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Orthogonal Complements

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in

if and only if

Example

1.

The vectors

in

are

not.

2.

We can define an inner product on the vector space of all polynomials of degree at most

3 by setting

.

(There is nothing special about integrating over [0,1]; This interval was chosen

arbitrarily.)

two polynomials

are orthogonal in

provided

that

Example

Consider the

matrix

we have that

is given by

null space of A,

. By consideration of

.

Lets consider vectors in

and

, say,

and

and so

is orthogonal to an element of

Since

vector in

is a basis for

can be written as

and

?

.

so that every

Similarly, since

vector in

is a basis for

so that every

can be written as

Now,

We conclude that if

Definition

and

, then

and so

. (Think

and

)

1.

The subspaces

of

for all

2.

, if

vectors in V given by

.

The set

Examples

1.

2.

Let A be any

, then

with

. However,

if and only if

of the matrix A. Hence, the null space of A is the set of all vectors

orthogonal to the rows of A and, hence, the row space of A. (Why?) We conclude that

.

given a subspace W of

1.

2.

3.

Suppose that

and

Thus,

. Since

and

. Then

it follows that

? Let

can be shown to be

for

and a vector in

4.

forms a basis

with basis

.

Solution

Let

. Then

the function

for all

. Hence, in particular,

and

.

Solving the linear system

and

with

for some

span

. Since these two polynomials are not multiples of each other, they are linearly

Theorem

Suppose that W is a subspace of

1.

is a subspace of

.

.

2.

3.

4.

Each vector in

and

where

Definition

Let V and W be two subspaces of

the form

and we write

Example

1.

where

.

. If each vector

and

, the we say

is the direct sum of V and W

2.

Let A be an

= row space of A

= null space of A

= column space of A

= null space of

Example

Let

. Since

, it follows that

has a basis of

and that

has a basis of

Because

, we have that

has a basis of

and that

Let A be an

1.

2.

matrix.

is the orthogonal complement of

in

in

.

.

3.

4.

Example

Let

vector in

. Write

and a vector in

. It is sufficient to

so that

.

to

Set

and

.

Then

a vector from

as a sum of

Definition

Let

, then we call

. If

where

and

.

Example

1. Suppose

. Then, by the previous example,

.

2. Find

if

and

Solution

We note that

So, we find a basis for

by finding the null space for

or, equivalently,

.

We see that

. We now seek

so that

(*)

( Of course,

. )

To solve the equation (*) it is sufficient to row reduce the augmented matrix

obtaining

.

Thus,

matrix P given by

so that

.

We call P the projection matrix. The projection matrix given by

(where

the rows of A form a basis for W) is expensive computationally but if one is computing several

projections onto W it may very well be worth the effort as the above formula is valid for all

vectors b.

3. Find the projection of

in

matrix.

Solution

We seek a set of basis vectors for the plane

and

.

Then

and

.

that are

Hence,

So,

.

We note that

and, hence,

Properties of a Projection Matrix:

(1)

(2)

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