DRONAPUSHPI

NOMENCLATURE Sanskrit Name: Dronapushpi Latin name: Leucas cephalotes Spreng Family: Lamiaceae/ Labiatae VARNACULAR NAMES Hindi:- Deldona, Dhurpisag, Goma,Guma, Motapati,Goma madupati. Marathi:-Deokhumba, Kumbha, Shetvad, Tumba. Gujarati:-Doshinokubo, Khetraukubo, Kubi, Kubo, Kulannuphul. Bengali:- Barahalkasa,Ghalaghase,Darunaphula,Barahalkusa,Hulksha,Bholghasiya. Kannada:-Tumba. Malyalam:-Tumbe. Punjabi:-Chatra,Guldoda,Maldoda,Phuman,Sisalius,Guldora. Tamil:-Tumbai,Tumbay,Keere Telagu:-Peddetumni,Tumni,Pulatumni. Assama:-Dronaphool. Oriya:- Gaisa. Santhali:-Andiaduruparak. Sindhi:-Kubo. Konkani:-Tumbo. Bihar:-Gumar. Khandesh:-Kedari. Mundari:-Gomanaki ara. China:- Tau xu bai rong cao.

SYNONYMS

Ci~NaI:- C~akar puYpkilaka san%yasyaa |
Its inflorasence

d`aoNpuYpI:- d`aoNa sadRSaM puYpM qasyaa:saa |
Its inflorasence is bowel shaped

flaopuYpa:- flaina puYpaiNa ca yaugapt saint Asyaa [it |
Its flowers & fruits are arranged

xavap~:- xavaQauM janyaint p~aiNa Asyaa: |
Smell of its leaves will cause sneezing CLASSIFICATION

Varga Kaiyadeva nigantu: - osadhi varga Bhavapraskasha:- guducyadi varga,saka varga Raja nighantu:- paratadi varga It is included in tulsikula

HABITAT
It is found as a weed in cultivated ground, road sides as waste places and throughout the greater part of India ascending up to 18000m in himalaya. Also found in west Bengal, Kashmir,Punjab,assam, rajasthan, tamil nadu,Gujarat,maharashtra,west peninsula. Also occours in afganistan, and in sri lanka. And in maharashtra Versova, karjat, juhu,sawant wadi, chichpokli. Khandesh: bori Marathwada : osmanabad Vidrabha : nagpu ,lakkadkote ,warora,ballarpur,maha,shahanur,koradiwadi{nagpur}. Hiwri,patanbori,khandala,majre,penganga,kharbi. MORPHOLOGY Dronapuspi consist of dried whole plant of leucas cephalotes, an annual erect, scaberolous, stout herb, about 0.6-0.9m in high ,found on the himalaya at an altitude of600-1800m an waste lands throughout the country MACROSCOPIC:Root: - cylindrical, zig-zag, smooth, long with numerous wiry, fine root lets size variable, fracture, fibrous, taste, characteristic. Stem:- light greenish- yellow, surface rough , hairy, quadrangular with for prominent furrous.upto 4mm thick nodes andinternodes distinct, taste, slightly bilte Leaf:- yellowish-green, 3-9cm long 1-2.5cm wide, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, sub acute, more or less pubescent, crenate, serrate, taste pungent. Inflorescence:- sessile, while crowded in dense, globose about 2-305cm across, surrounded bynumerous foliaceous bracts, thin, lanceolate, acute, ciliate, 1.2-1.5cm long and 0.3-0.35cm wide; calyx, tubular, slightly covered, 1-2.2cm long, glabrous in lower part, hairy on upper part, 10 dentate wima villous throat: corolla, while 1.7-2cm long, billipped, upper lip about 4mm long, wooly, lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one lateral lobes small. Fruit:- schizacarpic carcerule hutlet 3mm smooth brown. Seeds:- 0.3cm long and 0.1cm wide, oblang, trigonous, smooth dark brown MICROSCOPIC

ROOT :- showsa single layered epidermis composed of rectangular, thin- walled cells; secondary cortex consist of thin- walled, tangentially elongated parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem parenchyma; vessels long with spurs, vessels and tracheids fibres and xylem parenchyma; vessels long with spurs, vessels and tracheids have simple pits, xylem fibres much eongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick wall, some having simple pits medullar, rays 1-2 serial upto 8 cellls high STEM:- shows squarish outline with four ridges & furrous, consist of a single layered epidermic composed of oval to rectangular thin-walled cells; endodermis single layered consisting of barret shape, thin- walled cells; pericycle single layered of thin- walled cells; endodermis single laryered , consisting of barret shaped, thin-walled cells; pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis, a few pericycle cells converted into pericycle fibers; phloem very narrow consisting of usual element xylem cosist to vessel, tracheids fibers and large amount of xylem parenchyma; vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening; tracheids and xylem prenchyma have simple pits on their walls; pith wide consisting of circular to oval; thin walled parenchymatous cells. LEAF Petiole:- shows a single layered epidermis, uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends, cortex consisting of single layered, round to angular collenchyma; parenchyma consist of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, vascular bundles 4, 2 smaller located towards each corner and 2 larger in the center. Midrib : shows epidermis on either side with uni to tri cellular trichomes,followed by 1-2 players of collenchyma towards lower surface, 3-4 layers towards upper surface, followed by round to oval parenchyma, 4-7 layers vascular bundle arc shaped, present in centre. Lamina: shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface;palisade single layered;spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered irregular thin walled cells;a few veins present in this region; stomata di cytic;present on both surface;stomatal index 16.6-40.5 on lower surface;16.6-30.7 on upper surface;palisade ratio 7-9.

Part used
whole plants flowers n leaf. Leaves { adarsh nig}.

VARIETIES
Raja narahari desribed two kinds i.e drona {l.aspera} & maha drona { l.cephalotus} mahadrona is specifically known as medhya according to him . Another species l. indica ex Vatke {L.lavandulifolia smith: L.linifolia {poth}. Spreng; leonurus indicus linn } is also being used as dronapushpi

Substitues & adulterants
Levcas aspera spreng & l lavandulifolia rees are also called as drona pushpi and used as substitute.

CUTIVATION & COLLECTION
The plants are easily cultivated through seeds. The plant comes out during rainy season in field borders and waste places.

PHYTOCHEMISTRY
PHYSICAL CONSTANT : Total ash : not more than 17%, acid insoluble ash: not more than 6%, alcohol soluble extractive : not less than 5%, water soluble extractive: not less than 14 % CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS: Plant :- β-sitosterol & its glycoside new labdane, nor labdane , and abietone-type diterpenes named leucasdins A,B,and C respectively and two protostane - type triterpenes named leucastrins A and B, oleonolic acid, 7- oxositosterol, 7oxostigmasterol,7alpha -hydroxysitosterol,7 alphahydroxystigmasterol,sigmasterol,5-hydroxy-7,4-dimethoxyflavone, pillion,gonzalitosin 1, tricin,cosmosin,a pigenin 7-o-beta -D { 6-0- p-caumaroyl glucopyranoside, anisofolin A and luteolin 4-0-beta -D - glucurono pyranoside . Seed oil : Laballenic acid { octadeca - 5, 6-dienoic acid }lauric acid, glutanic acid ,tridecanonic acid , adipic acid.

TOXICOLOGY
The LD50 of 50 % ethanolic extract was 750 mg /kg bw i.p in mice The LD 50 of 90 % ehanolic extract was found to be 1000mg/kg bw i.p in rats. The LD50 of ethylacetate extract was 1680+- 21 mg/kg bw i.p in mice. KARMA: (A.HR.Su.6/93) Vatakara, pittakara, vistambha, bhedani (S.S.Su 46/274) Ruchya, kaphaghana,jantughana,vishagana, deepana, anulomana,pittasaraka,rechana. (S.S.Su 38/18) Krmighana, raktashodhana,sothhara, arthavajanana, jwaraghana, varanashodhaka.

Jwaraghana- vishamajavara, prativedhaka. Pittasaraka- pittasamshodhaka Rechaka- bhedana Dipana- anulomana, krimighana. Kaphaghana- jantughana –vishaghana, arthvajana, svedajanana. PHARAMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Plant was repoted to be cardiac depressant, hypotensive, antihelmintic, antiseptic, insectisidal,antiscabies, & anticoagulant. It has antispasmodic activity in 50% ethanolic extract of the plant, in contrast any such activity was reported to be absent in the 90% ethanolic extact. The ethyiacetate extract of whole plant failed to protect carbontetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in mice ona ratsupto dose of 300mg/kg. L.cephalotus exhibites potent antifilarial activity against adult worms and the microfilaria of Setaria cervi. INDICATION S.S.Su 38/18 Tamakashwasa, kasa, shawaa. S.S.Su 38/18 Agnimandya, kamala, shotha, aruchi, krimi. S.S.Su 46/274 Vishamjwara, amadosha, shoolavibandhan. ROGAGNATA: Abhyantara: Jwara-visamajwara-vataslaismikajvara- kasa-svasa-pratishaya-sirahshula-tamakaswasa. Rajodhara –kastartava- artava vicar- carmaroga, raktavikara-sotha. Visa- sarpavisa. Pittavikara-(sodhanartha) Kaphavata vikara (samanartha) Kamala – pandu ,adhmana-sula,krmiroga,prameha. Bahya: pandu-kamala,sarpavisa,krimidanta,pratisyaya-sirahsula vrana .

THERAPEUTIC USES:
The herb is stimulant,diaphoretic and insecticide. The fresh juice is an external application in scabies. The flower in the form of a syrup are used as remedy for cough and cold. The plant has a pungent taste with a flavour,heating and pitta.it is laxative,anhelmintia stimulant and febrifuge. The herb is useful in bronchitis asthma cough,jaundice,inflanmath,dydpepcia,paralysis and leucoderma.the leaves are useful in fever and urinary disharge the leaves are used in combination with other drugs in scorpion sting.

The juice of herb specially leaves and flowers is used in various ailments. A snuff of expressed juice of herb is given (nasya) in coryza,catarrhal affection and head ache. The decoction of the herb is used to ulcers as wash liquid is also applied externally to poisnous insect bites. The juice of herb is applied as a collyrium (netranjan) in case of jaundice.The herb is used in the form of decoction or infusion in the fever specially in intermittent fever,it is effective in malarial fever and influenza. It is used in warms infection,jaundice,biliousness,constipation,abdominal colic and menstrual disorders.It has a good cholagogue action and given in certain disease of biliary affection.

BHAVA PRAKASHA
Vishamajwara : fresh juiceof dronapushpi is useful in this. Kamal : anjana made from juice of dronapushpi. Leaves is useful (vrunda). Netrarogani:dronapushpi juice is mixed with rice-water and used as nasya.

PREPARATION :
Churna : sudarshan churna . Vati & gutika : gorochandi vati pleehari vatika.

DOSAGE :
Fresh juice 10-20ml.