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Managing Risks of Syn

Compressor Operation with


high Seal Oil Consumption
Nitrogen+Syngas 2015
Speaker:
Muhammad Hashim
Co Speaker: Ahsan Sarfraz
Fatima Fertilizer
Pakistan

Contents
Fatima Group Overview
Introduction & Problem Background
Risks & Operational Challenges
Risk Mitigation Measures
Success Factors
Key Learnings

Fatima Group-Overview

Fertilizers

Pakarab
Fertilizers

Fatima
Fertilizer

Sugar

Trading

Fatima
Sugar
Mills

Reliance
Commodities
Energy

Fatima
Energy

Textiles

Reliance
Weaving

Fazal
Cloth
Mills

Fatima Group - A story of success since 1936


Reliance
Weaving
Mills
Limited

Fazal
Cloth
Mills

1936

Year
Established

1966

1989

Fatima
Sugar
Mills
Limited

1990

Fatima
Fertilizer
Company
Limited

1996

Reliance
Commodities
(Pvt.) Ltd

Pakistan
Mining
Company
Limited

2003

2005

Pakarab
Fertilizers
Limited

Fatima
Trading
Company
Limited

2009

2010

Fatima
Energy
Limited

2012

Reliance
Sacks Ltd

Plant Design Capacities

FUTURE PROJECTS
Ammonia DBN
Phase 1 completion in Dec 2015 - 1500-->1650 MTPD
Phase 2 completion in 2017 - 1650-->1800 MTPD

Ammonia 2200 MTPD


Urea Solution 2200 MTPD
Urea Granulation 1200 MTPD
UAN 4500 MTPD
NA 1500 MTPD
DEF 900 MTPD

Fatima Fertilizer Safety Statistics-2014

Introduction-Synthesis Compressor
The purified synthesis gas after Front End of Ammonia passed through
Dryer and Coldbox containing the proper ratio of hydrogen to nitrogen for
ammonia synthesis is compressed in a turbine driven centrifugal
Synthesis Gas Compressor C-104 having three stages with extraction
and condensing turbine.
Syn Compressor C-104 Manufacturer:

Clark / Dresser Rand

Syn Turbine CT-104 Manufacturer:

Delaval Stroke

CT-104 Speed:

10466 rpm

CT-104 power output:

23907 KW

CT-104

AUTO
LIC-87

MAN
LIC-74

MAN
LIC-72
Oil Breather

CT
P-122C was not in
l but was
original design
added later to increase
reliability
P-122
B

P-122
C

P-122
A

PIC-309
AUTO

P-121
A

145 lit/min
P-121
B

Oil Tank

Problem Background:
C-104 HPC Vibrations History
Year

C-104 HPC problem

Actions taken

Jan. 2010

High vibration during hot start up / near


critical speed (Trip Limit - 100)

Start up sequance was


changed.

April 2010 HPC high radial vibration.

Bearing pads were replaced


with new due to scoring on
NDE

May 2010

High vibration on HPC Non Drive End Bearing, Thrust bearing pads
replaced

March
2011

C-104 HPC high radial vibrations

May 2013 C-104 HPC high radial vibrations issue

overhauling
Modified oil seals installed
as per OEM in TA-13

Operational Problems after Oil seals


Replacement in May 2013:
Abnormally high seal oil consumption (One seal oil pump capacity 145 lit/min
at 1450 rpm)
Continuous operation of both seal oil and lube oil pumps.
No stand by pump availability.
Old seals were sent to vendor shop for examination and inspection and no
inventory of old design seals at site due to revised design.
OEM demanded over Five Months for Root Cause and design
modification; FFL was left out with no other option either
Shut down the plant due to high potential fire risk till the time OEM resolves the
problem.
Work out the way to sustain plant operations without compromising process
safety till the time OEM recommend solution.

Immediate Risks and Sustainability Challenges:

Explosivity from oil breathers at seal oil controller lower openings.


Exposure to Gas break through / fire due to single level transmitter in original
design.
Time lapse of seal oil bottles due to high seal oil consumption.
Seal oil level control and its dump was on manual mode and increased risk
during load fluctuations.
Potential of Fire in case of seal oil pump failure as no stand by availability.
Significant compromise on operational flexibility due to unavailability of stand
by pump

AUTO
LIC-87

MAN
LIC-74

MAN
LIC-72
Oil Breather

CT
P-122C was not in
l but was
original design
added later to increase
reliability
P-122
B

P-122
C

P-122
A

PIC-309
AUTO

P-121
A

145 lit/min
P-121
B

Oil Tank

Risk Mitigations for Safe Operation:


Engineering Controls:
1. Two additional Level Transmitters were configured to increase reliability.
2. Seal oil control philosophy revised to put seal oil level control on auto / cascade.
3. Stand by seal oil pump cut in logic; Normal operating levels and Tripping limits revised.
4. Additional seal oil pump was procured and installed as a stand by.
5. Minimum Opening lock on Seal oil controller was placed to avoid gas breakthrough from
breathers.

Three LTs with


PdI installation

Low level trip logic


revision

AUTO
LIC-87

Minimum Lock to avoid


gas breakthrough from
breathers

MAN
LIC-74

MAN
LIC-72

P-122
C

P-122
A

MP

P-122
B

LP

HP

l Third seal oil pump


installation, cut in logic
revision

CT

MP
Breather

Seal oil dump on


cascade mode

PIC-309
AUTO

P-121
A

180 lit/min
P-121
B

Oil Tank

Risk Mitigations for Safe Operation:


1. Operational Controls:
a) New SOP was developed and each operating staff was trained and
validated (Tag Drills) on new instruction / guidelines with clarity of
authority & empowerment.
2 In case of one seal oil pump fails;
a) In case of tripping of one seal oil pump; unload C-104 from 200 to a
discharge pressure of 120 kg/cm2 to minimize oil depletion in seal oil
bottles to gain response time to normalize conditions as per available
margin.
b) Keep Seal Oil Dump Valve PIC-309 on cascade mode all the time to
avoid any very low or very high pressure conditions.
3. In case of two seal oil pump fails;
a) Back end board man to immediately actuate I-016 (Trip C-104) manually.
b) Depressurize compressor LP and MP casing by actuating I-006
(Methanator Trip) and opening C-104 Suction PV-035 to 100%
c) Depressurize and isolate compressor HP immediately.

Risk Mitigations for Safe Operation:

HV-01 and
MOV-02 Closure

PV-35 suction
vent
PV-107 discharge
vent

MOV-003
Closure

Success Factors
Multidisciplined TEAM formulation for PHA
HAZOP technique to identify and evaluate Risks
Taking Engineering Controls where high risk area identified.
Operating Procedures development and approvals.
Training and Validation of Operators.
Tag Drills to ensure correct response from TEAM.
Condition Monitoring Regimes
Delegating TEAM Authority and Empowerment.

Conclusion:
During TA-14 inspection of oil seals, heavy scoring especially in
inner seal ring with abnormally high seal clearance observed.
In TA-14 Seals replaced with further modified design (reduced
seal clearance). conditions are running fine with only one pump
capable to fulfill the requirements.

Key Learnings:
1. Fall back strategy of all modifications / replacements.

2. Lack of system to review OEM provided solutions.

Nourishing soils
Enriching lives

Thank you

Questions & Answers ?