor

publishedin the Author's

Kensington, being
paragraph is abstracted.

the

CONRADY'S

98

against the rule and

METHOD

look

down

the

at

back

will be seen
pieces of paper
objective downwards
along the edge

the

there

two

these

watching
apart

until

flicker
of

pieces of
which

rays

of

lens,which,

the

between

in the

intersect

To

aperture.

these

determine

distance
Then

by half the

pieces of paper

is the cotangent

the

therefore,be

latter may,

the

ratios,and

margin

inner

off the

edges
oblique

most

which

that

the

directions
the

angle of

distance

subtract
from

distance

of the

the

from

working

table to focus.

between

the

two

semi-angle of aperture

obtained

from

sine of the

the

is
objective,

angle,read
and
objective,

divided

this distance

directions,

farther

slightbluish

of the

to get the distance

as

and

receiving,or

this

lens,1so

of the

of

rule, always

extreme

that

direction

of the

principalfocus

table to the front of the

the

the

the

of

slide the

now

the

only

in

indicates

in

are

side

Images

farther

where

objectiveis capable

enclosed

angle

either

on

course,

paper

the

is reached

point

visible

remains

the

of

last

at

of

will separate

They

images.

lens.

table

angle

same

of

is the

metrical
trigonoN.A.

of

the

objective.
Example :
Distance

between

Distance

of front lens of

Working

distance

piecesof

the two

0*2
objective,

of

33'Q

paper,

objectivefrom
mm.

of angle

cotan.

100

71" 49',as

two

or

great

care

units

of

this method
the

second

33-0

mm.

find from

we

tables,the sine of which


With

paper,

200/2
=

mm.

32-8

Q'2

0*328

200

will

0^95

the
=

trigonometrical

N.A.

give results

decimal.

In

accurate

looking at

to

the

one

back

about
be at a distance
equal
objective the eye should
the objective is designed, but the
the tube-length for which

of the
to
error

caused

by

considerable

even

requireddistance, is

very

DEPTH

from

this theoretically

small.

OF

Focus

chapter, seeing that the amount


(sometimes called
penetrating power ")
depth of focus
entirely
ssed by an objectiveis largelythough by no means
Before

"

deviations

concluding

this

"

How

to

ascertain

"

the

working distance,see

Index.

DEPTH
with

associated

its numerical

following remarks

dimension

that

"

moment

same

not

very

easy

to

with

the

by

object

an

FOCUS

aperture

read

meant

of

superficial
part

be

may

is

First, what

OF

99
the

at

of use,

time

the

interest.
It is this.

term?

focus, how

is in

When
of

much

the

its third

well defined
at the
depth is sharp and
difficult one,
and
The
subject is a somewhat

of

"

explain, for

it

being up to that
and
inherent
time
distinctly mysterious
thought to be an
that
and
above
property possessed by certain objectives over
Abbe

Professor

to

be found

took

the

question

in

obscurity until

in

wrapped

was

hand,

combinations.

in other

Fig. SSB.

Fig. 83A.

just said, to explain the whole subject intelligibly


is not at all easy, and
feel a pleasure in acknowledging very
we
Mr. A. E. Conrady, who
has given
considerable
assistance from
To
follows
attention
to the matter.
simplify what
very much
As

let
a

we

have

an
Fig. 83A, where
plane containing F.
Supposing
us

consider

to be

reduced

of

lower

through
this

this

to

AB,

part of

point

then

object

and

the
point ; hence
of the object being out

the

it is obvious

the
F

objective OO

aperture of the

confusion

of focus

be

light from

that

A'

between

would

is focussed

with

mixed

owing
will be

to

the

equal

objective
all

B' would

and

to

the
lower

the

on

points
pass

image of
portion
distance

OF

DEPTH

TOO

A' to B'.

from

objective

Suppose
then

CD,

to

portions of the lower


will

be

now

the

the

of

aperture

find
reasoning we
part of the object extending from C'
it is easy
sharply focussed

the

focus

of

our

that

same

and

diffusion

the

plane,

increase

now

by

confused

between

distance

we

FOCUS

for

the

to

that

for

and

some

see

plane
latter

given

other

be

must

D'

to

directly

of the object-glassand
ficient
with sufproportionalto the diameter
But
approximation to the numerical
aperture employed.
the above
figurealso makes it clear that with the largeraperture
much
CD
there is a plane GH
the sharp focus F where
nearer
the diffusion C"D", corresponding to the large aperture, is the
that (A'B') produced by the small aperture at a greater
as
same
from

distance

of diffusion

allowance

the

to

will

N.A.,

into

enter

we

also

may

the

depth of

focus

in

this form

the

and

that

say
is

for

given

inversely

tional
propor-

influence

of the

N.A.

The

dimensions

formula.

our

effect of

The

Hence

F.

magnification

A'B', C'D', etc., are

is obvious.

of

magnified by the microscope ; hence


the greater the magnification,
the less the size of the diffusion
A'B'
in the objectwhich
in the magnified
be tolerated
can
therefore be inverselyproporimage ; the depth of focus must
tional
to the magnificationM.
arises
from
the
Finally,the effect of the mounting medium
same

"

cause

as

i.e.from

the

dense

at

MM

The

the

air

would

of

F, the

at

lengthen

entering surface

so

as

to

entering the
Fig. 831* had

in

of

have

media

denser

medium

its apex

at

F'.1

of the
the underside
(i.e.
the reasoning applied in determining the value
cover-glass),
of a given angle in a dense
medium
as
compared with the value
of

the

index
which

angle

same

is

very

of

the

has

air, applies with

medium)
which

at

The

F.
these

the

result that

the

cone

(n being the refractive


that corresponding to air

times

high

as

at

apex

flat

being

approximately

its

respectively

in

MM

objective OO

cone

dense

when

rays

introduction

the

in

possible
of

cones

if the

Thus,

in

N.A.

greater

refraction

medium.

its focus

seen

cones

as

distances

attain

from
a

certain

and

diameter

evidently in the same


proportion ;
given diffusion)are
consequently the depth of focus is proportionalto the refractive
(=

index

of the

mounting
1

See

medium.

Addenda

for

further

explanation.

OF

DEPTH
has

what

From
of focus

we

expressed by

be

can

said

been

FOCUS

may

depends

Constant

assumed

the

be

to

first figure we

our

the

on

usual

"

N.A/

thus

Let

N.A.

the

If this be

allowed.

diffusion

with

quantity TJ^ in.,then

reason

depth

The

the

that

state

now

the formula

Constant

101

the

aid

(see page

82)

of
be

orTV; then the diameter of the object-glasswill be one-fifth its


at F, will
focal length;1 in other words, the cone, having its apex
"i

of

with

should

had

have

keep within
M

means

NA.

and

within

T\j-in.

no

in the
into

obtain

"f

gives

of

of

Tinr

incn

an

TV

TV

depth of focus

is allowed

the

object

in

we

order

mathematically
D

I,

iV

constant

our

in

air

r"
i

the value

the

us

is

cone

"

Constant

Constant

which

either

on

the

This, therefore,is the

formula

our

10

we

which

image), which

obtain

TV" we
"

whence

F, but

^ on an object in
magnification (as otherwise

less diffusion

limit

yj^ from

range

Introducing

i.

is

allow

our

will, therefore, attain

objective of N.A.

an

to

of

will be

i) provided there

total

It

5.

distance

the

; hence

depth of focus

to

in. at

in

in. in diameter
j-^-jj

below

(n

of

rate

of TJ^

diameter
side

the

at

converge

in the

"

rU,

inches

in

image,

when

diffusion

as"

D
100

So

far

have

we

assumed

absolutely fixed, which


fixed

distance

from

plate or
When
term

must

for the
1

implies

the
the

be added

uses

of

Because

the
to

N.A.

of

its focal

TV) equalling\ the

point

an

the

that

for

eye

in

at

As
various

sharp

image
devoid

focus

is formed

instance,

his accommodation

the formula.

to

eyepiece, as,
retina

the observer

N.A.

the

abilityof seeing sharply

its diameter
twice

on

on

to

be

at

graphic
photo-

of accommodation.
a

further visual

accommodation

stands

distances, it therefore

single lens may be said to be the ratio of half


in this case
becomes
length ; so the full diameter
focal length,or a ratio of i in 5.
a

DEPTH

102

formation

the

involves

of

the

below

distances

of

square

implies shifting

is

the

in

Dv

term

found

the

short

in the usual

Fig. 830.
"

sense

similar

by

line shows

the dotted

figure(Fig. 830) by

to
triangles,

in depth equal
magnification

The

that

find the

the

to

the

the

"-,

focus

of

depth

"

The

that

magnificationin

focal length, and /


long conjugate,F
With
reference
to
magnification in depth, being
is from
magnification in diameter, the following,which
mathematical
be
will
welcome
as
a
proof.
Conrady,
L

Where

various

at

the
differentiating

By

(^^f-^j1^

visual

the

hence

image

in turn

object.

is the

magnification in depth
diameter;2

which

the

in

magnification formula

usual

final visual

the

eyepoint,

conjugate points

of the

FOCUS

OF

conjugate.
of

square

the

of Prof.

pen

is the

the

magnification

magnificationin depth,

square

of the

magnification

in diameter.

apply

we

wili

the

formula

its

have

determined.

image
Our

to

point

at

distance

formula

distant

more

from

less than

by

the
a

lens

by dl, which
quantity dL. to be

gives
"

l+dl~"

L-//L

Subtracting this from the originalformula, and


a
quantityequal to unity, brings the two sides
denominator, which after transposing becomes
L*

dL

multiplying each
equation to

of the

with

term
a

common

"

dl~

I*

This
we

is

rigorous but inconvenient


imagine dl" and consequently dL"
is that

L1
Then

"

and
we

the

in the

term

//L

limit,"when

dl

has

and

is the desired
the

more

1?

and

differcnti.il,
smaller

the

mon-

infinitesimally
small, vanishes.

/L\f
"=

magnificationin depth,

equation proves

smaller

the

"

L'
=

and

become

get the differential coefficient

obtain

To

become

to

becomes

dL

"rr

formula.

(l)

is the usual linear

that the first is the square

magnification,

of the second.

CHAPTER

VI

EYEPIECES

EYEPIECES,

will

but

kinds,

several
here

the

on

The

Huyghenian

See

may

be

that

it

eye

being

is

in

object

for

of

that

strict

philosophical
in

eyepiece,
for

best, both

of
focal

but

both

for

telescope

by

is

three
a

or

other,

as

well

best

times

distance

be

for

the

fulfilled

that

of

(d) equal

to

of

any

it

as

may,

the

of

one

microscope,

the

the

dition
con-

field-lens

the

the

cyc-lcns,

half

the

microscope.

when

the

of

was

be

the

literature

result

to

the

as

of

the

that

seems

ground

much

the

than

bination
com-

celebrated

good

from

anyhow,

combination

achromatism

length

lengths

form

///""//power

the

rather

but

inquiry,

the

invention

actual

the

this

of

ocular

gathered

termed

towards

seems

an

fact
the

is

other
turned

there

with,

nearer

invention

devised

inspiration

some

the

but

the

seem

one

Huyghens,

be

can

the

Son.

"

the

by

(the

being

to

also

what

happy

lenses

and

met

Ramsden

The

it bears,

Campani

From

of

nature

In

ascribed

name

commonly

the

each

the

Ordinary

by Swift

type

new

whilst

of

in

microscope.

more

microscope.

subject, it would

the

the

the

form

^-lens,

convexity

usually

type.

same

two

the

on

believing

the

is

single

whose

astronomer

for

of

called

is

Addenda

"

explained

are

the

Ramsden

varieties, the

two

from

composed

use

of

distinguished

the
yfc/c/-lens),

the

for

apparatus

which

readily

forms

of

really

are

and

Huyghenian

special

be

called,

often

are

the

"

as

may

Ordinary,

The

two

auxiliary

Compensating.

the

only

they

as

mentioned,

be

chapter

oculars,

or

two

of

sum

their

has

being
focal

"

Aw-powcr

these

proportion,

focal
whereas

magnification
lengths,
for

medium

to

is

there
r$

being

power

usually

found

about

about
i

to

2.

change
the

of

right

ORDINARY
The

HUYGHENIAN

of

passage

the

OCULAR

through

rays

the

lenses

105

should

be

now

is the
O
consulting Fig. 84, where
objective,
E
F the field-lens,and
the eye-lens. Dealing with those
rays
which
from
emanate
a
point about the arrow-head, and presuming

xplained by

for the
focus

at

them

however, that

again

once

P, where

at

rendered

to

this

image

the

rays

the

eye

see

with.

the

plane

image

is in the

placed.

But

is the

It should

be

they

the field-

is formed.

Seeing,

focus of the

mentioned

eye-lens,

towards

the

the

at

are

condition

HUYGHENIAN

they would

of
interposition

refracted, being bent

are

is

the

A', where

which
parallel,

to

eye

monochromatic,

are

if left undisturbed, but

refracts

lens F

they

moment

axis

time

same

best

suited

here

that

for

the

mistake

E.YLPIECC

Fig. 84.
is often

made

the

to

lens

parallelwith

another.

one

the

evident.1

This

in

the

ordinary

causes

which

would

is upon

shown, the
but
beams

"

it

hence

the

passage

we

must

the

In

red

serving to illustrate the point


would
are

focus

at

refracted

to

ascertain the diameter

pupil, and

not

at
as

focus

of this

chromatic
mono-

how

the

Fig. 85, upper

and

blue

before, but

see
pencil,

at

A'.

page

"

ceding
pre-

is alone
sively
exten-

very

The

piece
eye-

part
the

rays

issue.

again

be

monochromatic

larger scale than

of the

could

eye

for

rays

show

now

sideration,
con-

will hereafter

depicted being exaggerated

condition

to

parallel

little

axis, the

through

the

necessarily much

the field-lens F
How

the

path of the
but lightfrom an object is

if left alone

into

perfect achromatism.
a

issue

with

inevitably result, as
is

way,

such

diagram

with

they

is obvious

with
parallel

beam

then

beam

This

were

entire

incomplete vision

that

meant

leave

rays

erroneously understood, but that they issue

often

for,if they
get

is not

parallel."It

the axis, as

never

the

concerning the expression "that

incoming
meeting
If there

14.

io6

HUYGHENIAN

ORDINARY

produce

would

eye-lens,and

no

were

red

the blue

than

extent

drawn

as

eye

the

of the glass
dispersive power
be bent
less
to a
by the object would

out

sent

rays

107

single lens,it
colour fringes in the outer

image with

part of the field,for owing


the

by the

used

were

virtual

OCULAR

to

and

ones,

into

each

point

of

the virtual

image

the red end


towards
spectrum with
the opticalaxis (seeFig. 85, lower part). But in the Huyghenian
in
shown
an
eye-lens is used, the rays
combination, where
be

would

"

"

As

lens

any

of

seen

this

bent

reason

with

as

to

to

the

than

blue

than

than

meets

ray

the

red

one.

by the
(about

greatly predominates,
rays

with

sensibly parallelone

It is true
difference

of

the

1*52),

field-lens

and

such

to

some

is to

1-51

as

eye-

and

prism

of blue, and

companion

separation between
blue

meets

ray

its fellow.

colours

two

red

its

counteracted

the red and

cause

optical axis

that

more

for the

sufficient

first effect

the

is

advantage

refractive indices
but

the

separated

regarded as a prism with a refractingangle


becomes
the optical axis, it further
apparent

greater refractingangle

is for this

that

now

the

little consideration

but

of

is

still further

be

may

increasing from
with

become

and

Fig. 85, upper


part cross
E.
It
as
they fall upon
the eye-lens sensibly nearer

extent

an

from
the eye-lens
emerge
// is this that proanother.
duces
to

is placed at the
image. A diaphragm
focus of the eye-lens.
The
Compensating
Huyghenian ocular is only an extension
the

of ideas

wish

image

such

things to

extent

an

to compensate
companion, and to just the right extent
other highof the apochromatic or
the opposite error
objective.

is effected

(as

in

the

formerly made,

again

in

the
seen

at

by using

now

half

exaggeration.

of

lens for

well

separated

or

It shows

now

as

the

The

tion
separa-

similar

one

by substituting
the simple eye-lens. On
or

is well

Fig. 85 this

holoscopic eyepiece.

greater

of Watson

discarded, by Swift);

achromatic

the lower

glass and

denser

holoscopic ocular
but

over-corrected

looking

are

of

condition

to

its blue

This

with

the

being in this instance

computer

of the virtual
crossing of these rays in the formation
seen
by the eye, the red image shall be made
larger

as

power

an

the

of

accentuate

by

than

the

"

further

that

achromatic

seen,

that

condition

rays

of

they arrive

the
at

although

the

two
crown

obtains

colours
lens

by

interval

sensibly greater

speak

the

becomes

colour, for the

which

purpose

is this state

diaphragm

manner

placed in

have

we

by

the

companion

used

be

cannot

as

which

too) the
been

furnishes

Huyghenian
compensating

said, it is evident

its focus

inside

between

hand-magnifier

work

for micrometer

or

edge of the

rapidly distinguishing in

lenses, it

Ramsden,1

red
"

the

The

compensation
eye-lens ; and it

eye-lens

that

virtual

if the

good

(and usually in the Ramsden


what
has
the ordinary. From
the Huyghenian
as
eyepiece has

where

the

like

the

have

to

threads

simultaneously with the object.2

be focussed

Ocular

Ramsden

of two

each

RAMSDEM

distinguishedfrom

once

it consists

as

towards

turned

being

be at

may

type of eyepiece

surfaces

red

already stated.

oculars

former

the

formed

focus of the

the

for

method

ready

The

that

by over-correcting
compound
of things that gives rise to the

"

simple

red
separation causes
if we
virtual image
so
may
parallel with the blue, but

the

is effected

from

former

the

explanation practicallyholds

same

the

"

not

eye,

in

of

crossing in such a
larger than that

diverging and
image

the

OCULAR

than

increase

form

to

by

seen

as

"

forth

issue

to

rays

This

ocular.

achromatic

HUYGHENIAN

COMPENSATING

io8

lenses,the

other.

The

the

convex

general path

EYEPIECE.

REAL

focus

or

man

OBJECT

GLASS

IrtAoe.
ut5

OCULAR

THE.

Fig. 86.
monochromatic

of

is shown

rays

theoreticallyis where
length of

focal
the

to

focal

lens

length of

It should

different

each

be noted

in the

case

"

is

either.

that

of

if turned

combination

as

"

But

d, that

as

the selection

86.

Fig.

is

the

equal,and

Huyghenian
upside-down can
the

in

to

The

best

say

where

distance

of the focal

for

ocular
be used

for

the

equal

apart
would

this condition

form

lengths is

///

throw
somewhat
that

such

indifferent

somewhat

hand-magnifier.
1

This

is

the
be

Huyghenian
is,it

can

ordinarily speaking,
entirely removed, and the
case,

then

be

used.

but

if the

eye-lens

in

the

focus

the

field-lens
made

to

RAMSDEN
focal

the lower

plane of

focal

upper

lens, the

the

would

field-lens,or
the

when

dust

ocular

and

The

of this

consequence

deprive the eyepiece of its freedom


"#dfcr-corrections
(taken in the sense
whilst

close

by the

overcome

flint

the

to

the

of

These

lenses.

Ramsden

eyepieces look the

eyepieces

may

single lens) become

remain

drawbacks

in

lenses
in

veniently
incon-

only

can

combinations

the

glass; hence, although

of

arrangement

colour, for chromatic

planes still

focal

of achromatic

use

eye-

annoyingly visible to the


focal lengths are
the two
usually
the
that
separation less than

is to

painfullyapparent,

of the

substance

be

it to

in use,

theoreticallydemanded.

the

avoid
strictly fulfilled. To
imperfections in the glass of the

upon

was

and

be

all

slightly different

made

eye-lens into the field-lens

cannot

cause

any

109

field-lens into the

the

arrangement

this, which

eye

of

plane

OCULAR

of

the

and

crown

best

be

form

of

the

cheaper type, they


are
reallydifferent,for in point of fact each lens is compound,
the components
being cemented
together. Cheap Ramsden
therefore

same

be

as

with

regarded

suspicion.

is
idea of manufacture
compensating form the same
carried out, but to a higher order, by introducing a sufficiently
flint element
to produce a
chromatically overstrong concave
In

the

combination.

corrected
shown
is

in

Fig. 87.

The

Here

Zeiss

form

of

arrangement

is

of the rays
appearance
how
the extremely
it suffices to show

again the whole

greatly exaggerated, but

that
glass separates the blue and red rays so much
the
in the
is larger than
virtual
image the red component
in
blue which
is required to
the
correct
opposite condition
the objective. On
show
to
the other hand
the figure serves
dense

flint

that if the flint


form
be

not

were

be

might

eyepiece.

for
As

eyepieces manufactured

being for
form

those

up

to

the

by

the

ocular

matter

the nominal

to

be

used

the
x

as

the

lar
particu-

image would
an
ordinary

virtual

of fact,with

Zeiss

of this

combination

where

computed

purely achromatic,

Ramsden

dense

so

compensating

Huyghenian

6, after which

type

is in

the Ramsden

place. This selection is found to be the more


convenient
because
of arranging a suitably distanced
eye-point
lower
the
for enabling the
and
that
adjustment to be such
focal planes of the entire series shall lie in the same
position
when
the
into the draw-tube
oculars
inserted
change
are
; a
of

takes

their

eyepieces therefore

necessitates

scarcely

any

change

of

no

11

II
I,
I:

OCULARS

COMPENSATING

ii2

sizes

those

are

of the Council
Size

(
(

with a resolution
mostly in use, being in accordance
1889:
of the Royal MicroscopicalSociety,December

"

2,26-3

"

3,32'2

"

4,35*8

"

"

"

"

",

Sizes

Of

these

the

is

second

and

third, the

; the

whilst

last is that

other

are

odd

ro4

"

"

1-27

"

i'4i

"

dropping

are

of

out

23-300

for

"

32-258
35-8I4

"

"

long-tube

or

binoculars

There

binoculars.
largest-sized

of the

the

diameter;

for medium-sized

mean

use.

English

the

mm.

26-416

Continental

usual

diameter

mean

microscope
the

first is the

the

"

,"

"

'9173 inch,or

fitdraw-tube

to

i, 23-2 mm.,

sizes.
of

Compensating oculars, both

Ramsden,

and

Huyghenian

may

,.-',B
^..-""
Blue

"

ray

DIAPHRAGM

6lt"E

OF

Fig. 88.

EYE

THE.

Ordinary

"

Unochroniatic

Eye-lens. Blue
margin to field.

ray

outside,hence

blue

usually be distinguishedfrom
ordinary eyepieces by looking
held up to the light: the former
through them when
showing
red
the
to
the
whereas
latter
a
yellowish
margin
diaphragm,
produces
how

the

blue

difference

able

is not

fringe to

are

meant

point
not

bear

to

due

they

cither

to
are

not

lenses,the

is

to

field and

has

to

found

or

asked
writer

scientific

; hence

the

of the

few

ghenian
Huy-

ordinary ocular, the

coloured
as

the

any

Speaking

in

rays

whole

conjoint action
the
eye-lens,but

often

wherein

be

the

taken

been

explained, and

interest.

is that

eyepiece
due

be

compensating

in mind

the

It

text-book

any

point
of
maybe

of

form

to

field.

is to

this

upon

followingremarks
first

colour

point

to

information

in

the

by

of

the

to

the

question
which

two

is

ponent
com-

action

of

COMPENSATING

the
former
be considered
entirely. Indeed
may
and the effect is
a
condenser, for it may be removed

latter

the

merely

OCULARS

as

unaltered

Blue

ray

Red

r-~--*J

SIDE

OF

EVE

THE

Fig. 89." Achromatic

If
are

Blue and red rays remain


colourless margin to field.

Fig. 88 be consulted,the red and

taken) from

seen

Eye-lens.

in the

the

edge of the diaphragm


But the
separated at A.

and

splitup

blue rays

of B, where

direction

the blue

together,hence

(only two

to

eye

the

lens will be
them

sees

lies outside

ray

colours

as

the

if

red

Blue ray
Red
"

SIDE

OF

EYE

THE

Fig. 90.

"

(or rather,owing

hence
the

the blue
case

of

Eye-lens. Red outside,blue inside,hence red


yellow) margin to field.
brilliancy,

Over-corrected

margin
the

to

its greater

to

the field.

achromatic

In

Fig. 89, which

eye-lens, the

blue

represents
red

and

keep

be furnished
to the
together,and so a colourless margin would
corrected
in Fig. 90, of the overBut
edge of the diaphragm.
eye-lens(as in all Zeiss compensating Huyghenian oculars),the
red

is bent

image, as
thus

seen

so

much

by

more

the

explaining the

eye,

reddish

than

the

it lies outside

blue
at

that
the

in

virtual

the

arrow-points A,

yellow fringeto the field.


8

DIAMETER

ii4

Curiously these
do

PUPIL

distinguishing characteristics

obtain

not

OF

cither

the

with

of

holoscopicocular

dering
colour-ren-

when

adjusted

ordinary or a compensating ocular.


explained by consulting the lower part of Fig. 85, when
become

to

is

eye ; hence

eyepiece is

the

when

do

rays

take

not

image until at least


blue
a
margin is seen

virtual

the

the

how

observable

This

an

adjusted

it is

up their final position in


sensible distance from
tJie

some

either

in

that

case,

for the

ordinary or

the

diaphragm

is to

say,

compensating

effects.
The

the

as

red

edge

to

compensating ocular
explains itself by

Ramsden

the

the

of

cause

matter

needs

the

in the

further

no

study of

of

case

comment,

the

previous

figures.
leaving the subjectof eyepieces,seeing the importance
should always be the required diameter
that the emerging beam
Before

and

pass

the

show

how

to

enter

to
not

to

the

philosophy by

Of

the

course

different

individuals, but

according

the

to

To

variation

from

Taking

others.

the

under

whilst
with
any
to

the

formuke

diameter

point

beam

is affected
and

be

how

out

from

that

can

is not

ocular.

These

by

far from

of

the

primitive

of

with

that

mind

times

the

pupil,or

be
the

the
be

presumed

been

that,

the
microscopist,

one-tenth

of

an

be

must

discussion

Before

has

its

physiologists and

many

the

and

should

inch; but
understood

that

follows,

actually commencing
of

diameter

that

stated

the

emerging

such

diameter

(i) the

the

focal

same

lens

of

in

different

at

diameter

hold

ascertain

factors:

(2) the N.A.

on

varies

pupil

different circumstances,

given

t\vo

at, for

handbooks

borne

empirically it

by

out

intensityof the light impinging

with

eyepiece, it

simple

the

interpolated.
to

point

is arrived

diameter

which

are

to

most

be

it may

the

lens of the
another

also

somewhat

omission

an

and

the

of evidence

circumstances

stating this

it should

consideration

working diameter

usual

of

under

mass

diameter

fix the actual

under

be

for different foci of oculars.

and

the normal

desideratum

subject in

its normal

direction

the eye.

on

from

varies

pupil

any

Addenda

normal

diameter

computation

the

to

it would

eye,

such

such

which

See

microscope.

the

ascertain

is made

little reference
the

pupil of

same

forms

magnification of the eyepiece,


In
Fig. 91 let OL
objective, (i)
length

as

the

objective

equivalent
are

taken

focal

and

length as
for simplicity^

EL
the

DIAMETER
in

and

objectiveOL
being

affect

way

no

focus

115

general reasoning. Rays from


Fx and oblique pencils at F2, all other

the

the

be formed

would

PUPIL

for purposes

excluded

arrow

at

OF

of

Half

description.

this situation.

at

The

the

Fb the

at

rays

rays

inverted

OL

Fig. 91.

focus, pass
side

F2

and

one

the other, and

F!

the

as

Ramsden

the
the

on

to the

on

pass

to

on

eye-lens EL
other

of

and
axis

the

periphery of EL,

In

circle.

Fig. 92

the

same

one
parallel,

Those

on

argument

is

at

with
from

act,meeting those
union

one

focussing

one
parallel

rendered

point of

This

shows.

diagram

ad '.

the axis

towards

bent

are

are

issue

the

called

holds, but

as

Fig. 92.
the

eye-lens

power)

is

smaller

of

shorter

focal
circle

Ramsden

length (a higher magnifying


is formed.

It is obvious

then

that the
needs

where

(2)
as

Ramsden
circle,
higher magnification,with its smaller
smaller
in Fig. 91,
a
pupil than the larger circle shown
the magnification was
Hence
the greater the magless.
nification
the smaller
the
pupil be.
may

In

before.

Fig. 93 let OL
Let

the

rays

be

AA

an

objectiveand
be

alone

EL

the

considered.

Apiece
This

lens

repre-

DIAMETER
sents

the

of

lens

low

pupil is small

aperture

BB

OF

numerical
as

by A'A7.

lens of

"

the

aperture, and

indicated

be considered

PUPIL
beam

Now

to

let the

largernumerical

enter

full

aperture

Fig. 93-

corresponding pupil B'B' is larger: hence the higher the


N.A. of the objectivethe larger the pupil required.
with
constant
As, however, the N.A. remains
a
given objective
whilst the magnificationis raised or
lowered, so it is only with
have
the first statement
we
This, for convenience
principallyto deal.
the

of

description and

better what
of the

is lessened.

the lowest

The

becomes

the

larger and
is to

then

problem

magnificationwith

mind

be put another

follows, may

issuingbeam

clear

to

so

The

way.

largeras
show

the

how

is

stand
under-

diameter

tion
magnifica-

to

given objectivethat

to

as

ascertain

permissible
^EYE

94.

to

allow

the

beam

from

pupil of tl
,

state

The

for convenience

for pr"
first be borne

argument
It must

at

the
eyepiece completely to enter
in. diameter.
This
magnification \ve

the

once

to
be

in mind

be
taken

equal
as

that the

to

200

times

the N.A.

folio

compound

microscope,

RAMSDEN

would

as

be

shown

and

lens

which

has

has

what

aperture, the
i

optically perfect

an

In

rule

general
the

the

in what

the

in

the

focus

follows

chapter

be

same

of

let

the

f1 be

numerical

upon

understood

this

aperture divided

that

follows

by the focal length.

"

magnification (at

this formula
diameter

at

is necessary

is

'

posed
Trans-

;^="

magnification under

into

(i) we

get

"

or-NJL-2.

N.A.

the

required

to

magnification.

given

to

find

we

get

we

lens

any

being the

"

NJL--

by

in.)of

10

Introducing this latter

consideration.

(a)

f1

becomes

this

Then

94

of

N-A-=^'

The

N.A.

let/* be

P. ; and

will

(i)

given

lens

effect

same

Transposing

In

Fig.

said

been

half
^rj-or

image, produces the

clear diameter

117

length.

From

N.A.

by

the

magnification.

N.A.

its focal

of

inversion

the

apart from

CIRCLE

fill,
say, | in. pupil at

find

pupil

Example

of

What

magnification of

200

"

|oi2oo
=

20

so

N.A.

1*25 is

If, however,

pencil with

required.
desire

we

given N.A.

know

to

and

the

of

diameter

given magnification,

the
we

emerging
have

"

P=2oxN-A-.

(*)....

say,

650

objective with

An

Example:

; what

is the

N.A.
of the

diameter
20

-65

given
that

on

diameter

the

other

the

pencil

of
may

hand,

pupil,what
pass

the

emerging

magnification of,
pencil ?

i.

presuming
is the

pupil

^m'

-6^-

Again,

'65 and

given N.A.

and

magnification required
Then

"

a
so

RAMSDEN

ii8

Example

the

Let

CIRCLE

pupil

be fixed

-^ in.,and

at

the

N.A.,

say,

"65 ; then"
m

"

diameters.

130

"

iff

If

put this another

we

now

then

way,

20x^A;

"

200x

TV

shows

which

furnishes

and

that

shows

when

proof that

of this discussion

the commencement
also

the

the

made

assertion

the

is correct

at

formula

This

pencil is only -^ in. in diameter,


useful magnification (viz.1000
times the N.A.)

the limit of

emerging

employed.1

is

to

is

This

subject may be put


the direct question,What
really the image formed
and

is the

Semi-diameter

appeals better, perhaps,

circle?

eyepiece, of

focal plane.

the focal length of the

on

which

Ramsden

the

by

in the upper

measured
objective,

N.A.

different way

the

This

objectivein

Ramsden

The

circle
of

full aperture

image depends

the well-known

the

the

on

manner

of the full aperture


_
~~

Equivalent focal length of


whence

obtain

we

in its upper

measured

the
to

of

power
the

we

number

of the

'

objective

emerging

of

cone

objective,

any

plane

"

N.A.

forms

Focal

of the

length

objective.

image of this ; the diminution


equalling
the eyepiece (according to Abbe
nomenclature), i.e. equal
M,
engraved on a compensating ocular. Calling this number

therefore

have

focal

yepicce

diameter

the

the

diminished

diameter

the

of the

N.A.

"

length of objective

Focal

circle

Ramsden

This

be

may

modified
2;o

objective

focal

mm.

whence
|ength ;
Focal

and

introducingthis
Diameter

(i) we

get

circle

=
.

denominator

rule

of

the

nTitialTa^Tfication
'"

"

is,obviously,the

mm.

N.A.

Eyepiece number

Initial

The

magnification

by transposing"

500

of Ramsden

initial

obtain

we

length of objective
in

the

introducing

by

magnification

magnification;

total

"

hence

the

"

simple

"

The

diameter

of

the

Ramsden

circle

SOP
Total

of the

Imposition
re

the

the

focal

upper

depends entirely
anyhow

Ramsden

eyepiece forms

without

on

the

circle (or
the

plane

image
eyepiece.

of

construction

somewhat

eye-ring,as

of the

detailed

of

aperture
Its

mm.

N.A.

magnification
it is sometimes
of the

distance

the ocular, and

computation.

called)

objective,slightly

from
cannot

the
be

top lens
foretold

MAGNIFICATION

120

EF

and

twice

dotted
and

and

equal

the other
there

four

GH

and

AB

to

be

to

EF

is

; GP

little

PH

four

"

ABCD

direction

from

above

to

Hence, when

side.

the

object is

said

attention

times

so

this

so

are

with

on

in what

is called

But

twice

twice

in

holds

magnification,

is

diameters

each

side

This

any

in

linear measure,

the

Fig. 96

square

is

it is

from

"diameters"

good for

that

object

"areas."

and

and

LG

it is evident

only enlarged

amplified two

be

and
and

downwards,

speaking

to

and

four

or

is

that

twice

EL

equal BC,

"

the

equally, dividing EG

equallingABCD

equally obvious
"

each

more

each

magnified

drawn

are

understand

to

respectively. Then
and

squares,

difficult

not

OKP

and

sides.

are

said

It

lines ; LKM

FH

each

AD.

little

magnified five
the

in

its

picture by
as

the

in

it, so

be

twenty-five

enlarged
side

but

largerdiagram has
twenty-five little squares
it

in

large
This

that used

terms

of

in
"

is

diameters

times

simply

however,

it has

magnifying

died

of

out

of

powers
in

the

oculars

in

of

refer to
straight. We
magnifies "times
so
much";
times
eight ocular
(written x
set

with

had

an

mistake
"times

which

some

the

initial
that

has

eight"
this
.vhich

been

meant

has

Used

made
not

arisen
to

for

8)

power

of

in

the

attached

had

we

used

was

what
the

is

in

different
in

spoke

years,

of

led

the
to

better

at

conjunction

stood
universally under-

eyepiece

in

eight diameters',
minds

diameters, but

simply
be

as

expression that an eyepiece


read
"that
a
example, we

the

that

is

day
magnifying

present

has

that

manner

quarter-inch objective." Now


in

two

comparatively recent
in daily use
to speak

In

use.

the fashion

minds

times

expressed
passed along, this expression of

time

as

become

little confusion
once

the

to

hence,

to

"

simple explanation

be in vogue.
But the scientist never
at all,for his magnifications
were
always

areas

"

"

said

area.

of
terms

be

can

from

the
to

the

of

the
that

instead.

Of

unfortunate
word

but
was,

some

areas

question

mcan-

"times"

as

MAGNIFICATION
with

synonymous

whereas

areas,

it is meant

now

be

to

the

diameters.1

as

same

121

the introduction

by Professor Abbe of his system


of apochromatics,he very rigorously reviewed
the methods
in
time
for
at the
evaluating objectives and oculars.
The
vogue
Previous

to

of

made

to

apparent

of

eye

end

this

careful

object at the

an

in

inconveniences

difficultiesand

the

what

world

his

; and

has

method,

real

different

magnification

microscope, which

observer, led

subject from quite


result that he originated and
the whole

obtainingthe

been

called

reconsider

to

standpoint, with

the

to

gave

him

thus

were

scientific

his

"

and

facturing
manu-

idea

new

the

"

upon

which

little attention
requires some
been
to follow, has
slowly but surely adopted by all,or nearly
all,the leading opticians both in England and on the Continent.
the Abbe
evaluation
Before proceeding to explain
method,"
evaluation

"

however,

first show

must

we

the

older

methods

which

obtained

now
are
question,and which even
employed
with
when
and
oculars not
dealing
objectives
by microscopists
arranged upon his specialsystem of nomenclature.

the

to

up

end

of

the

has

been

magnification of

the

obtain

To

in

time

object

an

in the easiest

microscope

is

way,

system.'"'It

called the "rational

as

seen

by

the

is based

the

at

of

use

eye

what
direct

upon

experiment, which, although tedious to carry out, is easilymade


observer
in the following manner
by any intelligent
:
Place
inch
the
on
objective say an
microscope, and
any
"

first what

use

"

is called

"

an

"

No.

or

eyepiece. Having
for a
only the name
I

procured a stage micrometer


(which is
definite distance
cover-glassruled with lines of some
apart and
fixed on
and
an
having focussed any two
slip),2
ordinary 3x1
lines which
venient
are
separated by an interval thought to be of condimensions, a piece of ground glassis placed at a distance
of

10

in. from

5 to

10

used

to

above

mm.

This

short

of

and

times"

microscopistsof the

"diameters"

ever

seen.

See

dies

be

on

into

the

the
terms

found
is

now

ground
of

the

originaldistinction

hard

in the

minds

of

old school.

as
Micrometers, or graticules,
they
Co., 51-60, Holborn
Viaduct, by a new

have

because

will

compasses

seen

as

converted

(having been

pair of

here
explanationis interpolated

"number

between
certain

interval

which

ocular"

interval of the lines

the

measure

glass,which
1

eyepoint of the
its eye-lens.

the

Addenda.

are

now

process,

called,made
are

by Rheinberg

certainlythe

finest

we

MAGNIFICATION

ASCERTAINING

122

order

same

of

much

those

as

inch, or

an

known

the distance

so

to

between

those

obtained

is the

exist

approximately.1

required very

eyepiece

must

by

meter.
micro-

stage

magnification
be repeated

change
that when
of

length

draws

To

accuracy.

give

their

appendix

an

his

again

magnificationsfor

objectives with

own

has

he

to

every

of

this is,

the

correct

tion
aberra-

magnification
recalculate

to

values

them

for

in

meet

table of

and

with

consequence

his tube

out

made

question if he desires any approach to


this difficulty,
opticians frequentlynot only

special"draw"

the

The

cover-glass,all

thin

extra

be

must

draw-tube.

observer

an
an

of

immediately upset,

are

each

that fresh measurements

it is obvious
in

with

the

linear

"so

say,

divided

then

on

process

to

objectivein succession, and a


made.
table of reference
Although this constitutes, perhaps,
of obtaining the existing magnification
the simplest method
of objectiveand
afforded
ocular, still
by a given combination
for every

and

This

is

that

"

millimetres")is

many

quotient thus

The

micrometer

the

on

show

to

much

of certain

combination

different

their

how

the

oculars, but
of

increase

also

of

add

amplificationis

by additional

For
tions
approximalengthsof the draw-tube.
this tabular system amply suffices,
but it is not
sufficiently
minds.
to pleasesome
accurate
it is really much
better for the
Practicallyand theoretically

caused

and

microscopist to ascertain, once

actual

values

for

objectiveand

each

normal
these

that magnificationat
eyepiece separately
', so
tube-lengthsis immediately found by multiplyingtogether

factors, any

two

increasing the
meant,

that if such

be,
objective
out

for all,the

one-sixth

initial value
extent

the
is

we

say

it

will

the

magnificationof
value

60, and

say,

in

increase

entire

at

tube

distance

increased

from

be

necessary

is

ascertained

this

is

objectiveto eyepiece, its

thereby approximately
because

required. Having

objective. By

tube-length of any given


has been
additionallydrawn

approximately
shown,

the

normal

the

ately
tube-length proportion-

this

new

hereafter
if

great

to

the

same

cation,
slightmodifiaccuracy

quantity, the

be

amount

in. apart in the micrometer,


known
to be ruled
i J,-,
Suppose the lines were
and
they appeared on the ground glass to be separated
M.
I). KwelPs
See
Index for Mr.
magnificationwould be ten-written X 10.
American
results (past President
Microscopical Soc.) of testingvarious stage
micrometers
not
ones
includingthe new
by Rheinberg. See Addenda,
1

RATIONAL

only

has

in the usual
How

to

manner

these

ascertain

to

of

Abbe

entire

the

proceed

to

the

put

its very

from

reader

objective consists
the object in that
computer

But

it is here

asked

such

of

of

as

this

located ? And

what

obtaining the
the

his

so

down

or

up

within

the

involves

whole

matter

power

of

If the

always

optician were

times
image plane,"as it is someits situation
as
being at such

the

which

draw-tube,

millimetres

above

distant

But

objective to be found

is the distance

lie.

"

objective (see Appendix).


an

shall

where

without

explanationsmight be cumbersome

many

an

amplification of
draw-tube

image

arise.

once

describe

not

of

amount

focussed

position of the

the

plane of

focal

upper

piece
eye-

operation.

possession of the

in

elected

distance

plane

values, however,

that difficulties at

but
unscientific,
focal

separate

particular plane

and
qualifications

certain

the

measuring

called,he would
and

complete

process

in

has

furnish

to

of the

power

commencement.

Theoretically, the

the

123

seeing that such very


introduction
to and
an
explains the reason
why
introduced
his elegant and originalmodification
will at once
subject from beginning to end, we

forms
fittingly

Professor

PLANE

explanation, and

littlethought and

some

IMAGE

multiplied by the magnifying

be

to

METHOD:

it that is

above

the

where

How

and
upper
is this
it be

can

usually selected

image plane to lie in ? None of these details are ever


by the best of
though manufactured
given with objectives,even
with an
recollect having met
cannot
English
opticians,and we
for the

text-book
Abbe
were
one

that

took
in
set

of
of

the

this

state

whilst

data
was

his

into

matter

chaotic

the

mentions

even

that

of
a

question.

confusion, for

much

chose

had

to

Professor

all these

consideration

second

When

one

chose

computer

another.
be

positions

The

presumed,

quence
conse-

and

the

that many
thought
objectives were
was
secondary consequence
less than
to
others, although of the same
or
magnify more
added
focal length ! To this confusion
was
yet another, which
from the fact that opticiansinsisted on callingtheir oculars
arose
by either letters of the alphabet A, B, C, D, or by numerals
of their relative
giving any hint whatever
adopted by convention
magnifications. It is usually now
Abbe's
influence of Professor
owing largely to, the masterful
writingsand teachings that the distance of the image plane of
focus from
the upper
focal plane of the objective,called "the
i, 2, 3, 4, without

"

"

OPTICAL

124

MECHANICAL

AND

shall
opticaltube-length,"
of

form

be

TUBE-LENGTHS

180

microscope, and

for the

mm.

270

short

for the

mm.

long

nental
Conti-

or

English

or

definite

position has been


decided, \ve
believe, for the positionof the upper focal plane of the objective.1
But

form.

"

shown

be

It will

such

no

and
proposals,"
all

accepted by

real

the

that

that

hereafter
such

that

English

that

proposal

one

is

getting

Continental

and

magnification

of

of Professor

is

and

more

manufacturers.

objectivecan

any

Abbe's
more

Seeing
be

at

once

by dividing its optical tube-length by its real focal


length,without the trouble of actuallymeasuring the amplification
other screen
at the image plane of focus, so
a ground glass or
on
calculated

student

able

be

to

of

situation

exact

it is of

that

evident

than

more

accurately
this

interest

determine

to

with

plane

academic

and

for the

locate

the

given objective under

any

examination.
has

what

been

said, the

practicalmicroscopist will
readily admit that the magnification at the image plane will
largely depend upon the length of this opticaltube ; but it may
it is also largelyaffected by
not be immediately
apparent how
From

length of

focal

the

combination.

the

This

will be

better understood

followingexplanation dealing with, say, a 2-mm.


possible to place a piece of ground glass
objective. If it were
focal plane,it would
be found
that there
at its upper
was
no
If
the
removed
all.
from
screen
were
magnificationat
4 mm.
would
be found
the same
startingpoint,then the amplification
the

by

to

be

; if removed

rule

the

of

image plane

from

then

that

obvious
be

kind

the

yard

allowed

be

must

of

if 270

90;

this,that

135, and

mm.,

two

"

so

real

focal
remain

The

varies,as

matter

"

the

plane of
in

the

which

mechanical

interval
'when

plane) by the focal length. It is


length of the objectivemaybe said to
of the amplification.
to speak
so

describe

tube-lengths,of

given to the
the
objective
It

focal

to

the

focal

measure

to

jtoken.

the

of this upper

"jn

of

is

upper

proceeding

Before

name

then

mm.,

simply
magnification
by dividing tJic
given objective is always to be found
any
'iof the adopted opticaltube (that is to say, the distance
of
Hence

on.

to

180

that

reader's
shall
standard

is included
on

for

the

fact,very

discovering the

no
objective,

any

\vc
or

/;/ situ
of actual

method

mind

confusion

with

respect

speak and of which


tube-length is the

betwc-en

the

microscope)

sensiblyin

some

shoulder
and
cases.

the

LOCATING

UPPER
the

of

eyepiece end
Continental

when

it should

the

and

the

distance
170

or

250

125

for the

mm.

by

now

short

or

in.,for the English

10

or

mm.,

being

the

mean

distance

in

millimetres

plane of the objective and


the

of

the

where

; such
mm.

to

focal

upper

PLANE

expression opticaltube-lengthis employed,

understood

be

between

160

at

instrument,

But

model.

draw-tube

fixed

consent

common

FOCAL

the

would

be

for the

long

image

found
the
image
object
the
draw-tube
after focussing and
were
eyepiece removed
amount.
tube-length to its proper
adjusting the mechanical
have
for the short or
This length, we
just stated, is 180 mm.

plane

Continental

It will be

form.
20

Abbe

the focal

ascertain

two

measurements

two

L0
tube-lengths

plane

differ from
therefore

of

and

magnification

and

The

Lj.

we

do

this

taken

are

with

the

eyepiece

upper

will

then

quantity

-h

-x

**"

"

focal

length

see

(Ln

-f.

ri

focal

x)

"

m\

mQ

"

length

"

LI

reducing which

obtain

we

L0

"

focal

"*'

length

Focal

length

being interpretedmeans
T FMPTTT
J-iiLJN
\j J. rl

of

tube-lengthsemployed

"

,^

"

of

practiceto carry this out, two


with
divisions
obtained, one
'Oi

with

divisions

"ruling" should

the

on

stage

"

magnification experimentally

In actual

slip to place

......

"

r~z.

_-

difference

are

that the

difference
FOPAT
L/VxAJL*
J.

Lf),

;;/!

which

"""

"

"

L'

(i)

To

constant

ld

length

L,
or

first step

the

between

the

in

L,

x
~

we

ml

distance

placed

tion
sugges-

"

Ln

this

plane

and

mQ

tube-length by
have, theoretically

should

the

combination.

the mechanical

focal

From

the

was

type of instrument.

focal

upper

length of

micrometer

least,that
of each

case

the

English

or

opticaltube-lengthis usually

at

"

in the

"

mm.

that the

locating the positionof

is to

focal

270

the mechanical

of Professor
In

then

seen

than

more

mm.

and

instrument,

in

of

the

rulings on
apart

mm.

of

*i

mm.

"

cover-glasses
mounted

microscope, and

separated by intervals

-"-

found

the
This

on

other
latter

glass of such a
diameter
that it can
be slipped into a Ramsden
eyepiece,which
be arranged so
must
to
as
permit the rulings being indebe

mounted

on

disc

of

THE

FINDING

126

FOCAL

LENGTH

ACCURATELY

pendently focussed before the ocular is placed in the microscope.


A Huyghenian
form
be used for this purpose
by removing
may
lens and
but
the fieldthe
here, too, arrangeeye-lens only,
using
ments
be

must

the

on

made

focussing the

for

rulings before

microscope.1

The

between

distance

exact

(remembering

that

the

in

most

is

micrometers

the

eyepiece

cover-glass ruling
balsamed

cases

micrometer

these

in

beneath

follows, this distance


the

placed

objective

measurements

that

must

follows)and
of the

divisions

of the

be

to

their

tested

be

now

eyepiece

so

us

example
Having

an

mm.

the

to ascertain

these

of

be very

must

in

as

equal,

say

disc

microscope, several

four

as

micrometer

Let

13*5

the

(say

taken,

be

to

on

made

mean

stage micrometer.

found

was

eyepiece-

the

supporting glass)and the upper end of the draw-tube


In
accurately ascertained with the eyepiece /;/ situ.
which

using

follows

as

many

five divisions

say,

are

example

how

mm.

mm.

'05

(say)is found

'05

Ditto

53'!

Ditto

"05

Ditto

52'5

Ditto

'05

Ditto

52-8

Ditto

be contained

to

in

52*8

divisions

of the

eyepiece

micrometer, which

equals

5'28

....

5-31

5*25

....

5*28

'20

21'

Therefore

I mm.

repeated on another part of


furnish
the
figures I mm.
mm.,
1047
shows
that the adopted magnificationis
draw-tube
is now
pulled out, say, 60 mm.

The

the

observations

mean

The

for

length of

entire

happens, an
objective to

the

end

magnificationare

In

this

case

we

of

the

again

will suppose

260

mm.

from

draw-tube)

scale

hence

say

1 2

105*6 mm.

will

we

final

the
dia)".

105*15

(making,

the

shoulder

it

as

of

the

five observations

and

made.
"

mm.

mm.

'04

is found

"04

Ditto

'04

Ditto

"04

Ditto

"04

Ditto

54*0

divisions

....

54'3

!-""tto

54.3

Ditto

....

54'i

5*41

54'o

Ditto

54'o

Ditto

to

be contained

in

of the

eyepiece of

micrometer,which

....

....

If

any

difficultyari^-s
red

Chafer

XII.

to

the

in

the

section

on

the

equals

.....

iind

ascertaining

conccrnir.
the

size of given

5*40

5'4o

MAGNIFICATION

128

the

in., by

10

diameters,
the
be

found

by

length

"

them

using

in. away

from

eye-lens) and
amounts

the

sum

as

initial of
the

on

be

to

amounts

to

300,

responsiblefor
60

and

ground

final

the

know

we

may

which

the

at

magnifying

to

on

10

screen

above

mm.

the

final

magnification
objectivewe divide

the

the

by

class

of

power

and

amount,

the

If

ocular.

of the

objectivehas been
the screen
on
amplification
that

once

of

power

the

is

eyepiece

5, .because

divided

300

5.

This

method

furnishes
the

by

60,

power

with

previouslyaccurately determined)

of the stage micrometer

the

shown

dealing

are

objective (of

eyepoint (about 5 to
much
the
measuring how

Knowing

ascertained

we

magnifies five

magnifying

any

quotient gives the magnifying


example the magnificationpower

for

by

If

the

to.

final

the

forth.

upon

been

2-in.

oculars, their

magnificationvalue has
and
projectingthe image
10

so

OCULAR

hence

"

ten, and

lettered

"

simply

focal

inch

an

OF

of

testing the

results

true

optician who

he would

have

tube

correct

magnifying

provided
made

the

them

arranged

the

eyepieces

so

oculars

constructed

are

for

objectives;
that

of

power

it is

presumed

all fall in the

they

draw-

planes shall
coincide with the image plane of the objective. Unfortunately
until Professor
Abbe
position for all
stronglyurged a uniform
the

manufacturers

always

the

that

an

is
more
or

than
that

magnify
same

have

distance.

adopt,

to

eyepiece by
that

this

of another

more

If

one

were

would
magnification

of

have

course

be

of

the

designation),

same

ocular

to

the

drop

two

in the

dropped
too

small,

too

to

appear

may

of

objectivealthough

because

to

now,

even

uniformity
apparently magnify

may

another

arranged for their oculars

is not

of the lack of

certain

length ; obviously

and

not,

maker

focal

their lower

(although

less than

or

was

bne

objective with

an

that

so

the consequence

and

case;

focal
not

distance

the

manufacturers
similar

tube

far,

the

because

final

really the

being unconsciously shortened, \vl


if the ocular
did not drop in far enough, the optical tube
being
be immediately
thus
lengthened by the error, the magnification would
that all
add
increased.
It is scarcely necessary
to
in this
of confusion
manner
was
frequentlybeing introduced
for sending out
and
makers
blamed
an
sometimes
were
way,
objectivewhich did not apparently magnify enough, or perhaps

optical tube

was

thus

again we

to

stop
Abbe

Professor

and

introducing

footing by

apochromatic

series of

which

with

set

matters

on

quite different
their

objectivesand
fault

OCULAR

129

Once

discrepanciesurged

to

system

OF

should.
theoretically

these

for all

such

no

it

how

point out
once

PLANE

than

amplified more

that

one

FOCAL

LOWER

LOCATING

his

new

compensating

pieces,
eye-

found.

be

can

distinct

for

upon

microscopist wish to ascertain the position of the


lower focal plane of any eyepiece (see Appendix) he must
proceed
the
end
of
the
follows
draw-tube
across
as
: Lay
any sort of glass
the objective,
that is towards
scale with the divisions downwards,
well-defined
and
object of any kind.
place on the stage some
of hand-magnifier let him
Aided
focus the
sort
now
by some
the

Should

the

object on

lines of the

equally
by
the

the

stage in

divisions

well

draw-tube

upon

This

plane

the

as

lines

ruled

he

the

sees

object on the stage


the image projected

that

same

the

which

the

sees

means

the

on

when

that

manner

correctlyhe

focussed.

objective lies

such

have

of

end

upper
been

resting.

ocular to
rulings,the Huyghenian
and
be tested is gently slid into the draw-tube
a
positionfound
(without disturbing either the focus or the draw-tube) where
the eyepiece shows
the object on
the stage distinctlyfocussed.
removed

Having

The

tube

top of

the

of

the

the

latter

ocular

must

draw-tube, for that

now

is the

level with

marked

be

position of

the

lower

the

focal

plane of the eyepiece in question. If the ocular be a Ramsden,


owing to its focus being outside the lenses in contradistinction
the
them
obtains
to between
with
as
Huyghenian, a piece
of tubing must
be employed which, while holding the eyepiece
at

one

end, will slip into

obtainingthe position

the

draw-tube

at

the

After

other.

(as before) a line


be drawn
the
on
auxiliary tube corresponding with the
of the draw-tube.
This
marks
the positionof the lower
plane of the eyepiece in use.
of

best

Strictlyspeaking, all these


into before
the

measurements

were

focus

matters

made

should

have

been

must

end

focal

gone

by projecting the image


due regard
magnification,

ground glass to obtain the final


then the final amplification
observations
being paid to such
:
of the
the ground glass divided
on
by the magnifying power
objective gives the true and not approximate magnificationof
the
have
been
these
magnifying powers
eyepiece. When
obtained
of the
for objectivesand
eyepieces
eyepieces, any
on

NOMENCLATURE

ABBE

130

be used
of the objectives(tested),and
(tested)can
upon
any
multiplyingthe values together will give the true magnification
values required. Increase
of the mechanical
tube-length simply
alters the length of the opticaltube
and
so
proportionately
results
increases
the magnification of the objective. The
of
of

increase

an

the
we

before

earlier

stages

approximations
in

matter

the

difference

of

draw-tube

as

stated, when
of

the

and

true

not

considered

we

tube-lengths

the

before

and

argument

mechanical

optical and

really

now

are

the

pointed

was

out.

This

concludes

the
the

points concerning
values

of

before

adopted

explanation and

objectivesand

Professor

nomenclature.

new

of

methods

In

under

came

of

consequence

the

the

upon

his

leading

real

the

ascertaining

oculars

Abbe

of the

discussion

old

fication
magni-

methods

scene

with

his

in

the

researches

subject of microscopy in general, and his great and


many
in
revolution
all
in
things optical
investigations
particular,a
has
of
in the
minds
been
slowly but steadily brought about
most
especiallyevident since the introduction
computers, more
of his apochromatic series with the accompanying compensating
eyepieces. The

ingenuity of the suggestions embodied

conception and

carrying

the

practical utilityfound

use

of his
have

adopt

to

of

methods

induced

his

of

To

an

nomenclature.

have

length

of

160

mm.

270

mm.

explanation of this

decided
at

the
to

the

12

their

of

construction
be

such

end

that
of

position.

the

This

for

tube-

position

within

inni.

Professor

that

the

length

their

was

of

the

Abbe

should

his

turn.

It

180

did

for both

is obvious

when

excellent

slipped

this

into

12

their

he

models
involved

for both
lie

and

mm.

mention

not

plane

compensating oculars
lower
focal planes should

the

microscope of

his

an

of

proposed

be

we

image

draw-tubes.

draw-tube

opticians

now

Continental

; but

English model

fix the

to

will

we

pieces,
eye-

NOMENCLATURE

ABHE

mechanical

objectives and

leading features

the

and

thought

optical tube

for the

of

up-to-date manufacturing

already stated
the

apochromatic system and


in the
general everyday

both

evaluation

THE

We

this
exist

to

most

lines

of

out

in the

mm.

models
from

working

idea, for interchange of oculars

ABBE

practicallyno

change

call the initial value

of every

what

it would

involved
to

NOMENCLATURE

tube

the

or

long

close to the

magnifier held
him

by

"

have

to

used

(250-7-2)whether
that

seen

once

he

here

convention, for it
the

long opticaltube

the

same

To

amount

made

of 270
a

on

the

of

if

that

180

he

magnified

his

to

gave

125

on

tious
ficti-

oculars
such

magnification values

not

all

from

not

mm.,

anomaly

It is at

possibly magnify
the
two-thirds
length.

it could

mm.,

tube.

departure

2-mm.

said

be

diameters

125

long

pronounced

singlesimple

would

2-mm.

or

as

method
of dividing
by the hitherto orthodox
focal lengths. He consequently called his fictitious

be obtained

would

their

by

250

short

words

values, in other

hence

as

magnification

tube

this apparent

correct

obvious

was

"

be if treated

elected

for the short

objective whether

the

on

Further, he

focus.1

of

eye

initial

an

131

figuresby

new

that

name,

of

"

angular magnifications,"the

quantities being obtained

actual

the

by employing

following

ingenious though absolutely arbitrary method.


have
He
already said, that the objective
considered, as we
was
corresponding
nothing but a simple magnifier,of a power
its focal

to

length, producing

object. Thus

the

reallyto

comes

large

distant

and

independent of the length of the draw-tube.


the conventional

this

the

by

on

other

distant
distinct

lO-in.

focal

according
The

of distinct

distance

based

said,was

or

In

the

value, as

vision distance.

25o-mm.

with

accordance

the

vision

length gives the

to

of

image

"

of all his objectives


magnifying power
depend upon their focal lengthonly,and quite
initial

"

initial power

have

we-

Dividing
of

the

jective
ob-

his system.

image produced
object be made

the

by

objective

subtend

can,

like

any

larger angle by
looking at it through a telescope, and according to the power
of such we
should
less
or
cation."
naturally get more
angular magnifiOf course,
microscopes are not made
up of a magnifier
to

"

"

Abbe
telescope ; but Professor
got over
lens
that difficultyby imagining a compound
placed at the
of
lens being composed
focal plane of the objective,such
upper
the objective
to weaken
a concave
portion just the right power

plus

so

as

of

astronomical

an

to

Messrs.

turn

the
"

Bausch

and

Buffalo, N.Y.,
ordinary Huyghenian

real

projected image

Lomb,
some

into

of Rochester, N.Y.,
other

eyepieces

makers

in pre-war

The

adopted
times.

distant

Spencer
the

same

virtual
Lens
for

Co.,
their

ABBE'S

132

formed

the

The

OBJECTIVE

lens which
exactly compensatingconvex
imaginary objectivefor his imaginary telescope.
with

in contact

one,

IMAGINARY

the
mean
compensating oculars
of the imaginary telescope,
with its
angular magnifying power
imaginary but otherwise perfectobjective in the upper focal plane
of

numbers

an

then

the

on

the

microscopicalobjective. Obviously this telescope gets


the tube-length is increased,as on
real telescope,
a
longer when
hence
the same
eyepiece magnifies according to the length of
of these
such
ideally pictures two
telescope. Professor Abbe
with an
focal
imaginary object glass 180 mm.
telescopes,one
the

length and
becomes

evident

times

1*5

instrument,

if he

uses

270

ocular

the

27O-mm.

explains

their

microscope

of

one

the

on

that

and

microscopist
tube

that

much

as

with

other

the

telescope
reason
why

the

as

now

be

the

on

on

180

tells the

he

eyepieces

must

It

length.

apparently magnify

must

short-tube

values

in

mm.

the

long-

1*5

times

considered

greater.1
1

As

the

above

paragraph
it

make

following may
consisting of

be

may
clear

more

objective O,

an

difficult to
Let

Fig.

understand, perhaps

97

field-lens

considered

be

eye-lens E

F, and

the

scope
micro-

is turned

97on

is

object I
intercepted by
an

objective alone

The
the

field-lens

III, which
IV
i

without

seen

the
ai:

upper

by

latter
the

eye.

F and

is

would

rhanged
i

Abb-

form
into
the

by
".

iry

objective
focal length of

the

into
lens

compound
ny

O"

II.

smaller, but

"

focal plane of the


nt

imngc

real

the

and

lens

is

may

This

sharper,

the

virtunl

is
be

supposed

placed
placed
to

be

ABBE

readily

It will be

strict

in

the

be

found

if

correct

explained, neither

appear,

of

powers
of

sense

tube

the

instrument

the

are

in

the

two

(if we

word, for they


on

i6o-mm.

or

on

their

first

speak)

so

all

previously

manner

it at

at

will not

ordinary fashion,
as

may

initial

magnification

in the

But, strange

these

the

eyepieces figured with

obtained

magnifying powers
have
already shown.
when

not

nomenclature

experimentally tested

mechanical

25O-mm.

ordinary

and

133

Abbe's

in

seen

objectivesare

of the

values

NOMENCLATURE

real

as

sight

we

may

fictitious values

the
question are multipliedtogether the result is nevertheless
true
magnification required. On
consideration,however, such
is not to be wondered
at in a different
at, if the subject be looked

in

There

way.

is the

call F,

may

which

we

four

are

third, T, the

evaluation

of

method

E, the

have

Magn-

Magn-

factors

focal

objective;

length of
the

; and

of

distinct

obtain

the

first,which

the

second,

eyepiece ; the

fourth

vision.
final

the

we

and

last,V,

In

old

the

magnification

we

V
x

-^

to

the

of

length

distance

The

employed.

optical tube-length

conventional

the

focal

term

may

factors

whereas

"

in the

Abbe

method

we

By this

if-

it ^s at

once

have

that, after all,the

seen

same
multiplied together in the
fashion, which
For
explains the apparent anomaly.
example, let a 2-mm.
short-tube
Its Abbe
is 125.
If
value
objective be dealt with.
are

tested

on

short-tube

described) of

160

power

is not

length

it will be

say,
in the

usual

an

125

but
135.

8-times
manner

mecJianicaL

mm.

90

(by

microscope
; and

if

Still,if

we

on

the

methods

tube-length, its magnifying


a
use

25o-mm.
on

the

mechanical

short-tube

compensating ocular, the result


is 1000
125 x 8
; a quite correct
"

already

"

tubement,
instru-

obtained

estimate,

each
other.
and a convex
neutralising
By
composed of a concave
component
of suitable focal length (equalto the opticaltube-length)
reckoning the concave
with the objective,
the latter becomes
a
magnifier producing a very distant
with the eyepiece,forms
image of the object. The convex
part of A, taken
astronomical
further
an
"angular5' magnification is
telescope by which
obtained"
lens
the
behind
i.e. whilst the
imaginary concave
placed
eye
would
the object under
it through the imaginary
the angle a, it sees
see
telescope" under the largerangle /3. Tangent a divided by tangent /3 is the
the eyepiece,according to Abbe's
nomenclature,
figure to engrave
on
proper
as

its power.

ABBE

134
because

NOMENCLATURE

the

reallyon

opticaltube the

180

magnification of the
be actually 90 (i80 -4- 2),and
to
the
objectivehas been shown
8 eyepiece having a focal length of 22*5 mm.
in
(which means
old-fashioned
of
language a true
magnifying power
iru)

produces

net

magnificationof

thought will show

little further

"angular magnification" of
focal

length in

that

of

any

correctlyobtained

be

always

can

999'9.

the

figuresfor

tube,

by their

mm.

270

or

the

oculars

compensating

by dividing 180

for the short

millimetres

the

mm.

for the

long.
Further, it will be
of

the

understood

now

objectives(under

this

that

style)are

the

as

initial values

recognised

not

be

to

mechanical
reallythe true values either with the 160 or 250 mm.
are
not
tube-lengths,and that as the figuresfor the oculars
the real magnification quantities in diameters, why the term
has
been
nomenclature
writers
by some
fictitious
applied to
Abbe's
elegant method, to distinguish it from what has been
already explained. But in
designated as the rational system
for its general acceptance, it will be
be
to
seen
justification
of

arrangement

an

calculate

scopistto
the

two

the

two

always
270

mm.

said

of the

draw

of

the

real

the

magnificationat

break

to

without
tube

microscope

down

in

eye

microend

for

is necessary

initial power

final

at

"

If

convenience.

cover-glassadjustment,
at

the

these

under

an

extra

an

altered

once

flies to

once

magnifications

correct

to

glass,the opticaltube-length is
of

ordinary

simply by multiplying
values, that of the objective and the ocular, together ;
either
180
or
provided the optical tube-lengths are
But
it is just here at this point where
the system
4-mm.,

say,

final

ordinary models

be

may

the

for the

convenience

great

winds.

and
To

when

using,

additional
thin
the

cover-

validity

obtain

the

circumstances, it is first

length of

optical tube

by

focal plane of
from
the upper
measuring the distance
objective to the lower focal plane of the ocular, which we

the

to

necessary

stated

is

mouth

of

was

the

180

: 200

out

the

new

the

have

below
the
to be
12
mm.
by Professor Abbe
the
this
tubedraw-tube
(let us say for argument
found
be 200
the
to
mm.), and then, to ascertain
of the
a
ocular, work
proportion sum.
Seeing

fixed

values
that

find

normal
as

the

opticaltube
angular

value

is

180,

of the

v.

eyepiece is

to

the

required figure.

OF

LIMITS

136

USEFUL

shall work

convention

MAGNIFICATION
for

correct

obtaining the

final

tion
magnifica-

values.1

ON

THE

MAGNIFICATION

THE

LIMIT

USEFUL

OF

VARIOUS

\VITH

is

There

IN

GENERAL,

MAGNIFICATION

IN

that

the

to

mind

lay

the

feature of the

in its
microscope lies principally
marvellous
magnification: it naturally seems

of

be

can

thousand

constructed

and

the

unless

value

went

far

objective with
Abbe,

to

as

which

in

be well

attractive

most

wonderful

that

anything

power

ment
instru-

an

enlarged

it is obtained

of

one

his

explain

what

details

observations,

is of

he

panied
accom-

the

laconic

magnification

to

is

render

to

aperture

"Empty

say,

It will

whatever."

PARTICULAR

intelligent
microscopistmagnification
be
of
found
to
little
quickly
very

is

simple

Professor

so

ON

the

to

sufficient numerical

with
evident.

will show

that

But

diameters.
pure

AND

OBJECTIVES

doubt

no

OBJECTS

OF

service

no

To

meant.

do

for a moment
by way of a popular illustration,
presume
have
a
we
picture of a house with windows, front door, and
such
a
chimneys complete; and let it be further understood

so, let us,

picture

formed

was

difficult to

understand

whole-plate size, 8"


shall

see

larger,and

are

about

with

them
This

imparted

to

is Abbe's

objectivemagnifying

the

is the

aperture"
would
1

We

been

same

have

been

should

mention

devised

by

then

that

Professor

chapter devoted

to

if

we

had

found

with

of

draw-tube.
accessory

enable

to

any

It

in

the

chimneys
is shown

more

structure

the

object

time

that

added

other

be examined,

now

nothing

to

or

appearance.
if we
had
inherent

that

it
to

magnifies
"

its numerical

the

whole-plate picture
distinctlyfresh particulars.

littleinstrument

Wright

value

same

have

furnished

experimentally the exact


of
!"-ngth
in the

the

saying

as

should

we

at

stretched, say,

It is true

their

as

3].

magnification." But

"empty

property of adding detail


which

in

4j

was

enlarged ;

If this

; but

detail

to

respect

be

is

details whatever.
the windows

are

so

picture

diameters.

two

further

no

the

support, such

its size

if this

that

6|,

words, it is magnified
we

that

india-rubber, and

piece of sheet
is not

stretchable

some

upon

the

called
the
"n

m;

with

It is described, with

apparatus.

Eikonometer
to

any

object;

the

method

has

obtain

"EMPTY"
The
a

AND
would

windows
and

knocker,
if

Further,

we

be

knocker

could

what

call

may

Abbe's

"

we

cracks

in them.

increased

the

tion
magnifica-

find

the

now

the

the

picture

window
is

pattern

distinctlyas

This

"

full

"

shown

lace, for the


appear

137

curtains,the door

should

still,for

before.

see

never

we

and

requisiteshape, whilst
old ones,
as
they show

very
we

of

would

the door

the

into

up

be

to

have

aperture,

details

more

contain

to

seen

chimneys would
repeated the process

seen

on

MAGNIFICATION

the

provided with
would

been

have

numerical

the

and

"FULL"

curtains

visible, the

serpent coiled

chimney-pots

holes

and

illustrates in

minute

cracks

popular

dently
evi-

are

manner

amplification in contradistinction

to

magnification."

empty

microscope, the relative peculiaritiesof


of amplificationare
the different kinds
perhaps best seen
by
shown
in Figs. 3A and
reproductions
examining the two
3B,
Plate
first illustrates "empty
I. The
jective
magnification," the obWith

the

to

respect

being of insufficient

used
the

diatom

the

objective having
is

actual

magnificationin
aperture,

result, unless
This

has

N. A. of

first

from

that

so

contrary,
their

sence
pre-

understood,

It is evident

such

may

may

be

the

then

amplification

magnification

empty

special cause

some

it

between

exist

the

aperture

is similar.

case

on

resolve

and

never

desired.1

in the chapter devoted


the
to
fully discussed
of the subject,although at
objectives; but an outcome

been

sight it

called

each

should

relation

numerical

second,

numerical

higher

the

in

to

aperture

quite distinctly,although, be

seen

certain

dots ; whilst

into

numerical

the

not

may

converse

immediately apparent, is what may be


of the problem, viz. seeing that the N.A.
be

is
given to an objective is necessarily limited, to what extent
magnification justifiableby eyepiecing, so that fuzziness may
not

; in other

occur

(and

upon

contradistinction

aperture

"

words, what

what
to

Theory

theoretical
"what
shows

is

of useful magnification
is such

grounds
limit

the

of

of

point

obtained)

useful

indisputablythat, owing

wave-length of light,the image


1

is the limit

cannot

in

numerical
to

the finite

possibly be

dealing with objects such as tissues and the like,"empty"


distinctly
magnificationmay be required simply to render the object more
sometimes
of
made
visible by appearing larger. Pathologicalobjectivesare
speciallylow numerical
aperture, for the further advantage of increasing
their depth of focus.
When

rendered
but

by

regarded
the

combination

or

as

star

which

"

in the

this

by the

seen

that the

microscope

for

as

size of

be

shown

or

eye

this

the

in

purpose

disc.

point,

less sensible

or

that
illustration,

point, but

another

as

more

may

is not

"

photographic plate as

it is known

of

of

way

point of light

of lenses

disc

notorious, by

telescope a

CONFUSION

represented by

It is

of

case

lens

any

be

must

diameter.

on

OF

DISC

138

Moreover,
disc

spurious

necessarilya fixed quantity, as its diameter


depends upon
factors:
of the
three
(i) the numerical
objective;
aperture
be
(2) the wave-length of the light used (or perhaps it may
is not

convenient

more

to

lightemployed)

final

(3) the

; and

of

the number

say

magnificationof

of waves
Seeing that twice the number
l
employed
multipliedby the numerical
what

furnishes

is called

the inch

to

waves

to

the

inch

aperture

of

of

the

the

image.
of the light
the objective

its

at once
"resolving power," we
may
of the objectivebe divided by the final
state, if the "resolution
magnificationof the object,the reciprocalof the quotient is the
of the disc required. Take, for example, light having
diameter
"

47,500

the

to

waves

magnificationof
at

thousand

scarcely add

need

lightand
for that

and

its

what

objective N.A.

an

diameters.

circle of confusion

once

inch

of

always be considered

inch

an

said

image produced by

may

Simple

TJ^ of

have

we

1-40, and

arithmetic

final

shows

in diameter.

We

applying to a point of
lens also applies to a line,
as
nothing but a sequential
as

aggregation of juxtaposed points.


It is very readilyunderstood
that by a suitable manipulation
of the factors we
have
as
just mentioned
regulatingthe size of
almost
be kept within
a
spurious disc, its diameter
may
any
limit.
Hence
the
prescribed
question very naturally arises,
is the least
What
is the smallest
permissibledisc (i.e.what
1

the

Although

mentioned

of

in terms
of
the

the

inch.

This

wave-length

measures

in detail

later on,

seeing that wave-lengths

here"

reader

tenth-metres"how
is

to

easilyeffected

in tenth-metres, the

in inches

can

be

at

once

by

it may

convert

such

dividing the

being
changed into
result

convenient

be

usually spoken

are

that

to

into

measures

number

remind

of in the

books
textterms

254,000,000

by

requi;

tenth-metres

quotientis the

by dividing

sought
nine-figuredexpression
what
of
is called
after.
ivc
lengths be expressed in terms
If,howe^
be deprived of one
of its
pp. (double mu), the nine-figuredexpression must
in
of 47,500
Visual light then
waves
ciphers and then treated as before.
double
in
of
terms
inch
is
about
mu.
one
equal to
5347 tenth-metres, or 5347
the

"

same

"

when

the

amount

DISC

of

the diameter
the

always

power,

that

assist him
well

The

of

the

of

be

exercised,

in

then

of

given

47,500

and

N.A.

inch

Example
Then

"

3. If it be
to

obtain

the inch

the

N.A.

47500,

N.A.

95000

Then"

'65 x

to

table

be

placed

following
on

1000,

then

ro;
"

ascertaining the magnification


D with
disc of given diameter
of waves
to the inch, and
an

D.

the

*
=

30875 diameters.

N.A.

47500

arranged

magnificationwith

lightof L

employed
waves

to

employ"

we

is

be

that must

D, with

"005 in.,

then

in.,L

95000

The

aperture,

of

'005

magnificationmt

N.A.

of

inch.

an

means

'65 and

find

to

If D

number

"

2(L)

required

of

given circle of confusion

and

Example

N.A.

furnishes

objectiveof given

To

N.A.

"

produce a
specified number

of

light(L)

lightof

; and

magnification x

and

that will

exceeded.

objective of numerical

95000

formula

increasing

D
ascertainingthe diameter
magnification m ; an objective

1000

This

is not

of

L.

an

the

2.

oculars

of

aperture

with
to

waves

sequently
yj^ of an inch, conpracticalmicroscopist

adding

known

equal to

example,

may

extremely important detail,


problems, the three following

2(L)
For

eye

agreed that

this

out

the method

first shows

the inch

when

has

given numerical
to

exceed

not

cognate

spurious disc with

waves

that the

Convention

disc-diameter

carrying
other

two

are

shall

139

tolerated)so

of the conscientious

this limit

as

formulae
i.

be

can

this disc

care

should

as

CONFUSION

object distinctlydefined

the

see

that

of fuzziness

amount

OF

and

500,

1-32 nearly.

'004
to

show

different

at

glance the limit

numerical

apertures

LIMITS

140
to

as

so

white

OF

ensure

USEFUL
of

disc

MAGNIFICATION

TJ^ of

lightaveraging 47,500

inch

an

the inch

to

waves

being exceeded

not

is

N.A.

employed

"3

285

*5

45"

I'o

1140

i'3Q

1235

i'35

1282

i'4o

1330

mind.

in

which

is very

the

reason

arranging

writer

with

spent
for

the

expected by

then

is

the

time

in

this

delicate

most

and

this

was

perfectingand
monochromatic

especiallyfor photomicrograph

have

practicallyreached

resolving power

its

only be

can

of the
light beyond the violet end
of ultra-violet
usually called by the name

light.
Unfortunately,however,
the
was
insuperable: one
these

in

figures

of

use

which

to

veal
re-

thereabouts.

or

said,

obtaining

be said

may

advance

further

been

much

so

of

magnification must

light for

has

to

seen

array

aperture

ordinary limelight,more

N.A.

Seeing that

spectrum,

what

apparatus

an

illumination

limit,

from

obvious

an

The

numerical

be

soon

such

It is this.

the

times

looo

of

it will

utilityof employing blue-violet

work
the

borne

exceed

never

The

the recollection

law, by
be

carefullystudied

be

If this table

not

limit.

950

I '20

need

Approximate
magnification

when

till latelytwo

difficulties have

manufacture

of

glass that

seemed

would

in

how
to focu.s
was
question, and another
an
image formed by lightof this description,seeing that such is
invisible to the human
The
practically
great ingenuity of
eye.
transmit

the

firm

rays

of Carl

these

quartz, and

difficulties.

we

believe

by

the

use

focus
of
of

constructed

to
a

for

be

made,

character
which

for
length sufficiently

the
the

much
rays

eye

come
overdifficulty,

some

objectivesare

The

corrected

are

being specially
enable

has, however, after

Zeiss

formed

of

molten

wave-length of 275 /z/u, oculars


to
from
crystals; whilst
quartz
a

is

screen

temporarilyemployed"

like that
are

to

for
see

used

for

X-ray

work-

increased

the

moment

the

image, and

hence

in

for

SHORT

USING

this

operation

whilst

the

command
inch

the

gelatine

of

blue-violet

rays

correction

of

needless

is

not

to

point

needed)

designed.

the

is

and

they

able
of

number

waves

the

by

of
and

explained

are

to

films

and

arrangement

an

be

to

screens

the

of

wave-lengths

greater

with

this

all

for

objectives

of
of

being
is

there

the

type

new

aberration,

as

the

microscopist

purpose,

correction)

lenses

out

illumination
is

of

chromatic

single

uncemented

shorter

of

circle

the

as

author

light.

features

(spherical

the

Monochromatic
this

removed

is

course

that

said

with

together

on

special

The

union

later

for

been

light

47,500.

used

are

obtaining

of

has

of

aim

use

than

described
for

what

the

141

taken.1

smaller

employed,

of

which

but

being

from

becomes

confusion

to

is

obvious

is

light

effected

photograph

It

be

to

SCREENS

WAVE-LENGTH

no

this

special

and

of

the

formed

are

light

of

the

of

wave-length

only

be
for

the

at

all

employed
which

very

the

perfect
lack

the

It

(because
with

of

from

system

material.

same

correction

can

selected,

composition
out

chromatic
make

objective

special

the

such

chromatic
mono-

computation

is

VIII

CHAPTER

CONDENSER

SUBSTAGE

THE

light

the

collect

The

object.

said

is

form

to

diaphragm

of

lens

impinging

light

and

chromatic

Several
from

that

devised

lens
upon
than

time

its
and
the
N.A.

simple
a

If

but

form

the
this

front

it

is

back

of

cone

by

sometimes

made

and

are

third

class

have

been

/.

(unfortunately

It

is

142

the

confine

our

fact

this

that

collecting

focus

of

of

its

answers

makers,

this

of

aperture

an

it

of

to

Carl

by
we

composed

including

performance

inferior

condenser.

other

some

made

forms

which

well

of

the

are

hence
;

substage

be

to

and

them

having

deal

disparagingly

cone,

of

aperture,

them

of

system

supplied by

the

the

condensers

Abbe

form

as

"ists
;

of

are

corrections,

many

of

unfortunately
'//

of

illuminated

numerical

their

supplanted

hemispherical

ro.

the

spoken

hollow

they

as

chromatic

of

low-power

specimen,

centre

of

Addenda.

as

Professor

late

special

this

is

base

be

to

base

cone

other

or

apochromatic.

gradually

to

said

and

in

time,

to

then

well

as

forms

the

by

has

remarks
In

called

different

made

which

length

achromatic

dubiously

has

illuminators

or

focal

in

called, vary

376

page

condensers,

These

being

See

through

is

iris

an

the

at

the

object

it, and

upon

light."

"annular

the

the

placed

passing

combination,

the

be

stop

all rays

prevent

to

as

so

If

If

upon

diaphragm

or

lenses, the

diameter,

in

stop

any

the

the

upon

impinging

light."
of

aperture

reduced

one."

narrow

of

cone

the

thereby

"

as

contracts

being

cone

solid

"

which

lenses
it

cone

of

intervention

the

without

of

concentrate

illuminating

the

PHRAGM:
DIA-

USE

system

and

illuminant

of

apex

specimen

the

the

from

of

consists

condenser

SUBSTAGE

ITS

AND

ABUSE

ITS

SUBSTAGE

THE

AND

LIGHT;

OF

CONES

DIFFERENT

THE

AND

not

light
more

but

purpose,

it

has

ourselves;
combination

the

l"

often
led

many

to

; but

of

CONDENSERS

144

must
apochromatic combination
free from
spherical aberration

these

condensers
!

cone

(although

ourselves

we

the first-class

than

instances

leading points

focal

better

be

to

length, numerical

with

one

in

of the

aperture, size

achromatic),
in photomicrograph

condenser

is of

satisfaction.1

considerable

considered

aplanatic

the type

readily admit

we

full

testify,having employed

can

in many

The

capable of giving

this

not

all

things be absolutely
sphericalzones, whilst all

and

even

Notwithstanding

useful kind
as

not

are

before

the

are:

and

aplanatic cone,

the definition.
With
this

with

method

same

similar

those

with

out

as

their

of

account

the

measure

made

made
in the

ordinary

way

; but

by Zeiss

and

other

great
of

size

the

putations,
com-

ordinary microscopic
in England, seeing

with

connection

The

size.

his

but
experimentally save
already given when
dealing

mostly mounted
the

of

result

obtain

of condensers

case

given condenser,

any

"universal

easily performed by screwing them

proceeding in

and

maker

have

we

as

inquiry in

objectives. In the
they are small and
that is

by the

it is difficult to

and1

the

length of

focal

usually furnished

is

by

the

to

respect

this

illuminant

nosepiece,
be

cannot

Continental
method

only

the

to

on

fitting,"

firms
know

we

such

(taking care

carried
on

is to

shall

be

by interposinga diaphragm in front of the same), and


should
focussing and measuring it carefully. This measurement
be compared
with the size of the same
by
aperture as indicated
small

condensers

other

of known

but

the

out

exceedingly carefully,or
1

method

focal

One

forward

point

argument

and

satisfactoryone,

to

why

seeing it has been brought


apochromatic condensers

mention,

so-called

the

of any
trulyapochromatic, is the entire absence
ocular
its
This
first
at
a very
or
sight appears
equivalent.
convincing reproach. On consideration, however, it is not
important part played by the compensating ocular is mostly

only

be

here

the

of

of the

areas

with

refinement

not

is of

no

lea^t
such

consequence

brought about by
of magnification
(the function
to

the

slightestdegree

so

at

might

in the

in detail

appreciable

the ground.

view, and

oblique light

extreme

matter

differences

field of

be obtained.

be

cannot

outer

conditions

requires carrying

false results may

ought perhaps

we

further

as

is not

similar

under

length

the
of
hence

the

centre

because

so

hence

ible.

it would
IJir.

the loss

of comic:.

non-adjustment

for

chromatic

"oe) is

comj"
the

entire

the

effective in the
;

!""

case

the

compel,
formidab!

objection

falls to

FOCAL

LENGTH

regard

With

145

focal

for

length

objectives of different

which

thereon

CONDENSERS

suitable

most

suit

to

as

so

the

to

OF

densers,
con-

limit

powers,

be

immediately apparent.
into the matter
will enter
somewhat
For
that reason
we
fully,
the
attention
of
has
the
most
a
s
subject
more
escaped
especially
writers in the text-books
published.
It will be noticed by looking through the list given on page
152,
made
that the focal lengths of illuminators
by different opticians
defined limits the higher
less and less within somewhat
become
To
their numerical
explain this involves a little close
aperture.
of
Consider
attention.
a
highly apertured condenser, say one
It has to fulfil two
conditions:
N.A.
to furnish
plenty
i'35.
have
of light,and
the
to
a
high numerical
aperture. Now
of light which
is another
of saying the brilliancy
amount
way
in any
of the image of the illuminant
lens is augmented
by
who
decreasing the ratio of focal length to aperture. Readers

placed

is

not

may

"

"

F
familiar with

are

the amount

times

by "j,
This

is

the

as

much.
Now

to

in terms
in the

of

square

obtain

of

what

the

diameter

the

value

we

may

full well

%",where

length ; for example


have
focal length,we

of any
call the

d\s

quantity

numerical
F

the

establish

To

(i)by

and

F ratio

diameter

both

further

dividingby

Then

N.A.

we

N.A.

find

"

we

times

forth

aperture
lens and

of back

lens and

in
the

4 in.

P*
=

4,

called

"

multiply both
quantities,

two

sides by d.

-jx
and

example

our

the

ratio between

divide

in

area

set

reasons

-j,

the

as

is four

of the back

TT

(2) Rapidity or

the

aperture expressed

ratio,for

the diameter

in use.

because

'5 by the numerical

if I in. be

:"

knows,

great, and

as

the

so

divide

must

focal
the

also

reader

is afforded

length of the system

of the lens is twice

footnote,1we

(i) N.A. always

focal

is the

the

diameter

supplies four

"

lightto the sensitive plate that

what

arises, as

available

of

matter

no

will recollect that

photography

obtain"

=";

"

Ni:orNi'
10

sides

of

THE

I46

convenience

of reference

denominator

required ; thus

followingtable

the

1-40

CONDENSER

quotient being the

question, the

For

OF

RATIO

is set

out

:
"

=^F

1-35

=T

f.

roo"

77

this it is

By

that

seen

the

condenser

135

really works,

the

as

photographer would

at

say,

words

; in other

"

brilliant

very

is rendered, one
exceedingly so
image of the illuminant
by a lens, the aperture of which
comparison to that formed

in
is

restricted

to

which

"

only reaches

-0625

of any
aperture. In the manufacture
however, a limit is placed upon

lens, because
"

universal

otherwise

thread/' which

English opticians;
found

to

This

arise with

actual

obtain

combination

high
are

back

lens to the focal

this direction,he
and

must

inch

to

we

find
must

fulfilall the conditions


has

is

not

much

be

the

actual

on

the

the

focal
focal

we

have

to

the

to

than

it

^////-diameter

the

somewhere

of which

scope

lenses

constitutes

imposed

the

the

But

inch.

an

larger indeed

ratio of

necessarilylower

consequently

microscopistthen

far

length that

limit

high-aperturcdcombinations
an

it is the

because

fit into

not

mostly adopted by
this, complications are
centring arrangements.
TV of

is about

necessary,

of its back

diameter

apertures large back

absolutely

as

of the

working

scope,
micro-

size

larger than

numerical

equivalent. Hence,

if

and

for the

would

is the standard

the

might be supposed,

the

numerical

of

terms

condenser

combination

limitingdiameter

these

of the

the

in

numerical

computer

length

in

accord-

length of these
about
J or \ of
spoken.

for selection.

The

It

of

1*35 condenser

the

intense, which
when

be

i8J

times

is about

case

one

question

theoretical

and

the

lightof

inch

an

"3,say

(125

lamp

is

is

hence

(10

40

direct
8). The
really,although

of field

larger area

when

If this

using the "3


ocular

an

; whereas

with

4,

the

rVth of corresponding aperture with

too

magnifications

only

to

amounts

with.

with

unendurable

other.

dull to

be

useful ?

How

higher apertured condenser, we say, passes


more
light? It is due to the difference in

final

relative

the

the

met

objectiveN.A.

in the

the

times

through i8J

is often

condenser,

image

in

is it that

8, the field is sometimes

this be when

can

which

is almost

lamp

the actual

mean

about

passes

low-power

true, how

i'35 condenser, and, say,


ocular

by

brighter than

asked
be

statement

condenser

the

be

is exceedingly
illuminant)

combination

1*35

we

times

i8J

here

may

of the

the

which

'3, by

light issuing through


length (seeing that the

appreciated by the photographer


ratio is so
It
remarkably small.

that

147

the

focal

light transmitted

the

of N.A.

one

the

seen

that

image

better

him

further

will

say

be

can

remind

we

so

CONDENSER

short

the

it is,the smaller

shorter

OF

readily understood

be

can

RATIO

THE

fainter

to

used.

small

eye

in

the

1000

light from

over

piece of which

than

this

case

latter it is

the

apparently,spread

not

the

the

is that

consequence

(only

in

4), whereas

first

the

In

is

the

much

very

and
utilised),

previous

where,

case,

the

smaller, the image,


amplification being so much
though primarily of much less brilliancy,is so much less spread
intense.
out that to the eye it actuallyappears very much
more

owing

to

It is evident
be

to

then

necessarily limited

the

by

length for

of focal

different

objectives of

with

used

the choice

that

numerical

of

demands

condensers
is

aperture

optical construction.

limit the
further, these conditions
pressing the matter
focal length of the illuminators
for high aperture to about \ to \
of an inch ; for those about
with quite
N.A.
to " to f, whereas
ro
Without

low

what

From

stretch

it may

powers

has

apertured systems
afforded
flame
the

bull's eye,

this

with

as

be very
we

have

desirable

end, Mr.

inch

an

necessarily small.

sufficient,but

image would

attended
meet

is

f of

to

at

times

useful.

Usually the

it is often
This

can

already stated, but


results

Conrady

has

as

in

high-

diameter

felt that

larger

by use of
not
always

be effected
its

use

is

respects definition

computed

in.

even

said,the image of the illuminant

been
is

between

and

Messrs.

hence,
Watson

to

APLANATIC

148

have

Sons

"

made

has

of '95 that

" times

condenser

of

CONDENSER

N.A.

with

ro

length and

Of

greater.

its diameter

lens, but

back

OF

trifle longer focal

about

image

CONE

just enables

hence

this

course

it to be used
is

combination,

and

the

be

for

employed
There

several

are

the

by
a

lens.

97, first

page

the N.A.

of

at

we

are

not

then

to

Mr.

proceed

rarely explained

their

of

account

on

"

the

of

the

in

"

point

(as

term,

by
altered
term

of

periphery
This

is

some

it to
so

he

lens

introduced
a

very

"efficient

time

some

happy
cone"

firmly established

100.

one

instead

with

described

Uncorrected

"

101.

ago

indeed,

by

nature

Lens.

Under-corrected.

"

the

Greek,

which

the

all rays,

axis,

Mr.

in

meet

not

may

that

been

thought

have

been

preferable ;

would

meaning

from

whether

shall

Nelson,

means,

optician

it has

in its conventional

but

used

involved

from

its

nearer

or

obtained

often

one

somewhat

word) that

the

uses

the

is

wandering," by

fact, free from

of

This

itself,derived

word

"

understands
the

The

method

of

First,

condenser

the

Fig.

Over-corrected.

reply.

be often

if it be

Fig.

Fig. 98." Aplanatic.

Fig. 99.

performance

Conrady.

explain.1

to

course

explained.

can

use

of

usually classified according to


which
aplanaticcone," a term

more

now

is called

what

once

but

can

ever,
selection,how-

the

be

This

excellent

very

aperture.

test
to

special

remainder

; before

to

aperture.

suggested by

an

large

with

condensers, but

about

manner

It is best

condensers

But

good

student

of the apertometer,

use

numerical

their favourites

its numerical

large back

on

of

for the

the

in

combination

respects

as

well

be

it would

lower

makers

microscopists have

many

the

ordinary substage. It
by removing the top lens

objectivesof

furnishes

demands

fittingin the

centring

aplanatic cone

that

we

be
to

one

sidered
con-

have

but

hesitate

the
to

SIZE

ASCERTAINING

OF

APLANATIC

given plane, as shown


perfectionof the optician'sart.

point in

always suffers from

what

the

is meant

which

in

the axis closer

Fig. 98.

As

marginal

"

to

come

rays

than

those

exaggerated

This

is the

focus

situated

at

centre,

as

seen

peripheralrays
he

if

and

does

it is termed

not

he

"

far

too

of

leaves

uncorrected

an

cone

the

on

and
as

the

usual

it in the

stage

illuminant

an

and

is

"

Remove

situ.

N.A.

the

now

brings

Fig. 99

same

that

as
error

possessed
in

largestaplanatic

ro,

the

is

diatom

the

the

look

the

across

is

obtaining

resulting image
just out of the

slipand

eyepiece, and

'6,

condenser

seen

This
the

light,and

N.A.

objective,using

rack

and

the

we

objectiveof

it with

portion of

in

it,

proceed as
the substage,and
place

on

Shift

image"

critical

field of view, still leaving


in

critical

by

he

the

as

image of the flame


lying in its centre.

diatom

the

position
Focus

technicallycalled

is called

of

one

microscope first an

this

focus

(greatly exaggerated)

edge of the flame,

until
the

with

the size of the

say

diatom.

the

down

field with
what

ascertain

nosepiece of the

on

up

Fix

"

degree,

shown

as

given condenser,

follows

To

"

less

the

under-correction"

"

combination
a

lens,

Fig. 101.
Aplanatic Cone.
of

the
in

outstanding, although
by

enough

on

overdoes

along the axis, as shown

correct

(by

of

art

"

the

lens
"

its axis

to

in

ideal

point

nearer

Fig. 100),so the


opticianreferred to is to try to unite these planes
combining glasseshaving different properties. If he
over-correction"
producing what is technicallycalled

or

149

ordinary uncorrected
spherical aberration

an

is called

to the lens

CONE

its

cover-glass
of

the tube

down

microscope. One ought to see the back lens of the objective


full of light,because
of the condenser
should
the aplanatic cone
be greater than
that of an
objective0*6, such as we are supposed

the

using. Return
objective,substitutingone
to

be

and

here

critical

again obtain

the

now

of

light by

the diatom

until the

edge of the

Once

shift the

diatom

out

back

lens

tube

more
as

before.

the

aplanatic

the

iris

the
remove

The

cone

diaphragm
size

exact

the

0-95, and

opening
place

the

flame

is

seen

across

of the field,and
should

be

equals the numerical


until its edge is just

of the

remove

again focus the diatom,


on
focussing the condenser

N.A.

0*95

and

eyepiece

with

in its stead

look

field.

down

the

quite evenly filled if

aperture.
seen,

pair of
an

the

and

Then

close

carefullynote

compasses.

immersion

Now

objective

ASCERTAINING

ISO
of

Treat

N.A.

1*40

SIZE

centre

and

the

two-thirds

APLANATIC

before, with

as

obtaining critical light,and


the

OF

look

of the

back

the

lens is

focussing and

to

respect

down

CONE

draw-tube.

now

Only

full of

seen

li"rht,
o

slightesttouch

fill the

to

black

lens

to
on

appear

becomes

appearance

side

of

so

to

try

dots

of

as

two

cause

the

the

of
largest aplanatic cone
cautiously close the iris diaphragm

Slowly and
visible,and

the size of the

measure

If the
for

above

will

the

indicates

measure

each

upwards,

amount,

greater

condenser

then
lamp flame, which
last point before the
immediately recognisable. The
of these
black
dots (reallydue to spherical aberration)

to

before.

of the

diameter

little

aplanatic

experience

until

aperture with

and

it is

just

compasses,

than

slightly greater

0^95 lens, the

the

O'95-

is

condenser.

the

as

previous
just

is,of course,

cone

will

thought

render

soon

operations quite easy, and the microscopistwill be able


the largestaplanatic cone
of the condenser
readily to compare
he is testing with its advertised
N.A., and the performance of
these

difference

The
very

which

striking and

often

so

is said

be

to

exists

these

in

mostly due

to

condensers

being more
consequently focussing

aberration,most

(Fig. 101),

another.

with

condenser

one

and

their

in

seen

condenser

It may
condenser

should

of the

much

the

object.

all of those
serve
a

to

broad

be

If

lightof
now

which

The

the

all the
come

to

object of

illuminant
rays

do

another

it

and

corrected

badly

darkness

does

What

asked,

It is this.

cone
as

here

be

frequentlythis

very

as

not
are

is

matter
a

so

is

to

many

commen-

conspicuous
if the

small

condenser

possibleto
come

the

li^ht with

the

natic
apla-

is to
a

bring

focus

same

lost,and

lightinto the field ; and besides this,when


illuminant
(such as is produced after obtaining
scatter

be

be, when

even

possess
a

looking down

on

the
microscope with
eyepiece in situ, should
accurately focussed,intenselybright,whilst the field
; but

at

rays

the

surately dark
by its absence.

spherical

under-corrected

central

If

is

measures

errors

less

or

their peripJieral
than
ones.
greater distance
well corrected, the lamp-flame image, as

two

on

focus

only
i:

critical

edge of the flame, by turning the lamp-flame


broad side on), not only is there an
unequal illumination of the
field which
is immediately
critical light is
apparent, but no
obtainable
the field without
at the
mar
losing it in the

LENGTHS

FOCAL

152
three

lenses

top

to

CONDENSERS

OF
the

of

one

high-angled

condensers

we

use.

With
N.A.

ro

dry condensers, a plan adopted by Mr. Conrady fn his


the top lens being adjustable
type is highly commendable,
by

dry-power
means

The

"The

of

correction

objectives of high

different thicknesses

of

the

performance

of

in

collar

the

same

way

fashioned.

are

power

as

By this

provided for.

slipare

following table, extracted


of

interest

means

from

Carpenter

different

on

condensers

the

scope,
micro-

will be

of

23, and

25

values

of the

first sixteen

and

of

Nos.

22,

THE
have

been

from

the

in

the

actual

of the

makers.

given in the table is for


of light. When,
however,

is the

axis

sensitive,and

lower

given in the table


light is seldom, if
better

deemed

the

it would

of

so

are

in

our

the

in

much

having them
substage is all
of

that

condensers

the

"

similar,for then
effected than

The

else

than

holes

that

The

first

working

To

understand

of

the
the

length.
that

it

of

size
and

numerical

one

was

than

sold

various

so

them

by
that

; but

is

the

that

they

the

great,
with
to be

the

quite

as

the

Continental

speciallyarranged.
different

two

Continental

small

be

cannot

"

could

of

types
made

be much

easier

its Abuse

and

its Use

in olden

which

to

this arrangement
indeed
be

must

of the
it is

of

aperture
semi-diameter

nearest

aperture of

the

is its

of

lens
its

infer that
the

limiting
which

to

remind

mirror

system.

is

importance

powers

upon

it is used.
the

reader

the
practically

back

lens

to

curtailingthe
promptly
"

But,

has

matter.

with

necessary
any

is closed

such

the

to

condenser

only

to

is of

given

mentioned

be

it is easy

Hence

is, the

to

this

available

it

of

days used to be nothing


wheel
different-sized
perforated by many
is nearly always of the
iris or
self-closing

aperture

numerical

that

present.

diameter

point

is

combinations

interchange of condensers

metal

the

that

the

little attention

some

than

condensers

illustrate

to

stage has

far-reaching effect, and

very

more

single point

day

is very

Substage Diaphragm:

The

; whereas

the

English

nowadays

pattern.

as

light

much

microscopy,
practical,rather

than

smaller

that

it is at

be

of

in

present

diameter

substage diaphragm

The

the

is necessary

great pity

will

different

space

design everything beneath


It is

the

English-made

much

so

single point

flame

Continental, which
convenience
thinking uselessly large. The

of

way

the

are

result."

of

smaller

of

edge

But

table

truer

much

too

occupy

are

the

opticians of

feature

main

in

others

aplanatic aperture

obtained.

construction

numerous

the

practicallyused

ever,

; the

condenser

for the

be

will

place
probably

actual

The

value

to

theoretical,and

the

source,

153

measurements

limit

source

as

DIAPHRAGM

from

obtained
estimates

The

"

SUBSTAGE

from

what

the

back
lowers
has

ratio
focal

lens

"

the

been

AFFECTS

154

N.A.

said elsewhere, this is


of the

N.A.

the

objective

in

which

must

we

the

it also.

at

once

refer.

so

as

to, say,

N.A.

the

serious

Here
One

produce

objective

is

"65, no

be

would

it

This, however,

the

matter

matter, for curtailing

curtailment

an

hears

given

numerical

in

question

down

to

to

that, if
to

similar

down

cut

were

the

the

to

in

'crept

aperture

for which

aperture

that of the

it stated

reduced

exactly true, though

is not

has

error

always

cut

of

often

that, if the illuminator

so

designed,

was

to

OBJECTIVE

involves

with

use

condenser,

amount

obviously

condenser

the iris be shut

OF

objective
extent.

same

frequently stated,

so

call attention

it explains
to the fact because
particularly
without
certain little matters
which
otherwise
are
difficulty
any
not
Owing to a certain portion of the light
easy to understand.

and

we

coming from

the condenser

object being diffracted by it


and
scattered, a small quantity of this scattered light falls upon
the objective system
the front lens of the objective. If now
to
that of the
this belongs be one
of higher aperture than
which
condenser

use,

up

by

caught

is

the

in

amount

falling upon

transmitted

through

extra

it and

the back
filling

an

upon

lens to

the

front

lens

entire

than

degree

greater

the

bination,
com-

would

be

first

at

the working aperture


sight anticipated,and so makes
itself at the
objective higher than that of the condenser

of the

feeble

somewhat

point
of

to

aperture

cause,

of

the

lens

any

lower

give

amount

words

the

is that

is furnished

in other

aperture of

mind

to

to

illumination,

in

the

with

comparison

which

cone,

than

ascertain

to

in

in

bear

wider

this increase

Although

moment.

back

direct
lens

be

always able

estimate

to

used

equivalent,it
take

is

illuminator

This

of

The

ro.

is

sum

ivith

mean.

This

mean

of

1-40

2*40,

lens

and

the

this

conda:

to

the

order

working

necessary

required. Take, for example,

and

the

only

the

apertures

rays

higher working

an

two

an

itself. In
by the illuminator
objective is thus increased from

together the
estimate

still the

beam,

is filled with

the combination

of high aperture when

numerical

it is true, is

mean

add
is
with
r2O.

is the

to

used
working aperture of the 1-40 objective when
It is this increase
\\
we
conjunction with a ro condenser.
call attention
using
to, for it immediately explains why, when

1-40

in

better
of the

lens,

say,

resolution
same

with

1*30 condenser

is obtained

reduced

numerical

than

cut

when

aperture

down

to

employing
"

fact

well

an

N.A.

ro,

objective
known

for

EFFECTS

FALSE

the

in
A

question.

in

ro

when

lens

its back

the

admission.

It

far

So

reduced

when

the

of

shape

objectivesare

brass

of

mount

the
its

preventing
the
add,
object must

the

to

brilliant

lens-front

to

at

N.A.

to

the

the

substituted, the

ro

to

rays

by looking

light surrounds

objective oiled

have

we

only pointed

affects the numerical


of

that

use

general effect

of

be

cover-glass in making

upon

the

effect

wide

solid

reduced

to

of

cone

The

magnification.
of

follows

puts the

employing

effects

the

of

image

limit to the

before

the

be
To

the

of

the

infinite

point
be

must

shown,

diffused

an
we

incn
may
is to

diameter

on

eacn

of

speak
show

the

too, that

how

of

disc

whilst

elsewhere
of

possibly

what

sensibly

very

wave-length

the

light

lens

have

for

to

but

of any

We

same

new,

different

increase

cannot

using

attention

number,

aperture

in

objective)and

called

to

light

actually

somewhat

of

employing the

nothing

light,the

be

another

more

or

less

usually accepted
of
T""j-

disc

is

sic^e "f

tne

of this unavoidable

reader

iris increases

still

of course,

between

suitable

confusion."

of
the

to

have

We

argument's sake,

now

perhaps

explain

now

cone

without

times

circle

owing

2,3-0

is

iris

indirectly

so

means,

example

magnification is

diameter

that is to say,

whilst

reducing

point,but

size.

ro

this

mathematical

mathematical
sensible

of

the

that

out

(with

of

in

same
"

for

130

cones

matter

is called

pointed

must

the

aperture of the condenser

practicalmanner

small

using

of the

N.A.

evil

in his

has

danger

what

We

the

one,

N.A.

of, say,

one

Nelson

wide

of

condenser, and

at the time.

lowering

diameter

image of the object. This


produced by using a small solid

contradistinction

One

the

the actual

has

Mr.

how

out

of the

aperture

in
objective

the

the

what

the

easilyseen

155

experiment.

the

for

faint

CONE

additional

condenser

scarcely necessary

is
the

and

focussed

N.A.

different

and

latter

of

the

SMALL

These

entirely lost

is

the

and

changed

be

can

with

use

ring

which

beam,

direct

of

speak

objective we

-40

BY

practicalmicroscopist.

the

to

years

PRODUCED

an

object
"

inch

"

which,

question
point. The
of
lowering the diameter

as

of the disc if the

same

tion
magnifica-

maintained.

ascertain

how

to

calculate

the

diameter

of the

disc, only

find the resolution, and


(2) to
: (i) to
things are necessary
tained
is obthe first. This
multiply such by the magnification. Take
well-known
law, Multiply twice the number
by Abbe's

two

"

156 DIAMETER
of

of the

aperture
has

the

N.A.

if oblique

be

1-40, the

lightbe

used.

the

still

enlarged

if

the

for

apparent,

I00"

of

about

us

light
; and

which

means

inch.

closed

N.A.

to

N.A.

to

of

of

point

the

"

this

the

is

circle

is

immediately

Of

is

light

the circle

ro

'50

distinctly fuzzy.

the

numerical

say

133,000,

an

consequence
is

the

theoreticallybe separated
that the magnification
now

can

finallyclosed

object

circle of confusion

is

DISC

that is 95,000

twice

further

The

more.

inch

apart

be

diaphragm

increased, whereas

by

example, let

an

resolution

Should

SPURIOUS

Presuming
tfrecircle of confusion

diameters, then

is 1,000

is

As

the

to

waves

OF

light employed

lines at this distance

two

any

of

SIZE

objective."

47,500

if the

so,

inch

the

to

waves

used

AFFECTS

this

course

really produced

by diffraction
and

the diaphragm
is more
as
phenomena ; hence
closed with objects of sensible
the image becomes
area

more

all

with

crowded

indeed,

scarcely knows

one

lines

White

may

divisional

markings
extent

between
to

as

To

it

of

especially,perhaps,
phenomena
light,one

between
with

the
in

phase

same

wave-length

"

other.

"

make

diatom

times

may

thicker

than

why

such

different

is very

caused

from

coming
that

in

come

of

additive, and

the

to

the

ances
appearto

effects

say,

(more

interference

same

of

source

contact

simple multiples
seem

they
of

difficult

by

to

grow

structure

are

"

believe

doubled-tipped,

all diffraction

words, those

are

"

to

so,

is false.

true

that

Those

what

appear

cause,

type)

the rays

other

same

this

so,

and

much

the

upon

suffice to add

here

must

may

several

appear

explain why this is


produced by the same

are

but

bacteria

portions of

should, actually encroaching


valve.

effects, so

is real

capsules ; hairs

discrete

an

what

around

appear

they have
such

of diffraction

manner

in

the

of

the

strengthen

one

brightness ; whilst those not in the


phase, being perhaps half,or any portion,of a wave-length
behind
the others, serve
to quench each
other, causing
or

another, causing increased


same

ahead

darkness.

Diffraction
1

To

in tenth-metres.

by

in

number
i
.

inetres

as

whole,

are

charac-

ordinary wave-lengths of different coloured

The

the

then, taken

phenomena

=--

intiiy by the

46,182

waves

in

into

these

convert

tenth-metres"
number
one

terms

rv

in

inch.

lightare usually given


of the inch, divide 254,000,000
if in inches, divide
the same

inches.
See

Addenda.

,ple,say, 5500

lenih-

OF

UTILITY
what

by

terised

they

but

may

be

These

of

star.

It is surrounded

darkness, first one


of
about

would

as

been

thought

one

that

in appearance

in

eye

effect ; in other
at another

dark

words,

of

what

and

the

on

how

other

closing effect

this

the

at

be

in

diaphragm
when

ro

illuminator.

ocular
shut

lens

rush

removed,

use

off

"

of

to

vary

dark

places

some

cause

contrast

other

the

"

mum
mini-

and

bright band,

however, that it

be

due

to

slight

be

both

specimen
and

"

whilst

say

placed

an

Abbe

looking

just appear

objective. The
carefullywatched
light will be seen

refer

We

to

of

becomes

circumstances
the

of

use

the

entering the tube


light from
of higher aperture than the lens
for example, a '65 objective and

say,

the
be

in the

only

may

it has

stray

Let

until its leaves

of

should
a

focussed
be

of

mentioned,

certain

condenser

it is in

Having
be

which

N.A.

place
light,

of

the

out

under

cutting

employing

with

the

of

ment
arrangetakes

from

sees

object,whilst

an

in

and

time

one

greatest possible service.

very

so-called

dangers of closing the iris,


be exercised
in so doing ; it remains
must
now,
hand, to be explained, strange as it may
appear,
pointed

now
care

maxima

point

or

effect

remote

quite possiblethe change of effect


alteration of focal adjustment.
have

star

because

is

We

of

stated

same

assumed,

darkness

is

It should

one.

the

line around

recognises a maximum,

case

one

possiblya

"

been

microscope ; hence
phenomena
appear

white

existent"

unexplained

than

these

reason

be

hitherto

to

bands

"

in the

with

increase

known

has

Now

justly be

very

an

already

what

other.1

object other

the

occasion

from

and

as

the

sometimes

"

another

then

meet

brightness

focussed
on
telescope when
of
rings
brightness and
rings

with

an

"

of

157

the

it may

of

image

such

on

in

and

DIAPHRAGM

being arranged in
around
the
readily seen

be

can

phenomena,

the

bands

"

described

light witnessed

point

IRIS

understood

be

can

also

minima.

and

termed

are

darkness," which

CLOSING

at

the

microscope.

test-plate
"

down

the

on

the

tube

peripheryof

let
the

the

the
iris

back

returned, the

plate
the iris is suddenly opened :
whilst
field,spoiling
flooding the whole
ocular

being

its
sensibly the general definition of the lines. From
submerging effect on the image, this used always to be called
flooding the specimen with light." Repeating the process,
very

"

In

making

placed between

the
the

experiment
eye

and

the

it is well

eyepiece.

to

use

monochromatic

screen,

OF

LIMIT

158
but

this occasion

on

it is looked

when

at, instead

the

of the

iris is

the

light enters

CLOSING

watching what

shall see, when

we

USEFUL

happens

opened,

back
the

through

specimen
that

the

in

quite

tube"

lens

ocular,

quantity of
through the

coming in edgeways
is reflected off its edges into the
lens"
which
ocular, causing
the flooding in question. If now
the iris be shut, so
to
as
fair conditions.
this, the objective performs under
prevent
stray

is

Attention

especially called
be

may
due

simply

have

not

this

to

No

if the
the

as

for

bad

microscopist

of stray
had

condenser

of

handle

can

with

student
is

object. It

an

that will not

one
justifiable,

phenomena;

is not

limit

distinct

any

but

taken

be

that

as

third,by

its outer

the

back

lens

of the combination

the

instrument,

requires

more

the

cutting down

easy

exactly the

the

upon
to

matter

these
rule

true

furnish

closing of the

general

the

iris that

irregulardiffraction
for daily practice,

102.

moderate

ever

be

we

mean

which

say,

of

opinion

an

this

asserted, with

by,
tube

of

might

substage diaphragm
produce effects that may

introduce

objective should

no

was

his

an

to

Fig.

however, it may

which

light,which

been

bination
com-

objective.
then

carelessly,for if he does so he may


lead him
quite astray in forming
structure

otherwise

performance

irregularaddition

occurred

aperture

same

blamed

this fact, as

to

cut

of

amount

down
the

by looking
eyepiece being removed.
as

than

seen

this before

than

more

outer

good

tainty,
cer-

of

third
down

the
If

it

image

is

CHAPTER
METHODS

objects

MOST
the

OF

object, objective,

mirror

away

opinion

in

if fluids

employed
save

double
of

for

but

it is

light, as

off

beams
universal

racked

were

Carpenter

thought

same

The

the

opinion
Lite

prism

possibility of

of

instead

fact

all

double
and

to

the

light

said

in

our

be

cannot

for

objects)
with

away

of

use

the

to

this

ordinary

the

glass
think
"

direct

"

"

reflected

"

does

not

seem

that

images.

in

seen

When

to

focus

; the

; whilst

Sir

held

for

now

always

retk-ction

doing

We

have

ourselves

found

160

student
Brcwstcr

the

on

total

use,

"

Davit!

the

to

always

was

been

particularly pleasant

and
The

have

handle.

use,

focussed

be
been

field

their

Ouekctt

.perience
to

the

within

effect
"

the

condensers

say

was

better

whose

mirror,

is

image

should

is said

and

theory explained

the

has

fashion, it

placed

is

it.

that

reverse

ordinary
be

across

flame

the

the

should

any

the

light

consideration,

pure

cumbersome

in

and

microscopists

image

down,

without

Dallinger,

Dr.

corresponding
angled

and

of

source

do

there

in

flame

before

just the

was

the

declared

racking
it

maintained

light

that

so

school

by

obtained

the

"

the

stretching

up

focus,

the

mirror

that

however,

first used,

and

stated

ocular

the

the

opinion.

lamp

adjusted

of

view

without
"

the

to

the

this

observer.

course

media

the

by

to

as

be

as

Some

denser,
con-

with

mirror, owing

by employing

of

already
so

obtained

; but

mirror

is

thick.1

too

always

called, than

using

condenser

they

the

light

being
is

the

been

were

from

agreement

When

of

the

it is made

definition

better

purpose,

that

the

employ

of

stage

the

horizontal

to

(which
the

on

away

is little to

and

of

reflection

which

has

one

height,

method

used

are

do

instrument

There

lamp.

such

of

to

eye

of

of

rays

through

the

to

the

light, the

mirror

desirable

convenient

the

favour

the

eyepiece

setting

from

transmitted

by

is

it

illuminant

straight

and

however,

altogether, and,

raising the

by

reflected

being

Occasionally,

ILLUMINATION

examined

are

illuminant

IX

object,
time.

some

demands

in favour

but

the

away
the

with

li^ht

arrangement

the
markably
re-

is

In

ILLUMINANT:

OF

FOCUS
later

still,
owing

years

the

to

a
subject; but
Conrady, although arousing
with
hold
microscopists,for

his

believe that

arguments

the

actual

it would

the

as

appear,

back

These
is not

per

in

and

point
in

he

out

commanded

microscope
believed

that,

whilst

importance of fillingthe
best
practical position for

the

just above

the

the

also, in

ourselves

lens

front

past, spent

experiments, photographic
this subject, and
have
come
the

back

lens

definition,and
look

for

is

the

of

to

in

in

numerous

with

connection

filling

(i) that

best

the

obtain

to

is

have

We

use.

making

time

factor

focus

to

to

Conrady
objective,

the

conclusion

the

practical

Mr.

condenser

otherwise,

and

microscopist should always


such
dition
conobjective (to see

the

reason

lens

lens

much

important

that

back

the

at

is

with

objective in

the

of

agreeing
the

Zeiss

respect, used

great
back

the

really

se

Carl

of

the

to

us

objectiveis

tJie

of

sideration,
con-

lead

light. Mr. Poser


(formerly manager
whose
knowledge of the theoretical
London),
of

taken

mature

upon

lens

Mr.

by

filled with

details

re-arisen

has
first,

at

of the illuminant

long

maticians
mathe-

considerations

indisputable.

are

has

controversy

of

161

several

of

opposition

some

focus

actual necessity
', so

an

of

series

this

upon

researches

deal

others, a good

and

LIGHT

CRITICAL

of

the

fulfilled)
before even

examining

Ids

specimen ; (ii)that

ground glass of the Nernst or other electric lamp,


the
or
flame-edge actually in focus is often objectionable,
more
especiallythe former, no injuriouseffectis produced in
the definition by either
raising or
lowering the condenser
small
lens
is not
amount
a
provided the back
emptied in
the
think
that
slightestdegree by so
(iii)we
doing, and
seeing

Mr.

the

Poser

is correct

when

he

states

is

light

more

obtained

by raising the condenser


just above, rather than by lowering
it just beneath
of the
the image
the position where
it forms
illuminant, although theoreticallythere should
really be no
difference.

If

the

doubting

the

flame

use?

it be

mind

desired

consider

is

focussed,is
Presuming it is

if so, what

instead
Likewise

"

should

whilst
what

corresponding

the

the

to

so,

the

very

further, let

matter

the edge
following: When
realitythe actual edge that is

does

centre

in

the

pursue

the

it in

edge

change

to

is

it make

any

portion of the
still presented

definition
furthermost

follows

edge

difference

"

of
in

and

wick

be

focussed

to

the

mirror?

should
of

the

the

wick
II

light
be

162

CRITICAL
instead

employed
allowed

is

there
of focus

range

of

change.

no

exists

"

certain

either

from

play

"

the

preceding?
Seeing this is so,

the

granted, shows

which, being
viz. that

of

LIGHT

front

the
of

being always provided the back

light1
backing out of

filled with
are

It

the

merely

that

of which

of

With

of different
with

focal

thought

in

often

"

term

the

N.A.

as

as

whole, but

focal

lengths

illuminant

anyhow

regulate the

to

of the illuminated

or

largerthe image

sort, but

definition
"

critical illumination

of the

size

all.

at

of

of the

is of
the

same

of different

use

the

Putting

of

image

of the field of view,

area

illuminant

suit

to

less,the

the
well

as

obvious, for the

course

feeblerthe intensityof the

light. Should, however, the image of the

illuminant

be too

small

time, the aperture of the condenser

at any

being correct, it can be


by using the auxiliary or bull's-eyecondenser

readily broadened

fidgeted about

be

better

definition,which

it may

filled

equably with

state

of illumination

is

that

so

light. In doing

so

it had

its

this be the

for unless

will be

lost,and

obtains

as

of

source

position does not spoil


should
do if incorrectly placed. Care
lens
of the objectiveis
that the back

light;
just

ensue,

condenser

this

doing

in

taken

troubles

the

and

the mirror

between

be

the

having them

not

intensityof the light. This

the

as

objective,or
is

we

objectives
already spoken when
dealing
it remains
to
explain the

is obvious, of

which
utility,
the

the

out

specialobjectof having different focal lengths


aside

saying this

stated, for always

of illuminators

have

length we

condensers

//

"

production.
the selection

to

respect

said,

is admissible

broadened

have

have

we

nothing of

by the

actually meant

is

be

mean

researches

recent

its method

and

we

what

of the wick,

of the objectiveis equably

necessity,so

obtaining critical light:

of

be

must

it is obvious

back

condenser

lens

not

must

truth

the

the

to

It

when

the

the

case,

consequent

array

ordinary

an

critical
of

substage

badly placed.

are
ordinary bull's-eyecondensers
poor
the best being not superior
examples of the optician'sart, even
To
condenser.
finest lantern
remedy this, and supply
to the

Most

much-felt

This

years,

Mr.

want,

bears

viz. that

illuminated

all of the

if not

by

out

the

dark

what
back

Conrady
Mr.

Nelson

lens must

spots ; if these

not

took
has

show

the

trouble

maintained
any

so

to

compute,

stoutlyfor many
area
unequally

portion of its

exist,the adjustment is

not

correct.

BULL'S-EYE

aplanat of
one

very

the

the

of these

of

"

Watson

Messrs.

and

time.

some

It

and

lift out

to

makes

the

163

made,
We
be

can

enjoyed

the

use

not

useful

arrangement

our

the

the

only as
light from

employed

in

optical parts
be
placed in

achromatised

an

have

perfect bull's-eye,utilisingall

illuminant, but

made

have

Sons

highest quality.

very
for

CONDENSERS

substage,

where

are

the

of
magnificent low-power condenser
great utilitywith objectivesof suitable focal length.
There
two
one
are
or
mountings for these auxiliarycondensers

aplanat

which

have

very

proved

very

useful

over

and

above

those

Fig. 103.
met

increased

give

One

with.

in

by
Fig.

is

by

leaps

and

103.

The

Fig.
Leitz

"

bounds

lens

firm
in

is

whose
recent

large, the

fame
years
mount

ordinarily

104.

has
"

which
very

justly
we

steady

BULL'S-EYE

164
and

likelyto get

not

is to

lenticular

turn

and

stand

We

-have
the

to

of

for the

much

as

ingly
exceed-

firm

microscopistof

service.
in

one

price

whose

all sorts,

up-to-date as possible,have
convenient
portable and
very

much

had

the

Sons, another

"

articles

out

introduced

ago

ball-and-socket

Fig. 104.
mounting

adjustment,and

Watson

otherwise,

while

some

of

out

Messrs.

moderate.

ambition

CONDENSERS

It

for

use

Conrady condenser, and

are

is

illustrated
time

some

in

the

as

quite satisfied

with

performance.

its

Bausch

Messrs.

"

Lomb

have

also

introduced

modification

Fig. 105.

which

the

arm

its

own

screws

use.

which

hold

to

It is shown

C. Baker
raise

does

it in

it up

has
and

also

and

completing
serviceable

most

one

of

useful

arrangement,

is to
with

away

but

It consists

one.

to

move

turned

combination.

end

of

its

dropping bythe necessity of clampingit requires a little practice

with

being

for the

excellent

bull's-eyeat the other

This

pattern

itself capable
bull's-eye,
a

the

position;
in Fig. 105.
a

down,

to

it.

supports

weight, and

it is, an

as

fittinga counterpoise

in

to

think, simple

we

prevent

lamp complete
it side
aside

to

when

This

rack

side with
not

is indeed

to

the

required,
a

very

is very quickly brought


bull's-eye

BULL'S-EYE
into

and

use,

turned

equally quickly

firm's

this

Like

CONDENSERS

characteristic

carefully thought
without

out

when

aside

perhaps

and

required.

not

has

detail

attribute, every

although

"

165

originated

idea

the

ingly
exceedperfected by
experienced
skilful manipulator, both
as
microscopist and photo-microthe leading spirit
grapher,the late Mr. Lees Curties, who was
from

will

Space

allow

not

to illustrate

firm.

It

is

illustrated

in

Fig. 106.

us

of

more

any

the

and

sers,
bull's-eyeconden-

these

but

should

we

other

that

good

tion
men-

equally

arrangements
Powell

J. Beck,

them,

equal

"

Lea-

"

although

claim

R.

Swift, and

land, Ross,
others

are

Messrs.

by

made

of

of

department

this

in

"

the

been

none

believe,

we

to

be

optically

to

the

Watson-

aplanat

Conrady
which

of

have

we

just

spoken.
The

illuminant

suitable

pends
de-

much

very
the

of

selection

upon
and

requirements

dividuality
in-

of the microscopist,
for
a

like

some

bright light

to

others

whilst
as

soft

as

possible.

prefer

illumination

an

Fig.
For

work, where

ordinary

oil

lamp, as
light most

of

found

associated

price.
with

may
The

be

with

light is

shown

not

the

mantle

its great

available, the

Fig. 106, is, we

in

frequently

procured

Welsbach

several, but

06.

day
everyelectric

source

cut, and

use,

with.

met

details

extra

almost

in

with

used

heat

any

is

coal

It
as

form
gas

drawback,

microscopist's
suppose,

the

is not

always

given

in

and

at

is

the
any

favourite

although

its

it

for

its readiness

dirt and

and

smell

from

freedom

GORDON

AND

BARNARD

BY

ILLUMINANTS

166

decidedly handy form to employ.


electric light is available, the Nernst
Where

make

use

of great service, and

was

in

made

recommend

half

glass,or

illuminants, there

mentioned
Addenda

to

the

which

sing
for focus-

the

Besides

abovein

mentioned

ones

new

lamps,

the

is referred.

reader

introduced

illuminants

more

are

many

transparent

suitable

globe,is not

obtaining critical illumination.

when

these

the

fine sand-blasted, as

the glact variety of

even

Two

be

should

bulb

of the

of

procuring either

In

been

strongly
lamp by

general use.
thirty-candleincandescent

Zigzag.

the

called

Steam

Failing this, we

excellent

an

had

superseded

form, it might have

for

lamps

electric

other

furnace

and

if its filament

durable

more

five-shilling
lamp

few

years

ago

remain

to

Fig. 107.

although

be mentioned,

adaptation by Mr. J. E.

an

for the
a

not

very

delicate

believe.

we

very

handle, and

to

arrangement

will not

and
for

monochromatic
Charles

The

Baker's, 244,
other

W.

of

of about

It
a

an

said to be

apple-green. It
High Holborn, London.
has

been

consists,

Nernst

half

be

the

that

one

Gordon.

Fig. 107,
rod

is

that may

one

lamp
inch

brought
shown

as

close

in

first is

finelyground, whilst the other

that

rays

shall

be

brought

to

focus

transit

through

exceedingly
almost absolutely
an

be

into

obtained

notice

at

by Mr.

diagrammatically in
proximity with a glass

thickness, having the end

filament
the

can

bear

suffer

very

fine illuminant

The

of the

Barnard

then
carefullypacked (and even
may
violent shaking),still it is unquestionably

unless

J.

used

Mercury vapour lamp


microscopist. Although this is,unfortunately,

of the

use

much

is lenticular
upon

the

the

nearest

in

mirror

form
of

so

the

microscope. Approaching the glass to the filament very rapidly


and
the intensity of the illumination, whilst
sensibly increases

HELIOSTAT

168

changed, for they

are

placed

at

upper

rod, which

right angles

and

the

positive or

than

the

negative (instead of thicker

longer of the two, so as to have


It is claimed
by the inventors of
light is obtained
by the
when

by the

this

rnicroscopistis able to manipulate and


taking his eye from the instrument
moment

it

as

duration.

much

carbons
is fed

It
positive element.
attached
have
a
long arm

can

that

system

of the

smallness

desired

life of sufficient

well

but

that

the

so

of

matter

as

by hand,

adjust the carbons


;

more

as

it

to

the

made

usual),being

as

other,

cored, is thinner

is

position of the

new

the

to

one

without

small

no

ness
prevents the glareof the lightspoilingthe sensitive-

of his retina.

The

lamp

and
only takes four amperes,
in
conjunction with a
can,

suitable

resistance

order, be

to

the

switched

the

save

of
box

trouble

any

possible strengthening

the

to

which

fuse

is

when

it is

in winter

seen

its

prevents

is

ordinary
mirror
not

has

means

of the

shift,even
to

be

apparatus,
\\
one

of

Watson

the

"

different

called

used

several

most

do

but

to

which
earth's

ala'ays on
effectuallyso that it

This

believe

the

in the

little that

the

to

sun

parts of the mirror,

convenient, is that

Sons, according

the

reallya good
we

the

save

owing

of

this

Hcliostat.

it be

unless

and

To

for the microscope,

fact, it is impossible with

in

keep the image

microscope.
upon

of

know

to

"

"

desirable

not

however,
difficulty,

is that

use

trouble

is great

there

rotation

in this country.

frequent

more

be desired

to

is

easily removed

sunlight,if utilised

; but

nothing

leaves

manner,

use.

lamp

illuminant

an

as

proper

fuse-

the front of the

Daylight
its diffuse nature

the

in

required.

not

to

whatever,

bull's-eye condenser

fixed

owing

system

for the circuit in

to

on

house

ordinary

without

supplied

is

expensive
use

no

best, and

manufactured

instructions

will

instrument

an

very

is of

one

the

the

at

all.

certainly

by
of the

Messrs.

late Dr.

MONOCHROMATIC

LIGHT

Johnston Stoney (Fig. 109).


designed by

mechanician

was

theories

instructions

Full
need

wait

not

such

to

explain

the

are

how

the

image upon

time

are

without
stained
the

and

of the

quitestationary.

Those

warned
especially

not

using
one

"

of the

mirror

the

set

is used
the

upon

microscope, where
using the
place their

microscope, or

scope.
micro-

instrument, so

arrangement

sun's

it

sun

projects

it remains

mirror

and

parently
ap-

the first

eye to the ocular


"

we

; it must

lightfor

screen

knowledge

optics of the

the

protectivemonochromatic
the
intervening between

too

to

whose

with

once

expected when
ingenuity as

mathematical

with

issued

be

to

one

his

connected

mirror

only

eminence,

therefore,to say that when


suffice,
its

is

only equalled by

subtle

in all the

of

man

This

169

all

at

deeply

of the heliostat

else between

the eye

and

the

ocular.
ARRANGEMENTS

FOR

APPROXIMATE

PRODUCING

CHROMATIC
MONO-

LIGHT
The

object of using lightof

one

colour

(i)the first being to aid resolution, and


providing greater

contrast

so-called

between

is of

the

second

twofold

nature

to assist in
(ii)

different parts of

specimen.

white

light may be said to consist of


all varieties of wave-lengths, say, from
in.
^oi^ in. (red)to ^ro
(violet)
wave-length in air, however, being usually
; its mean
spoken of as about j^Jinr"f an inch.
Seeing that Abbe's Law for ascertainingthe theoretical power
of resolution
with any
objectiveis to multiply twice the number
inch
of the light used
of waves
to the
by the N.A. of the
the resolution, roughly
that twice
objective,it is very obvious
speaking, is obtained
by employing violet light rather than by
blue
blueor
using red (see p. 156). To be able then to use
the desideratum
of the microscopist.
violet light has long been
that
blue
Hitherto
even
no
glass could be made
approached
for
a
monochromaticity. That sold by Zeiss was
great advance
for visual work.
The
to be desired
photography, but left much
Ltd. are
films made
by Kodak
exceedingly
comparatively new
fine,and are spoken of at some
length in the Addenda
; but
illumination
can
perfectlypure monochromatic
only be obtained
of the
blue
by the use
by spectroscopic means,
light formed
shall
which
now
we
speak.
concerning
This method
refer is by employing either a prism
to which
we
(i)Ordinary

or

grating

in

some

form.

The

firm

of

Carl

Zeiss

make

AUTHOR'S
of

train

stage

hear

we

Mr.

prisms

using

it

it well

have

we

sulphate
2

using
of

Ifght absorbed
167)

page

be

these

of, but

have

the

tried

more

the

it ourselves.
but

when

about

3 in. in length,
the great difficulty
of

; but

If the

of

expected. Blue
especiallyammonio-

is the

arrangements

large amount
lamp (see
4-ampere

Argus

the solution

and

part

we

measuring

thereby.

employed,

not

success

in. in thickness

fluid

under

arrangement,

employed,

cells

in

the

to

another

with

also been

copper,

any

spoken
met

in. in breadth, and


of

attached

designed
not

fluid fitters have


of

is

that

has

Nelson

APPARATUS

be concentrated,

fairly

Fig. no.

sulphate
be

can

with

or

so

far

of to obtain

an

copper

(ii)A

copper
for

we

seen.1

ever

absolutely perfect

they nearly always

The

blue

neither

; but

only

lightis

means

by

ment
employ-

the author, and

special arrangement
by
several
Society
Royal Microscopical
years
which
Besides
details of an
can
ordinary nature

following formulae
nitrate 160 grains,chromic
two

saturated

pass
know

we

the

"

The

as

have

ammonio-cupric-

solutions

the

i ID

of

acetate

the

devised

of the
at

the

with

truly monochromatic,

called

reel rays

formed

li^ht-filtcris

favourable

solution

of copper

are

said
acid

acetate.

14

to

furnish

good

grains,with

results

water

to

7|

hibited
ex-

ago
be

(i) Pure
ounces;

SCREENS

MONOCHROMATIC

"

prismatic light
blue

the

which

the

for

although

Soc., December,
The

used, but

still much
films made

lantern-slide

two

56,

and

61,

all
if

but
a

No.

think

None

No.

of

end

44A

to

66,

chromatic,
mono-

spectrum

kind

blue"

of

rather

it wants

in

Nos.

truly

the

"

had

between

are

are

are

gelatine

be

to

are

we

red

but

how

and

screens,

best

the

with

results,

green

Blue

illuminant.

Greens

deepest.

little of

combined

be

perfect

very

the

being

passing

the

eclipsed by

Ltd.

Kodak

this work

of

editions

now

glasses. The

last

are

Pot-green glass 1

the

cheap, only requiring mounting

are

cover

the

and

previous

think

by

varieties,and

many

in

we

sold

and

by Gifford

screen

author

by the

described

employed,

part vi.,p. 727).

1902,
fluid

F-line

be

can

to

lamp, as
five-shillingNernst
sufficient (see Journal Roy. Mic.

figure,is amply

the

in

shown

handy

the

purposes

many

lamp

ment,
arrange-

and

convenient

4-ampere

prism, to

this

replica. By

the

is very

Argus

the

leaving

parallel on

rays

its final form

in

limelight,or

use,

projected on

beam

furnish

to

by

to

green

constructed

is

of Thorpe's
employing one
glass prism speciallydesigned to

colour

any

and

incident

the

of

is attached

replicas,which
keep

machine

figure the

the

in

seen

171

strong

them, will be found

use

in

the Addenda.

(ii)The

second

in different

admit,

more

of

parts
of

of

use

service

several

of

exhaustion

in

for

this

they

are

is

much

so

used

of

but

purpose,

during

it

prevents

using

easilydistinguishable,although
The

softened.

with

is not
to be
particularglass, which
is
signal green,"
very
pot glass called
"

being

244,

often

fluid

will not

and

by Messrs.

screen,

the

after

called

namely,

readilybreak.
monochromatic.

"

Watson
author's

that

Different

it does

with
and

It has

thicknesses

fade
are

; hence

with

may

colours

other

cheap,
Sons, of 313, High
not

screen

green

mentioned

confused

name.

only

not

black

the

general illumination

the

specimens stained

This

detail

appear

glass above

green

materially

suitable
to

to

much

examination

very
this

example,

it is of

hurried

ready

are

; but

recommend

because

red, for

for this purpose

Baker,
the

for

We

eye.

objects stained

causes

employed

contrast

greater

is,we

use

photomicrography

specimens,
the

Such

specimen.

comfort especiallywhen

through

is to create

screens

; but

variety

another

sold

an

age

sold,but

by

Charles

Holborn,
advantage
;

be

moreover,

it is not

E.G.,
over

it
pletely
com-

DARK-GROUND

i;2

ILLUMINATION

especial directions

more

devoted

the

to

and

of the

use

details

microscope

Dark-ground
illumination

Dark-ground
the details of

up

time

same

somewhat

the method
rays

beautiful

is that the

only,and

by

no

of

although

as

the

remarkable
The

manner.

be litup

all.

at

ones

instrument
of

source

somewhat

microscopist to
idea

and

the

at

in

by extremely oblique

All

of

manner

often

are

show

entertained

thereby introduced, which

are

chapter

Bacteriology.1

the

by

object shall

direct

silvery-lookingeffects
demonstrations

in

the

Illumination

is used

object in

an

in

given

are

in

curious

popular

greatly admired,

however,
investigation,

not

much

so

is

gained thereby as might be expected, save


perhaps in learning
the general contour
and
actual configuration of living bacteria

explained later

as

The

usual

on.

method

with

dry objectives
of low magnification
is twofold, either by employing the
Spot Lens
(or its
wheel stop,"placed beneath
the ordinary substage
equivalent,a

adopted

"

by the Paraboloid.
is merely a condenser
Tfie Spot Lens
less permanently attached
more
or
paper
condenser)

the

or

In

centre.

itself

some

rough

ground

and

disadvantage of this
black disc only reallysuits
it is

and

made,

of

method

the

expensive

in

paper,

the

lens

the

several

in
is

glass

situation.

same

diameter

of

objectivefor

individual
to have

its lower

the

is that

piece of black

to

using

painted black

The

was

instead

cases,

with

the

which

condensers,

it

each

being ground and painted to suit a battery of objectives; and it


is equally inconvenient
to have
to cut individual
pieces of black
the

affix to

to

paper

microscope.
like

made

are

rim

is also

"

the
To

"

By having several
of different objectives,one
carrier

beneath

the

whilst still allowing the


this

of
1

can

Mr.

be

illumination

with

the "box

sizes.

the

this trouble

meet

wheels

thin, but

for every

condenser

"

"

depends

almost

equal,if not

used

spokes.

to suit the numerical

rays

to

pass.

this

upon

very

originalmethod
a

that

The

aperture

that, placed
the
The

of

in

direct

light,
peculiarity

fact,

little later,thinks

quite so, to that

in

in different

is made

condenser, stops off

oblique

used

often

thin

usually be found

of his
Rheinberg, by the use
coloured
illumination,described

produced

are

very

of the wheel

wheels
can

stops

three

only
"

combination

the

and

arranging
contrast

ferential
dif-

effects

by the ordinarymethod.

ILLUMINATION

DARK-GROUND
effect

characteristic

thereby

produced

is itself

illuminated,
brilliantly

dark.

wheel

and

of
"

box

which

these

importance, if the
of the
wheel-stop

in

fact

of

point

conditions
best

effect

shall

be

exactly

be

be

to

it is

desired, that

of

both

according

have

fulfilled ; but

are

very

varies

condenser

of the

iris may

substage

object

perfectly

remains

background

the

the

that, whilst

is

raising or lowering

and

little before

more

of

amount

is necessary,

closed

"

certain

the

173

the

size,

correct

the

to

the

numerical

well
the focal length of the
as
objective as
in use.
condenser
Generally speaking, a wheel-stop is supplied
with
for employment
diameter
any
by the optician the correct

aperture of

the

given objective

the

make

to

for the

convenient

for any

combination

will

found

be

with

used

given in any text-book


it
calculation.
As, however,

necessary

microscopist
of

explained

extremely simple.

First, with

about

"

to

"

be

be able

to

condenser,

respect

"

to

N.A.

to

per

cent,

larger than

that

of

example,

if

inch

objective N.A.

occluded

would

the
N.A.

Owing
correct

Traviss

It

an

wheel

use,

at

about

10

itself ; hence, for

combination

the

in

objective

-30

the

amount

to

be

the stop itself"


The
diameter-of
-33.
is then found
by multiplying twice tJie

N.A.

be
the

out

is

"

stopped out, by the equivalentfocal length of the

con-

in use?

denser

that

of

be

to

using

"

box

"

stopped

rule, which

the

the

it

as

expanding

usually reckoned

is

the

also

Traviss

furnish

we

"

and

is

himself

this for

do

to

utilisingthe

when

be

stop

is

objectiveand

of service

and

particularcondenser,

any

little information

but

consequently
how

when

consists

iris,as

trouble

dimension,
that

could
can

the

to

be

he

should

increased

be

used

of

the

the

an

of

an

diminished

any

reverse

is

devise
or

with

handle

procuring wheel-stops
ingenious idea suggested
in

an

expanding
at

of

aperture

itself

stop,

one

the

to

Mr.

in

fact

will of the operator.

the

low-power combination,
With
iris diaphragm.

turned, the

exactly

and

ordinary

an

less

becomes

really

and

less,

to be dropped over
provides a diaphragm of given diameter
illumination.
the low-power objectivewhen
it is to be used for dark-ground
If
Davis
iris.
the
This
the
avoids
a
substage
necessity of altering
Diaphragm" be used it may have to be closed a little to perfectthe definition
1

Carl

Zeiss

"

and
2

to

the

blackness

It should
the

Position

be

of the

background.

understood

that

posterior focal plane


of the

Planes.

See

this rule

of the

Accessory
assumes

condenser.

the

See

Apparatus.
stop

is

Appendix

placed

close

concerning

THE

174
but

TRAVISS

Traviss's

in Mr.

EXPANDING

invention

increasing the diameter


There
One

is mounted

sleeve

stem

is

by the

arranged
wheel,"

"

little handle
the leaves

viz.

shown
and

so

be

to

that

in

in the

most

stop

Mr.

accompanying
under

figure.

part of

long enough,

beneath
both

the

whilst

the

the condenser.
forms

serves

The

to

expand

of

service.

of the stop.

few

with

Traviss's

instead,thereby

ordinary position occupied

the diameter

cases

"

be

in the

figurein

increase

Fig. in.

if such

immediately

using this expanding

Seeing

in the

slip into the

to

used

the leaves

(Fig. 1 1 1).

shown

as

holding the condenser

other

In

on

it opens

of the stop

forms,

two

are

STOP

hints

dark-ground

Expanding

be

may

Central

illumination

Stop.

has
portion of the periphery of the objective in use
generally to be cut off by the substage iris diaphragm or by the
the background
if that be used
shutter
Davis
instead, to make

certain

the
sufficientlydark, it is obvious
in the resolving
less the reduction
Hence

the

leave

to

wide

found

have

we

open

to

iris

ascertainingthe
in

or

the

downwards
best

use

as

with,

with

illumination

Traviss's

and

to

is necessary
the

combination.

stop it is
or

extend

the

the

good

Davis

the

plan

shutter

leaves

of

the

according to the rule for


the stop and
the
diameter.
Moving now
the specimen,
it a little upwards towards

far

correct

away

Mr.

of

power

substage diaphragm

commence

expanding stop
condenser

with

this

less

from
of

necessary

as

it,the positionis sought


the

object coincident

with

that
the

produces
darkest

RHEINBERG'S

76

DIFFERENTIAL

attained, perhaps
confine

shall

subsequent

our

is anxious

who

further

to

well to consult

do

the

than

in

consists

using,

remarks

follow

colour,

other

the

others, \ve

; but

the reader

interestingsubject

will

footnote.1

in the

illuminator

of most
of

centre

this

is fitted

which

be

not

what

exact

be

to

about

it

as

called

one-third

one

with

For

some

example,

hole

is

of its

punched

in

diameter,

in

material.

same

be

might

loose

the

the

crackers)is cut
beneath
the substage

form

interior of

blue

so

may

equal

nounced,
pro-

with

used

microscopes.

modern

covered

whilst

blue,

red.

that
some

condenser,

say

is

well-marked

say,

as,

the

to

colour,

transparent

red

condenser

need

of

one

given

stop

gelatine (such as
fit the ring usually found in
of

the

this

up

central

as

portion of the

remaining

to

this

to

original papers

and

clear,

disc

by either

in the refraction
method
is nothing
principle involved
of ordinary dark-ground illumination, and
modification

The
but

better

even

ILLUMINATION

The

fit

"

imagined is necessary,
does
perfectly well.

"

for
This

denser,
dropped into the ring beneath the consimilar to those that obtain
adjustments made

disc is then

bi-coloured
and

the

ordinary dark-ground illumination is employed.


inch
objective is in use, the result of this
Presuming an
is very
of illumination
method
astonishing,especially when

when

Polycystina, Diatoms,

objects such

as

like Rotifers

are

of

Combinations

discs,but

the

best

the

central

colours
it should
be

portion must

even

livingorganisms

stage, for the background

coloured

the little objects are

whilst

"

the

placed on

or

blue,

red.
brilliantly

having

marked

produce

contrast

always be recollected
less bright\\wc\ that of

Methods

is

the
the

of

colour

peripheral,

of

Microscopical Research, by a
Contrast
between
of Optically Producing Colour
an
Object and its
Way
the
Definite
Parts
of
itself,''
between
/('//;v/"'/
Object
Background, or
al Society,1896, pp. 373-88.
Coloured
"Note
Illumination," Journal Ouckett
Mi"r"\^'""/"ualClub,
on
1

On

Addition

an

to

the

.-,

1897, pp. 34^-7"te

on

New

Modification

of

Double

Microscopical Club, 1897, p.


Colour
Illumination, with
on

Special Reference

"tes

Suitable

pp.

44-50.
the

to

J//"v,'.s-"
,"//"//.

Colours," Journal Royal


Illumination,"Illustrated

Multiple Colour
On

Illumination,
''^Journal

438.

Oitckctt

"

Colour

Percy Lund,

shape

Multiple Colour

of

Humphries

different

Illumination.

screens

See

"

Co..

of

Choice

p. 142-6.

Annual
.

1899,

London.

for obtaining
Adden

the

the

best

effects

with

RHEINBERG'S
a

DIFFERENTIAL

point often
of

process
best

results

overlooked

in the

illumination
be

cannot

coloured

is

out

an

discs

sold

obtained

under
result

177

by opticians for

unfortunate

effects also

beautiful

Very
using a

ILLUMINATION

this

circumstance, for the

these
with

circumstances.
certain

specimens by

only,leavingthe rest of the disc white ; but a


thecoloured
pieces
positivelyremarkablearrangement is onewhere
that when
the disc is used with a piece
are
shaped in such a manner
of silk muslin
the stage, the transverse
fibres are illuminated
on
by
vertical
and
the
Mr.
another
!
one
ones
colour,
by
Rheinberg, in
his contribution
Illustrated
Annual
to The
of Microscopy(1900),
described
how
this particulardisc was
made, but as the publication
centre

of

print,the particularsare inserted in the Addenda.


It is scarcely necessary
offer an
to
explanation of these
different phenomena, for any one
who
has mastered
the simple
them
philosophy of dark-ground illumination will understand
now

quite readily. It
and

blue

the

usual

whilst

is obvious

inside,that
black

the

the

in

blue

the

disc,taking the

central

furnishes

one,

mentioned, red outside

case

the

colour

of

the

place of
background ;

that

usually illuminate the object with


white
coloured
red (in this instance) by their transmission
light are
through the outlying red portion of the gelatinous disc.
The
extension
of illumination
of the application of this method
in the many
directions
explained in the original articles by
Mr. Rheinberg is entirelydue
to his painstaking and
carefully
conducted
think he
do
not
must
experiments, and we
say we
has received
the credit due
of patient
him
for the amount
to
work
necessarilyinvolved in such a class of research.
We
that
been
it has
ought to mention
argued by some
of illumination
microscopiststhat this method
merely furnishes
information
spectacular effects,and does not offer additional
as

to

means

the

oblique

formation

over

and

rays

of structures
above

those

dark-ground illumination
presented to the eye
background of another
is of great service

object,and
from
vivid

one

it is
colour

realisation

different

parts of

by

; but

the

furnishes

organisms
obtained
by the
or

must

we

object
a

in

say

use

of

by its
ordinary

direct

the

contrast

colour

one

means

examined

of

lying on a
that
differentiating

examining the general contour


hardly questionable that the transition
assists in
to a strongly contrasting one

of

when

of
an

the

disposition and

object than

results

relative

from

in
a

hue
more

thickness

examining
12

an

of
the

THE
"studies

in

black

"

white

and

illumination.

ground

PARABOLOID

We

obtained

as

might

mention

conclusion, Mr. Rheinberg considers


the
what
"

of

of

use

this method
be

to

appear

This

incidentally,and
gets in many

illumination,the

same,

as

by

cases,

benefits,or

same

arising from

those

in

the

use

screens.

Paraboloid.
to

seems

have

Shadbolt

Messrs.

the

he

ordinary dark-

"

monochromatic

(ii)The

of

with

been

something of a mixed
Wenham,
although each

and

WENHAMS
RAYS

PARABOLOID

PATH

SHOWING

FbsmoN

APPROXIMATE

OF

worked

of
on

5PCCIMLN

OF

invention

or

SPECIMEN

Fig. 112.
somewhat

separate

Fig. 112,
as

is drawn

paraboloid, but

curved

at

its upper

in

flat at

the

direct

follow

to
are

object
normal

the
to

seen

again

rays

to

of

be

from

path

first.

its

or

reflected

the

In

the

flat,but

the surface," and

so

lower
centre

It needs
on

not

be

glass shaped

end, and
of

this
as

so

in

is

to

deeply
placed

obstruct

explanation
consulting the figure

upper
that

shown

as

of

no

parabolic surface

quit it at the deeply curved


is
this deep cutting away
to

piece

anyhow

rays, which

off the

consists,

larger or

illuminant.

the

of

It

section, of

extremity.

piece of metal, curved

"

which

lines at

the

broken

into

the

extremity.
rays

up

may

into

glass
The
leave

coloured

SUGGESTION

GORDON'S

MR.

will

be

179
the

object placed
afterwards
focus
somewhat
the
scatter
F, and
irregularly.
carried
certain few, caught up by the low-power objective,are

to

the

ones.

in

They

is fixed

in

by this

can

It

should

here

and

be

the

the

Ramsden

that

the

viz.

that

ground,

can

would
of

at

in
the

this

with

in

be

Ramsden
the

shown

of

be

circle ; but

it is
is

"

Ramsden

the diameter

be

startling nightmares

"

circle is

is equal to

both

by

objectiveis

the

the

its

ing
proceedformation

best

is

apt

repeatedly proved
instructive

A.

Mr.

the

dark

E.

and

Conrady

vincing
con-

and

by

highly probable then the possibilities


enormously multiplied when
part of

is

must

objective itself

The

been

Microscopical Society by

Microscopists cannot

has

as

illumination,

this manner,

at

in

doubt

no

bright against

illumination

stop

eyepiece

be

dangerously inviting

one

It

the
can

way

central

dark-ground

perfectlyrealised

it,that

ordinary

by

out

there

be

full aperture

the

understand
in the

stopped

out

direction

dbject and

obtaining
suggested by Mr.

we

Whilst

connected

J. Rheinberg.

numerical

for

above
or, preferably,

circle.1

experiments,
Mr.

arrange

arrangement

method

as

object standing

Royal

this

condenser

be

images. Dark-ground
yield deceptive images,

the

far

so

was,

objective

to

the

the

of

been

the

seem

to

as

with

has

false

to

of

to

which

lighted by

appearance
of

so

movement

case.

lightshould

either behind

disc

diameter

made

be

idea

The

that the direct

so-called

the

paraboloid,

in its stead.

illumination

J. W. Gordon.
the object should

of the

the

in

removed, for the paraboloidis usually made

is

sleeve

dark-ground

metal

employment

ordinary condenser
to be placed in the
Reference

axis

piece

shown

not

up-and-down

the

to

of the

the

in

the

An

objective,and

obvious

is

little cerftral

the field in accordance

general requirements

the

the

although

beneath.

portion of

aperture of the

upon

in use,

right through
applied

be

means

darkened

the

to

little knob

seen,

stem, which

reallypasses

illustration

ending

as

convenience

For

eyepiece.

metal

of

impinge,

blocked
that

quite certain
most

fruitful
often

too

included

in

the

on

"

500

mm.

such

of

N.A.

Magnification

famous

page

false

that

reminded

fullyexplained

Total

source

by a stop in the
placed behind

out

effects.

the

experiment
118,

where

most

with

it is shown

OF

EXTENSION

i8o

Abbe's

TO

of

by

by

utterly false cannot,

images so
be obtained
whatever
by any means
of the objective be left undisturbed.
Mr.

HIGH

obtained

were
diffraction-plate

that

and

USE

blood

corpuscles having

Gordon

by his method,

as

POWERS

the

of

use

if the normal

of research,and

means

extraordinary appearance
recorded
surfaces,"
sculptured
make

unless

upon
methods

the

think

one

amply confirmed

belong

It is obvious

arrangement

possible caution

greatest

result obtained

no

aperture

The

"

it would

with

be used

fact,

of

round

undoubtedly to this order of invited phenomena."


then, with but little further consideration, that the
must

stops,

strict matter

"

he suggests

such

should

by ordinary and

be

as

depended
legitimate

more

of observation.

This

illumination

explanation how

the

concludes

low

with

all that

powers

obtain

to

dark-ground

hitherto

appealed

to

microscopists in general. Lately, however, a new


departure has
taken place, for several opticians have computed and constructed
special forms of oil-illuminators of large numerical
aperture that
be

can

very

dry sixth

or

twelfth.

immersion

an

this extension

immediately

with

profitablyemployed
of

the

of the

use

it will

apparent,

present the microscope has

high

Seeing that

method

in

well

be

to

furnished

not

such

powers,
the

utilityof

question

may

that

up

state

as

be

not
to

satisfactoryresults

the

when

small
refractive index
transparent objects,whose
upon
from the fluid in which
differed to any sensible amount

employed
has

not

they
or

other

similar

for

such

immersed,

are

fluid.

It

example

those

is true

closing the substage diaphragm


able to see
images (largelymixed
up
"by

and
to

consequently of a
more
identify with

distinguishit from
observations

it is

of dark

much

-ground

hoped that, anyhow,


for

by

its

use

not

skilled

were

sufficient

with

amount

diffraction

certainty

still it has

another;

left very

that

in water
have

been

"

phenomena

well
nature)sufficiently

less

or

by these trained

even

extension

doubtful

living bacteria

as

to

be

illumination
most

only

of
can

one

been

observers

that

desired.
to

the
these

perhaps
to
species, and

the

ledged
generally acknowthe

method

Now
use

it is
of

the

and

by

this

lii^hpowers

difficultywill

be

come,
over-

little objects be

the
distinguish the organisms with cilioj from
the
darting movements
non-motile, and
naturally rapid and
the torpid and
perhaps irrc
peculiar to the one
type, from
is of far more
of other forms ; but, what
motion
importance still,
well

enough

to

EXTENSION
is that these

OF

USE

littlebacteria

living state, rather

can

than

TO

HIGH

POWERS

be studied

now

by examining

in their

181

natural

and

after

specimens

staining
mounting, a process
acknowledged to produce differing
results according to the stain used, the
length of time it was
employed, and the particular method
adopted.
It was
thought that this new
departure, first suggested by
and

that is

Herr

Reichert

in

lecture

before

Stuttgart,November

at

the

Congress of

1906, would

have

before

future

great

held

Naturalists

it ; but

this to be the
subsequent experiences have not shown
Details
are
case.
given, however, to obtain the best results.
difference
in the philosophy of this extension
There
is no
to

high

illuminated

be

to

rays
ro

that

which

with

employed

is

illumination

above

and

over

powers

low

obtains

due

difficulties to which

the

of

change

to

adopted

principle,but

the

desired

the

about

bring

to

reference

with

provided

this

To

purpose

have

Why

position?

suitable

stop of

reply that

sixth, if its aperture

obtain
with

fairlygood

the

ordinary

higher aperture
dark-ground effect

is

either

find

to

position,which
focal

must

plane of
should

the
be

further,owing
colour

to

images

of

bending
about
with

by
the

Several

of

of

close

the

rays

effect

rather

to

are

in

stop

purpose

realise
that

at, the

that

obtained

type

condenser

refraction

as

the

good

posterior
ro.

meter
diaStill

of illumination

far better

when

way
when

correct

its exact
N.A.

of this

proved
the

what

to

7,

it is not

the

exactly

below

using

found,

to

exactly

ascertain

by

by

the

asked

ordinary

Moreover,

off all rays

focus
than

means

N.A.

been

impossible

to, if not

character,
to

is

been

for

the

in

sensitiveness

great

the

about

has

it

field.

or

effects,it has

reflection
usual

be

that it cuts

far purer
the

to

not

are

quite possible when

exceed

fix the

how

condenser,

so

to

the

over

of

placed in the usual


for the
special devices

that

required,it

all

be used

it is

not

but

condenser)

made

naturally be

very

made

dark-ground

means,

easy

does

N.A.

size,and

opticians

we

been

of

results.

proceeding, the questions may


the ordinary oil-condenser
cannot

Why

the

have

oblique

limit

change

to

objects

extremely

has

Before

the

dark-ground

the

(those passing direct to the object up to


being cut off by a stop suitablyplaced below

hence

if

for

powers,

before, solely by

as

when

results,

necessary
is

brought
ordinarilyobtains

type of illuminator.
these

new

forms

of

condensers

have

been

placed

DARK

82
the

on

two

BACKGROUND

three

of which

the arrangements

by

above

such, that

are

that

aperture

by refraction.

Another

the

N.A.

below

rays

bacteria

be

is

never

above

be

of

interest

surface
with

to

they

under

in the

them

ordinary

happen

not

and

the

they
of

be

of these

case

cut

are

whilst

instead

asked,

of

If

all

extremely oblique

is effected

seeing

under

first traverse

the

oil

the

these

the

Leaving

upper

connecting

illuminate

and

at

brilliantly

so

bodies, by which

means

by the dry objective when


Tracing the path of the rays
bacteria,

any

used

the

acute

very

in consequence

find

which

them

passing
cover-glass. As they arrive
angle less in point of fact
we

"

angle of the glass from

being unable

them

seen

entering

and

surface

this

self-luminous

as

fall upon

than the critical


"

ro

condenser,

here

may

course

organisms

water

its upper

N.A.

by reflection

circumstances.

manner.

to

through the
at

how

appear
to be

enabled

are

the

each

off

cut

the

side

little

make

below

In

others,

fluid,and
slip. Quitting
the slip itself,they pass
through it to gain
the water
Here
containing the bacteria.
they

into

these

united

are

are

condenser

entered

admission

as

learn

the

the

having

ro

paradoxical

of

describe.

the rays
beneath

question

follow

to
to

apparently

strike

POWERS

the
by the stop, how can
with
a
dry objective,seeing that its aperture
In replying to this it will
?
-95 or thereabouts

seen

pencils,and

suffice to

it must

suitably placed

stop

those

it

HIGH

market, notably by Leitz, Zeiss,Beck, Reichert, and

or

off

WITH

which

to

the

cover

the

enter

made

was

air,they suffer

The
direct consequence
again into the water.
of this is,that with a dry lens the only pencilsgaining admission
those
into the objective are
coming from the bacteria, whilst the
effect is, that
these
a
projected on
bright organisms appear
total reflection back

When,
background.
perfectly dark
of
twelfth
is employed, the contact
in

question

front lens

to

In

to

necessary
immersion

consequence

add

system

which

that

the

or

so

make

set

desired

of

an

immersion

permits these
enter
they now

the

means

of this,to

diaphragm
so

oil

the

cover-glass,and

quit the

of the combination,

longer dark.

however,

background

rays
the
is

no

it so, it becomes

diaphragms

effect

may

to

be

the
thus

Owing to this necessity of cutting off these r.t


opticians arc of opinion that the only benefit that
question,some

obtained.

accrues

from

its shorter

the

focal

use

of

an

immersion

twelfth, is that

length,namely that it magnifies

more

due

than

to

the

FORMS

SPECIAL

84

the ocular

throw

the

as

the

and

CONDENSERS

employment of such, while it puts the


objective into alignment, it is true, is apt to

reluctantlydemur,
condenser

OF

of the axis

out

So

judiciouslyemployed.

the

at

time, unless

same

perfectlymade

goods of this

the

were

most

0
/

B
Fig. 114."

firm

that

device

the

at

allow

must

we

all when

and

has

to

be

might be

very

that
much

thickness

The

between

1*3 and

form

The

it is used

perhaps

sort, it is then

of

there

of
1*4

was

placed this

we

point is,when

Zeiss's Condenser.

self-contained

The

with

being truncated

to

lies

at

C), the

in

immersion

curved
such

an

upper

of

lens

surface
contact

as

the

to

by Zeiss

but
tails
de-

certain

to

J.

makers

the

use.

side, concentric
extent

"

reflecting

which

portion
of

R.

respect

respect

mention,

we

form

that

illuminator

upper

the

in

in

similar

facilitate its

claim

Beck's

of

of Cornhill, consjsts

that

slip,the

arrangement

by Messrs.

(Fig. 115) sold

condenser

it is modified

the

some

mm.

last-mentioned

of

make

for this illuminator

slip recommended

paraboloid

115."
Cond"

; but

felt.

Beck,

Fir.

stand

our

on

microscope of another
thereto by an
adapter of
of

want

condenser

centring

any

on

affixed

the

of

need

no

to

the

focusscs

(which

of

which

is

the

under

with
with

stop

is

apparatus

the

placed
face
sur-

foci,

all li-ht

from

SPECIAL

object which

the

reaching

the

By moving
ring (which
the

is

This

not

dirt

any

should

of

type

into
have

fallen

very

strong

may
A

brought

suitable

the

Or

It

economical

in current.

by Stearn,

is also

of

employed

by

the

microscopist had
as

Whatever

this
with
not

the

focus

little

made

now

the

The

Zigzag

service.

32

water

handy

; it has

in

to
bull's-eye

be
not

point

upon

the

recommends
the

of size ; whilst

the little

to

the

made

scope.
microdescent
incan-

ordinary
good

of

of

flask

the
of

being cheap,

Messrs.

Watson

and

lensbeing

mirror.

large
but
"

is

Sons

all in

the

lamp,

results.
is

bull's-eyecondenser
side

is

exclusively

Welsbach

furnish

is

by Messrs.

for

purposes

glass

arclamp,lamp

lamp,

stocked

of

and

oil

plane

advantage

voltage
(see Addenda)

is almost

use

and

supply,

the

to

useful

; but

enough

in use,

Sons,

profitably employed

attempt

to

the

to

available,a

not

"

candle-power,

usually

is

very

which

arc-light originally

candle-power

ordinary

be

not

hesitate

not

extremely

lamp

different

It

for

dust

ordinary house

Pointolite

new

illuminant
rays

up

bringing

by Watson

It is

to

do

we

the

use,

of

may

Zeiss

purpose

before

particlesof

required, and

nearly strong

the

show

special cleaning.

obtained

better

light is not

to

small

attached

current

burner

gas

also

microscopist should

just immediately

and

Author

If electric

its

to

Miles, Electricians, Brighton, and

"

same

has

particularlyprone

their

is

the

be

can

Nelson

being supplied according

resistance

the

about

of.

(page 167).

be

excellent.

Page

after

Argus

installation.

is well

the

continual

can

ordinary

spoken

any

by Leitz

convenient, for it

remove

some

The

the

most

both

on

to

be

Mr.

moreover

illuminant

out

called

and

thereon

after

recommend,

being

in

as

maximum

disturbing way, great care


thoroughly cleaning both slip and cover

matter

use,

so

use,

in

held)

is

self-centringarrangement

arrangement.

is

blow

so

should

slip

the

ro.

milled

paraboloid

slips into

and

illumination

before

forget to gently
them

The

of

obtain

to

as

N.A.

means

the

apparatus

which

exercised

be

so

condenser

foreign

or

by

which

substage

Zeiss's

for

alcohol

with

the

parabolic

this

As

of

of

necessary.

as
a

in

than

obliquity

down

or

up

sleeve

piece

sleeve

thickness
devised

the

185

less

accurately focussed

brilliancy.

adjustable

is of

paraboloid

rotates

is

light

ILLUMINANTS

size

sary
neces-

For
filled

certainly
attach

onefitting.

TO

HOW

86

HINTS

USE

THOSE

TO

THE

WHO

obtain

the

HIGH

illumination

fullest

it is necessary,

The

of

layer

if too

of the system,

with

all

in

be

cases

grossly

field of

equal

object.

extremely thin, for,


nothing but

appear

may

black.

rich

obtain

to

tioned
men-

for,if this be

illuminated
brilliantly

background

of

instead

grey

impossible

fluid must

thick, the

POWERS

slip of the special thickness

by the manufacturer
be found
neglected,it may
coincident

ILLUMINATION

advantage of this form of dark -ground


have already mentioned, that the
we
as

microscopist shall employ

blackness

METHOD

DARK-GROUND

USE

WITH

To

NEW

this

Should

light

be

appearance

presented, and no shiftingof the mirror improve the blackness,


it is a good plan to gently press the cover-glass,and
at the same
apply

time

of

piece

blotting-paper

cover-glass with the slip,when


fluid and
prevent it being again
it is very

using

character.

the

be

piece

of

cambric

may

be

mentioned,

objective when

layer of

The

fluid

mirror, but

the

be

cone

greater

if the

cover

be

focussed

the

on

If

it docs

if

not

sell

the

than

such

employed,

limits

the aperture

whilst

the

apochromatic

(in

an

of

light
at

the

to

be

the

our

perience)
ex-

sixpence

cross

combination
the
did

when

the

kind

or

from

the

focus,

or

preferred.

from
of

incd

recommend

be
the

use

its

the

supplied
into

purpose.

sent

portion

of

used

his semi-

mount,

own

can

funnel-shaped diaplv

is screwed

for the

Leitz

necessary.

nickel

is

mm.

which

objective must
not

always

of the combination

funnel-shaped diaphragm

Xciss

cone

of

side

not

position is

removed

It contains

which

is

which

to

twelfth, when

readily be fixed.

Carl

to

always shows

plane
of

diameter

general the former

specialmount

that

similar

(an apochromat furnishes the best results)


to its construction, but
require any diaphragm added

apochromatic

the

by

or

be used

be

twelfth

to

sixth

in

means,

of

it

should

illumination

of

lie in the
mirror
shilling. The
may
condensing lens either before the rays

afterwards,but

cover,

adheres

that

use,

the

thick.

is too

light should

by this

of

union

expressed

beneath

material

is in

the

up

other

or

such

point of

up

removed

unless

to

It

immersion

drawn

prone

soft

the

it will soak

the

as

to

correct

amount

with

free end

(It should
works

limiting

the

to

the

of

homogeneous

to

be

be

of

tioned
men-

fitted.)

systems.

TO

HOW
After

oil the

to

possible,and

all

bright

the

mirror

with

focus

to

of

should

be

arise

before

hinted, from

of

of

instead

removed

and

required for
but,

should

The

first

directed

to

the

agitation of

"

has

of

such

of

remove

an

that

inch

be

large.

too

of the

points

found

the

the

smaller, it is well
side

be

now

cation
magnifi-

necessary

be

been

desired

should

be

now

mirror

have

the

that

usually

this

obtained

arranged

real

With

method

had

his

for the

motion

little

if the

of

examination

attention

previously
particlesfloatingin

minute
less

easily
by what

may

"

is caused
for

movement,

cover-glassand

direct

look

obtained

be

when

of

mentioned

looking
deep grey.'

for

that

some

the

at

light in the ordinary

It should

rather

will

not

peculiar dancing pedetic motion


far back
as
readily
1827) can
1

thick.

too

than, say, about

mistake

the

peculiar
pedesis, or

is called
the

on

of

part
the

experience
observer

two

the
can

be

unacquainted
this peculiar form
let him
rub a little gamboge
of motion
for sufficient time
(to
water, and, having boiled the same
of living bacteria),
the possibility
place a minute quantity

beneath
with

be

objects not

readily distinguished; but

with

is

difficulty
may

being

it

one

All

of very

speak

we

objects themselves.
with

background

may

these

usually

examination

five-thousandth

be

the

standing
thinner, notwith-

mirror

making

employs

who

time, and

fluid medium

Brownian

it

required, it must

who

microscopist

for the

be

fluid

until

previously explained.

as

purpose,

the

When

objects

starting,

at

the

low-power eyepiece

most

twelfth

of

substituted.

12

of

lightslightlyto

The

produced.

use

being tried, perhaps

follows

it will

to

first

all directions

making

mirror

in its centre.

exactly

is

of

cone

carefullyattended
effect

the

(not

to

occur

obtain, such

to

after

improvement

no

in

layer

plane side

the

try placing the

to

the

occurs

positions of

lighton

Presuming

often

may

impossible

improvement

cone

is best

brightly illuminated, whilst

very

all

as

mentioned

compensating ocular
carefully. If the field is

manipulated

seems

no

details

187

power

bacteria

black,

If this

If

METHOD

the

to

low

as

the

black.1
as

NEW

slip to the condenser),it

instead

objects are

THE

attending

sixth

apochromatic

as

and

setting up

omitting
the

USE

under

specimen

manner.

On

seen,

and

background

Dr.

Brown

when

microscopists find

if the
ciliae,

twelfth

examination

(discovered by
be

be

once

better
not

results

the
so

fully
are

jet-black,but

188

DIFFICULTIES

appreciated,

cannot

motion

proper
There

be
the

on

is another

call it

wild

bacteria

of

process
caused

often

the

be

any

themselves.
we

"

may

fluid

containing the
the
especially when

seen,

due, it is generally believed,

previously mentioned

equalising the

for

strikingcharacter

fro of

It is not

mistaken

or

little bacteria

of

and

to

very

slide is first made.


either of the

the

appearance

may

ARISE

easily confused
part of

rushing

which

"

THAT

but

movements,
in various

pressures

rather

parts of

the

to

the

to

slide,

upon

probably by the unequal evaporation consequent


the irregulardistribution of the heat rays in this particular

form

of illumination.

very

There

We
or

is yet

refer

the

to

particles
may

pieces of
both

supplied
the

the

look

by Leitz

equally

make

be
lens

of

kept rigidlyfixed
for,if the

the
all

Supposing

of the

screws

be

the

condenser

to

of the

arrangement
and

its

said, this is
very

much

for

out

plan

we

do

of centre, and

with
turned

removal

ocular

stop

should

be

draw-tube

the

axis

of

to

appear

black

the

of

and

should

; but

held

and

be

keep moving about,

it is not

the

distribution

to

be

be

with

of

the

light.
adjusting

little
until

uniform

the

in

ring of
brilliancy.

centring device, an
attached
to the objective,
a

object ; but, as

we

advocate, for if the


the

be

be

ment,
instru-

provided

similar
nut

the

unequal,
manipulated

must

easily

so

the

stop appears
kind

radical

eye

on

obtains

the

be

must

same

used

screws

be

occurs

should
a

tive.
objec-

illuminator

as

"

pearance
ap-

the axis

not

the

central

of

down

to

to

is not

the condenser

When

end

allowed

found

the central

lightaround

is

bands,

the

often

screws

the

case

looking

whilst

be

and

the

round

from

that of

lift out

to

larger

The

from

objective. This

possibleto judge correctly as


this

with

effect

to

being the

such

head

little

; but

of

little distance

some

arise

condenser

necessary

illuminated

sure

the

"

disappear

back

of

that

direction.

troubles

one

organisms

diffraction

one

alignment

form

little

light,and

If
ordinary type.
centring apparatus

own

it may

the

at

be

to
at

its

wings

trouble

the

to

with

in

troublesome

the

of

one

arrangement

until

is

for this

commencement,

in

being

not

defect

as

Both

the

show

may

pointing

disturbing.

of the condenser
The

all

of

the observer.

annoy

of

wings

present

bands

is most

centred

matter

may

each

have

to

appear

and

which

that
possibility

foreign

wings

trouble

more

one

objectivein

have

already

condens"

consequence

has

to

SIEDENTOPFS
moved

be

illumination

dark-ground
called

Jena, and

him

by

throw

to

the

out

spoil the refinement

may

illumination
when

arise

there

distributed

in

are

not

of

relativelyconsiderable

fraction of the total thickness

small

other

See

in focus

difficulties

another,

particlesin

focus;

XVI.

dark-ground
the

object

that

thickness, so

is in

pectations,
ex-

think

Chapter

of

or

of

number

do

title,
we

sort

one

of

Siedentopf

by its attractive

great

form

great

condensers

by

to

The
ultra-microscopical."

subsequent experience.
methods
previously described

all the

made

Dr.

by

realised in

been

In

"

be

must

introduced

caused

however,

the

perhaps

closing this chapter,reference

Before

have

it is apt

amount,

ocular, which

189

definition.

of the

of

sensible

very

of the

alignment

METHOD

only

for in this case,

all

also

brilliantly
lighted,their
diffused images spoilthe dark background, making it grey instead.
The
this by
advocated
method
by Dr. Siedentopf overcomes
through the polished edge of
lightingthe object from the side
particlesnot

being

"

reduced

the

of light being
slip; for,the source
width
by an adjustable slit,only a most

object
this

slit

observer

illuminated

be

may
and

careful

may

so

of

focussing

things that

arrange

suitable

the

small

very

the

of

adjustment

lateral

of
the

condenser,

those

only

thickness

minute

fact,by

; in

to

particles are

objectiveand

with
the
sufficientlysharp focus
magnification in use.
By lighting the adjustable

slit with

powerful light(arc-lamp)the

illuminated

made

which

very

intense

so

method.

hence

method

the
be

of

to

to

the

had

resolution

ficiently
particlessuf"ultra-microscopical

objects

this

say,

been

does

rendered
not

rendered

visible

mean

by

that

the

by

this

obsolete

particlesare

minute

be

may

minute

of

name

for,although extremely

rendered

as
shapeless spurious discs of the
only shown
real shape and
prescribed by the undulatory theory. The
and
real size of the objects are
can
only
absolutely hidden

visible,they
size

applied

illumination

extremely

the

Needless

limit

accepted

make

to

as

luminous;
particles"has been
this

in

are

inferred

are

in

"

of small
visibility

preciseanalogon
which

is

minute

of resolution

them.

See

of
"

some

cases

"

by

under
particles
to

the

Theories

of

the

In

fact

the

of illumination

is

than

TQ^TJU)"f

the

or
easily sees
telescope which
Microscopical Vision,"Chapter

of

stars, the real diameter

(probably less
or

eye

methods.

this method

of
visibility

fraction
the

indirect

limit
shows

XVI.

APPARATUS

SIEDENTOPFS

190

By the courtesy of Messrs.


in

Fig.

116

Zeiss

we

are

enabled

to

show

this interesting method


diagram illustrating

Fig. 116.

Carl

"

of

Diffraction

Light

with

nn

of

Par'.icle.
Ultra-microscopic

f
^

'ianccs

Fluids, as

for the

I:

pro;

in

Fig. 117
powerful arc lamp,

illumination, and

including a
in
ultra-microscopic particles
"

"

complete

suitable
fluids.

for

set

the

of

apparatus,

observation

of

NARROW

192

VERSUS

which

from

it

LARGE

the

data

For

example, bacteriologistsseem

tuberculosis

under
the

is

made

was

probably

not

be

an

stained

encircling capsule,as
in every

appears

increased,

does

so

illustrations

this
be

might

though

many,

case

yet,

narrow

unstained,
clear

and

the

as

is

cone

pronounced

very

possible

as

whether

cone,

the

to

steadily and

eye,

slowly

mysterious capsule disappear ! Other


refrain from
given, but we
mentioning

feel

we

yet with

or

bright

extensive.
insufficiently

were

mostly agreed that the bacillus


organism likelyto have a capsule

ordinary conditions, and

specimen

CONES

obliged

furnish

to

one

peculiar

more

effect of

is with
This
the common
using too small a cone.
object,the proboscis of the blow-fly. So treated, the exceeding

small
lobes
a

hairs

lie upon

which

actuallyappear

interveningbetween

the

two

double,especiallyat their tips; whereas

of moderate

even

cone

the space

angle such

indication

is

with

entirelyabsent.

far can
reduce
the aperture
we
question then arises, How
of
the substage diaphragm
without
the
risk of introducing
To
false images ?
this we
reply that, speaking in general, it
The

must

be curtailed

not

to

greater

extent

lens of any

than

outer

third of the back

down

the tube of the instrument, the ocular


has

what

From

that

strange

by the

should

we

object,especiallyso, seeing

an

of the

large curtailment

It will

diaphragm

between

Before

be

lens

necessary,

narrow

exceedingly

seem

and

resolution

produced

condenser

therefore, to
se,

removed.

improvement effected

is

of the

per

cone

qualify first what

to

"oblique light."
that

by the

Whilst

affect the

use

of

employment

full aperture
true.

back

that such

produce oblique light.


actually proceeding to consider

it is necessary

the

the

been

by
by

of
very

the

iris

ence
the differ-

show

and

the

this

interestingsubject,

narrow

beam

to

necessary

term

to

of the

by looking

seen

having

said, it may

advance

now

cutting off

objectiveas

oblique light in the definition

of

use

been

just

the

of

mistaken

we

"

notion

of this class
of

beam

refer to
in

by the distinctive
has

often been

of illumination

"

meant

the

into the
means
by some
is not
obliquely. This
exactly
if obliquely placed does
mirror

this when

dealing
conjunction with

with
the

high-power objectives
Abbe
test-plate to a certain degree, still this is
when
we
speak of oblique light.
technicallymeant

of

was

tained
enter-

lightsent

condenser

allowing that

image

is meant

the
use

not

testing
of the
what

is

OBLIQUE
using the

When

stopping out
diaphragm of
placed in such
reflected by
into

passes

the

of
say
a

193

its restrictive

sense,

the

mean

we

portion of the condenser


quarter or eighth moon-shaped

by a
design,
that the light

greater

beneath

manner

the

the

in

term

LIGHT

the

illuminator

mirror

condenser

edge only, and so


impinges very obliquely

at

one

tJie

upon

specimen

as

If
Fig. 118.
such
a
diaphragm be so
placed (in the foreign
of
models
microscopes
this
is
readily effected
by shiftingthe partially
closed
iris
or
nearly
from
the
diaphragm away
in

shown

the

and

eyepiece

is

Fig. 1 1 8.
of the

centre

the

removed,

field to

observer

its

periphery)

will

perceive, on
lens of the combination, a
at the back
looking
small
illuminated
elliptical
or
oval-shaped portion of the field
to be the only illuminated
all the rest being in darkness
area,
in different
(see Figs. 120 and 121 showing the illuminated areas
down

the

tube

parts of the field of the back


Prof. Abbe

lens

of the

objective).

explained in his theory of microscopical vision,


which
is now
held so firmly notwithstanding the doubts
brought
forward
in the
did
who
not
by inadvertence
past by those
thoroughly grasp his meaning, that the final image of a small
differentlyformed
object is formed
by the union of two or more
beams"
the

has

the

directly transmitted

hand,

one

the

according to
object caused
of the

minute

blendingor
effects
with

are

the

object
sudden

by

of these

union

are

and

on

the

other

union

illuminant

varying

minute

in

on

number

of the

structure

The

brings out the definition


the object. The
importance of such

differentlyformed
of

the

the

phenomena).1
(interference

diffraction

structure

those

by
of

arrangement

from

one

is shown

by

beams

the

fact

that

if the

diffraction

artificially
stopped out, so that the ocular deals only
of the
details
central
or
dioptric beam, the minute
all of a
immediately lost,and the objective seems

to have
1

lost its power.


These

are

It should

be

borne

in

mind,

also called the diffraction spectra.

13

we

OBLIQUE

I94

passing, that with


evidently the case, or
in

mention

should

is not

such

apparent

so

but

LIGHT

of this

have

we

objects, however,

coarse

anyhow
time

hardly

assertion
the

into

the

to

speak in this
of the microscopic image

of the

formation

image with such

following experiment be performed


specimen of Pleurosigma angulatum, use
the

and

objective, focus
and

condenser,

iris to

the

closed

objective. A

image

of

central

iris will

be

the

on

homogeneous

the

at

blue

the centre

nearest

we
Fig. IIQ.1 If now
in its stead
slide, and use

being especially sold

for

this

ruled
the

violet

"

used

the
any

should

we

red

; in

distance.

other

other

purpose

as

these

apart-

by Carl

Zeiss

in

shorter

spectra

lights

question
the wave-length
are

say

"

less than

observations

are

from

away

diffraction

for future

convenience

three

further
coloured

different

used

lines

the

nearer

the

do

this distance

the

together the

words, the

More

that

centre

we

find

grating-

shall
particularexperiment, we
discover that the spectra always lie
right angles to the objects forming

them, and

if

change the

lines of different distances

one

at

Further,

lens

of tJiefield"

in

soon

become.

back

white
dioptricallyformed
surrounded
by six diffraction

seen

ruled

brilliant

spectra coloured red outside and


as

stage

light, centrality of
the eyepiece, having
look

and

enter

effect,let

potent

twelfth

now

amount,

put, however,

images do

Place

critical

Remove

sensible

of the

the

adjust for

forth.

so

To

diffraction

that these

proof

so

to

place,for the details of the formation


in this book.
into elsewhere
are
fullygone
our

be

not

may

the

reference
here

if

set

we

less
than

forth.

diffraction
two
(i) The
spectra lie at right angles to the
objects forming them, one on each side of the dioptricbeam.
lie together (such as dots or
the fine structures
(ii)The nearer
in diatoms), the further the diffraction spectra arc
placed

dioptricbeam is seen.
(iii)The shorter the wave-length of the light used, the shorter
of the diffracted spectra from the dioptricbeam.
the distance
the dots
In the case
of Pleurosigma angulatum, inasmuch
as
the centre

from

In

of N.A.

Fig.

5,

of the

Hate

1*40 is shown

I., a

back

lens where

photograph

with the spectra

of

the

the

in siiu.

back

lens

of

an

objective

OBLIQUE
hexagons happen

or

the

for
be

both

purpose,

moment

(Fig.

together

to

fusion,let

placed

to

diameter

the

render
which

"

the

For

to

"

purpose

additional

an

placed

with

the

outer

lens

out

later

on

the

focal

length

Place

shift it

an

Fig.

same

blended

ocular.

For

the

as, in

beam
the

back

and

fact,only

to

looking

on

diatom

lens

such

will

now

consideration
small

too

were

of

saying if the N.A.


diffractionspectra, then of

way

unable

show

to

the

minute

(Fig.2,

of

explaining the

be

convenient, before

Plate
that

Numerical
of
the

for future

to

one,

the

back

focal length remains

let

downwards

in

N.A.

of

as

"

1*35

correction

low-power
lines

transverse

oiled

an

objectivebe

the

especiallyin the

possiblewith

using the

continue

we

existing details

the

If the

1*40
of

6 ocular

to

its
see

have

pointed
objective of

we

test-objectsfor

an

such

diaphragm,

illuminator

as

sented
repreZeiss

(or if

using a
stand, close partiallythe iris diaphragm
and
field to produce the
same
effect),
the

should

start

now

IV.),provided

diameter

of

use

convenience

above

understood

more

20, under

that

the

out

into

specimen

great
be

eighth moon-shaped diaphragm

aperture
the

from

length

be

and

nature

proceeding further,to
Let the specimen be changed

question.
eighth moon-shaped

lines

and

exact

in

the

across

transverse

smaller

can

the

are

little further

if the

be

considering

Continental

diameter

of

these

would

the

when

now

in

another

transmit

add

good

just faintly visible

one

only

It is to

it will be

zone,

other

evident,

(achromatic).

condenser
and

all

the

direct

or

structure

its greater

objective,but

same

spectra

and

one

twelfth, so

central

experiment.

field of view.

the

at

in

and
Amphipleura pellucida,

of

one

it be

it
is

it will
oblique light,

to

the

of the diatom.

structure

make

and

it follows

the

minute

combination

the

course

lens

seen

disappeared.

insufficient1

were

as

of

lens

of the

have

is sufficient to
in

back

image

back

the

over

found

the

light

distance

correct

again experimentally proving the utilityof


of the correct
dimensions
diaphragm be made

permit tJie passage


through the ocular
be

direct

I.),hence

the

form

of

purpose

the

5, Plate

195

separated by just the

field of

the

in

seen

be

to

LIGHT

may
lens

of this
constant.

be
of

an

to
practically
its
to
objective

said

lens, the

less the

N.A.

be

and
the

distinctness
well-marked

lies at the lower

the ratio of the

focal

or

length

; hence

of the combination

semithe

if the

LIGHT

OBLIQUE

196

in Fig. 120, which


shown
as
represents
portion of tJtefield,
presented by the back lens of the objective.1
appearance

Rotate

the

diaphragm

positionsimilar

its

quarter of

that shown

to

in

turn

to

make

it

the

change

Fig. 121, and then, returning

Fig. 121.

Fig. 120.

which run
eyepiece, the longitudinallines as they are called
Lastly,change
along the diatom lengtJiwise should be seen.2

the

"

"

positionof the diaphragm

the

now

between

positionmidway

the dots

green
should be

for

purpose.

the

shown

those

again, so that it occupies


in Figs. 120
and
121
;
blue

light be employed,
visible,provided the specimen be a good one
See
Fig. 5, Plate XII.; Fig. i, Plate VI.;
or, better

if pure

and

once

still,
pure

6, Plate XIII. ; and Fig. 2, Plate XV.


Figs.
by trying
Presuming the reader has followed these remarks
the actual experiments, he is in a position now
to understand
5 and

If,whilst
explanation that follows.
when
the amphipleura are
faintly seen
the

eyepiece and

employing

light),the ocular
with

cone

and

the

the

using

lower-power

(without

oblique
substage diaphragm be
in

seen

appearance

recognised.3
the diffraction spectra (here,as
blue portion)on
either side of

one

of

only

to

the

been

entirelygot
Of

solid

lines of

transverse

any

Fig.

122

will

be
difficulty

some

If

removed

trifle,the

veriest

the

closed

be

the

the field of

the back

the

stated, we

central

lens

could

of the

refer
have

objective,

opening is at the top or


portionbeing covered
up.
of their closeness,it is often
be mentioned, however, because
white
when
them
lightis employed, but they should be clearly
this

course

into

above

means

that

the

crescent

moon

opposite side of the condenser^ its lower


-

It should

difficult to
visible
3

ind

The

see

when

green

edge

the eye

of

must

illumination
the

lower

is used.

diffraction

be shifted about

Lite XII.

Sec

spectrum

before

it will

is extremely difficult to see,


see

the upper

one.

OBLIQUE

inasmuch

but

small

of

lines

the

then

the

portion

have

been

absolutely impossible

of it into

this

view,

definition

imperfectionof

and

197

would

specimen

it is

as

LIGHT

to

bring
for

accounts

reference

to which

well

defined
than

more

the

faintness

been

has

made.

DIFFRACTION

CENTRAL
IRIS

BE
SEIKO

Fig. 122.
Now

what

formed

the

across

in

entirely at
definition

the

of

zones

of

the

the

with

iris

to

be

is

is rendered

objective
of

correctness

the

moment.

same

the

perfect as

as

dioptrically

spectra, further

permits
central

in

and

eyepiece completely
By doing this
construction

theory of the formation

Abbe

sequence,
con-

beam

admit, constituting another

will

the

by

up

the

which

123,

closed, both

more

taken

and

one

Fig.

in

diffraction

the

Practically

central

the

shift of

shown

the

diffractionspectra
and

means

company

field,as
when

DOWN

SHUT

oblique light is used

when

happens

beam,

THE

Fig. 123.

simply this, it

it is

AM,

of

the

proof
of

the

at

the

microscopic image.
The

the observer

explanation applies when


such
longitudinal lines ; but because
same

(it is usually found) somewhat


together in most
specimens, so
(ii)their spectra should
the
beam

edge
is

of

the

nearer

by
lie

the
in

lie

position
pro-

nearer

dioptric
the

back

Putting this in other


the
they lie further from

124.

language, as
dioptric beam
the

when

centrally placed

lens, Fig.

from

field

looks

than

transverse

those

which

markings,

come
so

they

Fig- 124.

OBLIQUE

198
are

difficult to

more

is to

"

the field

across

Now

what

to

as

the reader

has

the

microscopist uses a littlemore


employs a littlefurther shifting"
"

say,

get them

to

"

unless

see

oblique light that

LIGHT

its limitations

within

happens when

experimented he
locate

to

lens, so

dots

become

found

will have

the

beam

both

the

(Fig. I24).1
visible.

it is not

in the area
occupy
that the diffraction

longitudinaland

be

present

in

the

at

field.2

the

To

direct

of the

back

spectra

from

lines shall

transverse

and

one

to

easy

position for the

exact

If

moment

same

facilitate this

operation
employ blue

it is

to
mostly necessary
light or certainly a blue-green, because
by employing the shorter wave-length

it lessens

spectra from

gives
beams

real

then

use

simply this

is

also the

ocular

for the

From

what

final
has
the

back

aperture

to

the

lens

N.A.

'05

the addition

the

of

in

being possibly of
shows, with

should

dots

spectra

back

lens

utilised

by the
by the eye.3

seen

having

large

of

having

great

apparent,

addition

an

little service

the

of

words

is very

use,

be
as

necessity

the

into

to

as

image

lens, in other

of the diffraction

student

so

said, the

It further

image.

direct beam,

or

moment,

same

been

to

the

central

buildingup

aperture

even

by

of

objectiveat the

the

beam

diffraction

employing oblique lightto show


enable the microscopist to get the two

to

required,and
of

central

of the

and
hence
proposition (iii),
better opportunity of squeezing, so
to speak, all three
into the limit of the back
lens (see Fig. 125).

The

the

distance

the

in

of

perfecting

low-power objectives(seeing
them

spectra with

is not

of such

Fig. 124 with the preceding. Whilst


is readilyseen
to have
recognisingboth are diagrammatic, the dioptricbeam
shifted
from
distance
in
been
" further
sensibly
centrality one figure than
The

in the

If

much
the

circular

this
3

back
a

Fig. 6,

lens

that

specimen
the

means

In

they should
microscopist be
as

stage
the

move

of

diffraction-beams

the

other, although

quite as

compare

can

be

than

illumination
Plate

N.A.

shown

not

have

to

moved

be.

using
turned

interfere
of the

instrument

an

around

with

1*40 combination

the

being used.

of

is

that

provided

with

the

field is not

1.,a photograph

Pleurosigma angulatum

are

the

is shown

optical axis, it is easier to


as
substage arrangements,
by
interfered

with.

appearance
when

the

"

presented by the
is changed,

venue

"

LIGHT

OBLIQUE

200

This

corrected.

optician'sart,
observer

any

markings

specimen of
numerical
with a low
aperture, why
i
n
difficulty persuading himself there

one

such

all,the diatom

at

Position

shows

field at

the

Position

is

time

be well

lines should

shown

now

noticed

to
so

as

the

central,

when

the

eyepiece

explains the

situation

when

THK

THEORY

and

are

the

in

transverse

use.

is

arrangement
of
it is

showing the
always more

LIGHT

HI

the
pellucida on
N.A.
objective in

Amphipleura
stage

it is

entering

the

"

OBLIQUE

OF

I'|.V;KAMMATIC:ALLY

be

is in

made
for the purpose
venue
changed and the
longitudinal lines,and it further explains why
"

the

poor

"

venue

beam

same

structure.
appearing without
changed and oblique light in

"

the

diffraction

One

the

or

has

the

use.

explains, too, with

1-40

use.

circles

black

turned

central

beam

Circle

in

The

"

the

all

the

be

to

blue

the

end

towards

cases

the

presented

appearance
lens
of the

back

objective

light is used.
/''."Oblique light when

when

to

to

Circle

green

show

CircleC.

the

(seeFig. 119).

at

supposed

spectra,

being

diop-

or

whilst

beam,

are

diffraction

central

the

represents

trically formed

the

Oblique lightwhen

"

show
D.

light when

Oblique
the

arranged

lines.
longitudinal

the

"

show

dots

and

one

the

to

set

spectra (the

two

field at

ends) lacing in the

blue

used

lines.

transverse

time.

same

Fig. 126.
difficult to
be

one,1 entails the

shiftingof
D

Position

lines, which
both

of

the

beam
back

this has
to

of

use

the

"

indicates
means

be

not

in
1

use

On

must

lens.

account

the

the

as

as

be in the

the

position chosen
much

As

from

away

the

will

central

much

").
"the

or

spectral beams, it

oblique light (or so

more

displaying

quite been
at

much

so

venue

spectralbeams,

central

because

considerably further

noticed, being

more

also ;

them

see

field at
in

for

dots."

displaying both

For

this

pi:

possible of each,

with

one

and

the

the

moment

same

it will

the

be

noticecl
diagram,
the light supposed
accomplished, because
time
has
too
long a wave-length ; hence

of the

seen

lines being closer than

the

transverse.

LIGHT

OBLIQUE
blue

blue-violet

or

their

more

back

lens

of

the

This
use

is

at

mind

the

lest

semi-lunar

diaphragm
whether

question

of

large arc
latter

of

part alone

The

exact

the

necessary

portion

lens

back

in

these

two

relative merits

of

of
the

the

former

direct

the

course,

it
details),
of

should

view

little
the

is not

actually

lost

It is

of

image,

should

to

appear

allowed

the

the

for

the

an

open

the

extent

us

best

the

most

the

upon

practical

of

method
the

to

little curious

actual
that

also

requireslightlydifferent
oblique light demanded
closeness

the

"

effects
produce
object, lying in

admitted

with

advantage

"

to

outside

be

of

is for the

zone

our

details

no

be

intermediate

opinion,seeing that the introduction


into
phenomena is very easilyintroduced
(diffraction)
Further, it is

by

diaphragm
In
large one.

As

upon

be

be

may

conditions

put both

largely depends
not

borne

must

care

zones.

to

of

the

circle

be

position

large

amount

but, whatever

of

(which,

often

the

must

this that

middle

It

experiment.

of

half-moon

from
to

but

theory involved

outer

seemed

has
to

the

place,

part of the

the

and

outer

of

objective is usually included

depends

cases

objectsof different types


treatment;

that

arc

outer

It is evident

guide to the student, what


dealing with the subject is
of

the

of

the

small

takes

conditions.

have

to

distance

area

study

position

circle,or

employed.

between

field

this

When

seen.

the

small

; whereas

the outer

test

limited

rapidly changing

too

it is better

case

the

of

zone

by

fulfilment

complete

the

the

very

employed,

be

the

thereby allowing
(iii),

one
important, and
by the microscopist.
the explanation of the
concludes
of oblique light. In practice some

shown
in

beams

objective.

"dots"

shorten

to

through

passage

1^40

the

until, can

not

employed

diffraction

dioptric and
complete

between

be

must

201

real

as

unless

of

the

in

the

space

of

false

the

final

they
light,or

can

at
although perhaps imperfectly, with direct
of oblique illumination.
amount
rate with but a small
any
The
reader
now
naturally ask if it be possible to
very
may
of oblique
that
than
obtain
means
by any
greater resolution

be

seen,

light
we

used

must

obtained
or

as

remind

him

in

ways

two

making

by
so

much

described.

have

we

the

that
"

increase

either

wave-length

desired

can

by

To
of

only be

resolution

the

making

smaller

this

answer

hence

effected

by

can

N.A.
the

question,
only be
greater,

improvement
employing one

ZEISS

202

of these

both

or

by the veriest

of

N.A.

these

as

Up

has

lenses

is

placed

for

of

least

at

all

the

require the

active

the

upon

this

if for

of

ground
glasses

have

we

of

made

usually

"

for

expense,

flint

object
sion
immerto

restriction

combination

reason,

be

cannot

"

the

medium,

the

upon

informed

been

practical

system,

such

other

no

known

laudable

mounting
of

first

forget

refraction,a

employment

practical purposes,

for
not

whole

of

index

high

same

do

we

fluid, condenser, slip,cover-glass,and


be

it is well

reached

with

the

present

; but

Here

Zeiss

by

the

been

r/p.

r6

to

adopted

limit

objectives made

; but

view

mostly

that

by lenses

purposes
N.A.
I '6
in

been

tyro

N.A.

expedients.

two

has

which

is that

OBJECTIVE

the

cover-

in

prepared

the

have
be
but
to
ground and
ordinary commercial
manner,
polished by hand.
Consequently the only improvement
possible
to

was

this

light of shorter

use

much

reason

The

service.

not

be

made

in

1.) Then

that

the

made

to

by employing

X-ray

instead.
much

screen,

the

objects

be

to

ground-glass of the

ent

any

when

blue

camera.

upon

illumination

was

Annular

Although

we

do

interesting

not

remarks

First,

lenses

in pre-war

had

to

met

after

to

be

focussing difficultywas
method

the

used
the

focus

to

with
time

them

Unfortunately, the photographs


those

did

not

obtained

appear

to

by ordinary

employed.
Light

recommend
will

the

was

had

arrangements

The

FCC

light of shorter

in

images

were

times,

be

sufficientlywell

seen

advance

great

violet

experiment.

by this costly arrangement

produced

some

ultra

work, which, by lengthening the wave-lengths for

being, enabled

means

see

blue-violet, so

or

slight

results,why

(These

so.

commercial

cannot

them

photograph

the

difficultywhich

eye

blue

do

docs

were

next

human

the

wave-length than

on

if this

namely, the

making

prismatic

undulations, all the optical parts had

which

quartz

by Zeiss, and

constructed

in

arose

for

was

of considerable

out

suggestion that

"

these

glass transmits

no

met

wave-length still

difficulties

Many

rays?

fact

was

perfecting a

It turned

170.

page

outcome

lightof shorter

use

to

on

in

spent

was

It

green.

shortening of wave-lengths yielded improved

extra

as

time

described

arrangement

than

wave-length

be

this

found

form
in

the

of

illumination,

Addenda,

OF

ILLUMINATION

Illumination

The

light;

transmitted

instances,

by

which

on

other

some

lamp

in

which

Objects

illumination
there

be

must

effected

several.

are

of

method

casting the light of the


shown
in Fig. 127,
them, as

upon

the

indicates

plan

203

the

these

simple

illuminant

other

or

Opaque

their

Of

the

by

for

account

means.

first is

The

of

OBJECTS

by
microscope are examined
this, however, is not
possible in certain

objects prepared

Most

OPAQUE

of

portion

the

lamp

and

specimen

SLIP

ARRANGEMENT

PLAN

IN

METHOD

OF

OPAQUE.

OBJECTS

ONE

OF

ILLUMINATING

Fig. 127.

ence
differinterposed. There is some
should
of opinion which
side of the plano-convex condenser
the piano side
be turned
towards
the specimen, but theoretically,
the shorter
should always be turned
towards
conjugate to obtain
with

condenser
bull's-eye1

the

best

the

condenser,

better

and

(although this

by direct experiment
be
1

reference

chapter.

have

to

the

may

shock

gives the

which

what

different

kinds

tried

in

that

found

statement

however,

mentioned,

frequently

have

We

results.

positions of

practiceit is far
readers) to try

actual
some

better

dissimilar

both

result.

It should

often

effects may

of bull's-eye is

given

in

be

previous

OF

ILLUMINATION

204

different

produced by

using

illuminant,

point which

falls

sun

obliquely

of the

surface

When
in

Hence

make

we

rule

always

the

effects

it almost
to

help

microscope.
the object

fall upon

try

the

to

seems

stage, the

to

much

up

considerably. So

very

it falls upon

when

before.

light from

effect then

the

the

they are illuminated


rightangles upon the

its beams

with
parallel

it

show

moon

objects under

that

of

noticed

the

exactly, at

the mountains

so

situation

seen

of the

little shadow

different from

be very

to

moon.

almost

direction

upon

light is placed

the

never

quarters, when
them, than when

bring out
certain
low-power

with

the

third

and

delineate

it is

have

we

fallingalmost, if not

by beams
to

first and

the

at

OBJECTS

angles for

that the mountains

known

It is well

better

OPAQUE

appear

vertically.

whereabouts

see

is

of
position that gives the best effects by the simple means
direct experiment.1 The
position,however, in this particular
is necessarilyvery often limited to a great
type of illumination
at
degree by the mounting of the low-power objective in use

the

the

moment,

and

of

for

great

so

of

some

the

size,that

older

the

make

are

lightcan

get

blunt-ended,

so

the

to

object only

be
avoided
lamp is in one
position. This can
by
modern
manufacture
that are
not
using objectives of the more
so
constructed, having their brass mount
tapering off to the
the

when

lens.

front
purpose

question,the

or

combinations

the

from

sensible

much

specimen

with

otherwise

mounted.

the

these

the

permit

years

by
1

rubber
This

select out

ago.

stops

illuminant

than

is

hot

object

so

will
is

circumstances

will determine
of the

It consists
and

very

fashion, as

same

of

often

which

in this

with

to

such

the

on

focussed

rays
or

objective

an

many

that the

their

downwards

fashion, and

actually burn

to

surrounded

four mentioned

employing, for the


by Messrs. Watson

light being thrown

ease

exceedingly handy, cheap, and


designed by Mr. Kingsford and
some

the

conical

the examination

when

under

in

the

of

front lens is itself carried

greater

bull's-eyeupon

specimen
then

the

after

made

to

as

fond

are

objectivessold

brasswork

distance

Sometimes

we

Holos

that the

is such

formation
away

this account

in

Sons,

"

On

by

injure

the

It is best
protracted one.
interpose a water-bath, an

small

arrangement

shown
two
to

type

at

plates
a

of

chapter.

the
of

greater

being that
Quekctt Club

glass separated
part

illumination

of

their

is the best

to

ILLUMINATION

circumference

OF

by

rubber

clean

to

easy

of their

own.

devoted

to

best

to

in

be

water

of its

because

The

the

empty,

They

can

powers

the

and

be

can

specimen,

when

using

there

bath

had

as

is

there

easily

better
than

usually too

situation.

usually answers

arrangement

; but

This

condenser, rather

the

and

last-mentioned

in the

diameters,

300

it

hot,

too

gets

less air.

much

so

illuminant

the

spare

the water

that
it is always
in, remembering
and
has been boiled
subsequently cooled,

containing

to

low

to

put

above-mentioned

and

200

that

the condenser

littleroom

with

fresh

between

placed

between

hand, for,if

and

out
use

fill,
easy

recommendations.

great

very

to

brass

stripof

ordinary bull's-eye
stand, or supplied on stands
These
are
more
fully explained in the chapter
Not
too large a one
serves
Accessory Apparatus."

"

the purpose

emptied

Easy

screws.

205

the

fitted to

be

are

OBJECTS

ring,supported by

capable of being tightened by


and

OPAQUE

very

magnificationof

well

between

in illuminating
great difficulty

is

plan suggested by Mr. James to get over


the difficulty
is worthy of a trial. It is that of placing the light
low down, and
the bull's-eyecondenser
so
obliquelythat it casts
a
wedge-shaped beam
along the surface (or very nearly)of the
object

all.

at

ARRANGEMENT
SECOND

IN

OF

OF

METHOD
OPAQUE

ILLUMINATING

PLAN

OBJECTS

Fig. 128.

stage, just passing between


the
A

the

front

objectiveand

lens of the

specimen.
second

method

is

modification

of what

we

have

called

OF

ILLUMINATION

206

the first. The

condenser,
these

is

placed

more

or

stage.

On

the

lamp
in

pass

of

surface

the

received

are

OPAQUE

by

to

less

modification

opaque
mirror, with a hole

third

time

its centre,

in

ARRANGEMENT
METHOD

OF

O5JECT5

BY

along the

it is to

OF

ILLUMINATING
MEAN6

OF

of

have

through which

PLAN

IN

them

returns

method

on

nating
illumi-

parabolic

the

The

objectivejust protrudes (see Fig. 129).

of the

leaving the

parallel beam

constitutes

object. This

an

after

by experiment,

correct

Another

its rays,

opposite side of the specimen


silver parabolic reflector which, placed

position found
the object (Fig. I28).2

the

in

that

so

OBJECTS

front

lens

lightpassing

THIRD

OPAQUE

LlEBERKUHN

THE

Fig. 129.

upwards througJi the slip around


falls

light
"

object

the

that

How

be mounted

must

directly upon

obtain

to

Sin"e

the

late Secretary

the

side reflector which


tit in

the

proper

half, with

as

specimen
if for

mirror, which
from

lens

is

with

use

implies

which

"

transmitted
it to

returns

fullydescribed

in

focus
cailier

1 1.

publicationof
to

this

parallelbeams

parts of this book, page


2

the

the first edition

Ouekett
is

worthy
one

position,it

Microscopical Club,
of mention.

side silvered.

is said

'jolic side reflector above

of this book,

to

be

It consists
When

quite as

mentioned.

has

Mr.

\V.

suggested
of

15.
a

as

of

cheap magnifying

suitably placed, and

effective

Stokes,
form

the

more

held

in

expensive

OPAQUE

OF

ILLUMINATION

208

OBJECTS

cover-glass placed

(Figs. 131
of

the

and

at

132) to

microscope

thence

into
to

on

other

the

optical axis
(suitable adjustments

to

first

latter

the

from

in the

it falls

tenuse
hypo-

the

on

prism

half

of

there

designed

both

little

objective,

total

before, on

as

reflection
the

to

difficultyin
with

it is needful

types

the

by

special objectives arranged


with

of

devoid

thence,

variety offers but

needs

whilst

mounts,

from

objective,and

The

object ; whilst

of

only

cover

passing
the

from

Vertical

into

view

objective C,
mount

has
mount

but

both

'1 he
care

Illuminator

impliestheir special correction

expense
with

Zciss Vertical

in
to

use

with

forms

of

dry powers

p,

lower
the

tube

with

cither

directed
the

in

latter

tached
at-

the

and

short

reflecting prism
knob

for

purpose, which

means

be

cover-glass can

used

of arrangement.
of

these

adjusting the details.


be

mens
speci-

(Full Size).

for the

oil immersions

short

very

plan view; K, milled


revolvingthe prism.

F'g- I33-"

but

use,

(partly sectional)
the

to

men.
speci-

employ

to

cover-glasses. Unfortunately with

A,

this

it is

and

the

surface

which

objective

(Fig. 133)

45"

the

being provided), by
reflected

of

angle

an

into

the

illuminators
It

is very

obvious

little aperture

greatest exactitude.

To

requires particular
in

that

the

the

side

perfect the

of

light
the

illumina-

POLARISED
and

tion

furnish

to

gathered by

are

the

aperture

lens

to

enough light,the
bull's-eyecondenser
the

to

on

reflector.

his latest pattern, which

is

lightis adjusted,no
it

as

Sons

"

Watson

upsets the

it is shown

fixed into the apparatus

directlythrough

cast

attaches

condensing

convenience.

the

tube

of the

evenness

have, however,

where

Fig. 134,

and

is

introduced

in detail.

for

(alreadyprovided

focussing is
form,

new

tube

the

upsets

provides
the

the

illuminates

which

the

ordinary

Watson-Conrady

134."

field.

working of

It is evident
this

little condenser)

described

metallurgicalmicroscopes

In

by making
adjustments of focus
is met

the

stage

move

be made

can

Polarised

of

no

of the

movement

little

use

with

hereafter,the difficulty
and

up
with

battery

down,

hence

any

impunity.

Light

he
when
questions asked by the amateur
the beautiful
rendering of objectsby this peculiar method
Polarised
is meant
illumination is,What
Light ?
by the term

One
sees

be

can

is

Illuminator.

arrangement.

lamp

lamp

supplied for
supply if speciallyrequired.

current,
house

but

Vertical

missible,
per-

illustrated

incandescent

with

the

Messrs.

illumination.
a

An

that, after

^
Fig.

illuminant

the

from

arrangements

of

movement

209

rays

Leitz

great objection to all these

The

in

LIGHT

of

The

answer

how

most

the

first

to this is not

text-books

on

at

the

all easy,

and

subject

of

it is very
the

remarkable

microscope

shirk

explanation. This very probably arises from the fact that


to reply to
it brieflyis so
difficult,and to do so thoroughly
concise
involves
too much
description
Perhaps no more
space.
that
exist than
and explanation of what
is meant
by the term
given by the late Mr. Spottisxvoode in his fascinating volume
any

devoted

entirely

to

the

subject

in

the

Nature

Series,
14

from

POLARISED

PLANE

210

which
words

celebrated

It is considered

medium,

ether.

The

established

as

in

which,

to

due

any

all space

with

consistent

mechanical

the

similarly situated
of

orbits

; and

of variations

to

of

although

number
finite

is

there

of situation

of

portion
to

consecutive
of

the

prevent

ray

the

ray.

may

be

The

the

on

suggested
ellipse.
"

the

not

are

ray

in

that

molecules
there

are

entire

the
But
all

general
be

may
a

sufficient

of average
understood
into

ray

of

of any

but

preponderance
polarisationis

any

various

sensation

ether

believe

to

reason

of
being assumed, the process
orbits
of
all
bringing
throughout the

the

the

been

This

direction.
be

constitution

the

similarly situated, yet in


number

of

molecules

an

the

although

of the
the

direction

and

"

considerable

molecules

none
simpler have
straightline,the circle,and
orbits at different points of
the

made

suppositions usually
possible are
only forms
in ordinary light the

all matter,

producing

of

is called

name,

and

by the

ways

light take place in planes perpendicular to the


paths or orbits of the various vibrating ethereal

the

own

vibration

the

to

better

vibrations

The

it permeates.

of

pervade

in different

affected

are

which

light is

that

absence

the

is understood

ether

its motions

form

author's

"

elastic

media

the

in

following

the

quote

we

LIGHT

similar

positions.
not
thoroughly
elegant description,however, may
to the
lay mind, for it requires,anyhow,
explain the matter
certain, though very
elementary, knowledge of the subject
a

this

Even

whose
light in general, not perhaps possessed by a reader
attention has been
previously directed entirelyto other matters.
To
him, then, the following remarks, though perhaps not so
of

scientifically
accurate,
certain

With

example
consists
say,

in

"

vibrations

of

all

in

paths

of the

stated
ether

to

bi-axial

that

ordinary

tJie

all azimuths

in
and

directions,each

right angles

and

uni-axial

exceptions
generally be

it may

"

directlyappeal.

more

may

patJi of

white

light

that

"

is to

of which

one

every

crystals,for

arc

itself. This

tJie ray

is

rudely represents the section of a


Plane
to the eye.
polarisation consists in
ray of light coming
of all these azimuths, or paths of vibrations into
the arrangement
une
plane only, as in B or C in the same
figure. An object viewed
shown

in

Fig. I35A,

which

"

by lightof
rather
manner

this

description would

feebly than

more

to

be

hereafter

usual

only

; but

explained,

if examined
and

about

:n

hcnomcna

hibited, and

mo"t

specimen

gorgo"us
so

if illuminated

ap;

to

illuminated

in

with

the

beautiful

behold,
and

particular

special
and

would

examined

paratus
ap-

curious
bt
is

PLANE

POLARISED

LIGHT

211

ABC

Fig- 135-

by plane polarised light.

viewed

be

to

is made

further alteration

in

the

apparatus

be
explained later on, the object may
light of a different character, because

vibrations, instead
made

are

to

to

further,but

any

to

by

viewed
in

this

An

omit

not

still

fully

as

polarised

by

instance
in

the

plane,

one

object seen

in

this

polarised light.

complicate the description of

should

we

circular

employed,

oscillate

to

orbit.

circular

be viewed

desirable

It is not

reduced

being

in

move

is said

manner

of

If, however,

to

the
that

mention

subject
certain

crystalspossess the peculiarproperty of reducing all the azimuths


of common
light into two planes,each at right angles to the
As
will be
other, as, for example, a crystal of Iceland spar.
in

seen

the

Nicol's

furnishinga description of

prism,1 the

Nicol's

Iceland

footnote

spar

aim

of

prism (Fig. 136)


thrice

as

long

as

this

is to

arrangement

is constructed
its diameter

from
;

one

is called

what

eliminate

rhombohedron
its

of

faces,

of
which

PPISM

MlCOLS

-ORDINARY

ORDINARY

RAY

Fig. 136.
naturally makes
so

as

to

give the

angle

an
new

face

of 70" with
an

the

inclination

blunt

edges, is

of 68" instead

cut

The

off

obliquely

whole

block

these, and

of

one

in

deeply complicated

is too

book

of this

produce
plane

one

convenient

the

for

produced

To

Nicol's

"

effected

held

mirror

to

revolve

about

the

by the

whilst

made

so

in

that

purpose

divided

is then

in

and

in the

other

lit

to

with

by

it into
the

ray

Canada

balsam.

extraordinary.

'

beam

But

between

being
;

loosely

so

sufficient for the


be

not

the
A

of

unduly

axis, the

two

entering the
plane of polarisation,
ray

refractive

the

index

of

ordinary (i'65)

the

Hence

instead

kind

the

the

angle

of

thin

recommended
.

slides

on

to

the

Mr.

with

polished
the

SUi

perpcn":

45',quartz

52

glass
lies

is

off

"polarising angle," and

of volcanic

prism, but

Nicol

suggested by

as

and

correct

is called

bundle

30'.
of

reflection

glass being 54" 35',water

substances:

"

the

makes

Uao

angle,

entire

apparatus

device

to

that

is

refracted
most
respectively.
balsam
less refractingmedium,
is totally
and
a
of
for most
rid
practically
got
; whilst
purposes
a denser
medium, and therefore passes through.

This

reflecting surface.

different

the

different

the

outside

placed

case,

relation

in

to

fittingan

band

with

two, each

condenser

instrument, such

any

the

arrangement

such-like

or

plane polarisedby

1)6

diamo:

correct

In

the

the
or

collar

more

used.
also

can

so

balsam

prcivi.!the

manner

united

layer of

finds in the

is the

This

forms

sleeve

special

.md
the

the

it is

according

means,

extraordinary(1*48) rays

finds

arranged

prism, called

its mount

is 1*54, intermediate

balsam

the

ray

This

some

milled

into

portions being afterwards


new
prism is divided by
the
ordinary and
Canada

these

lightpol'arised

of

position beneath

it is fixed.

drop

best

are

of rotation
permits of a slight amount
of adjustment.
The
polariser should

it

of

use

microscopist,forms

by various

within

of

cases

to

as

the

optical axis of the

use

other

in

they

method.1

ingenuity of the optician. In


constructed

how

the

matical
mathe-

prism is mostly employed, for

and

the

but

viz. the formation

"

other

any

it and

much

requires

follows.

the firsteffect

polarizer,is placed

revolution

indeed

of

purpose

what

than

between

to

description, and

subject-matter of

is

polarised

rays

ing,
extremely interestbe thoroughly explained in

of illumination, and

specialforms

in

of

passage

philosophical reasoning

and

and

permit the

to

so

LIGHT

plane only.
treated, though
subject scientifically

one

The

POLARISED

PLANE

212

whilst
;

1'rof. Chi -shire.

by
instead
tail-piece

for

is sometin
also

inconvenient;

Michael

employed

often

of the

j":.

circle of

Tl.
mirror.

at

the

PLANE

if it be

for

diameter,

in

small

POLARISED

the

light issuing through

the

LIGHT
it will

so

213
off too

cut

; hence

condenser

if

loss of

the

high

and

be

rotation

should

be

then

it will

large, for

cumbersome

and

the

employed

powers

be

too

inconvenient,

and

will

ringers

of

illumination

employed
consequent
aperture
felt.
be
will
Still, however, it should
distinctly

be

much

not

keep knocking

considerable

mirror, causing thereby


against
annoyance.
the
have
The
prism (the polariser)is, we
light issuing from
is called
"plane" polarised, but for the
already said, what
the

observer

of,

it

must

the

in

involved

peculiarphenomena
nicol

yet

another

the

analyser.

called

is

the

witness

to

traverse

This

eye.

able

be

to

of

action

the

Although

second

this

spoken
reaching the

before

principle

is similar

prism

polariser,still its actual shape is somewhat


position it occupies, viz.
according to which
the
directly above
microscope tube
(i) In the

different,

the

of

that

to

"

(ii)as
with

rotating

lenses

is used

which

of

instead

it is

short, and

end

and

the

rotate

to fit into

cap

this

kind

and

any

power,

same

but

(iii)Abbe's
constructed

we

have

the

No.

found

Huyghenian

the

the

the

previous
be

may
its colour

with

objective

that

analysing

if

top

for

the

ocular

by

the

one

collar

as

and

cut

revolving

ocular.

With

ocular

any

compensating,
this purpose

of
be

can

and

the

in

objectionable.

which

is

in pre-war

ends, placed
or

still

almost

one,

is sometimes

flat

shorter

of

at

ocular

effected

or

used

consisted

Huyghenian

is

being

about

the

over

spar

analysing eyepiece,
Nicol

above

the

to

used

Huyghenian

second-hand,

even

either

with

be

to

rotation

prism

whether

manner,

now

and

tourmaline

used.

analysing eyepiece,

cell to work

is attached

mount

differently;

whole

combination

ocular.

an

constructed
(ii)When
(Prazmowski prism),
cap

the

Abbe's

as

objective,

nosepiece
the objective at the other, a
milled
the optical axis.
the prism around

receives

somewhat

ocular, (iii)
or

is called

what

arranged

(i) When

serving to

over

cap

form

to

the

difficult to
times

of

the

between

obtain

specially
lenses

of

But
compensating ocular.
field and
eye-lens of the No. 2
a

be

X4

removed,

the

X8

be screwed
into the upper
compensating ocular can
analysing eyepiece, no field lens being required at
a
to use.
delightfularrangement

or

the
end

all.

Xi2

of the
It

is

POLARISED

PLANE

214

noticed

It will be

from

LIGHT

has

what

been

said, that either polariser

to revolve with
analyser can be made
equal effect ; in fact,it
is chosen.
movement
Should
is quite optional which
this be the
rather
the fingersin turning it are
against
polariser,
apt to knock
the mirror and so put it out of position ; if the analyser,eye-cap
the eyelashes may
eyepiece arrangement,
form, or the Abbe
get
thumb
of the fingers or
in the way
whilst rotating, whereas
if

or

these
to

difficulties

object may

the

fittingbe

do

arise in

not

sJiake

to

appear

nicely made

very

objective be employed, all


There
are
objections,however,

removed.

are

this type which

the

the

placed above

is

that

form

the

the

use

of the

as

the

so

that it revolves

is

prism

two, for

rotated, unless
in

its jacket

PARALLEL

CROSSED

DIAGRAMMATIC
OF

other

PCPRC

"pARALLEl"

AMES

PL

THE

SdNTATlOM
AND

"CROSS

D"

Fig. 137very

smoothly and

evenly

or

to

travel

about

inside

be at all eccentric to the optical axis


fitting
badly made.
Occasionally the "travelling about
caused

mirror

field,if the

the
or

the

the

prism

field"

is

by the objectivebeing not quite "true" in its mount.


after having placed the
a
low-power condenser, and
ng
in position,and
inch
attached
an
objective to the nose-

piece of the microscope


the

around

opticalaxis

intervals of

lightand

moving the polariseror the analyser


that alternate
it will be immediately found
;

on

produced. This is caused


by the single "planes" of polarisationbeing parallel or ci
with
the other
one
(sec Figs. I3/A and r.). If now
a
\
be
of
it may
scopicobject
placed on the stage, given portions
darkness

will be

"l

"

present

beautiful
is the

to

variegated colours
^iven

objects,or to crystalsor
t""\\. good tfficts
in polarisedlight. For
name

portions be

(if such

such

to

like,that

short

list,sec

of

are

the

able"
"suit-

p. 510.

POLARISED

216

CIRCULAR

employed.

It is obvious

then

LIGHT
of suitable

set

specimens, called

with
polariscope objects,"reveal different colour phenomena
each
an
selenite,hence
by this simple means
enjoyable
many

"

hour
But

spent by those

be

may

form

is yet another

there

of gorgeous

fond

of

effects.1

scenic

polarised light which,

when

correctlyused, gives results so beautiful and entrancing that it


\Vc
just described
quite into the shade.
puts the phenomena
of what
have already called attention
refer to the use
we
to, and
which

in
polarisation,

circular

termed

is

which
plane polarisation,

blue

in

of variations

and

of tJie ivhole spectrum


is revolved,
polariser)

blue
into

merges

circle

complete the
of

of

order

and

utilised.

As

the

placing above

forms

in

into

the union

mentioned,

of red

with

curious

changes

the selenite,but

beneath

blue, to

plum

colour
the

reverses

brought

are

tion,
direc-

one

yellow, yellow

Reversing the nicol

these

below

is revolved
turns

green

red, whilst

All

colours.

nicol

one

green,

we

the colours

green,

analyser (or the


of the spectrum
seems
joined up

magnificent hue.

most

then

and

orange,

red

when

into

latelybeen

yellow, or
end

one

other, hence

the

with

are

to

explaining. The
of polarised light is that, instead

we

of this class

feature

curious

have

contradistinction

about

by

the

specimen,
what
is called a quarter-wave or quarter-undulation plate. This
is really nothing but
a
piece of mica, exceedingly thin and
mounted
A

or

Canada

in

position of
for the

when

and

The

between

effect has

maximum

length

quarter-wave

ascertained, both
for future

marked

balsam

best

use,

so

mica
to

as

be found

to

mica

and

avoid

to

the

who

revolvingthe

On

specimen

do

not

agree

lie upon

the

should

further

trouble.

be

selenite,

distinctly

think, is always obtained

plate with
by using the quarter-wave
rather
than
with
a
blue-and-yellow

possiblythose

pieces of glass.2
ment
by direct experi-

selenite

effect,we

plum-coloured

thin

two

with

a
one
us

rcd-and-green selenite
;

there

but

in this

are

very

Suit-

opinion.

itself

only, the polariserand analyser bein",runtoi:


;;d remains
changes colour,whilst that of the

wave

plate may

slide

unaltered.
1

quarter

of talc into thin

placed

between

of colour
quarter-

from
wave

slices.
two

One

or

made

grey

with
by splitting
of these

more

nicols,one

bluish-black

plate.

be

of which
to

can

fine needle

usually be

found

nly

shows

is

fawn-colour.

This

is

piece

that.
a

"

approximately

POLARISED

CONVERGENT

specimens used with

LIGHT

217

polarised light thus obtained


and
magnificent aggregation of different
give the most gorgeous
No
colour
renderings imaginable as the analyser is turned.
of shades
and
artist can
depict,or eye picture,such a mixture
by this simple means.1
changes of colour as may be witnessed
the whole
field of
If the lightbe not
equally distributed over
the condenser
view
having been suited to the objective the
be tried.
do not
other side of the mirror
High powers
may
to yield such
brilliantlycoloured effects,and altogether
seem
able

circular

"

"

not

are

We

used

to

yellow;

185,
A

find

we

making

but
an

great

very

low

ones.

think

the

Nernst

nowadays

unobtainable
too

as

suitable

so

his

concentrated

own

in

the

the

"

best

specimens by

the

with
the

peculiar
there

and

Polarised

called

the

to

on

cover-glasses,

circular

to the

Light
of

plane polarisedlight

slab
of

of

selenite
third

between

form

of

this"

polarisation,where,
plate of mica is added

selenite,a quarter-wave
yet remains, however, to be described

addition

166

pages

means.

have

illumination

on

slips or

on

only spoken of the use


of a
the interposition
and without
nicols, concluding with an account
we

be

to

microscopistin
of forming
simple method
soluble
salts,and
allowing

different

Convergent
far

believed

illuminant, lamplight being

is furnished

amusement

of

"

substitute.

out
to crystallise
drops of them
finallyprotectingthem by suitable

So

lamp

Zig-zag, mentioned

excellent

solutions

electric

fourth

method

in
:

of

of investigation,
restricted
one
employing this interestingmeans
is called
the "rings" and
the viewing of what
to
"brushes,"
when
with
the special
viewed
which
certain
crystals exhibit
To understand
about
the object of
device
to describe.
we
are
in its component
be
the special arrangement
details,it should
been
that
hitherto
mentioned
have
we
explaining the effect
produced by the employment of plane polarisedparallel beams
1

To

prevent

complication,it

has

not

been

mentioned

before

that

the

tion
of different parts of the specimen also produces modificaof colour-effects
the nicol is revolved.
as
ground
Turning the slide only (back-

actual

thickness

remaining unchanged), revolvingboth nicols simultaneously, moving


and specimen andpolariser at the same
specimen and analyser together,
time,
all produce in most
instances
different effects : especiallygorgeous
with
acetalinide.
baffle
description.
They

CONVERGENT

218

POLARISED
marvellous

light,showing what

of

inner

of bodies

constitution

tension

in the

as

"

case

or

of the different

of

unequal thickness

Now,

however,

show

the

of

wish

of

plane polarised rays


brought to bear upon them.
the

interpretationand

in

is to

beams

in

such

and

The

although,

such

first

be

it

with

of
u

In

soda,

low

lens

means

known

with

plane

of

phenomena

not

both
the

be

David

are

into

variety,

necessity. The
for

no

point

the

numerical
If the

stipulated
entirely viewed

be

sugar,

nitrate

performs in the
extraordinary,"which
ray

"

laws.

neither

to

of the

be

one

not

are

we

more

in the

But

follows

"extraordinary," the

therefore

the

1.

usually well-

in"!

of the
Such

ray, the refracted ray being not alu


of rings
set
crystals then exhibit a double

complicating

final

displayed by
of

is called

well-known

Urewster

the

wide-angled

calcite,quartz, borax,

is what
usual

vergent
con-

For

turned

important

although it
too
large to
as

the

on

being sufficient.2

70

potassium, etc., only

by Sir
direction

Mate

power,

the

incidence.

"

called

and

follow

ignificence of the
the

enough

may

brushes, which, while

and

have

the other

discovered

laws;

varying
the

manner

it does

the

to

these

achromatic

power,

; but

"65

of

now

with

absolute

an

minute

crystals, such

"

the

high

very

required,about

ferro-cyanide of

ortlinnry

of

considerable

manner.

be

deal

their

wide-angled condenser,

of

usefulness

it should

too

is

it is not

obtain

to

practicallyto

necessary

be

very

uni-axial

the

offer

proper

it will

are

and

curious, and

they shall fall

in the

that

light

in uni-axial

very

that

viewed

be

the

not

the

than

much

microscope

manner

layers

crystals exhibit

object, then,

great

the

understood,

objective be of
N.A., the back
1

are

thing

in

recollect is that

aperture

case

nature

objective should
dealing

either

microscope has

believe

we

very

arrange

crystalsin question, and

beams.

vary

The

when

"

called
collectively

are

thorough comprehension

microscopist

telescope of

These

unequal

example

distinctlyconvergent

They

enjoyment.

the

to

effects

of the

successivelyviewed.
be so arranged as to

of certain

sections

of

glass,for

are

apparatus

effect that

rings and brushes.


but
bi-axial crystals,1

revealer

exhibited

phenomena

our

they unfold

of certain substances

we

this purpose

as

unequally cooled

when

intellectual

information

whether

interference

curious

LIGHT

effect.
them.

the

Some
Of

crystals

these

lead, gl.iuborite,and

add

phenomena,
may
some

be

very

much

fine
particularly

are

selected

of the

to

in

nitre,native

varieties of

l"

adui

the combination
Strictly,
the
crystal.
of

should

have

its N.A.

equal

to

or

exceeding the

CONVERGENT

through

the

nicol

is

purposes

nosepiece
the

of the

attached

the

to

in the

microscope

of

convenience
in

purpose

position

of

conversion

for this detail

uses

For

usual

more

the

earlier
those

question,a

be
the

auove

microscope
one

be

draw-tube, thus

referred

to

when

219

best for

may

objective1(such as the
suffice in most
cases)should

will

apertometer

of

the

nicol

upper

2-in.

telescope, a
the

|-in. The

the

complete

To

LIGHT

hence, generally speaking, the

or

in

eyepiece, or

POLARISED

most

above

the

objective.

into

the

used

with

screwed

ideal
the
to

on

constitutingone

describing this part

part of this work.


this

using

for

arrangement

the

diagram (Fig. 138) explaining details

is

Fig. 138.

results,which

best

light,and

and

Set the nicols

2.

indirectly due

to

4. Place

specimen

of the

The

form

dry beneath

for the

it is

cover,

is

piece
nose-

about

stage.

of the

"

or

may

found

In
be

cases

made

necessary.

where

combination

achromatic

Bertrand's

cover-glassproduces

attempt

subsequently if it be

called

objective(say the J-in.)

crystal.2

the

plano-convex

compulsory.

the

the

until

draw-tube) by

it the

with

course,

and

purpose

the absence

the

suitable

most

instances

on

cover-glassor

the

touches

Usually

the cover

in much

in the tube

replaceit

adjustment

coarse

especiallymade
some

field is obtained.

white

(and, of

tube

the

Drop

all but

that

position.

its usual

means

denser
con-

iris wide.

open

so

tube ; centre

the

of

nosepiece

draw-tube, and

of the

in

get the

auxiliary 2-in. objective(Bertrand'slens) to the

3. Add

5.

the

objective on

Fix

1.

to

Nelson.

Mr.

procedure

directly or

is

believe

we

of

order

the

by

followed

given, being

the

Lens."

best

the

first with

results ; indeed

crystalis

mounted

itin situ,removing

CONVERGENT

220

6. Focus

the

with

POLARISED

LIGHT

draw-tube, leaving the

coarse

adjustment

entirelyalone.
be necessary

7. It may

to obtain

condenser

change

to

the

plenty of light.

It will

require raising.
If the analyser or
polariserbe now
axis
in the
the
ordinary manner,
be

well

Sometimes

seen.

position of
mostly

revolved
"

rings

on

and

magnificent and

the
be

substage
found

the

optical
"

brushes

curious

to

will

effects

are

produced.
append the following notes, which may assist the student
commencing to use convergent polarisedlight:

We

when

i. If the

with objective-changers and


be one
the
microscope in use
in
and
the
it
is
the
found
over
a
objective
fitting,
placed
analyser
auxiliary
lens will not focus the brushes
properly, it arises from such being of too
short
of longer focal length or
focal length.
Use
one
a
the
remove
changers.
"
off" in
ii. If the circle of lightas seen
cut
through the ocular appears
the analyser is turned, the condenser
revolves
as
one
requires
part which
be
too small.
lowering, or the nicol polarisermay
much
iii. If the object be too
magnified, use a lower ocular ; a lower
If requiring magnification,use
objectiveis not very successful.
a
power
"

higher ocular.
iv. If the brushes
it is

probable

respect
v.

the

to

the "best

useless,there

are

then

found

be

i. Convert

do not

the

cross

field

completely,

polariserhas not been found with


one-eighth of a revolution.
be used if desired.
quarter-wave plate may
the

the former

Turn

without

or

old-fashioned

With

well,or

position"of

specimen.

selenite with

shown

not

are

binocular

being

of much

no

microscopes the above directions


draw-tubes
; the following hints will

service

into

monocular, add polariserand inch objective.


length of brass tubing.
eye-piececap, replacingby same
it ;
specimen on top of this tube, and revolve nicol over

ii. Remove
iii. Put

"rings

and

It is

will be

brushes"

convenience

slide,and

which

at

concentricallywith
is very

to

the
the

then

have

same

axis

the

seen.

fittingmade

time
of

allows
the

the

to

hold

the

nicol to be

instrument.

en

revolved

good

maline
tour-

useful.

Daylight gives the finest colouring for all polarising


effects,but a close approximation is afforded
by using a No. 38
lak Screen
(gelatine; with the electric light. A useful list
of substances
for polarising effects is given in the
well suited
NOTE.

Addenda.

"

CHAPTER

THE

ON

EVERY

instrument

no

doubt,

to

be

"

as

been

his

work
much

as

in

explained
The

often

and

after

the

origin

tube

model

its

to

not

was

law

that

should

by the

at

either

there

its

medical

As

doubt

better,
discuss,

regards

the

short-tube

the

fession,
pro-

the

is

doubtful

although

system,

be

the

opinion.

the

seems

will

to

no

way,
others

to

matter

is

whilst

but

performed

magnification

with

that

by

Hence,
the

by
it

the

who

latter

longment
instruthe

was

is

was

the
as

was

objective
221

held

of

usually

as

and

obvious

placed

to
on

unwritten

an

of

little

as

the

ment
instru-

microscopists.

magnification

objective,
it

Continental

majority

then

all, of the

nearly

very

eyepiece.

received

fact

the

England

into

all well
the

all, or
be

individual

England,

introduced

from

arose

of

the

long

As

commence

which

buy,

his

instrument

entering

is

condenser

service

to

or

Oberhauser.

first

When

in

abroad
of

about

instruments,

two

birth

originator

ascribed

This

the

those

This

his

on

of

microscopist

beginner

first.

aside

laid

seeing.

very

shall

purchase

possible

the

using

intend

matter

originated

had
actual

difference

all is much
of

that

tube-length

the

is

those

by

been

be

may

found

adequate

of

centring

actual

thought

had

the

finest

it

the

asked

of

the

of

from

have

are,

been

time

because

way

hoped

the

that

the

and

having

at

marked,

method

even

is, Which
what

is

the

subject, especially

them

start

There

purchased

not

of

master

subsequently

purchaser

obtain

to

it

detail

been

have

proper

become

all its details.

in

have

testing

to

so

question

and

that

the

intended

advanced,

more

of

indeed

as

and

badly

objective

is

to

specimens

and

ignorant

using

of

more

poor

endeavour

uses

the

to

art

far

are

rejected

this

the

MICROSCOPE

first,which

at

owing

in

there

has

"

splendid

experience

its

objectives

many

faulty simply

but

all

in

THE

OF

should

microscopist

the

or

USE

obtain

short

an

object

possible

as

an

equal
tube

as

would

and

could

necessitated

of

use

such

therefore, demanding

dictum, however,

This
It is,of

for

true

course,

of

long, it

the

to

ocular; "an

power

instrument,

things could

be

not

moment."

rested

on

with

the

that

attached

were

condition

tolerated

or

if it

higher

MICROSCOPE

THE

obtained

be

the

recommended

OF

USE

THE

ON

222

entire

an

misapprehension.

tube-length

same

higher

the fact was


test ; but
eyepiece puts the objective to a severer
lost sight of that the higher eyepiece, when
applied to a short

.tube, received

therefore

smaller, and

that, if the

object, and

resulting magnification was


the quality of tJie image was
also identically
similar.
objection entirelyfalls to the ground.

Opticallyspeaking, there should be no


performance, say, of a good -fe-in.on
provided, of
of

are

of the

oculars

question that

the

profitin

the

and

advantages

size

also

actual

the

difference

the

of

specimens

end.

in

has

this

between

the

of

the

diameter

such

of

case

been

of

increase

advantage, seeing that

the

difference

point of

instrument

to

long-tube

lay

in portabilityin the
think, is the great difference
the other, and
this is especiallyto the front when

be

to

carried

tropics,where

about, especially by

the distance

observations

have

chair,which
It

has

stated

model

be

with

also

has

difference

smaller

is often

is of sufficient

been

Continental

travelled

often

long-tube instrument
a

to

made

involves

the

height with
that

been

much

discussed, without
field in the

is

piece
eye-

being larger)is of questionable


increase
is usually more
less
or

dissimilarityin the

in

instruments

two

fuz/.y,the reasons
explained already
having been
objectives and eyepieces generally. But the

when

model,

optician'sart

disadvantages of the

often

The

(because of its

have

same,

Hence

form

either

the

equal merit.

The
the

the

course,

of

sharper, image

one

often

the

principal
of, we

case

over

instruments
the

in

men

Further,

great.

stage horizontal, the


of

use

cussing
dis-

hold

one

medical
very

when

stool rather

Continental

point

instrument.

connected

overlooked.

than

It

with
is

of

that

the
a

effect

in
tube-length produces a greater
the adjustment of objectives than obtains
the longer tube.
with
t"" consideration
as
Although classified as a defect, it is open
to

whether

shift

this

is not

brings about
cd,

on

the

other

advantage, as a smaller
adjustment required ; but

an

the

hand,

that

greater

care

amount

it

is needed.

may

of
be

ILLUMINATION

224

It is evident

all

then, taking

things

into

consideration,there

advantages and disadvantageswith each type of stand, hence


think
is struck by employing a stand
that the happy mean
we
which
be employed
for both
can
by the use of two draw-tubes
are

This

purposes.

as

can,

of Continental
made

length by having

drop into the draw-tube


of the English model
any

when

to

case

double

draw-tube, which

for

are

enables

instrument

if

select

to

of

them

using objectives
the same
time
be extended
they can
those
made
for the long tube.
This
ideal

short

strument
in-

an

length of

tube

in the
it

shortening

is, of

manufactured

now

for

corrected

with

done

required ; whilst

method

impossible. Microscopes

course,
a

of fact,be

matter

be

to

closed

short

the

then

required for

sufficiently
whilst

tube,

suit the

to

at

correction

would

the

with

the

seem

double

of

purpose

mentioned.

Illumination

ordinary lamp * used


lighted,it is placed with

The
and

observer, about
of which

surface

inclined

be

look

plan

six

at

into

the

for

the

mirror,

to

inches

seven

or

is turned

angle suitable

an

eyepiece without
actual

There

after

"

will

be

always be found
learn

move

in

are

the mirror,2the
The

the

observer,

On

mirror.

easily in
the simplest manner,

good

ocular

and

it will

directions.

two

the

its lower

towards

examination,

very

can

adjust

to

the

tube

empty

he

It is

how

both

removing

should

that

so

neck.

learning

in

concave

instrument

straining his

the
the

seen

to

these

what

to

beginner,

commence

from

uppermost.

objective" by looking down


end.

by microscopists being trimmed


the
flame
the
edgeways towards

it is best

To

affix

to

length of pencil say an inch and a half long by means


of a little piece of common
candle-wax
to its very
centre, at
right angles to the surface, and with the point directed vertically
upwards. The microscope being placed in front of the observer
a

short

in the

"

usual

provide

two

sets

of movement,
(t

vc,
:"

with

The

disU

hi-h

power

of the

position,the mounting

obtainable

not

"

lamp,

of which

one

which

mirror

used

to

be

is termed

so

found

will be

much

"

to

the sidc-

cmplo\

"

r,

""f the

condensers

illuminant

is

(see p. 238).

an

impoitunt

matter

when

dealing

SETTING
"

to-side

motion,

in which

whereas

the

travel

exactly

other,
at

MIRROR

225

the

pointer moves
left to right, as

from

right to left,or

from

THE

called

the

"

rightangles to

former

an

arc

the

"

to-and-fro
the

in

stretching

case

be

may

direction, makes
line of motion.

"

it
The

to and
fro, and from side to side, is
object of these movements
obviously,by their combined
use, to find a position that ensures
the mirror
reflectingthe lightof the lamp into the instrument
after traversingthe lenticular
in such a manner,
portions,it shall
To
reach the eye of the observer.
perform these movements
quickly and yet with precision,it is best to place the right arm
the table
the corresponding side of the instrument,
around
on
the left passing likewise
around
it on
the other
side.
The
first
of each
hand
should
the corresponding
fingerand thumb
grasp
edges of the metal cell containing the mirror, and then with a
little practicethe operator will find he can
make
the lightreflect

into

up

the

of

centre

the

and

tube,

to

so

his

eye

with

great

facility.
Most
beginners find considerable
difficultyin "getting the
mirror
much
right,"as they call it, and often have to waste
time
in so
to suggest, if they will only
doing ; but we venture
learn to adjust its position in the simple and
primitive fashion
above
described, before attempting to do so with the lens and
ocular
in situ, their subsequent difficulties will rapidly vanish
when
they get a little more
experienced. Having attained
in adjustingthe
proficiency

speedily accomplished, the


the

on
a

No.

nosepiece and
I

of

mirror

tyro had

low-power

opticians,or

some

that

so

an

better

ocular
A

the

in

now

the

eyepiece

operation can
place an
draw-tube
a

or

"

2-in. of

be
inch
say

other

manufacturers.
In
it

screwing

off, many

injured.
method

of

doing

end

objective to

an

has

been

then

for

this

accident.
end

screw

the

one

It is well

mentioned
its

on

next

fingersof

as

which
Let

the

possible

that

the small

"

front

the

nosepiece,and in taking
dropped and perhaps seriously
the
learn a
to
beginner at once
will effectuallyavoid
the
abovefrom
objectivebe held as far away
is to

lens

"

say,

as

between

near

the

as

convenient

first and

the

to

second

fashion
in the same
a cigar is
as
right hand, much
between
these two
end
of the mount
presenting
refingers,the screw
the portion of the cigar that goes
into the mouth.
Having previously raised the tube of the microscope by the

held

15

SCREWING

226

THE

coarse

adjustment, the

against

the

nosepiece

of

end

screw

to

screw

"

screw

the thumb

position.

In

two

the

end

the
of tlie objective,

are

now

slid in

in

such

edge of the

milled

between

interval

thumb

objective

balance

to

first
to

is

and

placed
there

fingerof

grasp

it in

steady
the

fingers and

always present.

mount

OFF

already explained, whilst

the two

as

AND

being gently held

as

and

manner

the

"

ringers of the right hand,


of the same
hand
serves

by the

ON

OBJECTIVE

the

screw

left hand

somewhat

firmly the

This

be turned

must

the

of the hands
of a
opposite direction to the movement
watch, the microscopist throughout the operation being supposed
that is to say,
the microscope
to be sittingor standing behind
in front of him.
The
with the instrument
should
right hand
"

so

assist in

to

as

the

half

good plan

turn

drops

into
"

"home

in the

thread

the

adopted, but

few

position.

the

order

"take

opposite

of the

watch

and

removal, the

of

everything

the combination

move,

it to

allowing

in

advance

begins

to

necessarily
and forefinger

the combination

the

the

fallingon

to

the

hands

nosepiece.

fingersof
free end

to

position allows
the

table

floor

or

disengage itself from the nosepiece before it


accidents
should
anticipated. This simple expedient to save

should
was

be

prevent

method

is

first two

right hand should be quickly placed over


it cigar-fashion as
hold
they did before, which

it

as

objective is

same

leave

to

far, the

too

for about

the direction

the

them

the

In

easily,

click

gives a

one

turns, and

turning

in"

direction

Gripping the lens with the left thumb


edge,

into

objective engage

If this will not

back

in its final

its milled

Before

draw

to

the instrument,

towards

of the

screw

that of the other.

reversed.
around

the

nosepiece.

so, until

or

and

be

may

objectiveupwards,

making

of the

thread

it is

of

the

gently press

now

the

screw

operation

performed

be

can

understood,

dropping

often

out

turns

thought
loosen

and

freelypractisedover

very

or

it

might

to

appear,

displace (if not


little component

numerous

almost

again, until,in fact,the


unconsciously

far
on

costly

more

trouble

of the

account

break)

actually to
lenses ;

an

for, be

for

expensive apochromat,

an

be

over

example,

than

jar being
one

accident

or

that

it

first

at
so

more

may

apt

to

of

its

quite

and
necessitate
its
performance of the combination
and
to the optician to overhaul
sent
repair.
inch
attached
the
The
to
being safely
nosepiece,a specimen
the
be
the
proboscis of the blow-fly should
placed on
say

spoil
being

the

"

"

THE

FIXING

stage in the

seen,1 and

duly
made

objectiveis
if it is

but

word

or

from

side

only
of

two

advice

the

slip,one

at

beneath

correct

should

thumb
the

thumbs

the

"

stage,

so

to

the

the

hold

hands

stage

the

get

until

other, the

it is

so

hold.

the

"

be

to

firmly

left
to

on

adjusts the

righthand

the

firm

is found

gently but

there, while

venient
con-

employed

the

position

slide

specimen

it

to

as

slide

most

be

at

one

so

the

in

clips,a

shift the

to

should

it and

ocular, the

moving

press
as

of

the

how

downwards,

of both

end

one

into

looking

on

above

the

purpose

of

couple

to

as

one,

positionbeneath
for the

be

to

mechanical

provided

screws

given

thumbs

The

stage be

having but

be

from

fingersbeing placed
When,

the

227

it is desired

into its proper

one

may

side, or

to

manner.

upon

plane

STAGE

in which

If the

specimen

by turning

THE

that

to

there.

fastened
of the

adjustment

the

position

reverse

ON

SLIP

does
the
the holding, whilst
the right thumb
clip,after which
left hand
clip.
completes the fixing by manipulating the second
them
to hold much
causes
Pressing either of these clips home
To
find the correct
position
they work loose."
tighterin case
"

"

"

specimen, however, or even


great trouble to the beginner, or
the

of

student, and
"

dry
as

sometimes

dodge
in

than

the

back

reverse

few

be

"

the

ocular

inches, whilst
Most

the

as

thumbs

frequently

however,
method
as

near

into the

with

move

high

equally well
as

possible

on.

to remember

the

instrument, and

object

Whilst
is

head

the

the

eye

; it

readily

to lower

can

then

position, to
this

use

is at

of the

tube

method,

specimen, a
the objective

cover-glassbeforeattempting

then, whilst

drawn

very

central

focussing
always

"

the

in all directions

to

example

off is better

be

can

It is difficult

with

far

down

approximately

an

powers.

to

the

it about

and

glances

eye

ing
follow-

The

for

"

advanced

convenience,

great

is removed

the

quickly slipped into


finallyadjusted later

be

of

"

instrument.
seen,

found

the

to

worker.

experienced

often

have

we

the

to

times

at

even

all, is often

it at

especially. Having placed the inch


be judged
focus as can
little too
a

powers

near

"

find

to

the

to

look

ocular, to

It is not
however
a
strictly
"upside down."
"
method
of speech, for it might be taken as meaning that the
accurate
slip"
face
the
to
and
the
turned
to be
was
next
to the
cover-glass
objective,
condenser
What
!
is meant
is,that if the cover-glass represented a watch
dial,the xii should be turned round, so that it occupied the usual position

This

is often

of the vi and

the

spoken of

iii that

as

of the

ix.

CARE

228

obtain

lowering

it down

expedient

those

saves

with

use

SLIP

frequent method.

more

that

be

With

cover-glass or

crushed

however, the

mentioned,

immersion

dry objectives; with

this

by

simple
front

broken

method

only of
safety

is

another

ones

is under
their use
plan will be given when
Fine
focussing of the specimen may

than

all micro-

frequently at work,

are

many

It should

lens.

the

"

scopists,save

THE

by raising up the objective,rather

focus

sharp

REMOVING

ON

discussion.
be

now

performed

using the fine-adjustmentscrew, but before ever


should
it the Tearner
use
satisfy himself which
which
the objective, and
to lower
serves
turns

by

attempting
the

way

screw

raise

to

to

it up.

microscopes are not quite alike in this respect, although in


far the
majority, by turning the milled head in the direction
of a watch
the objective is lowered, and
that the hands
move,
All

the

in

screwing

on

direction

opposite

it is

consequently raised.

leaving this part of the subject,we should like to answer


be very naturally asked
a
by, or anyhow arise
question that may
of a reader, and
in the mind
that is why all these
precautions
Before

should
such

long

with

taken

be

inch

an

off the

way

specimen

it is because

question,that

seeing
objective,
We

the

was

when

case

employs higher
follow

will

learnt

There

here, in

with

raise the

to

delicate

of

want

attempting

tools

the

against
the

and

the

to

slip happens
1

much

to

Especiall) the
less.

off the

simply

to

put

ringing of varnish
possibly scratching
whereas

accident

an

"

be
case

focal

on

length, he

the commencement

handling

"

jamming

save

stage

or

"

later

the student

which

advice

specimen

combination

addition,
and

very

delicate

indeed

as

"

is necessary.

may

be menti

place. It is always to recollect


consequently the objective,before ever

remove

it is to prevent

instrument

when

"

be established

suitable

more

replace it by another

to

piece of

tube, and
to

the

lines,having from

same

is yet another

ourselves

this

to

answer

; for if such

consequently of shorter

powers,

in the

on

that

began

we

reply,in

it focusses

expediency of getting the

of the great

beginner into habits of care and caution


of
while commencing
to learn the use

that

if for

the next

the

the

high

one

powers,

than
as

latter,

often present catching


delicate

former

slide

If the

it away.

the
their

when
first.

working

of

lens

front

it

purpose

between

possibly occurring

thicker

with

so

it be

stage, whether

the

objective

the
If

second

now

distance

the
is

so

AS

ZEISS"LOUP"

which

a-

with

even

delicate

the

resume,

adjustment
use

may

little

this

raisingup

the

low

eye

learns

to

They
double

Zeiss

by
for

to

having

Watson
about

are

when

that

the

it

placed

diaphragm
down,

or

and

excellent
were

with

even

with

the

he

will

light equably

over

little further

resting

arms

this

mirror

justment.
adthe

on

the

image

requiring

ocular

"

student's

used

as

its

its

low-power

we

must

admit

by

Messrs.

made

one

formula

in
we

Mr.

in

use
are

place,between
until
fingers,

the

the

representative,the
the

the

eye

makes

whole

and

the

racked

is

up

the
iris
or

perfect illumination

very

Should

in

substage,or

specimen

focussing, the finest hairs


looking as if they
definition,
to

position,it

acquainted.

into

condenser

this

should

On

rising up

condensers

good

very

lowest
of

is

market, but

excellent

manufacturers, but

most

with

hand-magnifiersmade

as

that

repeat

very
clear.

condenser

the

in

ones

employed

We

substage

replace

now

the

focus, fluffyand

the

good

very

loups

"

the

the

pushed by

is effected.
in

takes
or

service

proboscis

high-power

what

not
advantage, too, that, when
the best bull's-eyewith which

sleeve which

is in

Conrady. Its lenses


its focal length is 2 in.,and
diameter, and
just drops into the substage. It has the

after

mounted

Having

ocular

found, especially as

be

by

in. in

i"

the

likelybecause

can

made

Sons

"

the

concave

great liking for the very

high

that,

requires

the

several

are

others

are

by the fine

perhaps with all

matter

objective.

condensers

with

be

is very

There

inch

an

done

If the

no

This

and

it

done

appreciate fine definition,that the


proboscis do not look quite sharp and

the

to know

seem

nasty

and

see

tips.

required.
few

229

cases,

much

so

at

that

from

soon

appear,

may

reflect the

not

But

down.

or

of

hairs

be

arise

it will

one,

minute

hence

may

be

not

looks

does

explained.

before
;

these

quite likely now

student

should

This

is poor

is

mirror

the

field,and

whole

as

of

when

necessary

inch, although of

an

recognise that

table

in either

focussing can

be

It
low-power one.
ocular, directly the

the

CONDENSER

thereby avoided.

is

accident
To

previouslyraised

been

has

tube

LOW-POWER

grew

the

now

upon

light

be

appear
the
found

stage
too

this
be lowered
with
powerful, the condenser
(permissiblemay
be closed
the iris may
or
long-focallength objective)justa little,
a

trifle; but

especiallywith

it should
a

not

be

forgotten

are
high-power objective,

that

apt

both
to

operations,

spoildefinition

THE

CENTRING

23o
and

resolvingpower

the

reduce

the light be still too


between

the mirror

neutral

using

that

as

and

the

the

by Kodak

If,however,

has

it should

be

be

better still,
one

No.

be

need

recollected

interposed

of the many
useful.

is very

96

usually about

difference

inch, no

operations,only

lamp, or,

"-in.,which

of the

of the combination.

bright,a thin opal glass may

tint filters sold

When

CONDENSER

the
in

made

N.A.

same

of the

any

it focusses

that

much

Whilst

specimen.

stating this,it is well to recollect,


however, that owing to the variety of computations adopted by
different opticians,the exact
position occupied by a particular
be that required by others of similar
inch or a "-in. may
not
focal length made
by differentfirms. We know, for example, an
nearer

works

that

inch

almost

near

as

beginner then should have


When
using a J-in.,which

The

as
a

\-in.by

in this matter.

care

has

usually

N.A.

must

possibleto ro,1 for it will then be of service


shorter focal length than the J-in.,
and which

of

higher aperture still.


Centring the Condenser.
look

This

In

condenser

using a

objectives

have

usually a

of this

tion
descrip-

before attempting
operation has to be conducted
a
specimen ; it is called "centring the condenser."
that the optical axis of the
shall
illuminator
be
adjustment or in line with that of the objective. To

at

means

in

placed
this

do

"

with

fresh

to

varying

'65 (Zeiss's
apochromatic) to, say, '40, a different condenser
It is best to use
it with an
be employed.
aperture as near

from

as

maker.

another

be

properly must

of

aim

the

all
microscopist on
objective ncrcr
performs

doing the
It is effected in the
properly,especiallyif it be of high power.
by employing the adjusting-screws provided
following manner,
occasions,

cither

To

in

learn

all,but

at
1

without

the

for

the

condenser

the

art,

It is sometimes

objectives

use

above

not

itself

mount

anyhow

rack

to

""/the i!lumin"int,to
for

so

the

at

it
first,

condenser

condenser
this

up

to

the

to

focal

aperture.

"

advantage

an

by

the

same

makers

use

no

specimen

level of the

because

longer

substage fitting.

of

the

length
We

and

often

stage

lev
of

N.A.

'45

empl"

just mentioned, of
excellent
of
but
condensers
s"
performance arc
Mure,
when
of the
most
special care
using a
leading opticians. The
necessary
be
of larger aperture
the objective,
lest the image should
than
condenser
of the
and Abuse
to the Use
flooded," is discussed in the chapter devoted
Substage Diaphragm.
great

illuminator

of

numerical

the

is best

convenience, however,
a

in

or

as

OBTAINING

232
racked
flame

be

down

and

up

The

of the
should

specimen

little further

rapidly make
This

in

witnessed

edge of the lamp-

placed

of

best
the

on

flame

the

bottom

of the

focussed.

and

stage

be

quite sharp

not

substage,

is called

obtaining

"critical

using light that is focussed


by the image of the flame,

the

condenser

out

the

flame

seriously as
and

little

light."
the

upon

the

at

found

have

save

all
electric

of

pencil held
focus.

to
1

this with

do

To

motion

the

to

Of

later

( ci

tain

critical

be

It should

good

as

noted

expected, it is
"v2. For

nothing

condenser,

substages

some

used

to

believed,

we

of

times

at

worth,

was

object
Ncrnst

both

that

quired
re-

other

or

used

glass is
manner

as

lamp,
the

as

or

object

this

hold

provided

are

useful

most

shown

that

has

been

the

illuminant, and

to

so

very

there
the

is

vantages
ad-

positionof
this

recommend

to

fine

addition.

that

refined

ceased

have

with

addition.

quite low powers, if definition be not quiteas


good plan, notwithstanding the use of a condenser,

that
a

try the effect of changing

upon

ease,
We

hitherto

as

it

mean

other.

any

especiallysince it
focussing the lightof
lightare not restricted

expensive

somewhat

to

in

condenser

the

using

however,

years,

of

greater

condenser.

freedom

than

equally well

against the glass serves


Some
preferthis plan to

we

confess

We

so

thing

very
"

obtaining

the

it does

however,

dense

very

spreads

illuminant.

introduced

lamp the ground

gas

puts

re-obtained

critical light in the same


lamp-flame is with the ordinary

for focussing' and

edge

and

Wclsbach

the

trouble

bull's-eye more

a
quite
powers
When
the light possible.

light or

and

be

field ; this

doing this the

usually rectifythe fault.2


the

be

the

screw

If

must

as

image

entire

Adjustments,

really

that

time

definition.

unexpectedly

low

with

will

specimen,

same

the

mirror

in

that

definition.

the

will

condensers

is not

the

It

higher, which

over

affect the

necessary,

to be avoided

of

shade

noticeable, critical light

is here

spoiling

the

or

evenly

more

powers

be

to

care

wished

to

shade

bull's-eyeplaced between

Great

lower

low

with

not

now,

down,

or

up

If the flame
objectivefocusses the object to the eye.
considered
objectionable,just a touch of the substage

does

employ.

to

now

field,

it so.1

process

consists

the

being

be

adjustment

of the

the top to the

mirror

then

LIGHT"

image

image of the edge of the

If the
a

the

until

stretching from

seen

flat surface

the

"CRITICAL

reasons

else than

the

with

the
not

mirror

the

"

flat

"

immediately apparent,

alteration

great improvement

from

in the

is sometimes

angle

the

effected

to

but

curved

"

side,

really depending

rays

by

"

the

impinge on
change.

this

the

OF

THICKNESS
When

using

less,no

different

making

the

COVER-GLASS

J-in. or

J-in.,having

is

treatment

adjustments

be

must

lowered

afterwards

last lens

the

but

lens, for it usually works

hitherto

not

high

from

consideration.
thick

It

indeed

there

puts

of the components
lenses

dealt

the

is called

best

the

best

thick

the
into

if very
the

which

specialthickness

of

If

now

becomes

error

results

front
course

"

effect

pushing

is
in

case),pulling out

of

the

the

the

collar," by

correction

"a

is for

the

lens

other

produced
is the

obtains

to

is to

ocular

by
"

the

suit

push

or

it adds

means

have

to

the

pull out
if the

if too

to

what
the
can

drawuntil
be

cover

thin

adjustment.

sensibly

little increments

remembering,
correct

two

be

to

turning of which
the
special cover

in

; whilst

has

are

combination

different

remedy

which

There

the

being
employed of,

be

present

; that

cover

variation

cover

desired.

are

of

the

thereabouts,

or

objective

containing

the

these

Opticians usually correct

personallyprefer although

we

effected ; whilst

tube

difficulty

bring

to

"

required adjustment
be

as

another

specimen,

system.
a

mm.

of

if the

of

cost

the

'18 mm.1

*i6 to

source

which

one,

use

First, because

enough

room

lens

with

work
is '17

say,

with

be

focus

to

of the

to

chosen

"22,

say,

dry J-in. or

dealing with

reasons.

the varying
everything ; and the second, because
the actual
in the adjustment
errors
glass introduces

of

between,

student

dry
cover-glass.

the

when

focussed

the

the

little

to

stop

mostly

two

not

may

sufficientlynear

their

for

is

lens

thickness

with
and

difficult to

that,

it is

with

to face with

in

much

so

can

until

near

or

care

^-in.upwards, to obtain
perfect definition
of the cover-glass itself has
taken
to be

thickness

actual

lowered

exceedingly

they

the cover,

somewhat

so

mentioned

powers

than

microscopist face

brings the

This

lenses

to touch

'9

of their greater

these

So, too,

one

that all the

objectives work

use.

is

about

both

rather

their

to

233

of

increased, because

almost

as

raised

by being

gets accustomed

TVm-"

so

N.A.

required,save

and
because
magnifying power
with
the cover-glass.Even
nearer

patience be

IMPORTANT

too

(rarelythe

Both

of these

the proof of
require practice, because
having correctly adjusted for any special cover, after all,only
lies in the eye
the
being sufficientlytrained to recognisewhen
methods

Zeiss

suitable
mount.

of

marks

for the

correction

each

dry high-power

lens

objective in question.

with

It is in

the

thickness

that

very

small

figures

is most
on

the

FOR

CORRECTING

234

finest definition

is

THICKNESS

COVER

abilityto judge whether

of its

obtained, and

OF

direction
push in, or a turn of the collar in one
it worse
\ The
Abbe
or
another, improves the image or makes
and over
test-plateis the best thing to practise on, and over
be gained ; this,
it be done
until a real proficiency
again must
But
said that
have
we
however, has been referred to before.
a

pull out

or

thickness

the

of the

objectivebeing
has

cover

great

so

to

as

to focus when
sufficiently

lowered

short

very

be

may

For

distance.

working

the

prevent
the

tion
combinaand

this reason,

to

guard against an accident, the student, after having lowered his


of the coarse
objectiveby means
adjustment as far as he dares,
should never
finallyfocus with it when
using these high powers,
but always employ the fine adjustment instead.
It is obvious
that by doing this the objective is lowered
gently and
very
indeed

gradually

hence, should

certainlywill if it be a high
thick, as frequently found
will do

front is made,

because

fine-adjustment
it had

in

without

have

with

the

collar should

is arrived

works
work

be

to

at

used

see

that

the inner

smoothly
of the

and

latter

runs

"

the

to

its rack

and

the milled
1

Some

accidents
seen

sec

that the

the rack

that
head

of

continental
of this nature

fractures

occur.

outer

the
firms
;

is

coarse

have

reliance

occurs,

reversed, lest

be

cover

for

injury.1

causes

the

of

caution

instead.
as

and

one,

be

yet

cover-glassthickness

draw-tube,

may

disastrous

with, perhaps, most

suddenly that the


slack," as if indeed

word

easilyin the outer


stiffly
; for,if it

applied to the draw-tube


pressure
and
crash comes
to the tube itself,
is cither

but

adjustment
tube

and

cover

get the finest definition

to

in the draw-tube

by pushing

slowly.

should
the

it

"

out, directlythe focus is obtained

be

when

stated

ago

Directly this

objective on

and

cover-glass in question

remains

this, to

tube

already pointed

the correction

"

lost all its power.


screw

it

as

"

years

between

quite

hesitation,the

the

turned

contact

become

cover

many

find somewhat

will

has

screw

moment's

weight of
we

he

moment

As

be

gently,provided the screw


tell when
microscopist can

the

cover-glassabnormally

slides made

in

so

The

the

the

and

power

touch

it

It

that

The

the

"

rack-

downward

communicated

the

objective upon

results.

simply

it is called

loose, the

become

is

moral

covcr-

of

this

sufficiently
tightlyheld in
stiff in itself,
to hold
or
sufficiently
adjustment with the left hand, so
tube

is

introduced
is not

to

be

arrangements

placed

upon

for

preventing

them, for

we

have

THE

FINDING
that it shall not
with

on

the

with

beginner

the

Changing

power

the

of

say

high

the

case

obtain

specimen
critical

begin

to

find

to

This

one.

which

with

appear

that, in

the

when

said,are

the

quite similar.

In

some

so

the

all

troubles
when

cases,

when

is made

change

the

to

"

to

he

may

be

of

the

part

deal.

the

field

with

the

to

appear

in

that

of

the

two

especiallyfound

to

the

of

arrangement

the

adjustment for

apparently upset and of considerably


using a "-in. or J-in. what will it be
have just
as
we
TVm- ? Especially,
when

found

to

revolving nosepiece."

cause,

same

has

centring
is

It

is called

using what

when

these

he

doing, the

so

because

arises

be

not

the

centre

"

"

If this be

use.

to

for the

light,changing

mirror, the centring of his condenser, and

less

and

"

obtainingcritical lightare

the

powers

adjustments are perfectlycomplete. But


find
that yet
perhaps to his sorrow

Further, in addition, from


his

that it is better

carefully into
placed so
the
J-in. utterly refuses

has

"

high
by far

objectives is quickly performed, but

objectives may
be

is carried

difficult with

more

so

find
to

soon

will

the

he

specimen
low

then

will very

disappointed

very

much

so

all the

when

trouble

another

always

J-in.to

with, and

learner

the

ones,1

use

higherpower

is

Specimen

low
to

condenser

the draw-tube

in

pushing

235

right.

Finding
than

whilst

turn

SPECIMEN

using

revolving nosepiece,

object is single and small as a diatom, very


experienced in finding it if anything like a
is exceedingly useful and quite
following method
the trouble
of changing the
frequentlysave
very

the

considerable
difficulty
may
The
be in use.
high power
simple to employ, and may
of these little objects have
a
objectivefor one of longer focal length : Most
the slip,the
the cover-glass, cementing it on
to
ring of varnish around
the
material being attenuated
the
thin
at
and
edge abutting
specimen, and this
of the ring of
whole
forms
suitable
The
a
object to primarily focus upon.
in the
to be
entirelycontained
varnish,however, is too large in diameter
field of view at one
and the same
a portion only is usually visible.
so
moment,
and
This takes the form
be shifted about
of an
of a circle,
should
by
arc
bisected
be
is
the
it
the
until
so
accurately
moving
slipon
placed as to
stage
this
When
view.
of
field
diameter
the
of
horizontal
by an
imaginary
is
the
that
bisection is accurately effected,it is evident
object usually
seeing
if the
that
of
varnish
the
in
the
the
of
enclosed
centre
area
ring
by
placed
slide be now
simply moved
horizontally,the object will fall into the field of
be

"

"

view

without

varnish,the
edge
means

of the

further
same
cover

trouble.
process

instead

of the verniers

their Uses.

can

of

If the
be
that

is described

object

carried

be

out

not
to

of the varnish.
later

on

in the

surrounded
find

by

ring

it,by employing

Finding

chapter upon

specimen
Verniers

of

the

by
and

"DRY"

USING

236
for

it

is, and

never

with

true

For

another.

this

effective

they

Their

years.

All the

and

for this

In

the article

reason

that

which

on

J-in.and

them

teristic
charac-

in all its

here

made,

was

But

it

as

and

bearings, so

said.

systems.

subject of the

explained,

immersion

the

object of

nothing further

there

is

left to

was

ture
aper-

dry lenses,

as

immersion

as

much

higher

with

made

the

into and

be

for many

be of

to

"

possess

be

to

aperture

discussed
need

must

yV-in.

mostly constructed

fullygone

reference

no

their

little later.

the

say

numerical

score

with

so

testifyafter using them

can

"

are

the construction
upon

we

possiblefor

been

has

lens

of Zeiss, with

resolving purposes,

it is

than

are

powers

for

real service

if

truly, for

necessarily be

not

firm

the

is described

use

high

will

it

work

to

"

"

of

arrangement

be, made

can

reason

POWERS

perfecting all details, have designed their


novel
a
objective-changers upon
system, and

of

desire

very

never

objective

one

HIGH

point

one

consideration

to

in

Seeing the

is for
design of immersion
systems
of admitting more
the purpose
light,or rather lightoccupying
be easily understood
of greater angle, it can
that the
cone
a

chapter.

this

of such
power
the condenser
constructed

transmit

words, the condenser


same

numerical

is to

work

the

to

so

as

constructed

refractive

same

dimensions.

Not

to

be

must

for the

only

same

oiled
reason

better

focus

too, is

higher

index

too,
in
the

as

to

lenses.

then

as

fluid

of

refraction

that the

As

greater

than

to

nowadays such
fullydealt with in

centring of t lie N.A.

as

the front

the

1*30

use
a

have

matter

of

the
matter

of the

fullyshown
of

depth
of

much

named.

It

has

yet somctlr

immersion

is

least

at

and

medium

lens

fact,the

aperture
very

with

what

medium

contrast

one

slip

to

and

true, but

the

or

microscopical student

this is
be

other

to

numerical

by employing

learn, namely, how

subject must
The

still,and

brought about

index

gathered
more

definition

is this

cover-glass,viz.

the

objective,although experience has taught


that

In

"

"

the

equally well

approximately, anyhow, the


the objective that is,if the latter

optical continuity." Then


be prepared
specimen itself must
of

combination

of similar

advantage.

N.A.
ro
objectives over
of the objective is oiled
called

have

must

best

completely utilised unless

it be

cone

aperture

condenser

the

with

employed

to

be

objectivecannot

an

will

system

be

of
the

of consequence,

all its bcari

substage

condenser

can

be

pri-

CENTRING

HIGH-POWER

obtained

marily

with

the

the

inch,

the

"-in.,objective in
raise
to
remembering

CONDENSER

ordinary

it up

operations,and the
angle, the
approximately correct
When

the

condenser
lens

of

for

the

carried

is

change

condenser,

of

the

adjustments

we

because

necessary,

if it be

in its turn

will

is

occurred

the

when

place,because

using

order

and

raised

to the

level

the

flame

image

lens of

the^-in.,

It is needless

the

do

not

or

the

will

suggested, seeing
to

accidentally

any

the

computed
slide

in

in

which

one,

appears

use

focussed

be
may

case

used

out

the condenser

that

at

yet

with

general

down

The

rather

be found

by racking

In

trouble

another

was

raising.

just happen
it will

tionary
precau-

carried

It is this.

beginner.
to

adopt

been

attempt

motion, however,

take

would

with, it in

commence

of

not

have

arrangements

confront

been

far away.

too

instead

perhaps
exceptionally thin

slip,this

accident

be

only requires lowering


executing this downward

slip, and

front

be

it

the

such

would

stage

have

should

condenser

top lens strike

the

"-in.,no

of the

may

the

strenuously avoided.

who

those

manner

unexpectedly

condenser.

to strike the

lens

when

measures,

in the

and

be

its front

Fortunately for

the oil makes

that

manner

the

raising

the

final

out.

over-raising of the condenser

if the

contact

Everything
specimen, previously

the

fine

work

iris is seen,

carried

be

If

denser,
light with the oiled conbeginner first to employ the ^-in.

cover

to

objective in

closed

the

can

the

overdone

cause

of the

the

do

be

of critical

on

accident

an

point out,

may

that the

see

should

coarse

lens

it and
"

stronglyadvise
urge

the

stage in such

the

to

on

perfect the getting


we

to

subsequently set to its


TVin- not being substituted

is raised, and

opticalcontinuity between

which

before

stage

mirror

When

condenser.

the

oiled, is laid

This

the

focussing of the closed iris can


tube
rather than
by lowering it.
be
reason
objected to, the
any

complete the tube

"

of

that

so

by raisingthe

out

perfectionin

To

level

quite central, no oiling of the objective to the front


the condenser
with
this high power,
is required. Even
in view, it can
usually be lowered
sufficiently
purpose

that

far

already explained,

and

for
raising method
adjustment should be used lest
too hurriedly,or
bring the front

so

with

purpose

complete.
it is required to

are

made,

this

with

this

is

the

near

adjustments

two

for

manner

the

to

commencing
until these

better

or

237

denser
con-

thick
be

to

an

that
the

con-

as

OIL-IMMERSION

AN

USING

238

(the specimen being

denser

under-surface

the

in the focus

the oil quits


of the objective)
slip entirely,leaving only a vacuity

the

of

CONDENSER

instead.
To

this

difficultyone, two, or more


the
be
glasses oiled together should
placed on
top
to make
condenser, oil being further used
a
complete
remedy

annoying

continuity between

make

The

condenser

the under-surface

lamp

is

his

new

having

designed
such

of

little

"

the

with

his

"

that

they

optical

condenser.

presents

high enough

latter

to

actually touches

it

being abnormally

know

we

of

We

slip.

slips,and

not

that

of

especially

have

be

scratched

not

is

have

should

does

save

that

condenser

Care

are

If this

mirror.

thicker

greatest service.

of

three

often

taken
when

found

of these

put

away

use.

focussed

it

The

has

to

now

performed by

be
one

view

light is said

removed

now

the

presumed

field of

critical

"-in. is

be

now

the

in

condenser, then
lens

the

different-sized

proceed, let

been

is

through

lenses

top

of
To

to

the

even

alternative
to

of

higher.
try the expedient of bringing

now

front

the

up

when

to the

owing
slip,

other

no

work

work

to

them

Even

possible to

as

succeed, there

racked

be

requires liftingup

near

as

slip,and

opposite character

an

all.

at

microscopist should

The

out

quite

cannot

of the

thick,the condenser
the

of

focus of the flame

the

covers,

trouble

Occasionally a
itself.

the

cover-

and

flame

by lowering
to

the

been

have

TVm-

has

image

raising the

or

obtained.
This

substituted.

cover-glass,an operation which


in the following manner
methods

oiled to the
or

two

drop of cedar-oil is placed on to the front lens of the


combination
(care being taken not to scratch it)before affixing
the cover
it to the instrument, or
a
instead,
drop placed on
with
in contact
it. In
it is known
the objective will come
where
Either

lowering the tube great precaution and

some

little

practice

arc

necessary.
The

adjustment

coarse

the

between

will

easily recognised by

when
obtain

looking sideways
the

focus

must

adjustment only, and


should

be

mentioned

employed until the


the cover-glass a
and

front lens

contact

be

be

can

"

little flash of

oil

ir;

fact

that

light quite visible

specimen ; but further lowering


be entirely effectedby tJie use
of tli.
slowly indeed.
gently and
very
very
at

the

(when oil

is put

on

to

the

cover

and

to

It

the

ZEISS

24O
details
this

have

we

"OBJECTIVE-CHANGERS"

suggested, but

of trouble, we

source

invented

their

have

to attain

already

to

it,and

in fact to

mentioned

sliding objective-changer

remove

Carl Zeiss

have

simple arrangement
the purpose
most
answers
excellently(see Fig. 139).
To prepare a battery of objectivesrequiresa littleconsideration.
Before commencing
should
to do so
mention
that the slides
we
"

which

consist

of

the former

portions the ta"?-slide and


(a,Fig. 139) being permanently

two

SLIDING

Fig- 139."
",

tube-slide;

the

"

OBJECTIVE-CHANGER

with
b. objective-slide

objectivc-s\\"t"

screwed

to

the

nose-

(/////

objectiveattached

; c, in section.

of the latter (b, Fig. 139) permanently attached


piece,and one
to each
objective.
that all the battery
is needed
have
As we
so
said, a little care
shall

be

perfect alignment.
plan is easilylearnt and
in

To
is

do

this

effectivelythe

thoroughly effective.

lowing
follow-

being placed in the draw-tube, the highest-power


is first screwed
immersion
lens of the battery
,Vin.
an
say
that
in the ordinary way
to the nosepiece of the instrument
on
of an
''limit the intervention
adapter or fittingof any kind.
r

ocular

"

"

TO

HOW

"

"

ALIGN

OF

BATTERY

OBJECTIVES

241

we
large and well-defined circular diatom, such as the one
the
Aulacodiscus
Brunii"
for
the purpose
usuallyuse ourselves
until it is in the
the stage, and
is then placed on
fidgeted about
No
oil need
be used
of the field and
centre
roughly in focus.
between
the condenser
the objectiveand
and
between
or
cover,
slip,as the best definition is not required just to place the diatom
the subto close
as
nearly central as possible. It is advisable

"

stage iris

sensible

hidden

missed, being

and

full aperture
laid

and
either

the

apparatus

that
the

affixingto

which,

tube

the

or

in

of

the

lens

is

The

thereto

not

for the

such

with

unscrewed

now

touch

to

/^^-slide

in

of

is in the
most
opening to receive the objective-slide,
is now
screwed
on
position. The
oftjecttve-s\ifa
and
slides united
the two
objectiveitself,
by slipping one
other.

probably
field.
the

be

To

few

effect

diatom

the

found
make

to

be

it do

no
so

is focussed

or
applied to one
b, Fig. 139, forming part

in

once

of

both
of

the

made
portions of a turn are
produced. The
objective should

turns

is

understand

the
the

until it is made
the

desired

rationale

of

the

to

into
it will

more,

what

be

quite certain

situation.
has

the

little

until

the

desired

slid

off

and

that

It is well

taken

screws

and
objective-slide,

or

again several times


always appears in

venient
con-

longer occupying the centre of the


the
little watch-key supplied with

is

apparatus

shown
a

When

of
that

manner

the

purpose

the

the

be

may

definition

this

implies,is

name

is attached

"

specimen

doing

stage.

its

as

The

taken

being

care

the

fluffystate

oil contact.

specimen
"

the

by

no

aside,

otherwise

amount,

place.

the

on

now

object
just to

The

idea

of

adapter of
diatom
to place the
was
actually in the optical axis
any kind
of the objective. After
the sliders were
the subsequent
united
and
adjustments with the little screws
watch-key were
merely
carried
lens to its original position. This
the
out
to
restore
its best possibleperformance.
ensures
The
lower
now
(each in their own
adapters) should
powers
be centred
the
after the other
is easily
one
on
diatom, which
effected by screwing an objectiveslide on
and
to each
adjusting
with
the
observe
It is needless
to
watch-key in succession.
putting

the diatom
manner

that any

objective on

must

not

be

to

the

touched, or

instrument

the stage

without

interferedwith

during the entire operations. It is very


object placed centrallyin the field with

evident
the

low
16

in any
now

power

GREAT

242
will

be

central

can

be

understood

USE

when

it is
all the

given are much


greater precision than if
the everyday use
of the
find

to

that

in

centring of the
for the

changers

no

shall

or

three

is manifest

in

do

by the

more

objectivesof the

it is essential,to

the

be

not

focal

same

length have

that
thing fairly,

the

all

suitable

upset

of these
If

in

and

second

one.

far

time

another

to

the mirror

accuracy

than

ways

saving of

immediately

the

employing

afforded

of

kinds

Moreover,

use.

objective

one

it

with

and

out

great

hence

one,

of different

in

adjustment

and

first combination,

changers

from

changing

convenience

higher

were

it is

instrument

condenser

the

to

previous directions
more
easily carried

require readjustment when


The

ALIGNMENT

changed

have

we

OF

objective-

supposing two
to be compared,
part of the

same

of the illumination)
refinement
specimen (and consequently the same
be employed
should
with
each.
this can
Now
only be
done
as
expeditiously in the manner
just related, taking one
the
here

be said

first

screwing

shall admit
each

lens is

and

the

setting the others

and

standard

they

can

one

on

be

as

to

well

the

and

But

the

then

only if

this is sometimes
same,

exactlythe

the
the

If it

it.

other, by

against the

tried,one

is true, but

is that

consequence

alignment with

nosepiece

that the argument

exactlysimilar.

in

other, we

centring of

not

the

same,

case,

portion

specimen is not in the field of view on each occasion.


of this is that when
The
this original
secondary consequence
be
found
not
to be
position is obtained, the light will now
be made
to
over
exactly central, and all the adjustments have
of

the

again
trouble
the

same

to

compare

one

combination

fairlywith

the

This

others.

prevented by first aligning the different objectives to


have
centre
we
as
suggested. Of course, if one
ticular
parof
combination
position to
requires a very large change
is

adjusting-screws before it is centred


to the same
alignment as the rest, it is possibly best to examine
that one
separately,by placing it directlyon to the nosepiece ;
often happen.
but this does
not
afforded
the great comfort
Then
by the use of these chai
which
with
a
is manifest
in another
namely by the case
way,
low power,
with
be run
a
over
spot requiring
any
specimen may
be

effected

the

aid of the

by

more

the

little

powerful

being readilyexamined
objectives,no adjustments of any

combination

simply by the interchange of


kind
being further required

save

that

of

altering the

WATSON'S
Similar

CHANGERS
of examination

ease

revolving nosepiece, as
in

the

and

one

opticiansassure
the

on

fault

they
other

mostly

manufacture

can

adjustment

of

with

such

of

almost

the

obtained
for

with

the

tives
setting objecthat

aware

some

surely they forget

actual

of

the

that

combination
of

amount

accurate

special

some

the

means

provided.
low

only

are

this

primary

uncalled

243

nosepieces are perfect in this way,


so
exactly that one
objectivewill

quite truly ; but

amateurs,

many

not

is

there

When

their

mounting
in the
no
nosepiece, which
unless
possibly correct

occurs

than

itself rather

be

provided
alignment. We
are

made

in

POWERS

is

means

same

are

LOW

rarely

can

no

that

us

assertingthat
follow

FOR

for in most

battery,as
of

Under
be

may

each

indeed, the

cases.

Zeiss

the

centring

exact

importance

objective changers of

in

powers

these

found

objective
refinement

is
is

conditions

trifle

obtains

the

cumbersome,

Fig. 140.
and

perhaps

offer

other
in

better

than

disadvantage

especiallywhen
"

changer

made

and

is

in

to

changer,

and

be

causes

to

It
in

for

size,however, is

To
the

as
use

it is very

inversion

end
pence,

truly that
140.
and

with

it has

simple.

downwards

the

of

movement

to

of
to

tube,

efficacious

the

nosepiece,
the objective
"

attach
seem

used

given

to the

The

the

on

to
to

each
leave

"Facility" Objectivehave

We

powers

objectives,Messrs.

it would

the

suitable

not

it interferes

is fixed

few

is called

Fig.

heavily

screw

To

although commonly

exceedingly

an

the

grip

ring, sold
firmly and so

desired.

microscope,

its slides.

as

price.

in

different

the

four

not

This

magnalium.

is shown

weighing

introduced

low-power instrument,
Its

so

of

three, if

little

"

nothing

of

have

constructed

so

combination

on

filled with

Sons

protected by

time

rapidly changing
rotating nosepiece, which

the

the

Watson

of

means

by

has

use

costly, although lately reduced

too

one
us

for

every

Continental
of the

some

faction.
satismodel
tube

in

turning of the handle


pair of jaws having a

WHAT

244

TO

screw-thread

cut

aperture, and
carried

DO

WITH

upon

them.

directly the

back

their

to

natural

THE

EYE

NOT

varieties

with

objective is placed in the


is released
handle
A
the jaws are
position by the action of a boxed

of sizes,within

objective threads,

USE

The

their threads
spring, in doing which
engage
and
it
the
shoulder.
objective
carry
up to
the

IN

it has

very

small

been

found

the

threads

In

of the
of

consequence

limits,that
desirable

still

prevail

supply the
to screw
to the objectives,these
rings mentioned
having threads
of an
absolute
will be gripped by the jaws of the
which
gauge
nosepiece with certainty.
Before
be
quitting this part of our subject a few words
may
said with respect to the way
of using the eyes.
Of course,
only
be employed
with the ordinary instrument
one
can
at a time,
follows

and

what

the

other.

This

muscles, as

refers

especiallyas

more

should

be

never

closed

[strain thereby effected

is

what

to

up

to

do

to

tightly by

its

own

spoil the

to

apt

very

with

Fig. 141.

perceptivefaculty of
be

used

this

shut

to

be

cannot

touch

or

close

It is best

it.

the

off

eye

addition, should

try

by the

objectseen

similarity in the
same

to

make

eye in

focussing

it open

It is best,

doing
By

this

brought

the

so

if it

as

If,however, the observer

moment.

the hand
if

; but

only shade, and not


that, although it is prevented

it turn

is

keep

to

shut.

use.

should

should

when

but

so

kept

not

learn

hand

duty,

Neither

use.

to

acquired, the

seeing anything, it is
said, to keep it open
the

in

the eye

means

about

we

have

observer, in

were

lookii

an

unconscious

at

lets his

as

and

one
"

the

off-duty

focussing is not effected, and


be
it may
be that a certain
kind of diplopia (double sight)may
is very
which
unpleasant; for
brought about by this means,
the
effect is that the observer, after
leaving the microscope,
simply

become

apparently
For

those

arrangement

sees

unable

blank, then

double,
to

is made

learn
to

this

perhaps, for

even,
to

fix

do
on

what
to

we

the

an

have

hour

aftcrv,

said, a

draw-tube

that

neat

little

holds

shield, effectuallycutting

small
in

Some

use.

of

users

the

off

"the

circular

shuts

microscope, and the other


It is usually made
eye.

the

Position

The

of
If
with
end
of

the

such

If

slip.

as

Brunii

placed

so

as

centre

of

the

to

in

slip
only

need

measures

taken

be

and

and
I

the

Method

marked

in. from

centre

diatom,

the

it,and

will

diatom

either

the

circular

to

the

approximately

for

the

called

with

diatom

show

fashion.

convenient

more

the

disengaged

its centre

be

on

dot, then

the

cover

it

size draw-tube.

may

burnt

in
of

sizes,one

exactly

This

side.

the

as

Stage

taken

be

should

has

part

from

Occupy

Circular

cover-glass be

this

parts,

draw-tube

two

English

Centring

Aulacodiscus

an

vulcanite, in

should

either

in. from

and

the

light

out

for the

dot

not

eye

two

one

over

Verniers

ink, this

of

dot

the

of

of

consists

middle

ordinary glassslipbe

i-in.

in

other

the

and

Continental,

It

slides

which

aperture,

seeing"

245

microscope regularly employ

ingenious little piece of apparatus.


in Fig. 141, jointed in the
shown
a

STAGE

CIRCULAR

CENTRING

VERNIERS:

the

All

these

correct.

"

a
square-shaped movable
centring slip upon
Placing this
in
of the ordinary milled-headed
screws
by the use
stage and
of the field
such
a
occupies the centre
position that the diatom
low
of view
when
power) and a x 4
using a J-in. (or other
are
fairlywell located,
ocular, it will be found, if the verniers
of their
their
length. For
midway
readings will be about
"

if

example,

be

one

readings should
from

much
the
used

with

the

verniers

if not
this

both,
we

be

the

low

the

diatom

one

be

slip having
will

not

will

be

the

stage is shifted far


well

placed, a
and
is

other

the

and

approximately

should

mean

long

mm.

the

returned
two

able

be

beyond

to

the

be

were

of

one

as

the

of

exactly

in

the

centre

of

both
of

when

the

the

covers,

graduations.

readings will be at an end


Providing the verniers
enough.
be used
should
now
high power
readings

very

it, in all probability

scale

exact

the

example,

makers, because

used,

reach

for

"

upon

covers

then

mm.,

they differ

the

to

40

If

"

figures,supposing they

these

instrument

60

verniers

field,a

before
are

By
the

ably
reason-

instead

taken
note

of

when

being

made

centring slide,with

the

on

which

to

at

now

the

the top

on

STAGE
additional

some

be

to

right-hand

in the

time

any

field of view

the

in

correctly recorded

having by
the

fault

the

occurred

centring

it proves

does

bearings of

its recorded

figures,by

means

the

that

central
of

accident
should

previous

mistake
the

or

in

contrary,

of the

centre

field,

other

has

codiscus
right,the aula-

matters

the field,according tp

in

the

the

on

no

some

accident

set

same

enquire

the

if,on

the

some

To

If

case

from

into

come

To

aulacodiscus

; but

themselves

verniers

is the

placed

it.

the

arisen

the stage.
made

be

upon

question

not

first be

should

which

in

unmistakably

most

upset the

after

evidently has

diatom

such

or, what

should

course

fails to

positions
the centralityof the

field,in which

the

of

the slide

upon

of

stage

centre

appear

the notation
the

the

"

failingto

"

vernier

seen

accidentallyslipped.

have

position as recorded

to

the

in

appear
"

we

particular

any

course,

upset,

centring slide

"

the

be

to

from

arise

been

means

must

stage in its proper


has

method

set

on

desired

provided, of

"

it must

"

some

thing, the verniers


into

as

stage.

is the

corner

position marked

recorded

previously

appear

stage

the

on

future, after having

slide,the specialposition of interest

were

placed

indication

ourselves.

employ
If

future

it is in the

way

capital letter

to

CIRCULAR

CENTRING

246

ordinary stage

should

screws,

released

be

from

that retain
them
screws
bearings by undoing the minute
situ.
A slightenlargement of the little holes through which

their
in

minute

the

figures noted

the

again be

once

With
has

to

around

be

circular
taken

the

the

field.

comes

from

the

the

highest of
revolving m"
and

into

the

slides

on

maker

the

set

according

This

done, the
will

containing specimens

tJic specimen shall


of

stand

the

diatom

all.

watched.

low

the

in

revolving

the

"

should
field
power

be

by
and

placed

the

it

on

ordin,.
then

with
or

"

about

Revolution
If

whilst

motion

description,directly

of the

battery, taking
cd at

this

centre

first with

additional

remain

centring slide

the

an

; it is that

consideration

with

screws,

the

read

more

once

centring slide."

"

be

to

correct.

adjusted to

milled-hcadcd

graduations

revolving stage, however,

Hence

the

the

verniers

on

optical axis

stage and

rr.dde

the

positionsof interest

recorded
now

that

so

enable

will

pass

aggin,

correct
to

screws

"

no

travel"

the

axis

is then

of

the

diatom

CENTRING

248

CIRCULAR

adjustment, through

the

of the

one

if two

two,

one

other, the situation of the


its

position,but
and

When

not

used, being

more

requires

turned

arrow-head

fresh

adjustment

be

must

than

or

the

frequently change

alteration

no

enough,

in

the

method

of

mentally pictured

each

made.

should
be used,
be, a higher power
perfect as can
finallythe highest of the battery. It should be mentioned

and

that

as

with

smooth

regular except

allowance

AMOUWT

Or

Tf?ltD

BE

must

OF

in

ADjuSTinCj

IN

BY

be

finest

for

of

grease

or

"

the

PLACED

appear
and

unexpected

AGAIN

OF

FIELD

OffOiriARY

BY

STAGE

SCREW*

Frews

Fig. 144.

presence

not

instruments,

made

CENTRE

THE

SPECIAL.
sc

the

will

motion

DIATOM

FIR6T

THE

the

then

even

9HIFTTO
AT

MEANS

magnification

great

and

certain

Fig

145.

exceedingly small piecesof foreignmatter


the like

making

it

apparently jump

"

thickened

little until

they

removed.

are

In
be

the

numbering
for

made

letter R

the

the

it is

so

they apply.
and

down

be

we

have
at

to

be

Thus
must

able

be

as

have

we

the
placed on
its position on

top
the

out

before, always

the

and

that

top

differentiate

placed

the

the vernier

means

at

of

the

always

suggested,
right-hand
stage

pointed
to

-3

should

cabinet, room

readings, and,

always

vernier

one
as

for the

slip to indicate

convenient,

reading of

slides

vernier

should

of each

corner

up

turned

in ttiefield may

arc

The

treatment.

time

this

being

screw

were

STAGE

to

put

other

verniers

to

moving

the

30-45, whilst

that

; and

the

neath,
underwhich

recording

READINGS

VERNIER
is to

motion

horizontal

suggestion because
in an
irregularmanner
in

microscopists

just the

in

their

have

"

verniers

being

vernier

in another

reverse

this

repeated

using

the

of

reading

one

"

have

most
upper-

led

them

So
recording stages to be of no service.
if
with placing the R
:
always at the top right-hand corner
future
be not
at some
always done, it is impossible to know

too

this

which

date

the

the

way

the

Reading

by

We

25-10.

mechanical

think

to

at

set

many

and

case

one

be

249

Verniers.

of

name

the

record

to

motion

indicate

scales,a long

of two

and

framework,

the

the

hold

along

of

edge

attached

in

"

the

the

side

to

side.1

point

fact

smaller

is

whilst

engraved

it

upon

the

of

division

simple

each

smaller

the

the

Each

one

consists

portion
to

contrary
of

both

of
of

division

the

of

some

frames

should

that

it slides
be

within

distance

scale

vernier)

equal

long

In

one.

to

has

exactly

this

then

that

called

mostly

one-tenth

this lies the

divisions
; but

mm.

It is obvious
is

in

nowadays

portion

(which

is

length,is graduated

commonly

equal divisions.

the

the

in

mm.

movable

or

smaller

the

name

for

only

into ten

space is divided
each

field of view, the

arranged that

so

microscopist.
The
longer scale,usually about 50
length, more
throughout its entire
millimetres,

one

the

sight of

easy

to

scale, and

greater

1630.
being to

immovable
on

matician,
mathe-

about

in

some

known

French

seen

to

of

of

somewhere

affixed

one

The

specimen.

the

as

from

short

stage.

usually two,

are

down

one

is movable

part that

flourished

movement

the

on

ingenious arrangement

there

and

up

placed

the invention

who

microscope stage
the

other

The
was

Vernier,

be

to

"

Vernier

Peter
In

has

slide

less

by
than

principleof

the

arrangement.
In order

to

for certain

the

that

and
called

the

this
1

We

5.

Sometimes

stage

the

of

the

4 and

it is evident

position taken
about

of

next

up

the

divisions

vernier.
this

on

zero

the

In

into
is

marked

"taking

; let for

ten

ascertain

equal parts,
o.

This

position"
example it lie as

greater scale.

We

write

is
we

in

down

position,although greater than 4, is


much
proceed to find out how
greater
reallyis,and consequently
by the zero
the

third is added

opticalaxis.

is divided

mm.

position of

Fig. 146, between


less than

of

first line

zero"

4, because

given position of the vernier, we

scale

the

"the

first note

read

to

indicate

the

amount

of revolution

of the

VERNIER

250
how

much

more

READINGS
add

must

we

the

to

make

to

the

reading

correct.

To

do

reaches

this the

eye

division

that will

is

"

the vernier

"

along

run

scale

until

it

correspond in alignment exactlywith


the fixed scale.
one
on
This we
in Fig. 146 occurs
see
the
at
division
the
of
scale
in
eighth
qu.estion; for there the line appears
to be exactly continuous
with the twelfth division of the greater
scale

of

millimetres.

the smaller
have

we

scale

vernier

is

this distance

equal

one-tenth

the amount

to

each

less

than

be added

the correct

the

to

of

the

each

of

reading 4-8.

THE
12"

the

of

(because

the

greater),so
is

of

smaller
learn

we

simply "8,which

reading happened

have

to

SCALE

FbRTION, USUALLY
THE
VERNIER

CALLED

WITH

divisions

If the

MOVABLE

SHOWING

eighth division
millimetre

prime figure4

FIXED

VERNIER

the

at

eight-tenthsof

to

already shown

was

makes

As

8"

DIVISION

SO

AND

COINCIDENT

READING

4'8.

Fig. 146.
shown

the

eighth, was
scale,then
the

in

alignment
have

would
have

been

alignment
should

we

4*6 and

of between

written

in the
found

been

with
we

that

should
So

far

"

in

place of
have

of the
have

the

so

on.

Should

and

and

occurred

only

added
to

the

if the

*i, the

understand

the

correct

in

zero

would

first division

it

were

one

reading
the figure
scale

have

of

been

but

the

case

as

may

had

scale

one

line,

continuous

reading appearing

fixed

whereas, if

subsequent alignment

the
as

the

figure o

the

at

the

"3 to

of

the

of

of the free millimetre

5, then

4;

division

sixth, then

other, making

it is easy

o*r.

arise

"

scope
using the stage verniers of the microthat
having noted the prime figure,a"
unple the
cannot
the previous argument,
we
subsequently find any
it often

indeed

to

4 and

other

some

at

scale, instead

vernier

only added

resting between

instead

the

with

have

been

had

been

of

division

third

docs

when

VERNIER
that

scales
there

as
seen

marking
the

251

the
reallyactually in alignment between
The
vernier
reading 8 is
represented in Fig. 147.
in advance
of the twelfth divisional
to be just as much

divisions

two

READINGS

fixed

the

on

are

of

thirteenth

scale

the

the ninth

as

fixed

of the

then

Seeing

one.

movable

is behind

the

advance

in

half a tenth or
question really means
"'S millimetre, so we
-%-$" or
the
to the reading,
difficultyby adding that amount
get over
The
of
scales
will not
readily admit
making it finally4*85.
finer

although
differentiating,

between

'025, -05, and

required

never

however,
be

can

in

such

the

read

to

of

inches,

instruments

for

example

the standard

BEYOND

THE

BEHIND,

understood,

desired,

so

third

usually find

we

DIVISION
12".

READS

I3TH

the

to

is

of

place

obtains

in

barometer.

8TH

THE

be

verniers, when

course

quite conveniently

as

as

DISTANCE
IS

of

refinement

should

It

distinguish

may

realitysuch

in

microscope.

SHOWING

VERNIER

practised eye

'075 ; but

passing, that

made

decimals

with

the

ABOUT

AS

THE

EQUAL

9"

DIVISION

4'85.

Fig. 147.
It

take
set
at

remains

now

up
them

be

4-8 is T8o of

millimetre

divisions

the

in

this line meets

requires

set
more

"05 further.

with

the

to

it be

desired

to

until
the

its

to

thing required

be 4'8, it is evident
4,

the

to

nearer

the

graduation, move

shift in the

to

first graduation

4*85, we

To

do

recognise that the


still,
so

movement

this

we

count

the

that

gently

turn

the
the

zero

whole

direction

scale,

great

vernier
shall

stage

smaller

the

required
on

screw

the

5, because

Accordingly we
(that is to say the

it in

are

rests

zero

4*00.

scale

upon

verniers

alignment. This is the line 12 as


Supposing, however, that the figureswe

set

Fig. 146.

vernier

eye

the vernier

causes

we

vernier

vernier

numerals

than

more

the

on

one), and, fixing

to which

the

the

set

scale, and

passed along beyond the

stage, which

the

fixed

the

to

simplicity let

along

Should, however,

must

until

For

slide

We

at 4'OO.

is done.

eight

explained how

given reading.

required figureon

the

zero

be

to

indicated
wish

the

scale

yet

be

shifted
a

trifle,

READINGS

VERNIER

252

about

;on

object

for

centre

of

field

of

view

of

field

is

screws,
tear,

so

that

the

reason

so

that,

r.

the

course

already

should

:"

readings
the
been

of

out

on

stage

be
the

was

explained

is

of

stages

"r-set

how

should

ocular,

in

the

147).

The

lie

now

provided

object

in

the

central

this

the

figures

once

the

more

the

effected.

stage

the

slide

provided

time

they

of

were

made.

centring
and

wear

When

service,

shall

was

with

axis.

of

centre

itself

through

optic
be

the

the

eccentric

with

at

is

are

become

alignment

that

upon

make

in

appear

is

record

first-class

will

to

It

the

plate

upper

specimen
truly

"

necessary.

since

centre

the

for

that

thing

another

shifted

ivc

This

view

distance

same

(Fig.

taken,

the

twelfth

given.1

mention
the

in

the

thirteenth

are

the

over

about

say

the

readings

correctly

re

to

behind

is

the

which

fun

is

that

advance

"

division

the

the

make

to

much

as

ninth

1C

fact

in

enough

this

provided

taken.

It

is
of

has

XI

CHAPTER
THE

MICROSCOPE

BINOCULAR

VISION

STEREOSCOPIC

where

between

provided with

is

each

whilst

eye"
this

By
about

to

it is

arrangement

be

described

about

inch

an

ordinary book-shelf.
is usually printed must
his

line with
eye

will

eyes

just be

now

the

right eye
and

mind

of

face

able

to

observer

the

effect of

photographs,

depth
each

viewed

fact, the

union

dimension

and

that
one

the

by

thin

theory

book, say

placed

where
be

of

side

the

upon

fact upon

in

the

in

Each

book, the

the

left one.

an

title
exact

an

in. therefrom.

18

is

from

we

of

impression

behind

vivid, distinct

the

and

"

in

the

different
the

say
other

of

these

different

two

produced

speak

details

blending

from

through

mental

that lie

the

to

volume

different

the left eye

right side,and

question, although taken


same

the

of, say,

see

Let

observer, and

the

distance

stereoscopicvision,"

it does

as

of

manner

both

When

looks
to be
simultaneously employed, the book
very
decided
in
the
confusion
to have
a
depth, no
arising

are

solid

at

nose

back

The

the

in

five in width, be

thereon

table, standing upright

as

follows

as

and

thickness

in

"

for

one

one.

simply, according
is

is that

"

"

by Wheatstone,

propounded

difference

oculars)

two

only provided with


possibleto produce

explained briefly and

which,

Fig. 148,

microscope

(and

the effect known

"

in

leading

is

latter

the

tubes

two

the

seen

Monocular

the

and

Binocular

the

the former

is illustrated

ordinary form of this instrument


inspection it will be
by mere

THE

AND

standpoints.

of

vantage,

instrument.

in the

photograph

unequivocal
253

suggestion

appear

to
manner

do

The
two

taneously
simul-

are

Here, in point of

produces such
and

where

stereoscope,

point

in

images

two

so

and

strong
to

as

of

in such

that

no

the

nounced
pro-

depth

landscape
a

"

marked

possibility

254

Swift's

Binocular.

which

instrument

*.hc

to

in any

way,

deviated

the

two

of

the

The

left-

interfered

with

rigJittube

and

or

into

little consideration

But

observer.

the

d, after

c,

observer.

the

uninterruptedly

passes
of

of

eye

is not

however,

b,

a,

through the left tube

thence

corresponding

right eye

the

to

but

figure as

the

and

body

half of the cone,

hand

in

shown

as

passes,

reflections ii.to the

so

BINOCULAR

ZEISS

256

is

of rays
right-hand half of the cone
travel
those beams
proceeding to the left eye of the observer
much
a
longer distance than those of the opposite side ; hence it
is obvious
the image formed
magnified of the
by them is the more

sufficient to show

the

that

"

"

To

two.

magnifying

the

less than

be

this

correct

that of the

left

images are
nearly so.

be

To

is usual

When

using both
(See Hints,

by

of the

means

adjustment should
caused

be

the eyes

to

of

end

milled

the

images leave something

be

used

short

different form

right

and

small

to

differences

eyepieces are raised


(see Fig. 148). This

out,

suitable

to be

tube

in

as

we

fatigue is

some

of binocular.

informed

To

unless
then

the

can

prism

this difficulty

meet

such

for

even

times, quite

in pre-war

with

form

inch,

an

Neither

made

It met

ordinary

half

are

desired.

Zeiss

its

about

instrument.

rccnough suggested, and


a

to

neglected.

is not

prism

the

the

head

objectivesof shorter focal length than


for the purpose
speciallymade
; but
on

the

made

Chapter XVIII.)

carefullycarried

if it be

Wenham

The

find

to

however,

eyes,

adjust for inter-pupilarydistance

lowered

or

right. It

images,

quite of equal merit, although they ought

not

noticeable.

not

are

power

inequality of amplification in the


of the left eyepiece is purposely

good reception

them.
make
opticians now
In this arrangement
it will be seen
by consulting Fig. 150
stereoscopicvision is obtained, not by a division of the pencils
of light(one going to the right eye
and
the other to the left)

American

.lishand

through

ng

of two
in tl

each
,

of

of

tnce
"

fixed

to
(

it,rr.

or

its

ach

lowered

same

rotating these

as
an

style
the

as

of oculars

the

different

obtains

in

suit

to

microse
the

an

objcctirc. Instead

oivn

itic binoculars

By

by

different observers

nlina;

known.

having

being raised

pupi

bination
ingenious commicroscopes which are complete

tioned

ju

"

Me

single objective,but

intcr-

usual

the

erecting Porro
that

supplied

for field purposes

change

for

in

now

the
so

inter-pupilary

BINOCULAR

ZEISS

257

readilyeffected. The microscopes are simultaneously


raised or lowered
rackwork, a fine
by the use of a single coarse
adjustment not being required.
be raised more
The
cannot
magnificationby this arrangement
in our
than about
opinion is quite sufficient
70 diameters, which
is

distance

for

stereoscopiceffects.

all

We

should

phragms are also supplied beneath


the results.
perfecting
Seeing that Wenham's
prism, as
stated
that

not

to be

suitable

observers

for

high

the

mention

stage

we

powers

have
in

certain

which

dia-

assist

in

already said, is

its usual

form,

performance of
focal length,Professor
that form
made
for objectives of short
Abbe
designed a special kind of stereoscopic eyepiece that
of the monocular
is
drops into the draw-tube
microscope, which
itself lowered
the tube-length the correct
to make
sufficiently
amount

some

for which

the

are

not

content

with

the

and

objectiveis computed.
17

ABBE'S

258
The

is shown

eyepiece
be

will

It

STEREOSCOPIC

pencilof rays
producing two

in

seen

in
the

EYEPIECE

Fig. 151.
illustration

that

the

two

*OI

mm.

of

the

emerging from the objective for the purpose of


is effected at the
end
separate images
upper
"

"

by partialreflection at a thin stratum


opposed glass prisms. This air space

of the tube
the

division

One

thick.

of

set

rays

passes

of air between
is

now

made

straight through the

Fig. 151.
Abbe's

StereoscopicEyepiece (two-thirdsfull size),


are
incorrectlydrawn.)

(The lenses in the eyepiece B

b and

prisms
other
passes

reflected
into

to

a
on

form

image in
the hypotenuse of

the ocular

B,

an

which

the
the

is inclined

ocular, whilst

the

rectangular prism b'


at an
angle of 13" to

To

adjust the eyepieces for intcris provided.


In order
D
ocular distance, the screw
to obtain
to give equal
perfectvision the two oculars must be constructed
the

axis

definition

of

the

and

microscope.

magnification,

so

to

fulfilthese

conditions

are

made

STEREOSCOPIC

ABBE'S
ocular
differently,

length of 45

whilst

mm.,

similar

focal

Abbe's

views

that

length.1
2

to

inner

the

is

It

cover

up
are

is of

stereoscopicprojectionthe observer

of

the

diaphragms
The

this

day

above

to have

of

Firm

struggled

have

to

see

to

This

the

eyepiece can

is

halves

outer

vision

the

so,

be

with

do

ingenious

to

one

faintest

for

used

for

at

not

was

double

image

of air above

all well
the

in

mentioned

entirelyremoved,

upon

the

one

the
the
of

for
of

high

it

powers,

optical reasons

have

the

the

second

but
cannot

not

the

present

kindness

sensible

was

of

ingenious

most

Through

ghost

removal
of

reader

examine

and

microscope

entire

the

probably because

oculars

out

been

appliances.

had

do

has

it leads

as

"

to

modern

compensating

as

the

uses

pseudoscopic

stratum

advance"

great

stated

we

entirelyfailed
The

arranged

occulted, consequently

only

brought

works

recent

nothing

convenient
the

be

must

two

instruments, however, by reducing

objection

this

notice

objection

the

In the recent

regret that

to

is

objectionable

an

from

thickness, the

in

failed

of
arose

thick.

too

much

we

which

first

when

account

on

eyepiece B,
being

ocular, hence

These

for

; whilst

each

Professor

placed in exactly the opposite position,the inner


beams
being alone employed.

arrangement

received

of

of

form

out

carry

focal

are

of the

halves

ocular

of each

of

Ramsden

to

beam

each

for

rays

the

necessary

portions
provided.

portion of

259

ordinary Huyghenian

an

ocular

diaphragms

half-moon
so

being

EYEPIECE

and
of

time, and

image,

but

there !

achromats
be

only,

provided.

of

of the
equalising the magnifying power
but inside
eyepieces,as the focus
objectivelies outside the Ramsden
the Huyghenian.
in
The
lenses
Fig. 151 are incorrectly drawn.
2
Professor
Abbe's
theory of stereoscopic projection in the microscope
(for which the reader should consult his originalpapers, scattered, it is true,
and
somewhat
difficult to find upon
the
view
here
subject)is not the
of obtaining stereoscopic
referred to at all. This only relates to his method
vision with the microscope, and
his departure is merely that, instead
of
he
divides
it in a very
dividing the light at the back of the objective itself,
similar manner
in the image at the back of the eyepiece instead,z". at the
Ramsden
circle.
in
as
Opticallyspeaking the effectis absolutely the same
Wenham
where
the usual binocular microscope,
the
prism is used.
3
If an
ordinal
the table, were
like
"a
it
ily
a
s
on
object
jelly,"
appears
under
observation, the stereoscopicprojection gives to it depth, and it is
the dish ; pseudoscopic vision is the reverse,
when
it
to stand
seen
on
up
if indeed
sunken
and receding, as
the jellymould
to the eye
were
appears
an

way
of the

"

being looked

at

instead.

"

POWELL

26o

"

should

We

in

both

using

BINOCULAR

before

mention,
certain

by

LEALAND'S

although

instead

eyes

of

Lealand

to

which,
in

only

in

same

into

"

is

present

we

with

employed

Fig.
of

the

of

whilst

glass

the

It

is

beams
;

the

beam,

by the

Abbe's

of

use

but

most,

it is

other
at

the

be

can

short

shown

to

in

Part

one

eye,

it passes

being

into

totally

the

said,

of

which

of

moment

to

of

the
each

becomes

be

produced

just spoken.
have

arrangements

going

by

in

vision,"
well

the

used

are

have

we

of

halves

portions

equally

can

inter-

distance

inner

this

the

ocular

such

can

using

outer

pseudoscopic

"

effect

when

each

binocular

new

it

off

the

altering

by

diaphragms,

times

pre-war

devised,

press,

been
for

are

the

unobtainable.

time

A
the

This,

is

parallel-sided

arranging

that

employ

to

as

this

this.

stereoscopic

so

from

effect, called

reverse

apparent.

once

In

so

the

adjacent,

the

merely

that

it

of

simply

produced

coming

moreover,

direction

opposite

at

and,

is

of

other.

distance

pupilary

double-

effect

is

prism

reflected

that

said

by

prism

eye

the

"

that

througJi

prism

binocular

whether

upon

passes

immediately

be

the

action

portion

to

The

falls

right-angled

reflected

Fig. 152.

its

light that

plate

the

length.

and

152,

used

and

objective

any

focal

long

or

and

peculiarity

informed,

are

prism

carrier

stereoscopic

no

"

of

called

The

that

Powell

the

be

may

"

form

converts

what

rienced
expe-

by all

Messrs.

Wenham

instrument.

arrangement

comfort

special

manner,

microscope
visioned

led

one,

the

the

recognised

not

construct

placed

the

that

concluding,

observers"

PRISM

very
"

fine

Bicor,"

entire

by Watson

existing stands.

See

instrument
"
Addenda

Sons,

by Beck
be

can

for

some

is worth

arranged

attention;
to

fit

on

and
some

interesting information.

XII

CHAPTER

WITH

OBJECTS

MEASURING

UNIT

THE

AND

THE

MICROSCOPE

MEASUREMENT

OF

USED

BY

for

scientific

MICROSCOPISTS
IT

for

diatom,

These

the

obtain

to

purposes
as

in

objects, being
do

certain

of

amount

minute

extremely

the

example,
the

taxes

The

in

of
of

have

the

instrument

is

placed

be

in the

is

with

the

In

speaking

unmindful
Mr.

object

of

J.

W.

an

of

be

this

Gordon,

of
"

utmost

new

the

full account

of

light
"

the

is

by the

which
as,

for

of

use

(Fig. 153), which

are

viewed

usually

of which

is

that

simultaneously
which

employed,

given

It may

by saying

purpose

lenses

form

we

distinctly original arrangement


261

when

operation

ordinary ocular.

through

instrument
and

but

Micrometer.

wires

measured,

paratively
com-

extent.

measures

present

two

view

pellucida
the

bacillus.

some

wave-lengths

of the

the

which

as

entirely

attained

measured,

these

out

for

by
to

be

to

instead

draw-tube

contrivance

been

Spider-line

"

of

such

"

difficulty after

Spider-line Micrometer

sufficientlydescribed

such

by

called

the

much

very

to

operator

carrying

like

organism

Amphipleura

Fig. 153.
an

so

has

with

dots

given object

microscopist's point

offer

details

powers

method

the

required
of

minute

practice

commensurate

even

of

or

not

is

it

dimensions

exact

example,

large,

are

that

infrequently happens

not

in the

Addenda.

part
are

not

devised

MEASURING

262

of the

when
the

"

the

wire

inch,

divided

of which

circumference

the

divisions, for
the

he

the apparatus,
so, he

proceeds
the

to

on

of the
how

in focus

are

avoid

as

it is

comb

the

This

lens

in

understand

to

all that

at

into the

with

so

comb

of the

notches

been

readings
that have

through

and,

if not

of

detail

which

are

counting
by the

over

instrument

; but

mentioned,

not

the moment.

readily understood

fixed

to

as

arrange

wire

shall

enclose

which

over

is to

object,whilst

the

the

to

be

of

revolution

they

micron, whichever
threads

or

wires

to

obtained

the screw,
be

must

the

subsequently added

figures thus

so

are

that

to

into

those

is desired.

This

reduced

of

the
lie

the

other.

micrometer

Originallythey were
ingly fine cobwebs.
hence
threads procurable ;
the originof

are

made

the

term

micrometer

apparently

has

of

the

object represents
whilst

screw,

make

them

the

in

of

excess

ment.
measure-

terms

of

practical

implies

reallyconstructed
the

the

inch, millimetre,

conversion

in

is

travelled

complete the
necessarilyin

with

in

one

count

hundredths

of

make

to

movable

this latter thread

furnish

drum-head

the

on

The

The

being

field of view

passed

the
the
field to enclose
in its passage
across
of the
revolutions
of whole
the total number

the

form

it is

the

of

end

one

the field

across

or

looks

eyepiece,and

usual

is necessary

position that

contact

value

of

complication arising in the reader's mind, inasmuch


that is really necessary
only \\\z principleof the construction

such

the

distinctly

putting the arrangement


of completerevolutions
number

wires)have

is the

entire

one

capable

observer

the

hundred

appear

is

stretching across

little consideration, and

run

webs

drum,

any

measurement

in

the

actual

variations

many

for him
A

the

the

the

before

so

The

with

thread.1

to

them

in

figure,called

distinctlyin focus

wires

by looking

notches

many

movable

make

to

is known

(and also

make

that,when

the

sees

microscope.

screw

there

To

screw.

to

outside

engraved with exactly


of showing
portions of

pushed in,so

or

itself ends

in the

eyepiece containing

pulled out

threads

is

purpose

of the

revolution

sharp,

the

is

hundred

screw,
screw

shown

head,

hence

spoken of as
other, working in a separate

the

The

is immovable

necessary,

and

delicate

field.

the

across

in

eyepiece

by

wires, although capable of

when

; whilst

thread

or

these

being taken,

moved

be

can

of

adjustment

is

measure

fixed

frame,

of

amount

a
"

One

arrangement.

limited

OBJECTS

of

finest wires

question.

the

"

or

silk

MICROMETER

SPIDER-LINE

USING

264

be

example's sake, be
hundredths

on

of illustration

way

making

14,
shows

41,

quantity

must

equal

grand total of
The

beginning
least

at

should

the

on

with

the

Suppose

be

the

to

the

by

eye

it is considered

the

to

moved

resettingof the

the

as

14*41,

making

random

from

whole

fiducial wire

readings

thus

ran

process

"

repeated again

"

different

possible,over
the

at

away

and

micrometer,

Presuming

micrometer.

them

estimated

'005 is added

now

stage

times, if

four

add

by

may

pointer to the drum


enough to call the

not

then

we

14*41 5.

micrometer

lines

the

be

which

"

the

count

we

and

"

yet

14-41.

division^ then

-5 of a

to

the

to

any)

if the

and

the

finallyadded

and

be

But

14*41.

over

this

42,

of

total

Then

14.

in number

41

are

say

excess

an

reading

supposed to
the drum
(if there

rulings8 of

the

"

14-415

14-550
I4"452

I4'428

5)72-235
14-447

then
of

14*447

represents the

of

TTTTTtn

rulings

inch.

an

absolutelyaccurate
large as they at
Without
1
*

In

This

of

method

case

If it be

added

half

or

the stage micrometer

desired

lines

the

change
to

secure

show

deviation

interestingpaper

with

their

mean

from

the

upon

what

values

the

degree of
of

the

errors

not

are

so

if worked

than

more

intervals.

ten

vcrsd, any

vice

or

the

deviations

in the

Microscopical Society (1907),after


Journal of the I\"

by

Mr.

not

divisions.

accuracy

rulings of

Marshall

D.
a

In

reader

The

Nov.
..

of

the

mean

the

above

should

stage

Kwell,

series

measurements

from

is stated.

is ="= '043.

American

at

the

be measured

now

downwards

obtained, which
mean"

or

fresh place."

have

arrived

furnish

not

above

which

been

object can

of the hundredth

one

does

from
"

to

made, the absolute

togetherand

"average

*!?,

means

being adopted
"een

an

course

the

either
were

; in

touching the draw-tube

Sometimes
this

that

observations

the

or

intervals

-00006921,

figuresshow

above

(10

reality,however, the errors


first sight appear,
for the difference
exceedingly small.3

is

out

in.

"OOi

revolution

exactly equal

not

were

that

The

of

value

mean

therefore

in.),and
Ttf-JsiT

mean,

are

the

consult

micrometers

President

of

the

painstakingexperiments,
1908.

USING
and

its dimensions

and

estimations

out

this

diffraction

which
may

of

doubt

element

an

taken

of

extremely

tube when

using the

stand,

micrometer
have

one

to

As

touches

never

such

in

Then

too

makes

the

the

the

of

object,for
seen

of the

shake

settingdifficult.
separate

on

the

in

measurement

the

act

optical axis, the

all,is

at

obtaining

the

micrometer

draw-tube

the

carrying

being exactly

exists

support

In

of

edge

always
objects.

it facilitates

found

accurate

valuable

one.

and

measures,

is

cordiallyrecommended.

be

have

we

The

Nelson's

Mr.

following are
objectiveswith as large

(1) Use

of the real

before,it is difficult to be certain

said

object.

of the

to

settings

exceedingly difficult

that, although in alignment with

so

We

found

reallythe

micrometer

suggestion

taken.

mean

prevent

minute

265

estimated, several

their

be

is

phenomena

Nelson's

and

it will

know

hence

Mr.

made

being

to

of the inch

in terms

measurement,

cases

many

MICROMETER

SPIDER-LINE

suggestions :

"

aperture

an

edge

possible with

as

largestilluminating cone
procurable.
inner
from
the
(2) Measure
edge of the inner diffraction

the

the

inner

(3)

In

of the

of

The

were

of the

black

filament

seen

black

an

do

not

we

of

small

objects such
the like,we
it
admit
real size of
that

power"

his

imposed
must

comparable
it

by

to

seems

the

the

be

the

to

outside
it

edge
be

may

white

diffraction.

with
If the

small, there
black

the

and

one,

again.

suggestion of
quoted
with
No.
reluctantlyadmit, save
making

In

to

estimate

the

little consideration
from

"

the

position of
at

limit

attempt

uncertain

be
of

the
to

I,

flagellaeand

of

the

shows

once

resolving

undulating theory of light, so

consequence

so

measurements

holes, bacteria, or

arises

any

the

outer

is what

illuminating cone

resolving power

obvious

from

represented

due

are

side.

opposite

words, if the object

other

remarks.

chosen

to

in full the

is difficult

in

be

outside

minute

as

the

measurements

Hence

must

object,but
difficultyreally

this

side.

edge

one

have

we

with

agree

opposite

; in

the

and

faint black

authority,we

to

to
"

edges

diffraction

white

Although, however,
eminent

dot

band

it would

slender

another

perhaps

the

on

object

filament

is very

be

band

the

on

hole, measure

diffraction

black

"

band

of

diameter

the

These

edges.

diffraction

black

outer

of

focus

slender

may

the

that

termed

the

diffraction

outer

(4)

inner

measuring

edge

outer

of the

edge

band

within

any
limits

objective employed.

establish

hard-and-fast

USING

266

rules

SPIDER-LINE

which

by

the

is

for

is

it

possible

reallybe

cannot

of small

discrete

if

minute

object

an

of the

measurement

such

"

distance

diatom

as

admit

we

dots

of the

fluffy edge

all

objectivesis merely

around,

give to the objects


(notwithstanding this) the

that

so

of

bisected

with

the

and
correctlyindicated
they
certainty that the only circumstances

might vitiate

the

result

bisections

The

the

or

objects

result, as

of

millimetre,

it be

desired

to

divide

of

obtained

be

the

object be
high

has

measurement

where

obtaining

the

The

will be

(or more)

are

explained

the

of

when

Figures

so

certain

convenient

to

that

say

is to
has

Nelson

set
a

arranged

value

taken

on.

to

of
of
/*,

one

the

Chapter XVI I.,


scribed.
ocular
are
fully dein

microscopist

the

inch

in

revolution

specimen"

is the thousandth

metlv

accurate

most

measuring
the

lines

Micron, usually written


further

"

Mr.

described

arc

and

the

comb.

in the

more

distance

explains the

arise

I Living obtained

by

by multiplying\yya 1000.
inches
multiplyby '03937,

found

be

methods

number

oriented

special purpose.

the eikonometer

may

be

by '00003937.
and
yet requires for

given

some

said

other

Occasions

lines

line

been

into

one,

it will

power,

for this

micrometer

large

of notches

certain number

should

measure

into inches,

fiducial

the

the

obtain

to

in millimetres.

microns

readings

microns

to convert

What

micrometer

changed into

change millimetre

back

if

inch, but

further multiply
(//,),
originalfiguresin inches by

divided

stage micrometer

a
can

reasons

the

proportional parts
be divided
by '03937,

in microns

the

of the millimetre, the

means

the

estimating

or

If it be
in terms

which

into

same

multiply by 25,400.
required in the first instance

"00003937,

of

terms

figures should

If desired

multipliedby 25*4.
the result by 1000,
or

If

the

convert

in

errors

be

can

itself.

is in

said,

the

then

or

To

personal

are

have

we

on

is

of the micrometer

errors

later

is,

"

to

position

apart

matter

resolving power

and

be

may

absolutely unscientific,

not

measure

markings

objects

altogether,for here theory teaches that,


carefully regulated illumination, the effect of the limited

with

The

objects or

however, another

such

quite useless
accurately

to

seen

of

size

true

correctlyestimated,

MICROMETER

is

of

desirous

given specimen.
of the

that
part of

screw,

is to

say

millimetre

five
one

it

placed

is

wire

'00006

As

in

If desired

of

turn

one
use

of the

the

interval

the

that

the

; let

little

are,

of

be

we

valuation

taken

of

every

upon

in

microscope
in the

purposes

removed

eyepiece

(which

the

if the

course

for other

employed

micrometer

that

always

mean

we

micron

millimetre).

it is obvious
must

are

inch.

the

to

they

say

"

the

3 to

over

us

number

on

be divided
figures must
roughly speaking, 3280

the

part of the

said

"

say

we

83,300

there

micrometer

been

has

ordinary
different

between

being taken.

measurements

of

Units
In

.mnhnr

millimetre

been

instrument

and

way,

thousandth

has

what

From

::

showing

is the

said

have

millimetre, and

the

to

second

the

and

Then

inch.

an

of

terms

25*4, thus

by

of

in *oooo6

contained

line

one

carefully measured

distance

the

six, and

number

on

267

MEASUREMENT

OF

UNITS

the

previous

section

inches

into

in

expressed

Measurement

the

of

means

of

terms

the

converting
millimetre

measures

been

have

for so
reason
given. The
doing is the fact that a growing
for all dimensions
in
feeling is rapidly gaining acceptance
scientific matters
Since
to be expressed in the metrical
system.

microscopical objectives have


improved, both in defining as
of measuring
possibility
This

greater.
found

be

to

objects,or

the

have

sought

much

of

measurement

smaller

convenient

that

even

the

dealing with
the German

about

the

of

for

inch

object

an

than

that

unit

become
of

measure

mentioned

be
p.

part of

hundredth

or

the
savants

micron

an

has

been

the

small

surate
commen-

in

so

what

on

the

one

expression

an

letter

Greek

scientific

standard,

permit
figures,and

millimetre, or

be

may

it would

Selection

part of

of

some

fell

and

greater

suitable

more

the

power,

light. Consequently

less

in

hitherto.

thousandth

four

It should

as

usually expressed by the

"

is the

thousand

inch

has

much

so

separating

as

objects

wave-length

than
of

form

Micron

which

small

so, the

with

so

the

well

been

years

inconveniently large seeing that


to be
portions of them
measured,

even

authorities

being

later

in

more

is called
//, (mu)

"

twenty-five

inch.1

here perhaps, although hardly in


is not

of

is called the double

mu

(written p.p.\which

of

measurements

employ

wave-lengths

logicalsequence,
physicistwhen
light. In this case

small

what

the

enough

unit for the

METRICAL

268
there

Seeing that
system

readers

some

hope it may furnish


to
originallyintended

metre

was

whom

to

the

append

we

the

in the

explanation
A

be

may

immediately appeal,

not

may

UNITS
metrical

the

following

information

be

the

desired.

T^^V^ZRr Part of

pole of the earth to the equator, measured


however
it is
to
an
Owing
along a given meridian.
error,
the metre, strictly
short ; hence
known
to be in realitytoo
now
from

distance

the

the

length of

the

speaking, is merely

given definite

standard

kept

in Paris.

the

Fig. 154

In

numeral

to

"

mm.

\i\*.roth

metre

is

"

seen

metre.

II

I
I' 000

the

represent

0000

OOO

Fig- 154.
be

to

The

cyphers.

third

the

indicates

cypher
because

(writtenmm.)

point from

decimal

the

separated by

it is the

the

following

ten

position of

thousandth

the

metre
milli-

part of

the

expressed in decimals (in terms


of the metre) as o-ooi.
If we
proceed to the sixth cypher we
which
is therefore the thousandarrive at the micron
(written//,),
Hence

metre.

this

thousandth

(millionth) part

thousandth

part

expressed
of the

of

is called

whilst

metre,

but

metre,

then

it

is

in those

'ooi

as

the

being

decimals

In

of the

in terms

ninth

the

to

the double

mu

which
(written u//-),

cypher,

decimal

as

position of

of

unit

of

parts

millimetre

the

have

we

still smaller

"

in

in that of

o-ooooooooi,

measurement

"

becomes

metre

what

of

O'cooooi,and

micron

O'ooi.

as

The
the

last

cypher

smallest

unit

in

It is called

mu.

as

the

millimetre.

Continuing

to

of

millimetre.

the

'oooooi

as

is

quantity

of

of

Hence

of

ten

thousand

part of the double


decimals, with respect

existence, being the tenth


the

tenth-metre.

metre, this is written

O'ooooooi,

position of

the

figure indicates

the

all in

oxxooooooo

micron

these

In

as

0*000

ten

million

millimetre

1, and

make

tenth-metres

micron, and

of

in terms

of

double

mu

double

one

as

mu,

0*1.
ten

millimetre.

is the thousandth
smaller

part of the micron; but the English scientist adopts a


unit still,
is the ten thousandth
called the tenth-metre, which
part of

the micron, the

power)

go

to

mi

son

metre.

d'etre

of

the

term

being

that

iol"

(10

at

the

tenth

CONVERSION
As

have

we

said

is found

too

of

wave-lengths
that

too

double

the

positionof
for

both

but

metre,

this

In

whilst

four

or

will

has

make

our

in

been

the

have

the

with

dealing

mentioned

of

science

with

is
The

respect

the

to

quite clear,illustrate
expression according to the two
of

wave-length
be

microscopist,

tenth-metre.

shown

the

written

eight

by

line in the

spectrum.

approximately

hundred

and

4862,1

as

sixty-two

tenth-

486*2 double

as

double

two

reader

the

position of the decimal

the

for

almost

now

meaning

of

readily understood

change

the

branch

this

Germany it would
appear
and
eighty-six decimal

in

hundred

be

units

thousand

four

is

it is the

England

it would

country

measuring
metres,

the

for

unit

difference

Take

standards.

in

these

the

moment

micron

measurement

the

might, to

we

269

large for spectroscopy when


differentlycoloured
light. We
whilst

mu,

of

unit

Germany

in

MEASURES

already, the

universally adopted
but

OF

mu,

This

mu.

the

remembering

point between

the

two

standards.
what

Although

follows

this book, still it may


it is

into

terms

convenience
of

by dividing

convenient

be

inch

been

already

at

able

once

vice

or

to

stated

to

tenth-metres, would
52,241

and

to

waves

forty-one;

tenth-metres

become

"

the inch

nine-figured quantity

same

in

measurement

written
the

of the

in terms

expressed
in

of

above-mentioned

conversion

way

"

being

divided

and

may

be

is

parts into
sometimes

Decimal

required ;
*

How

the

one

carried

hence

these

millimetre

convenient

portions of

region might appear

of

the

the
exact

to

in

out

use

the

two

obtained

inch

"

hundred

in terms

of

of

the

inch, the

by

the

quantity

of

proceeding
similar

conversion
or

when

Fraunhoffer

4862-23.

figuresare

the

is shown

for

manner.

of the

vice versa,

it

following tables,even

added

are

wave-length

for

micron

or

tenth-metre

light in

quotient furnishes the


dealing with expressions
be taken
off
cypher must

Notwithstanding the explanation given


inch

express

those

done

the

When
mut

times

tenth-metres.
of

nine-figuredquantity, the

either

"

inch, when

double

to

in
be

must

tenth-metres.

terms

desired

written

measurement

in

thousand
i.e.fifty-two

if it be

vice versa,

"

in

tenth-metres

in terms

expressed

at

readily be

can

54,000,000

that

convert

This

versa.

elsewhere

repeat

by the expression
4862, the approximate length of the waves

Thus

as

be

to

the

has

in the Addenda.

great exactitude
line in the

OF

CONVERSION

2;o
if

only

be

made

check

as

that

conversion

any

upon

MEASURES

might otherwise

TABLE

CONVERSION

FOR

BRITISH

OF

METRIC

AND

MEASURES

inch

p.
1
2

'000039

'000079

-000118

3=

'000157

io(icm.)=

'000197

20

"000276

'000315

4=

'000236

6=
7
8

-000354

'000394

20

'000787

30

9
10

'ooi

50

60

'039370

"078741

'196852

'787409

'393704

Example.
in inches

=1-968522

50
loo

-001575

40=

j^

decimetre

p.

-000787

.QOOQ39

'002362

^""8^

'003937

looo

i"mm.

tenth-metre

double

micron

mu

25O

millionth

=a

25

millionth

=a

25

thousandth

MICRONS

INTO

ins

inch

AND

of

an

inch

"

"

"

MILLIMETRES
-028222

n.

irfcnr

I 'Oi-

si,v

nkns

1-269989

,J0

-031750

-050800
'253998

,'u

2-53

millimetre

centimetre

decimetre

2-539977
3-17..

5 '"799 5 4

(usually written
'":,

time

/i)

.-trc

iinetrc
""

2-822197

25'39v
micron

nearly.

"

^318

equivalent

p. ?

21

-003150

100

is the

What

"

to

20

'001969

80=

IN"

inch

mm.

l"1,5jmillimetre
,

"

*r

,'".-,
metre

5'"79954
9-5-4915
=

'00003937

inch.

"03937

"

metre
,.',,,

'3937O

"

J6 metre

3 '93704

"

272

XIII

CHAPTER
THE

DIFFERENT

FOR
THE
the

selection

of

different

suitable

classes

of

SUITABLE

PURPOSES

they

objectivesdepends

and

stand

for which

specialpurpose

The

OBJECTIVES

AND

MICROSCOPE

are

subject

intended

to

be

therefore

will

upon

employed.
be

treated

seriatim.

Botany,
For

these

and

as

an

purposes

Instrument
the

Fig. 155.-

for

the

simplest type

llimmlcr's

Stand.

of

Textile
stand

Trade
is all that

MICROSCOPES

LOW-POWER
is

required.

preferablyof
if the

well

A
the

not

coarse

powers,

do

"handy
needed
are
seeing the objectives
really

The

be

mirror

provided

"

Bausch

should
with

cap

as

above

have
of

Lomb's

Stand

i-in.,but

draw-tube

his

with

is

2-in.,ij-in.and

only
especiallywhen
cf coarse
adjustment
The

provided

will

rack

Fig. 156."
low

be

adjustment should
form, but the sliding tube

good

microscopist

adjustment is

273

takes

hands."

fine

all very

A.

it is not

to

place of

the

very

be
a

despised,
rack

form

stated.
concave

opal glass

and
that

flat surface
can

take

the

and

also

place
18

of

MICROSCOPES

LOW-POWER

274

l.'s No.

the

silver
the

when
1

surface

li^ht

Occasionally

chapter

devoted

needed.

when

it is u^cd

"

to

be

too

obtain

1124

Stand.

usually employed1
softening
powerful and wants
This

is

polarised 1
/.ion.

icd

in

the

MICROSCOPES

LOW-POWER
; but

down

botanists

some

between

the

instead.

The

tint film

preferto

now

instrument

upright position is quite as

studies,indeed

at

times

need

rather

Reichert's

more

not

No.

96

under
have

so

little

joint,as

by

Messrs.

whilst

Bausch

one

"

of

Lomb,

much
shown

the
in

an

textile

and

Stand.

than

an

inclined

examination,
specimens, temporarily under
(Fig. 155) used to make
stage. Otto Himmler

stand,

stances
circum-

these

it prevents
off the

neutral

Kodak

for botanical

convenient

Fig. 158."

mirror

and

illuminant

use

275

same

design

Fig. 156, Stand

is

one,

for

slipping
cheap
provided
a

A.

LOW-POWER

2/6
R.

Messrs.

model

addition.

in

J. Beck

supply

(Fig. 157), called


of their

form

"

MICROSCOPES

their

"London"

for

slightlyhigher

little

fine one,

production,

rackwork

no

by which
and

reminds

has

to

the

It is

cheap
fine adjustment

sell

to

perfect

more

firm

very

microscope can
an
required. It was
of the

one

type

adjustment,

coarse

the

means

when

powers

and

Stand.

1124

(Fig. 158) used

(non-inclinable)that has
has

No.

Microscope,and

Reichert

but

different

be used
excellent

original Oberhauser

model.

Those

who

desire

modest

I59-

to

with
one.

of stand, but

liaker's Plantation

that is easy

one

Alicroscope.

quitelow-power work, should see


It is not provided
Plantation
by C. Baker.
Microscope made
for a coarse
it has only a draw-tube
fine adjustment, and
a
dimensions
of exceedingly small
It drops into a case
about

carry

the

"

form

for

suitable

and

(Fig. 159).

supply cheap

manufacturers

other

Most

stands

that

are

equally

efficacious.

objectivesrequired by

The
Textile

1.1-in., and
ck

need

Trade
a

make

i
a

-in.

not
arc

scries

be

that
this

Botany and
finest quality,and

student

of the very

all

of

the

is

in

necessary.

description,and

Messrs.
so

do

for the
a

2-in.,
R.

"

Messrs.

"

desired,

most

its

diameter, whilst
for

serviceable

found,
used

like

rotating it

ring
"

to

with

ocular

I,

when

used

with

the

If 'the work

furnishes

This

with,

in

is shown

former

I, Plate

forms

screen

no

inch

of

the

valuable

for

one

such

is

the

the
or

with

highest
that
a

by

pensating
com-

the

photographing

the

excellence

can

be

any

deterioration

of

employed

definition.

and

Pharmacy,

For

these

For

class of

instrument, for he

half-inch

or

even

Teacher's

Dairy

student
must

required, but

photographed

Abbe

An

with

more

employ

to

expect

Microscope

rather

requiresa

quarter-inch.

is also

too

frontispiecewas

The

as

the

purposes

of condenser
1

is 33

XVI.

of

limit

performance by

to

to

the

used

compensating ocular
objective that any
raise the magnification without
producing

the

magnifying

Zeiss

by

when

required,3and

is

Zeiss

objective produced

demands

upon

image

Fig.

the

and

years.

the

8, whilst

apochromatic
illustration

arrangement
as

the

An

ocular.

green
have

we

magnification being, of
ring in conjunction with
sold by Koristka
of Milan.

engaged

excellent

an

in.

exceedingly

Beck

for

caused

"

to

TV

by simply turning

This

It is also

is

student

quality of definition, the


Swift

of

use

intervening powers.

of

oculars

the

by

i^-in.of

that

is

suitably deep

the

5, intermediate

ocular

obtained

with

double.

about

The

0*24

it

great satisfaction

us

magnificationof

makes
\-~\

whilst

are

flat field,about

objectivecollar

an

N.A.

mm.

very

combination

increased

be

power

course,

given

useful

24

projection objective is,

35-mm.

have

make

to

if used

combination,

useful

are

great aperture

Zeiss

Wray

of

2-in

such

photography

The

has

it

as

277

perfect combinations
equally excellent.

more

objective

Holoscopic

lens,

favourite

If

productions
opticians'

wide-angled

screen.1

others.

Sons, and

Watson

MICROSCOPES

DAIRY

AND

PHARMACY

this

objectives up

(chromatic)type

modified

elaborate

form

objective and

of
two

non-

green

screens.
8

This

It

is regrettable, for, although

photography,
owing
3

to

the

piece

increases

believe, unobtainable

objectiveis,we

the

still the

focal

under-correction

length being

of green-pot
contrast.

glass,

was

necessary

hand).
(except perhaps secondoriginallydesigned for
was

scarcely noticeable

great.

so
or

now

it

66, 56, or

61

green

Kodak

film

often

centring substage will


Suitable

stands

in

most

made

are

list is not

the

course

DAIRY

AND

PHARMACY

278

particularlyconvenient

fulfilall his

requirements.
following firms, although of

cases

the

by
to

meant

MICROSCOPES

variety

be of
is

to

exhaustive

an

be

HistologicalMicroscope by Baker, shown

found
in

nature.
in

Fig. 160;

Fi".

the

model

superior

161.

'"^ical Microscope.
'ill is a!
with

by

the

swinging

In

"\vn

by

I.cit

firm.

same

make

useful

be

supplied

good stand, \\l"\


an
microscope was

to

ngly

can

in 1

"

.62.

They

This

piece of apparatus,

and

quite equal

solid

is

cding.
it

old

by

more

Mc"srs.

elaborate
\Vatson

and

"

very

Sons, and

it

can

stand
be

the

supplied

28o

Fig. 163.-Watson's

"

Kram."

281

Fig. 164."

Zeiss's Stand

V.A.

PHARMACY

282

AND

DAIRY

MICROSCOPES

the latest
exceedingly useful type (Fig. 164). Constructed
upon
easilyheld in the hand for carrying about.
(1905) lines,it is most
The
specimens
objectives for the study of Pharmaceutical
be

should
used

; but

The

inch

really good
for

the

opticians,but
"

We

Sons.

in

have

if

Indeed,

treated

this

lens

down

the

employed

with

difference

any

and

manner,

have

by Swift, and we
the same
tests
applied
the

by Watson

absolutely cruel

an

but

image,

have

we

the

it

image

much
it

to

pleasure
the

to

as

break

and

the

most

unfair

conditions, which

Reichert

used

make

to

in

image,

desperation

objective(a

of

matics, which,
called

be

this

little over

sixth with

desires

pharmaceutical student
by
the

the quarter, well

finest in

the

Holoscopic of
the
have

and

worth

performance
failed,and

opticians,as
1

\\Y

than

h.ive

equalled by

separately or
*

found

Those

better

who

that
the

the

turn

in

was

opinion

our

lenses

the

by

for

every

it

en

afforded

was

tried

Watson
guish
distin-

to

artifice

possible,

screens,

66, 56,

peting
com-

produce
is

recommended

and

of

one

the

labours, should

.ulassformerly
"

lens,if the

congratulation that

of their

See

have

We

length.

"-n

appreciatethe meaning

finest excellence,

amplificationthan

matter

t:

to

should

more

outcome

three

nomenclature,

adjustment

these

it is

conjointly.
will

of

first-rate
achro-

being only equalled by


focal

same

without

collar

as

an

in
absolutelyirreproachable

were

buying,

market,

the

was

low-power

of the very

them

produced by

magnification

to make

Zeiss's

modern

scmi-apochromats,"were

"

respect. Their

evety

with

pace

the extra

also used

all of

focus, and

keep

to

the images

and

Lcitz

be serviceable.2

times

combination

effects,and

in black-dot

just

perhaps

save

of sheer

out

an

have

we

as
a
seventh, which
quarter),called the 7#, usually
exceptionallyfine lens, especially for colour correction

at

that

saying that, with

listed

might

tinguish
dis-

to

produces

Holoscopic

down

to

loss of blackness

way

failed.

screen,1 it is hard

failed

tried.

were

in

we

mentioned,

rarely required.

series

Holoscopic

green

between

made

under

the

is

"-in.apochromatic by Zeiss, employed in the


A fine quarter is
that is saying a good deal.

the

by

furnished
same

of

to

endeavour

our

is that

break

" being often

mostly of good quality with all


combination
|-in.it has been

are

finest achromatic

examine

lot to

our

last mentioned

two-thirds

the

and

the

work

dairy

inch, 2, J, and

an

ones,

61,

more

used

chapter
of this

rei;

upon

the

"Testing

of

Lenses"

will

distance, which

is

provided with
being

used

which

is

The

magnificent results.

such

Berlin

(6A), was
the

If

desires
half-inch

the

Zeiss, but

it should

long tube,

so

of

form

Continental

the

extremely

useful.

Of

and

are

Zeiss

and

The
The

Brewer

needs

as

that

demanded

shortly),because
the

than
a

for

If he

that

the

former.

latter

uses

his

example,
good one ; such,
We
pharmaceutical purposes.
small

Lomb's

model

BB

Watson,

instrument

the

as

of

bacteria.

dealt
much

best

with
more

must

employed
following :

the

recommend

of

use

Microscope

very

in

fine instrument

be

so

the

to

book).

of the

subject

Still,however, the Brewer's

are

perform

purchase such
bacteriologist(to

for

The

reference

need

the

only

Koristka

by

itself to the

the

the

sixth

third

end

lend

into

carried

by

and

Zeiss

the

the

with

employ

to

third
the

at

for

recommended

elect

will

are

of

Himmler

by

the transformer

or

stand

think, however, he

not

studies

of

made

employed

Microscope

We

do

be

Brewer's

his

long,

particularly

very

lenses ; and, with

twelfth, as

be

only made

are

must

(see Plates
indistinguishable

manner

be

both

Reichert, Koristka, and

by

the

the

combinations

these

is

objective

on

also

times

tube, the

short

excellent

most

sixth, those

to

(see Index).

for

Watson

highest praisephotograph his specimens, we


the quarter-inchapochromats by

instrument;

Heurck

by Dr. van
apochromats

the

as

and

deserving

lengthening adapter

working-

of the

should

pre-war

recollected

be

but

instrument

another

in

combination

student

recommend

and

made

semi-apochromat,

little extra

admits

Mention

by Koristka,

sixth

that

short-tube

the

on

has

283

sometimes,

adjustment

great convenience.

good

fine

well

Zeiss

advantage

an

collar

as

MICROSCOPE

BREWER'S

THE

of R. "
and
Bausch
J. Beck
1129
Baker's
model, and one
special Brewer's

No.

stand,

all of

which

respect

to

student

suit

arranged

are

almost

exclusively

for

"

by
the

purpose.
With

add

twelfth.

combinations
twelfth
purposes

will

be

objectives,those
the

brewer,

We

have

but

details
found

required by

but

the

already spoken
in

concerning
the

article

(Bacteriological section),and

student
of the

the

the
will

ceutical
pharmahave

to

first-mentioned

semi-apochromatic

devoted
those

to

medical

relating to

the

apochromatic
eighth

for

seem

Medical
has

in Medicine

student

critical work.

quite so

not

good

to

the instrument

use

that

as

have

we

of advanced

student

Pharmaceutical

might

Purposes

Histology, Pathology, and Bacteriology. For


nothing but a reasonably good stand
purposes
indeed

We

not

reason,

For
The

to

easily discoverable, a dry


favourite dry lenses for the Brewer.

some

ninth

even

or

in that devoted

2-mm.

that

mention

MICROSCOPE

MEDICAL

THE

284

for

first

the
is

Biology,
two

required,one
for the

recommended
; but

seeing that for


latter subject a

type

Bacteriology especially the


Pathology and
is a sine qua
it is
reallyfine,steady, and solid instrument
non,
and
for all,the best
better for the beginner to purchase, once
at
the first, rather
than
sell his cheap
type of instrument
he requires a better one
in
later on
instrument
at a loss when
"

for the purposes


Pathological and

his career,

The

we

are

about

now

consider.

to

Bacteriological stands
should

together

considered

be

"

"

have

for

"

they

may

large stage, one


of the
ordinary user

very

needed
by the
larger than
what
be called
microscope. Seeing it has to accommodate
may
should
the mostly used size of Petrie dish, its dimensions
never
and
six inches
be less than
be of greater
larger would
square,
convenience
still. It is a subject of regret that manufacturers
in

fact

far

do

not

grasp

attention

this

it,for in

to

the stages

now

for

large

so

the

body

fine

the

of

far too

are

stage

to

why the addition


by opticians,for
involves

this
we

to

our

has

knowledge

that

Since

the first edition

been

made

greatlyincreased

some

in the

mechanical

of the

details

under

is

stood
readily undergrasped it becomes
taken
speak of has not been hastilyunderto

to

the cost
and

thought

particularlycall attention

are

earnestly call their


we
are
recommending
fullyaware
arranging

reconstruction

it adds

considerable

We

alteration

; and

When

very

microscope involves a good deal of


the tube further
to hold
longer arm

consequent

adjustment

arrangements.

small.1
a

we

of the stands

some

it demands

trouble, as
from

necessity,and

this

of the

trouble
matter,

in this direction,many
the size of the stage.

was

and

arrange.

We

to

because

students, those

of this work

instrument

who

it has

come

happen

published,considerable
opticianshaving in recent

not

advance
models

be

to

possessed

manufacturers
have

been

mechanical

of

"just

alter

to

somewhat

Baker's

possiblybe

such

could not

The

is obvious
difficulty

the

stands

which

order.

We

when
believe

we

Bacteriologist are

done

several

commence

285

knowledge, having asked

their

"

annoyed

D.P.H."

with
what
are

in
with

take

to

stage

surprisedand

Fig. 165."

The

MICROSCOPE

BACTERIOLOGICAL

THE

at

dish,"

being told that

Microscope.

their instruments
we

Petrie

the

have

stated

suitable
number
that

"

for

in

question

is understood.
the

arranged

by C. Baker

purpose
in

of

betical
alpha-

(Fig. 165),

D.P.H."

called

the

useful

model,

Messrs.

agents

"

and

Microscope,
one

Bausch

"

Messrs.

A.

Fig.

166."

is also

Messrs.

and

K.

improved
^cnt

"

model

with

unstained

the

stage and

is

Lomb's

"

thoroughly sound

and

C.A."

Microscope.

exceptionally large stage (Fig. 166),


quite recently

have

of their
It

"

of.

has

provided
specimens.

the

is

has

Bausch

spoken
J. Beck

Model."

ebonite) which

(Fig. 16;

well

which

given great satisfaction; whilst


Lomb,
Rochester, N.Y., U.S.A.
(English
E. Staley " Co., Thavies
Inn, E.C.),make
that

another, called "C.A.," with


which

MICROSCOPE

BACTERIOLOGICAL

THE

286

"

with

London

stage
a

is

introduced

new

microscope, called

the

(surfaced

with

in.

4x4

special iris diaphragm

Additional

base, which

"

is allowed

space

certainly

great

Ol
between

convenience

288

THE

excellent
for

BACTERIOLOGICAL

type,

we

supplies a stand especiallyconstructed

bacteriological laboratories

numerous

vulcanite

stage

Stativo

modcllo

"

believe

MICROSCOPE

of

large

dimensions

grandc I."

abroad,

(Fig. 168). It

having

is

called

289

Fig. 169.

"

"

Dolken's

Microscope.'

2QO

:"."

Reic

THE

The

had

to

admit

as

firm

well-known

which

of
"

has

Dolken's

given

for

which

stage

by 95

90

which

in

Swift

Messrs.

It is shown

name.

represented
could

be

in America

after

It has

I IB

"

in

Model,"

with

fine

very

; it is named

selected

for the

fame, from
The

Fig. 172.

sell

No.

"

specialbacteriologicalstand

was

Antarctic

swing-out

large stage.

laboratory

which

it takes

its

substage arrangement

exceedingly primitive,but

is

added

there

is

as

doubt

no

it

to.

Watson

Messrs.

his

(Fig. 170). It had


spoken very highly of.

construct

ship Discovery,of

the

called

excellence, which

of considerable
of

Sons

was

mm.

Fig. 171.

"

ticular
par-

war.

was

sought

this

model

This

designed.

Co., of Buffalo, N.Y., also

is much

shown

40," and

and

sections.

believe

We

(Fig. 169).

was

instrument

an

substage condenser,
The
Spencer Lens
stand

it

the

brain

satisfaction,especiallyfor the

great

very

furnished

vulcanite

supply a specialmodel
so
peculiarlyconstructed

to

size

Microscope"

improved before

Reichert

used

291

exceedingly large preparations like

purposes
further

Leitz

of

stage of considerable

It is called
stand

MICROSCOPE

BACTERIOLOGICAL

"

Sons'

Students'
Model," a
Edinburgh
well-known
their
instrument, still enjoys a great fame, and
does
taken
its place
not
to have
seem
recentlydesigned "Bactil"
in the
size of the top plate of
manner
some
anticipated. The
the stage is approximately 3" in. square
and
is covered
with
vulcanite.

introduced

Everything is
rigidity(Fig. 173).

and

Zeiss's

Carl
excellent

"

being

one,

fault with

no

hold

take

Model

this

of.

firm's

the

in existence

best
It

seems

amongst
wanted

is

being

the

of

new

entirelynovel
fine adjustment,
of

the

slides of the

in

their

which

is

know

of

unpleasant

so

as

to

model,

1905

construction

form,

to

perhaps

acetic

stage,

seriouslyinjured unless

difference

considerable
whether

to

work

everyday

or

it is

most

was

of

one

(Fig. 174).

matter

hydrochloric

that

save

an

not.

or

objectionablebecause, if,when
as

steadiness

We

stand.

entirelyremedied

bacteriologistsas
for

produce great

useful

practicaland

arrangement

contains

to

III.,"although of the old type,

This

which, besides

"

using

acids"

Some

upon

that

chemicals

the

fluid

is

it
"

runs

such

screws,

which

is

stage

think

corrosive
of

opinion

mechanical

finelymade
immediately cleaned,

or

the

any

of

is

such
into
are

nuisance

Fig

171."

The

Spencer

Lens

"

"

292

\
.

40."

293

Fig.

172."

Swift

"

Son's

"Discovery"

Microscope.

204

Fig

1 73."

Watson

"

Sons'

"Edinburgh Student*

Model.'

and

Others

such

care

however,

of

take

to

seem

work

everyday
the

are

should

accidents

always

of

forms

numerous

hand

third

class,

position,consideringthat

mechanical

at

happen.

never

intermediate

an

nothing

be

facilities should
of

WORK

standing
exactly opposite opinion, notwiththe objectionsjust mentioned, holding that with reasonable

hindrance.

for

MEDICAL

FOR

OBJECTIVES

296

is

required, but

place

to

that

the stage

upon

auxiliary mechanical

one

contrivances

the
advantages derivable
already described, so as to obtain
for
when
therefrom
absolutely necessary
example, in
; as,

count,"

blood

"

making

seriatim

through
when

made

for the

their

should

built

into

the

daily used, and

and

registerwith
may

work,

rapid

and

becoming more
the heavy work
37-4I-)
pages

use

we

medium

it is

the

place
in

are,

and

an

when

thirds,and
but
some

we

no
a

ought

best, unless

more

to

sixth

than

to

instances

remind
it is

be

verniers
continue
dis-

continued
their

positionsobtained

month
as

the

fact,to

the

hence.

to

Besides,

recommend

them

increasing

they

"

"

shake

submitted

are

to

the

when

the

instrument

the finest is

is intended

say

about

mentioned

the student

actually

the

selection
in

the

for

usually desirable.

objectives mostly required by the student

have

of

abruptly

we

of

the

are

(or two-thirds),a sixth, and


a
semi-apochromatic
2-mm.
where
apochromatic being added
expense
We

; but

microscope,
bacteriological
of
pretty universally acknowledged one

photomicrographical use,
The

performance
desired

laboratory. (For Auxiliary Stages, see

is the

speed

recommend

appreciably alter

such

way"

manifest

previous

be

little use,

hence
a

regards the fine adjustment of


think

stage

is not

loss of

more

of

no

remarks

register by their

tube, and

of

construction
"

the

to

on

likely be

mechanical

they

After

of the

axis

very

in

particular specimens"

putting
the

when

"

recommendation.

our

taking off

regularly

use

especiallyto

more

little to

leaving

microscope

positions in

important

As

not

purposes
proposed for

stage

hunt

to

the

in

special object just mentioned,

are

for hard

be

kinds

We

they

their

different

the

overlooked.

when

to-day

of

occasional

for these

required

auxiliary stage, however,

an

speaking

part of this work


them

be

it may

specimen.

recommending

In

when

or

twelfth
is

no

object.

inch, two-

an

preceding

it is very useful
essential" to have
an

inch

"

sections
indeed

in

additional

FOR

OBJECTIVES
sixth,
this

WORK

employing

haemocytometer

the

not

corpuscles with the sixth he employs


owing to the special cover-glass provided
Accidents
being so extremely thick.
may
this

Since

cause.

first edition

the

of

other

with

apparatus

often

do

book,

this

before
especiallylong working-distance have come
entirely for the purpose
being designed almost
is

by

Messrs.

by

the

Watson
has

combinations

with

; hence

obtains

either

useful

quite sufficient

purpose
do

for

This

excellent

resolving

very

this its actual

counterbalance

but

to

by

direct

about

measurement,

true

these

although

"

mention

we

it

in pre-war

times

"

"

and

double

"

No. 6B."
corpuscles called
combination
of decidedly superior
of the
two
previously mentioned,

either

to

power

both

higher prices

at

blood

counting

of these

objectivesto compete

sold

made

other

ordinarily

of

but

"

these

the

inconvenience

or

small, it is

question

others

Reichert

focal-lengthsixth
is

in

with

greater aperture.

question.

which

aperture

is

intend

not

resolution

of

powers

with

makers

the

because

for the

lenses

notice,

in

millimetre, which

that

numerical

possibly occur.
remarkably cheap and

sixths

our

Each

accident

objective no
The

should

in

of

working-distance

said, roughly speaking, is double

be

may

Sons, of Holborn, London.

"

occur

two

Co., of Buffalo, N.Y., and

Lens

Spencer

the

purposes,

the

and

focus

of

One

make

microscopist

cannot

for

blood

from

It is for

to

the

infrequently happens that


unpleasant experience of finding he

blood-count, it

297

long working-distance.

extra

an

When

reason.

has

has

that

one

MEDICAL

find

working-distance is,we

'6 to

which

mm.,

cannot

we

in hand.
help thinking is rather too small for the specialpurpose
differs from
It is only fair,however, to add
Reichert
that Herr
in this opinion, considering it meets
the requirements of all
us

quite effectively.

cases

Lastly, it
dark-ground
the

and

use

study

to

illumination

substage
reflecting

new

to

is necessary

of

high

bacteria

add, owing

(by
condenser

that

powers,
in

the

their

to

the

construction
of

recent

and

and

numerical

high

those

extension

recent

who

wish

as

apochromatic

to

render

sixth

it very

to

their

objectionableto

use.

the

equivalent)
to

investigate

living state,

battery of lenses, and


of the same
2-mm.
type (with its limiting diaphragm
for the purpose),as
the semi-apochromat
constructed
an
by the secondary
image so unpleasantly coloured

an

of

use

of

must

add

perhaps

especially
produces
spectrum

FOR

OBJECTIVES

298

MEDICAL

WORK

be considered
that for
true
as
regards the twelfth, it may
of the
the general use
laboratory the microscope is mostly
ments
employed to distinguish differences of form