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Incorrect Steam Drum

Level Measurement Can


Result In Multiple
Issues At Ammonia
Plant
Muhammad Azhar Malik
Feb 26, 2015

Presentation Synopsis

Purpose of Paper
Process Description
Problems Encountered
Root Cause Analysis
Conclusion
26 February 2015

Purpose of Paper
Sharing Engro's experience on issues faced on HTSC catalyst early

deactivation, waste heat boiler fouling, turbines fouling post new


fertilizer plant successful startup mainly due to incorrect Steam drum
level measurement.
Root cause analysis of problems encountered
Remedial measures taken to overcome problems.

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Plant Introduction:
Worlds Largest single-train Ammonia-Urea complex at the time of
commissioning.
Successfully Commissioned in Dec 2010.
Steam Header Network Configuration

KS Steam 110 kg/cm2


HS Steam 44 kg/cm2
LHS Steam 41 kg/cm2
LS Steam 3.5 kg/cm2

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Steam Network Configuration:


KS Network
KS Super heater
Syntheses
Turbine

110 kg/cm2
Steam Drum
Heat recovery from WHB
Sec Ref / HTS / Amm Convertor

Refrig
Turbine

CO2 Comp
Turbine

HS Network 44 kg/cm2
Process Steam to
Furnace

PA Comp
Turbine

LHS Network 41 kg/cm2

CW
Turbine

BFW
Turbine

PW
Turbine

ID fan
Turbine

Lube oil
Turbine

42 kg/cm2
Aux
Boiler

LS Network 3.5 kg/cm2


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Problems Encountered

26 February 2015

HTS Catalyst Failure


HTS Catalyst bed undergoes replacement just after two
effective years of operation.
Plant load got limited due to high delta pressure across HTS
bed - 1.8 kg/cm2

The temperature profile across catalyst bed showed signs of


channeling.

26 February 2015

26 February 2015

HTS Bed Radial Temperature profiling


Window - 3
426C

Window - 2
430C
ACTIVE PORTION
(~42% of circumference)

TI-2091
441C

Window - 4
412C

DEAD PORTION
(~58% of circumference)
Window - 5
377C

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TI-2092

380C

Window - 1
378C
Window - 6
378C

Channelling Signs in
HTS bed

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2ft catalyst bed shrinkage

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Dust at Al balls at HTS Top


Analysis showed
7% Sodium & 1% Silica
contents

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HTS Failure - Root cause Analysis


Inspection revealed Presence of
Shrinkage of 2% catalyst bed with clear signs of channeling
High contents of foreign particles especially Sodium & Aluminium

Crushed catalyst due to increased delta pressure operation

Presence of Sodium questioned steam quality


Presence of Aluminium showed slippage from alumina lumps
from Secondary reformer

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WHB Fouling
Temperature at WHB outlet increased by 25 C.
Inspection showed fouling of WHB tubes
Analysis of dust revealed presence of Sodium and Aluminum.
A lot of dust was also collected at WHB cold end showing
slippage from secondary reformer

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WHB Tube Fouling


Dust Analysis Showed
Sodium 8% and
Aluminum 18%

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BFW Turbine Fouling /Internal seals Failure


BFW turbine TP-1301 A efficiency dropped significantly.
BFW header pressure reduced by 4 kg/cm2.
Upon inspection, interstage seals of the turbine was found
damaged
Rotor was found covered with heavy deposits.
Analysis showed presence of 40% Sodium contents.
Table 4: Deposit Analysis at TP-1301 A

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Componenet

Analysis result

Sodium

39.47%

Silica

0.31%

Potassium

1.63%
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Deposits of Sodium
on Turbine
Interstage seal

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Deposits of Sodium
on interstage seals

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ID fan Turbine Fouling


ID fan Turbine vibrations increased till the danger level till 0.34
um.
Efficiency of turbine also dropped significantly
Inspection showed presence of deposits sodium on the rotor

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Fouling of ID fan
Turbine Rotor

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Root Cause Analysis


Prime reason of above mentioned problems was High quantity of
sodium in Steam.

Sources of Steam
Steam Drum 110 kg/cm2 Heat recovery from WHB at ammonia
Auxiliary Boiler 42 kg/cm2

The reason for poor steam quality was incorrect steam drum
level measurement and its control.

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Steam Drum Level


Level remained higher then normal causing poor steam
quality.
Marks of High
level operation

Normal Level

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Remedial Measures
Correction of Level Measurement
Algorithm for level correction was corrected for correct level
transmitter type.
Steam Drum equipped with 02 new DP type transmitters in addition of

03 float type meters


Steam Drum equipped with Conductivity Meter
Isolation Valves at Steam drum rectified.
Maintenance regime for floats of level transmitter at every 6 month

implemented.
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Remedial Measure
Wet Washing regime for Turbines was implemented.

Make up water Quality improved


RO unit and DMW beds were lined up in series
Conductivity dropped to 0.2 us.
DMW is then passed through Polisher to fed to Steam drum.

Steam header Wet Washing


Entire steam headers wet washing carried out

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Conclusion
By taking above mentioned steps, Steam quality improved
significantly.

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Thank You !!!


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