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an electronic device capable of performing complex

computations in a short time

INTRODUCTION TO PROGRAMMING
CONCEPTS

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What is a Computer?
Components of a Computer
Hardware Concepts
Digital Data Representation

What is a
Computer?

Bits and Bytes


Digital Electronics

Software Concepts
Software Basics
Software Development
Life Cycle
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a fast electronic calculating machine that accepts


input information, processes it according to a list of
internally stored instructions called a program, and
produces the resultant output information
a program is a set of instructions for a computer,
telling it what to do or how to behave
programming is the craft of implementing one or
more interrelated abstract algorithms using a
particular programming language to produce a
concrete computer program

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Hardware

Components
of a
Computer

the physical equipment of a computer


system, including the monitor, keyboard,
central processing unit, and storage
devices

Software

Hardware
Concepts

refers to one or more computer


programs and data held in the storage of
a computer for some purpose

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Data representation: conversion of images,


letters and sounds into electrical signals
Digital electronics: manipulation of on and
off signals to perform complex tasks

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The 0 and 1 are also known as bits


or binary digits

Signals: variations in physical


phenomena

Hardware
Concepts

Analog: any continuous signal

Digital Data
Representation

Digital: representation of a sequence


of distinct values

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A sequence of 0 and 1 could be


written as 10011, this sequence may
have significant value, for instance it
may pertain to a certain character or
number

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This table shows how the binary system
works

How can a computer represent numbers using


bits?

Digital Data
Representation

Numeric data like your age, salary, electricity


bill are easily understood by humans. Then,
how is it possible for a computer to show a
number using only binary digits?
The computer uses the binary number
system which uses only two digits: 0 and 1

Digital Data
Representation

A series of 0s and 1s results in a particular


number much in the same way we use the
decimal number system

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Decimal (Base 10)

Binary (Base 2)

0000

0001

0010

0011

0100

0101

0110

0111

1000

1001

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How come 5 become 0101 when converted


to binary?

If the box contains 0, the value is turned


off
If the box contains 1, the value of that
box is turned on and will be added to
the value of the number

Notice that there are 4 digits, namely, 0 , 1 , 0


and 1
The positions of the 0s and 1s hold a significant
values

Digital Data
Representation

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Digital Data
Representation

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ASCII (American Standard Code for
Information Interchange)

How then can a computer represent words


and letters using bits?

requires only seven bits for each


character

Bits can also be used to represent


character data synonymous to using
Morse code
Digital Data
Representation

In this case, computers makes use of 0


and 1 as a replacement to dashes and dots

Digital Data
Representation

Example: STI has a corresponding binary


value

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EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded


Decimal Interchange Code)
an alternative 8-bit code used by older
IBM mainframe computers

UNICODE
uses 8, 16, or 32 bits providing codes for
65,000 characters (represent the
alphabets of multiple languages) and
becoming popular
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Extended ASCII Code


makes use of a series of 0s and 1s to represent
256 characters

BIT

Bits and
Bytes

Digital Data
Representation

an abbreviation of binary digit


other abbreviation for bit is the
lowercase b

BYTE
a collection of bits (8 to be exact)
usually abbreviated as an uppercase B

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How are bits stored and transferred from one


point to another?
PREFIX

Bits and
Bytes

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ABBREVIATION

VALUE

Kilo

210

Mega

220

Giga

230

Tera

240

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Digital
Electronics

Bits take the form of electrical pulses


traveling over the circuits
All circuits, chips, and mechanical
components forming a computer are
designed to work with bits

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Input devices are machines that generate


input for the computer, such as keyboard and
mouse

Computer Diagram

Processor
or CPU

Digital
Electronics

Input
Devices

Computer

Output
Devices

Digital
Electronics

Memory

Processor or CPU (Central Processing Unit) is


the central electronic chip that controls the
processes in the computer. It determines the
processing power of the computer
Output devices are machines that display
information from the computer, such as
monitor, speaker, and printer
Memory is the part of the computer that
stores applications, documents, and systems
operating information

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Computer program (or program)

What is a software?

an organized list of instructions that, when


executed, causes the computer to behave in a
predetermined manner

computer instructions or data

Software
Concepts

anything that can be stored electronically

Software
Basics

computer programs, modules (support and


data) working together providing computers
with instructions and data for certain task
(e.g. word processing, internet browsing)

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Support module
an auxiliary set of instructions used in conjunction
with the main software program

Data module
contains data (not supplied by the user) necessary
for the execution of certain task

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Data vs. Software

Software
Basics

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Software
Basics

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Modern definitions made it clear that all


documents, spreadsheets and even
downloaded materials from the net are now
classified as data

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Technically, the compiler creates object code, which is


the machine language representation of the source
code, and the linker creates the executable code

Application Software vs. System Software

The linker combines program object code, object code


from library routines and any other required system
code into one addressable machine language file

Software
Basics

Then, the term software is always


associated to all non-hardware components
of a computer

Software
Basics

Application software are computer programs that are


used to accomplish specific or specialized tasks for
computer users such as creating and editing
documents (word processing), making graphic
presentations, or listening to MP3 music
System software helps the computer carry out its
basic operating functions

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a methodology that is typically used to develop,


maintain, and replace information systems for
improving the quality of the software design and
development process

computer user instructs


the application program
to print a document

Application
Software
(Microsoft Word)

Computer User

Software
Basics

application software

system software controls


the printer as the
document is printed

system software to print


the document

System Software
(Operating System,
Device Drivers)

Hardware
(Computer
, Printer)

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makes a request to the

Software
Development
Life Cycle

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3. Design
4. Implementation

Planning Phase

the initial stage in the SDLC that has to be performed

Software
Development
Life Cycle

5. Maintenance

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1. Planning
2. Analysis

In order to create systems that are good in design we


must take into consideration that it must involve
several phases
It would be very favorable for companies to have
certain set of standardized steps that would serve as a
guide in systems development

The five phases of SDLC

Software
Development
Life Cycle

Importance of SDLC

includes the information about the requirements for


the proposed software
known as the feasibility study phase
In the first phase of the SDLC, the organizations total
information system needs are identified, analyzed,
prioritized, and arranged.

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Analysis Phase

Software
Development
Life Cycle

requires the analyst to thoroughly study the current


procedures or software used to execute tasks in an
organization
the main goal in this phase is to identify the
requirements for a new software or simply change
several aspects in the current working system

Design Phase

Software
Development
Life Cycle

This phase studies the current system and produces


proposed alternatives or replacements.

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during this phase, the developer of the software


translates the result of the previous phase into actual
design or specifications of the software
development of the software involves covering the
input and output screens to reports, databases, and
computer process

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Implementation Phase
Maintenance Phase

1.coding creation of the actual program

Software
Development
Life Cycle

2.testing both programmer and analyst submits


the software to various quality testing to
discover if there are any bugs within the
software

Software
Development
Life Cycle

3.installation after coding and testing is done,


the actual software must be installed and slowly
or completely replaces the old software

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used to make necessary patches to remove


found errors
where the software is systematically repaired
and improved based on errors or possible
new requirements found

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Modified waterfall and iterative SDLC

Waterfall SDLC
suggests that prior to proceeding to next
phase, the current phase should be finished
first

Software
Development
Life Cycle

applying this strategy in the real world would


be unfeasible

PLANNING
ANALYSIS
DESIGN

IMPLEMENTATION

Software
Development
Life Cycle

The modified
waterfall SDLC allows
overlap between
phases.

MAINTENANCE

PLANNING
ANALYSIS
DESIGN

The iterative SDLC


allows phases to
repeat, if necessary.

IMPLEMENTATION
MAINTENANCE

PLANNING

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ANALYZE
DESIGN
IMPLEMENT

ANALYZE
DESIGN
MAINTAIN SYSTEM
IMPLEMENT

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