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EERF 6330- RF IC Design

Radio System Design III
Link Budget Analysis: Derivation
of Specifications

Prof. Bhaskar Banerjee

Bhaskar Banerjee, EERF 6330, Sp‘2013, UTD

System Analysis/Specification Derivation
• ETSI/3GPP Specifications (www.3gpp.org)
• Link budget analysis for the Receiver
• Target Standard: W-CDMA
– PCS band (Band II)
– RX band: 1930 MHz - 1990 MHz
– TX band: 1850 MHz - 1910 MHz
– TX channel is always 80 MHz lower in frequency compared to
the corresponding RX channel

Ref: N. Yanduru, PhD Dissertation Thesis, University of Texas at Dallas, 2007.
Bhaskar Banerjee, EERF 6330, Sp‘2013, UTD

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UTD 3 . Sp‘2013. EERF 6330.Important System Formulae N F = FO 10 log10 (B) 3 IIP3 = Pin 2 G 10 log10 (kT ) 1 1 PIM 3.in = Pin + IM D3 2 2 • What if blockers are un-equal in power? Pin = 23 P1 + 13 P2 – P1 closer to fin_band and P2 away from fin_band • IIP2: • Dynamic Range: Bhaskar Banerjee.

Sp‘2013.Phase Noise and Reciprocal Mixing • Major cause of receiver performance degradation in the presence of close-in blockers Bhaskar Banerjee. UTD 4 . EERF 6330.

IEEE Transactions on. Springer. 2002. 254-267. et. al." Microwave Theory and Techniques.Reference Sensitivity Test [1] [2] [1] 3GPP TS 25. "RF system concepts for highly integrated RFICs for W-CDMA mobile radio terminals. vol.101 (www.3gpp. pp. 50.org) [2] A. Bhaskar Banerjee. EERF 6330. UTD 5 . Sp‘2013.

UTD 6 . EERF 6330.68 MHz – TX o/p noise at RX • Needs to be allocated in the budget Bhaskar Banerjee.84 MHz BW • 2nd order distortion product at DC w/ overall BW of 7.PN+I • Thermal noise at the receiver circuit (Pnoise_floor) • TX Leakage: – Reciprocal Mixing with LO Phase Noise – TX is AM modulated with 3. Sp‘2013.

EERF 6330.NF of the RX Chain Calculate the required NF! Bhaskar Banerjee. UTD 7 . Sp‘2013.

8 dB (N=1) Bhaskar Banerjee. UTD 8 . Sp‘2013. For the 3GPP standard for WCDMA. is and adjustment factor as the TX leakage is amplitude modulated along with other considerations such as accounting only for the distortion power that falls inside the received signal bandwidth.Phase Noise Requirement • Based on the budget for reciprocal mixing: • Based on the allocation for the 2nd order (IM2): where. EERF 6330. Adj(N) = -10.

7 dBm) – i/p referred noise is also higher (-96 dBm) • Target SNR: -7. UTD 9 . Sp‘2013.In-Band Blocker Test • Can be present anywhere beyond 15 MHz offset from the center of the RX channel • Within the specified RF band (e.g. 1930-1990 MHz) • Distortions in addition to the ones in the Reference Sensitivity Test – i/p signal as 3 dB higher than the ref sensitivity test (-103. EERF 6330.7 dB • TX output power less by 3 dB (-33 dBm) Bhaskar Banerjee.

Sp‘2013. EERF 6330.negligible • PIM3 can be allocated the entire 3 dB extra signal Bhaskar Banerjee. PBLK:IBB = -44 dBm (much smaller to TX leakage of -33 dBm) -. UTD 10 .In-band Blocker Test • Two scenarios: – Blocker located halfway b/w RX and TX: FBLK = (FRX+FTX)/2 – Reciprocal mixing from the blocker • In this case.

4 dBm • The above formula is derived based on the AM characteristics of the blocker and the amount of distortion that falls inside the signal bandwidth of interest Bhaskar Banerjee. EERF 6330. Sp‘2013.In-band Blocker Test = -11. UTD 11 .

• the duplexer or pre-select filter rejects most of these blockers except the ones closest to the band which do not get much rejection from the duplexer. Sp‘2013. UTD 12 . • a 3 dB extra input signal is provided as compared to the Reference Sensitivity Test case Bhaskar Banerjee.Out-of-Band Blocker Test • the blockers farthest away from the channel are highest in power while the blockers closest to the RF band are lowest in power. EERF 6330.

PTX:OBB of -33 dBm) Bhaskar Banerjee. Sp‘2013. an out-of-band blocker at FBLK = (FTX +FRX)/2 and TX leakage will cause third order intermodulation • The blocker power as defined in the test is -44 dBm at the antenna. assuming a 10 dB filtering from the duplexer filter for this blocker.Out-of-Band Blocker Test • a third order intermodulation scenario: 2FBLK .FTX = FRX will also be present • RX channel is at the lower edge of the RX frequency band. we use PBLK:OBB = . EERF 6330.54 dBm • This blocker contributes very little from reciprocal mixing (in comparison to the reciprocal mixing from TX leakage. UTD 13 .

Out-of-Band Blocker Test = -10. UTD 14 . EERF 6330. Sp‘2013.7 dBm Bhaskar Banerjee.

UTD 15 . Sp‘2013.Adjacent Channel Selectivity Test • defines the power of the adjacent channel which is located at +/-5 MHz offset from the center of RX channel • adjacent channel can cause receiver impairments such as reciprocal mixing and second order intermodulation in the RF section of the receiver • close to the channel of interest and hence is difficult to filter • The Adjacent Channel Selectivity Test defines two test cases: – ACS-Cases 1 and 2 – difference between the two cases is the power of the adjacent channel and the input signal power at the receiver input Bhaskar Banerjee. EERF 6330.

EERF 6330.RS + 14 = -92.ACS .Case 1 • PBLK:ACS1 = -52 dBm at the antenna • the required signal power at the antenna is 14 dB higher than in the case of Reference Sensitivity Test (Ior.7 dBm) • considerable increase in noise/distortion power can be tolerated compared to Reference Sensitivity Test case for the same output SNR performance • SNR req = -7.7 dB • the total allowed distortion power (PN+I:ACS1): Bhaskar Banerjee.ACS1 = Ior. UTD 16 . Sp‘2013.

Case 1 • Noise and Distortion Component: – – – – Cross modulation distortion between TX leakage and adj channel Reciprocal mixing Spectral re-growth of adj channel into the RX channel Increase in thermal noise due to reduced RX gain • the allowed cross modulation distortion noise (PIM3:ACS1): Bhaskar Banerjee. Sp‘2013. EERF 6330. UTD 17 .ACS .

PBLK:ACS1 of -52 dBm and PIM3 of -85. results in adjustment factor of -8. UTD 18 .Case 1 • N is the number of channels in the W-CDMA TX leakage • u is a parameter that depends on the amount of overlap in the RX channel bandwidth and cross modulation distortion component • Substituting this value of u and using N =1 .ACS .4 dBm Bhaskar Banerjee. EERF 6330.5 dBm results in IIP3 requirement of -20.3 dB • using PTX:ACS1 of -33 dBm. Sp‘2013.

UTD 19 . EERF 6330.ACS . • this test case will be used to illustrate the significance of PAR of the modulated blocker in determining the distortion • Higher number of channels in the AM blocker results in higher PAR which in turn increases the magnitude of Adjustment Factor Bhaskar Banerjee. Sp‘2013.Case 2 • both the input required signal and the adjacent channel power are higher than in the case for ACS-case1 • blocker power at the antenna for this test case is -25 dBm • required signal is a whopping 41 dB higher than in the case for Reference Sensitivity Test case • Since the input signal power is significantly higher in this case. the receiver gain is significantly lower than in the test cases discussed so far • this test results in setting specification for the receiver performance under low gain conditions (about 40 dB below the maximum receiver gain) • these specifications are normally not as challenging as compared to the specifications in the high gain mode of the receiver.

UTD 20 . in the presence of adjacent channel with high PAR Bhaskar Banerjee.Case 2 • difference in the spectral re-growth at the output of RF receiver for the cases where the adjacent channel had only one channel (low PAR) and 16 channels (high PAR) Spectrum after down-conversion. Sp‘2013. in the presence of adjacent channel with low PAR Spectrum after down-conversion.ACS . EERF 6330.

each of -46 dBm and PIM3:BBI is -99 dBm as mentioned earlier • IIP3 can be calculated to be -19. PN+I:BBI = -99 + 3 = -96 dBm • PBLK:10MHz and PBLK:20MHz are the blocker powers at antenna. FBLK2) are 10 MHz and 20 MHz offset from the center of the RX channel • the input signal provided is again 3 dB higher than the Reference Sensitivity Test case • this test also sets an IIP3 requirement for the RF receiver • the allowed noise power. UTD 21 .Broadband Intermodulation Test • the blockers (FBLK1.5 dBm Bhaskar Banerjee. EERF 6330. Sp‘2013.

Sp‘2013. EERF 6330.Consolidated Specifications Bhaskar Banerjee. UTD 22 .

EERF 6330. UTD 23 . Sp‘2013.ADC Specifications Bhaskar Banerjee.