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# Contents

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## Mathematical models in probability and statistics

1.1 What are mathematical models?
1.2 Designing a mathematical model

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## Representation and summary of data location

2.1 Classification of variables
2.2 Classification of quantitative variables into continuous or discrete variables
2.3 Frequency tables and grouping data
2.4 Measures of location
2.5 Which is the correct measure of location?
2.6 Calculating measures of location from a frequency distribution table
2.7 Calculating measures of location for grouped data
2.8 Coding

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## Representation and summary of data measures of dispersion

3.1 Range and quartiles
3.2 Percentiles
3.3 Standard deviation and variance for discrete data
3.4 Variance and standard deviation for a frequency table and grouped frequency
distribution
3.5 Coding

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Representation of data
4.1 Stem and leaf diagrams
4.2 Outliers
4.3 Box plots
4.4 Using box plots to compare sets of data
4.5 Representing data on a histogram
4.6 Skewness
4.7 Comparing the distributions of data sets

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Probability
5.1 Probability vocabulary
5.2 Solving probability problems by drawing Venn diagrams
5.3 Using formulae to solve problems
5.4 Solving problems using conditional probability
5.5 Conditional probabilities on tree diagrams

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## 5.6 Mutually exclusive and independent events

5.7 Solving probability problems

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Revision Exercise 1

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Correlation
6.1 Scatter diagrams
6.2 Calculating measures for the variability of bivariate data
6.3 Using the product moment correlation coefficient, r
6.4 Determining the strength of a linear relationship
6.5 The limits of the product moment correlation coefficient
6.6 Coding

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Regression
7.1 Connecting variables
7.2 Independent and dependent variables
7.3 Minimising the sum of the squares of the residuals
7.4 Coding
7.5 The regression equation

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## Discrete random variables

8.1 Discrete random variables and random variables
8.2 Specifying a variable
8.3 Sum of probabilities
8.4 Finding the probability that X is less than or greater than a value, or between
two values
8.5 The cumulative distribution function
8.6 The mean or expected value of a discrete random variable
8.7 The expected value for X2
8.8 The variance of a random variable
8.9 The expected value and variance of a function of X
8.10 Finding the mean and standard deviation of the original data given the mean
and standard deviation of the coded data
8.11 A model for the probability distribution

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## The normal distribution

9.1 Use tables to find probabilities in the standard normal distribution Z
9.2 Use tables to find the value of z given a probability
9.3 Transform any normal distribution into Z and use tables
9.4 Use normal tables to find and
9.5 Use the normal distribution to answer questions in context

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Revision Exercise 2

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Appendix

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Index

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