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Presentation Prepared by
Monikaa Sri.S
II Year Computer Engineering
SSM Polytechnic College

WiMAX is an IP based, wireless broadband access technology that provides
performance similar to 802.11/Wi-Fi networks with the coverage and QOS (quality of
service) of cellular networks. WiMAX is also an acronym meaning "Worldwide
Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX).
WiMAX is a wireless digital communications system, also known as IEEE 802.16,
that is intended for wireless "metropolitan area networks". WiMAX can provide broadband
wireless access (BWA) up to 30 miles (50 km) for fixed stations, and 3 - 10 miles (5 - 15 km)
for mobile stations. In contrast, the WiFi/802.11 wireless local area network standard is
limited in most cases to only 100 - 300 feet (30 - 100m). WiMAX technology allows for data
transfer speeds of up to 75Mbps, but in reality they tend to be a lot lower than that, at around
1-10 Mbps tops.
With WiMAX, WiFi-like data rates are easily supported, but the issue of interference
is lessened. WiMAX operates on both licensed and non-licensed frequencies, providing a
regulated environment and viable economic model for wireless carriers. At its heart, however,
WiMAX is a standards initiative. Its purpose is to ensure that the broadband wireless radios
manufactured for customer use interoperate from vendor to vendor.
Mobile Technical Group (MTG) in the WiMax Forum is developing the Mobile
WiMAX system profiles that will define the mandatory and optional features of the IEEE
standard that are necessary to build a Mobile WiMax compliant air interface that can be
certified by the WiMAX Forum. The Mobile WiMax System Profile enables mobile systems
to be configured based on a common base feature set thus ensuring baseline functionality for
terminals and base stations that are fully interoperable. Some elements of the base station
profiles are specified as optional to provide additional flexibility for deployment based on
specific deployment scenarios that may require different configurations that are either
capacity-optimized or coverage-optimized

What is WiMAX?
Simply put WiMAX is, Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, a
technology standard that enables high speed wireless internet. In other words, WiMAX
combines the high speed of a broadband connection with the convenience of mobile internet
connectivity. WiMAX provides wireless broadband access up to a radius of 50 kilometers (30
miles) for fixed receivers and 5-15 kilometers (3-10 miles) for mobile receivers. Along with a
competing standard called "LTE," WiMax, short for Worldwide Interoperability for
Microwave Access, represents 4G or the "fourth generation" of wireless Internet. The new
technology is similar to Wi-Fi in that it allows users to connect to the Internet without wires.
But unlike Wi-Fi, which might be able to cover a whole building or city block, WiMax can
cover vast distances (like the cell phone network), and provides high-speed Internet access
(like broadband). It is is essentially, wireless broadband. What this means for Internet users is
the ability to Tweet, type, or search online using a desktop or laptop computer from almost
any geographic location not just the confines of a local coffee shop or book store.

What Is Mobile Wimax

The first mobile WiMAX products are scheduled to be rolled out late this year or very
early in 2007so if you haven't done some research into this interesting technology already
it's time to start.
Designed from the beginning to connect to the IP network, mobile WiMAX offers low
latency and high Quality of Service (QoS). It will have no difficulty accessing IP multimedia
data or implement technologies such as VoIP. This is the basic argument driving the mobile
WiMAX campaign for market acceptance.
In the ever widening world of wireless technologies, mobile WiMAX is aimed at a
very lucrative market: the delivery of high-data bandwidth digital data streaming off the IP
network. In other words, the much-talked-about delivery of mobile services.
Cellular, Wi-Fi and even Bluetooth through its relationship with Ultrawideband
(UWB) also have designs on the multimedia services market. While there is still some
question as to whether there is room for still another wireless technology, WiMAX has a
good story to tell.

Mobile WiMAX can be embedded on any number of personal devices such as PDAs,
notebook PCs, game consoles, iPods, MP3 players, and cellular phones. As such, its potential
to compete with cellular technology is obvious, particularly for broadband, data-centric
Mobile WiMAX has many competitors in the market, including cellular 3G and LTE
specifications. Though each of these technologies has its own advantages and disadvantages,
mobile WiMAX has an edge because it is an all IP-based packet switched network designed
for data traffic as compared to existing 3G technologies, which primarily support voice and
permit data. With worldwide interoperability in the frequency bands 2.3-2.4GHz, 2.4962.69GHz and 3.4-3.6 GHz, subscribers can use the same device all over the world. As
discussed, Mobile WiMAX also has the advantage of higher dates using OFDMA and
MIMO. With OFDMA, Mobile WiMAX can support multiple users simultaneously.
OFDMA leads to a significant cell range extension on the uplink (from mobile stations to
base station), because the transmit power is concentrated on a small number of carriers and
the signal-to noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver input is increased. Cell range extension is also
achievable on the downlink (from base station to mobile stations) by allocating more power
to carrier groups assigned to distant users. Another interesting feature of OFDMA is that it
eases the deployment of networks with a frequency reuse factor of 1, thus eliminating the
need for frequency planning. Since radio resources are scarce and data rate requirements keep
increasing, spectral efficiency is a stringent requirement in present and future wireless
communications systems [MIMO].
One factor that is currently a roadblock for Mobile WiMAX deployment in the United
States is the availability of spectrum. With most telecom carriers in the United States having
invested significantly in 3G spectrums, investing even more in obtaining Mobile WiMAX
licenses would seem like a risky expenditure for companies, especially when the technology
is still new.
Furthermore, carriers are still investing in expanding 3G coverage across the country
because it is not as pervasive as older EDGE and 1xRTT networks. In developing countries,
where cellular 3G technology is not as pervasive, Mobile WiMAX technology adoption is
rather rapid.

High Data Rates
The inclusion of MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) antenna techniques along
with flexible sub-channelization schemes, Advanced Coding and Modulation all enable the
Mobile WiMax technology to support peak DL data rates up to 63Mbps per sector and peak
UL data rates up to 28 Mbps per sector in a 10 MHz channel.
Quality of Service (QoS)
The fundamental premise of the IEEE 802.16 MAC architecture is QoS. It defines
Service Flows which can map to Diff Serv code points that enable end-to end IP based QoS.
Additionally, sub channelization schemes provide a flexible mechanism for optimal
scheduling of space, frequency and time resources over the air interface on a frame by-frame
Despite an increasingly globalize economy, spectrum resources for wireless
broadband worldwide are still quite disparate in its allocations. Mobile WiMax technology
therefore, is designed to be able to scale to work in different canalizations from 1.25 to 20
MHz to comply with varied worldwide requirements as efforts proceed to achieve spectrum
harmonization in the longer term. This also allows diverse economies to realize the
multifaceted benefits of the Mobile WiMax technology for their specific geographic needs
such as providing affordable internet access in rural settings versus enhancing the capacity of
mobile broadband access in metro and suburban areas.
Support for a diverse set of user credentials exists including; SIM/USIM cards, Smart Cards,
Digital Certificates, and Username/Password schemes.
Mobile WiMax supports optimized handover schemes with latencies less than
50milliseconds to ensure real-time applications such as VoIP perform without service
degradation. Flexible key management schemes assure that security is maintained during

WiMAX and cellular

But mobile WiMAX may also co-exist with cellular technology. WiMAX is not
optimized to carry circuit-switched voice traffic. From the WiMAX perspective, voice is a far
more appropriate application for cellular technology.
The problem with that scenario from the cellular perspective is that the expected
growth in mobile revenue is in the data segment. Between 2004 and 2008, a 20% CAGR is
forecast for mobile data while revenue for mobile voice traffic is actually expected to drop by
a few percent over the same period. Voice revenues will still be almost double data in 2008
but the trend is clear.
The single most important technology advantage that mobile WiMAX has over 2G
and 3G cellular is its adoption of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)
multiplexing. OFDMA works well in multipath environments and is cost effective for
network operators because it has higher performance and gives them more flexibility in
managing spectrum resources.
Mobile WiMAX performance is typically compared to 3G technologies such as
EVDO (Evolution Data Optimized) and HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access), and
HSUPA. Depending on system configuration, mobile WiMAX has a clear performance edge.
In terms of net throughput per channel, mobile WiMAX delivers between 50% and
3X greater bandwidth, the greatest differential coming in a WiMAX system with a twoantenna MIMO (Multiple In Multiple Out) implementation.
The cellular industry is, of course, not standing still. The Third Generation Partnership
Project (3GPP) has incorporated it in its LTE (Long Term Evolution) specification. Another
indication is that Qualcomm, ever a dominant player in the cellular market, last year signaled
its interest in OFDMA by acquiring Flarion, a company that had developed an excellent
OFDMA technology.
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)
OFDMA is a multiplexing technique that subdivides the available bandwidth into subcarriers which are of multiple frequencies. Mobile WiMAX uses this technology as the radio
access method for the air interface for improving multipath performance in Non-Line-OfSight (NLOS) environments.

Hybrid Automatic Retransmission Request (HARQ)

HARQ uses a PHY layer Stop and Wait protocol which provides fast response to packet
errors and thus improves cell edge coverage.
Optimized HO schemes
Mobility support in Mobile WiMAX is realized by three schemes of handoff: Hard
Handoff (HHO), Fast Base Station Switching (FBSS) and Macro Diversity Handover
(MDHO), where only the HHO is mandatory and the other two schemes are optional.
Sleep and idle modes
Both sleep mode and idle mode are power-saving features, enabling power-efficient MS
operation. They define the states of an MS being inactive or listening to broadcast traffic
without registration to any BS.
Adaptive array Antenna System (AAS)
Available as an option of smart antenna technologies, AAS uses the beamforming
technique to adjust the width and angle of the antenna radiation pattern (i.e., beams and
nulls). The use of AAS offers benefits of extended transmission reach and reduced
Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)
MIMO is another form of smart antenna technology, using multiple antennas and working
based on Spatial Multiplexing (MIMO-SM) or Space-Time Coded system (MIMO-STC). It
takes advantage of the multipath phenomena, resulting in high throughput and low bit error
Because of this, MIMO works best in a clutter rich environment and is suitable for mobile
For network operators (i.e., telecom carriers and ISP), Mobile WiMAX is useful as a
backhaul technology. Specifically, using WiMAX infrastructure to support Wi-Fi hot spot
backhaul can be an efficient and economic solution for enhancing the coverage of Wi-Fi hot
spot in metropolitan areas.
This solution creates two revenue streams; one enables the hotspot providers to charge
users for usage of the hotspot, and the other promises the telecom carriers a constant income
from the hotspot providers for usage of the core network or BSs.

VPN Support for Corporate Users

For Small and Medium Enterprise users, Mobile WiMAX is strongly suggested as an
ideal candidate to take over the leased line. With this solution, carriers generate an income by
providing VPN services and global IP address for internet access.
Solution for Mobile Operators
Mobile WiMAX based on IEEE 802.16e will also attempt to network operators needs
for wireless solution, as presented below:

Use Case for Mobile Operators

As seen above, there are two different systems application and solution for Mobile
Operators: the first (upper) case is for mobile operators in areas where 3G mobile networks
are not available or for mobile operators who consider network expansion without making
more investment in their existing network, while the second (lower) case applies to operators
who wish to add value to their existing 3G networks.
Mobile WiMAX in the first case fulfills mobile operators needs to provide mobile
broadband data services through a network expansion. Through this system expansion the
operator will benefit from the broadband customers revenue while keeping the existing
investment in their mobile voice network. This solution can be applied to specific areas where
mobile users have special requirements for broadband data services.
In the second case, Mobile WiMAX serves as a complement to 3G mobile networks,
thus providing an effective solution for mobile operators who want to add value to their
existing 3G networks. With NECs Mobile WiMAX, the operator can provide broadband data

services as a complementary service to special users who have special mobility requirements
demanding high throughput data services.
Worthy of special note is that Mobile WiMAX is not just a substitute technology, but
a complementary wireless solution that brings more flexibility and business opportunities to
operators allowing them to comply with their users needs.
Mobile WiMAX Applications
The WiMAX Forum has identified several applications [23] for 802.16e-based
systems and is developing traffic and usage models for them. These applications can be
broken down into five major classes. These application classes are summarized in the
following table together with guidelines for latency and jitter to assure a quality user

Advanced Features of Mobile Wimax

Smart antenna technologies typically involve complex vector or matrix operations on
signals due to multiple antennas. OFDMA allows smart antenna operations to be performed
on vector-flat sub-carriers.

Mobile WiMAX supports a full range of smart antenna technologies to enhance

system performance.
Multicast and Broadcast Service (MBS) combines the best features of DVB-H,
MediaFLO and 3GPP E-UTRA and satisfies the following requirements:

High data rate and coverage using a Single Frequency Network (SFN)
Flexible allocation of radio resources
Low MS power consumption
Support of data-casting in addition to audio and video streams
Low channel switching time

The attributes and performance capability of Mobile WiMAX makes it a compelling
solution for high performance, low cost broadband wireless services. Mobile WiMAX is on a
path to address a global market through a common wide area broadband radio access
technology and flexible network architecture. This technology is based on open standard
interfaces developed with close to 400companies contributing to and harmonizing on the
system specifications thus laying a foundation for worldwide adoption and mass market