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3.

7 Factors of Safety for Sliding


Analysis of sliding stability is discussed in detail in Chapter 2 and Chapter 5. A
factor of safety is required in sliding analyses to provide a suitable margin of safety
between the loads that can cause instability and the strength of the materials along
potential failure planes that can be mobilized to prevent instability. The factor of
safety for sliding is defined by equation 3-1. The required factors of safety for sliding
stability for critical structures and for normal structures are presented in Tables 3-2
and 3-3, respectively.

EM 1110-2-2200 table 4-3


Where
N = force acting normal to the sliding failure plane under the structural wedge.
= angle of internal friction of the foundation material under the structural wedge.
c = cohesive strength of the foundation material under the structural wedge.
L = length of the structural wedge in contact with the foundation.
T = shear force acting parallel to the base of the structural wedge.

3.8 Factors of Safety for Flotation


A factor of safety is required for flotation to provide a suitable margin of safety
between the loads that can cause instability and the weights of materials that resist
flotation. The flotation factor of safety is defined by equation 3-2. The required
factors of safety for flotation are presented in Table 3-4. These flotation safety
factors apply to both normal and critical structures and for all site information
categories.

Where
WS= weight of the structure, including weights of the fixed equipment and
soil above the top surface of the Structure. The moist or saturated unit weight
should be used for soil above the groundwater table and the submerged unit weight
should be used for soil below the groundwater table.
Wc= weight of the water contained within the structure
S = surcharge loads
U = uplift forces acting on the base of the structure
WG = weight of water above top surface of the structure.

(2 Overturning Stability
a. Resultant location. The overturning stability is calculated by applying all the
vertical forces (SV) and lateral forces for each loading condition to the dam and,
then, summing moments (SM) caused by the consequent forces about the
downstream toe. The resultant location along the base is:

(EM 1110-2-2200) table 4-1

Resultant location

1.7 Calculation Formula


1Structural, backfill solid and silt weight
GC = cVC, Gs =s Vs& b Vs, Gs= bVs
whereGc, Gs, Gsstructural weight backfill solid weight silt weight kN
c, s, b, bunit weight of concrete, saturated unit weight of solid,
Buoyant unit weight of solid, buoyant unit weight of
siltkN/m3
VC, Vs, Vsstructure volume, backfill solid weight volume, silt weight
volumem3
(2Water weight, water pressure and uplift pressure
(GW, Pw, U=w Vw
whereGwwater weightkN
Pwhydrostatic pressure (kN
U uplift pressure (kN
wunit weight of water (kN/m3
Vwwater weight volume, hydrostatic pressure volume and uplift
volumem3

3Active earth, silt pressureEM 1110-2-2100formula G-9


Ps=KasVsKab VsPs=Ka, b, Vs
wherePs, Psactive earth pressure, silt pressure (kN
Ka, Kacoefficient of active earth pressure, silt pressure
(4) Concrete structure and backfill solid horizontal seismic inertial force
(EM 1110-2-2100) formula 4-1
Fc=khGC, Fs=khGs
Whereconcrete structure horizontal seismic inertial force (kN
Fsbackfill solid horizontal seismic inertial force (kN
Khhorizontal earthquake acceleration0.2g
5Hydrodynamic force (EM 1110-2-2100) (4-2
PWE = [(7/12) khwh2]*b
Where: Pwehydrodynamic force (kN
hdepth of water (m
bwidth
6Dynamic soil, silt pressure (EM 1110-2-2100) G28
PAE1=Khh2/ (2*(tan-tan))
PAE2=Kh [(s-) hs2/ (2tan)]
wherePAE1, PAE2dynamic soil pressurekN
hheight, coefficient)
backfill surface and the horizontal plane angle
7Sliding stability EM 1110-2-2200) formula 4-3
Ks=f'W+C'A)/H
whereKsslide safety coefficient

f', Cthe sliding surface shear friction coefficient and cohesive force
Abase surface aream2
Wvertical resultantKN
Hhorizontal resultantKN
(8Overturning stability (EM 1110-2-2200) formula 4-1
L=M/W
Where resultant location along the base
Msumming moments about the downstream toe
(9Foundation stress

P Mx y
A

x
Where=foundation
stressKpa),

P=Loads in (Kn)
Mxresultant moment about the X axis (KN.m)
Myresultant moment about the Y axis (KN.m)
Jx, Jymoment of inertia of the X, Y axism4)
X, ycalculation points to Y, X axis distance (m)