F I N I T E SETS OF INTEGERS
The City
GERALD WEINSTEIN
of New York, New York,
College
NY 10031
ABSTRACT
Let Ak = {0 = a 1 < a 2 < ... < ak} and B = {0 = b1 < b2 < ... < bn ...}
be sets of k integers and infinitely many integers, respectively. Suppose B
has asymptotic density x t d(B)  x.
If, for every integer n _> 0, there is
at most one representation n  a^ + bj , then we say that Ak has a packing
complement of density j> x.
Given Ak and x9 there is no known algorithm for determining whether or
not B exists.
We define "regular packing complement" and give an algorithm for determining if B exists when packing complement is replaced by regular packing
complement. We exemplify with the case k = 5, i.e.s given A5 and x  1/10,
we give an algorithm for determining if A5 has a regular packing complement
B with density >_ 1/10. We relate this result to the
Con/ecta/ie:
and
Ak
Let
ak}
...}
d(B)
From now on we consider only those sets B for which the density exists.
For a given set Ak, we wish to find the pcomplement B with maximum density. More precisely, we define p(Ak) s the packing codensity of Ak, as follows :
p(Ak) = sup d(B)
where B ranges over all pcomplements of Ak.
B
Finally, we define p
cisely,
pk
=nfp(Ak).
l _
G)
+ i
< p
<
* 
2 ^ 6 ^
y}
if k is sufficiently large.
The first four p are trivial, since we can find sets for which the
lower bound is attained. Thus,
A = {0}, A2 = {0,1}, A3 = {0, 1, 3}, Ah = {0, 1, 4, 6}
289
290
[Dec.
give
Pl
But,
1
^ 1
TT^Ps^To'
The upper bound is established by As = (0, 1, 2, 6, 9} and the lack of certainty in the lower bound is caused by the impossibility of finding A5 whose
difference set takes on all values 1, 2, ..., 10.
Suppose we have a set Ak, a set B = {b19 b2> ... bn}, and a number N
such that a + b = m (mod N) has at most one solution,
a e Ak9 b e B9 for 0 <. m < N.
Then the packing codensity of Ak is J> n/ii/.
If, in the previous paragraph, the pcomplement B consists entirely of
consecutive multiples of M, where (M9N) = 1, i.e., B = {M, 2M9
, nM} (mod
N) i then we say that Ak has a regular
ycomplement
of density _> n/N.
As in [2], there is no known algorithm for determining either the packing codensity of Ak or even whether Ak has a pcomplement of density _> X.
It is the purpose of this note to give an algorithm for answering the
question: does Ak have a regular pcomplement of density _> xl
We actually
give a method for determining whether A5 has a regular pcomplement of density _> 1/10, because of its application to the
Conje.ouA&: p 5 = 1/10.
However, the generalization of our result is obvious.
We adopt the following conventions throughout:
(1) A5 represents a set of five integers,
A5
1979]
291
(5) "A5 has a regular pcomplement" will mean that it has a regular pcomplement of density J> 1/10.
Lzmmci 1:
Given A5,
d
Then A5
let ai
E a
i3
i ~ s (mod 217).
has a regular pcomplement if and only if
YQ 1 ^ J 5 ^Ji < 217,
(mod N).
Suppose now that 217/10 < d^j , d$i < 217. Then a3 includes the 217/10 elements
of C immediately to the right of aj. Thus, while it may include a^9 it will
not include any element to the right of a^ nor, of course, will it include
(Zj . Hence, A5 B cannot include any element of C more than once. Since C
is a complete residue system mod N9 B is a pcomplement of A5.
Conversely,
if 0 < dij < 217/10 or 0 < dji < 217/10, then
(a3 B) H (az B) ^ <)
and B is not a pcomplement of J3.
Lemma 2:
(1)
JL , A
* M.
Clearly, the inequalities still hold if a^ and aj are not adjacent mod 217. If
(1) has the required solution for every pair ,j, this implies that adjacent
a ! s, mod 217, are separated by at least (217/10)M, and so, by Lemma 1, A5 has a
regular pcomplement.
Define kQ by kQM = 1 (mod 217) and write r = kQ/N.
Let Z) = ai
 a^.
We
have
^mria_3:
(2)
The congruence
d^M E a ^  a^ (mod 217)
_< 9217/10 if
292
1 0 ( f e  l )
. 1 0 ( f e  l )
> f e
1)
^ ^
10 D
Mpiil
Vh.00^
[Dec.
I I
< jpT.
We have d^M
= D^j
(mod #)
However,
since
D r
Therefore,
This implies
ij
( m o d *)
1
9
.
where <. s
that
10 (fe  1) + 1 ^ , , . 10 (fc  1) + 9
10
 I ^ J I2 10
or
10(fe  1) + 1 ^
. 10(fe  1) + 9 i
* s i, s \n \
^
L
<_ r <_
f o r some k9 1 <. k <. \Dij \ .
'l0\Did\
l0\Did\
The argument can also be read backwards, so this completes the proof.
Since
Sine each difference D^j determines a set of intervals R^j on the unit
interval:
*u = fci
U
]10(fe  1) + 1
10(fe  1) + 9
107?^
10^ 
o)
n Ra = <*>
ij
*i ~ *$
did
to the congruence
< JQ
n %^ *
if and only if A has a regular pcomplement.
The application of this theorem to a given A5 Is a tedious procedure
without a computer. In [2], we stated that a computer search revealed two
sets Ait, with a 4 j< 100, that do not have regular (covering) complements of
density .<. 1/3. We have no such computer information on the packing algorithm
but still think it likely that at most a finite number of ^.5fs do not have
regular pcomplements. The obvious attempt to prove this is to assume a 5 is
large and that (3) is satisfied. So far, we have failed to find the desired
contradiction.
1979]
293
REFERENCES
1.
2.
C. Wilcox
MARJORIE BICKNELLJOHNSON
High School,
Santa Clara,
CA 95051
In a recent correspondence from J. H. E. Cohn, it was learned that Ljunggren [1] has proved that the only square Pell numbers are 0, 1, and 169.
(This appears as an unsolved problem, H146, in [2] and as Conjecture 2.3 in
[3].) Also, if the Fibonacci polynomials {Fn (x)} are defined by
FQ(x)
= 0, Fi(x)
= 1, and Fn + 2 (x)
= xFn + 1(x)
+ Fn (x) ,
then the Fibonacci numbers are given by Fn = Fn (1), and the Pell numbers are
Pn = Fn(2).
Cohn [4] has proved that the only perfect squares among the sequences {Fn(a)}9
a odd, are 0 and 1, and whenever a = k2, a itself. Certain
cases are known for a even [5].
The cited results of Cohn and Ljunggren mean that Conjectures 2.3,3.2,
and 4.2 of [3] are true, and that the earlier results can be strengthened as
follows.
If (n,k) = 1, there are no solutions in positive integers for
F%(a) + F (a) = K2,
This is the same as stating that no two members of {Fn (a)} can occur as the
lengths of legs in a primitive Pythagorean triangle, for a odd and a >_ 3.
When a = 1, for Fibonacci numbers, if
F2 + F\ = K29
n > k > 0,
New South
Wales Institute
1.
INTRODUCTION
There are three parts to this paper, the link being {wn}, defined below
in (1.1). In the first, a lacunary recurrence relation is developed for {wn}
in (2.3) from a multisection of a related series. Then a functional recurrence relation for {wn} is investigated in (3.2). Finally, a ^series recurrence relation for {wn} is included in (4.5).
The generalized sequence of numbers {wn} is defined by
(1.1)
wn = pwn_2
 qwn_2
(n >. 2 ) , w0 = a,' w = b,
where p,q are arbitrary integers. Various properties of {wn} have been developed by Horadam in a series of papers [4, 5, 6, 7, and 8].
We shall have occasion to use the "fundamental numbers," Un(p9q)9
and
the "primordial numbers," Vn (p9q), of Lucas [10]. These are defined by
(1.2)
Un(p,q)
wn(0,l;p,q),
(1.3)
Vn(p9q)
wn(2,p;p,q).
Un(p,q)
~ Un E M n  1 = (an  3n)/(a  6 ) ,
(1.5)
Vn(p,q)
w(x)
=^2wnxn9
= wx(x)
n=0
(2.2)
wk(x;m)
= m" 1 ^ ( P ^ ) P 7 7 7 ' ^ .
ji
It follows that
= (rmkw(rx)
wk(x;m)
Submitted
ca
+ rm~2kw(r2x)
1972.
294
+ +
^  ^ ( A ) )
w(x)
1979]
+ wxrx
+ w2r2x2
+ ) + rm
m mk
+ ... +
~ (wQ
2k
(wQ + wr2x
2m 2
+ wxv x
+ w2r x
j =i
wQ
2s
4 W,
,.,
W , t f *k +
lrt
+ w2rhx2
+ )
+ ))
j = i
!  + wkxKmrm
h wx
1
295
p
^k +1"^
2m +
X*"
!>*+****+*"
(i)
J0
jo
= i4a*a; k (l  a V )
 1
+ BgMd
= ar*Gi?k  ^ X  m x m ) ( 1 ~ Vmxm
 3 V ) '
+
2 m
_ 1
(ii)
qmwk_mx.
= wk
J =0
mJ ~
mWk
+ mQl)
+ <Fk + m(j2)
"
mWk.m
+ < ? X  2 , > 6 JO
6nm = 0 (n ^ m ) .
When j is zero, we get the trivial case Wk = Wk. When j is unity, we get
W
(7W Z 2, n > 1) .
Thus
w 2 n = F n w n + aq ,
and
w 3 n = Vnw2n + qnwne
The recurrence relations (2.3) and (2.4) are called lacunary because there
are gaps in them. For instance, there are missing numbers between Wn(mi) anc*
wnm in (2.4); when m = 2 and n = 35 (2.4) becomes
and the missing numbers are wh and w5,
of wn9 is
296
(2.5)
wmn = Um{Vn9q)wn
aUm.(Vn9q)qn.
and
= Vn
[Dec.
M ^ >  < ? ) = 1.
rn
~ VnWn(rl)
tf ^n(r2)
 ^ r  i ( ^ n ^ K + a7n^_2(Fns^)^"
+ ^ ^ . 2 ( F n ,  ^ ) w n + a<f[/r_ 3(^,4)4*
+qnUr_2(Vn,q))wn
= (VnVriWn9q)
+ a(VnUr_2(Vn,q)
= Ur(Vn9q)wn
3.
qnUr_3(Vn9q))q\
+ at/,.!^,^.
(3.1)
w*n(x) =w*(x>\)
Then,
wj(0) = w n , and
(3.2)
K(kYk'
k=0
= pw*(x)  ^  i G r ) ,
which is a secondorder functional recurrence relation. Moreover, we can
show that the power series in (3.1) converges for a sufficiently small X as
l
follows:
k
= A I> + 4 iK"1
^2^Wn + k +
fe = o
AzJ* + 1 (a?).
I f we u s e wn = y4an + $ , where
A =
a  3
and
5 =
r~,
a  3
\ki
x
1979]
then we get that
wn<*>
k
= Aan(l
It follows that
fc = 0
'
 2a3 + a2)E*
nlWn+l
n =
V"'^
(<7) = (1  q)(l
 q2)
... (1  qn),
(qQ) = 1.
[l]
= (<7>/(<7)* (?)*.
298
[Dec.
GO
(1  (p/a)")
(1  g / a ) ( l  ( 3 / a ) 2 ) (1  (B/a) k )
/a
Ufr _ j_
UQU^
(4.3)
(1   ( P / a ) "  * * 1 )
(7,rcfc
Horadam [5] has shown that
w
Thus
n+r
= W
nur ~
^r^nl'
_ _ fn + 1] _ IZLJ__H
l,k
which yields
L fe J 3/a
5.
C nfe
LkJe/a
CONCLUSION
C  b 11m
k +
(Ck+lh+1/Ckk).
'
REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.
1979]
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
299
CA 93740
ABSTRACT
Two theorems are presented which generalize a recent Wang [6]Carlitz
[1] result. In addition, we also obtain its Abel analogue. The method of
proof is dependent upon some of our recent work [2].
I
Wang [6] proved the expansion
ci.u
E m
Udf, + 1)
m 1
In + 2r + 1\
\ 2r + 1 ) '
ij>Q
a.2)
z c n E n (s: ) = ( ":  ).
+ 1\
k = Q\
E(r
(1.3)
y^
Yl
to
+ 1)
la + tim + im\
id > 0
(a + 1) (r + 1)
/ar + r + a + tn + n\
(a + 1) (p + 1) + tn \
J'
in,
[Dec.
300
+ l
k =0
ix+'
(a) (a + Mm)1*'1
n
m
+ ik=n
id>0
(a)(r+l)(ar + r +
Inf'1
=l
(1.3) and (1.4) are special cases of a number of classes of functions including some wellknown orthogonal polynomials. These are considered in the following theorem.
ThzotiQJM 1: For a,$>l,l\
and Q a positive integer
d5)
t complex numbers, r
fte^^er8^)
til)
k =0
i1+y+ik=n
m= l
^J > o
where
[n/s]
0^' (x)
,a,g . ,
(1.6)
An Or)
( a )vn
i^Kn)
tn+
+ nn
r~\
" rt!(a + l ) t B Zr
(1.7)
=
ip)/a)xp
B"'V)
(B)(a)t+n [ ^ ] (  n ) s p ( a + t n + n ) p ( 3 + ' p ) p _ 1 { ( a + sp + sp+
nl(a + i ) t n L
pi (a + 1 + t n ) s p + p
lp)/a)xl
CBa,B(ar)
(1.8)
Lo
''
p ! ( a + n ) s p ( 3 + 1 ) ^P~P
"
p
,a,3
Dan>*(x)
(1.9)
(g)(a
+ n)ni
n!
(1.10)
^ (  i r p (  n ) s p ( 3 + ^p) p  1 {a + ^ p } * p
P
=o
p ! ( a + Jm) ep
tf'efo)
[n/ 8 ](l) 8 P (n) s p ( 3 ) n ' 
(a + n)n! Z^
sp
p!(g +
r f a + &n)p{a + n  sp};
n  sp
l)nZ'nsPi'+sP
a 6
f ^ ] (  l ) s p (  n ) s p ( a + n) p (3 + i l ' n  f s p ) n " s p  1 { a +
^
^Z'
^~!
p=0
tesp}^n^
1979]
(1.12)
Gn> (x) = n ,
>
,(1
t p ) n
( 3
301
1 ) t
(3)
p=0
(114)
.
(a + tp + n ) n _ 1 ( 3 ) w { a +
^ M = I V
1
*p
W
n! 2 ^
p ! ( 3 + 1) ,
U , i 4 ;
j
^
(1.15)
ra.e,
J
(3) y
tp}xp
'
(a + tp + n ) n " 1 ( g + H'pf1{al
+t p } ^ p
P=O
VKOOJ o{ ( 7 , 6 ) :
S
(1
From Theorem 4b [ 2 , p . 7 0 8 ] ,
vn(u)tn+n
t w ^ ] (  w ) s p ( a + t n + ^ ) p ( 3 ) , p {(a + t s p + sp +
w!(a+ l)tn 1*
pl(tn
'16)
(1
"
"
s ) a
Z^
PP!' V( M3
p=Q
V p
z)1?
+' 1 ) , ^>V
, V V
=  s , y(0) = 0.
+ a + l ) a p + p(B + D ,
Ip)/a)xl
/ x(
(3P)P. ^
^ p3s &8 pp ((1
l (frOo/
(l
P=0
p
pi( Bl.
^
z)Zp
+ 1)t
/J6
( 1 . 1 7 ) may b e e x p r e s s e d a s
n = 0 fc = 0 X
i 1 + + i k = n w = 1
ij>
=o
(1.19)
[1.7) :
H'p)p'1.
Hence 5
a2>
(i.2i)
t ( U ) X>cB<*>
=0x '(n=l
= era  a ) ^ X ( g r
P=o
+ r
P ) f "'fp!2 8 f ( 1 ~ a )
r
to be
302
[Dec.
Y,vnB**ixy
(1.22)
n=0
=n(rk).
(1.23)
= 0 fc = 0
hBl;\x),
' ^ l + ij >+0
^kn
m =l
(1.24)
5> C
<*) = exP(a<0;Cp!(g + ^
n = 0
PA.00^ 0^ ( 7 . 9 ) :
(1.25)
p=0
f
*

Theorem 2b [ 2 , p . 704] y i e l d s
fyjtf'V) = exp(a3)f:^iAM!^!5l!.
n=0
(1.26)
(&),fpxpzsp
j^
p=0
^
a
>%?' 3 to)
(B),,p*^/S
^
exp(a^)^
P
p =o
n =0
,
l'pp
where w = s 1 / s e x p (  J l s ) .
Pftp0f{ 0^ 11,11).'
From Theorem 2d [ 2 , p . 7 0 4 ] ,
sPi^P^P/s
(1.27)
2 ^ ^ ^n
to)
= exp(as)2^
n=0
P/L00^ 0^ {1.12):
= 0
I t may b e shown t h a t
"
d.28)
E ? C t o )  (i  *) L
n=0
z)tPXP
(B) r_ (1 "
pT0
PP ( 3 +
* ^
) g
^ ' p  p
where ( 1  s ) = z.
VKaoj o (1.13):
a.29)
One may d e r i v e
i w c * > = (i  S )E ( e + y 1 : c P .
n=0
p=
^"
1979]
VtiOOk oj [1.14) :
p =o ^ "
n =0
VK.OOJ oj (7,15) :
I p  p
I t may be proved t h a t
j^unJ?r\x)
(1.31)
is
ft
(g) , x p exp(pts)
= exp(aZ) p , J + 1 ) ,
5:Iflte)
(1.30)
303
expfas)^3
n=0
^"Vexpfrte) .
p=o
II
(2.D
SIT)
n( a + *j" + i")
E
ij. > 0
(ap + p + a + l ) t n + n
n\ (ar+r+a+
2)tn *f
p\ (ar + r + a + 2 + tn)p
(2.2)
E( r). 2
> 0
tj
=
(ar + InT'1
(a + *)*
y^ (&)p(w)p (r)p{ou? + p}
n!
=o
p!
(OP
in)p
For a9^9l,t
(2.3)
a. W ? \
and
II *?*<*> =i?C
^ >
where
a 6
(2.5)
fa).n
* (t) = nHa)tn
(2.7)
(n)p(t)P(3)P
"
p!(a + tn)P
=o
'
p!(a + n) P
fX"''<*)?n0
<1a>
( 1 + *JS)B
304
IDENTITY
[Dec.
where z/(l  z)
= z.
Note the misprint in equation (4.3) [2, p. 709], in
the definition of Cn (x) . The factor (a + 1 + mn  n)sk + ik should read
(a + rrm 
n)8k+lk.
Hence
>
(2.9)
(1 + *S)
1 B, + 1
Comparing c o e f f i c i e n t s
VhjQOh oj TkdOtim
and s i m p l i f y i n g g i v e s
2(b):
V wnS'aU)
n=o
(2.10)
where w = s e x p (  s i l ) .
(2.3).
Using Theorem 2a [ 2 , p . 7 0 4 ] ,

e3cp(aa)
(1  s ) 3 + 1
Thus,
(1  Zzfr+r
Proceeding as in part a gives the required (2.4).
III.
SPECIAL CASES
) T>aL + tntBlatnn,
\y)
"T
, (t +
~
(x)
in
1)2/ 6? a + tn, g  1  a  tn  n ,
jr.
\
(32)
^
(&o + ^  ^
(x)
from (1.7) as
<&oj,
3. E% (x) may be viewed as a generalized Laguerre polynomial with the degree of the polynomial incorporated in the argument. In the special case for
x = l/y9 s = 1, ' = 1 ,
<33> C 8 (*>;#
aynL'n&'n[y(a
+ In)}
n
 ly ^W
[y"i;
L~nB '\y(a
"[y(a ++ Jto)]]l
In)]
1979]
305
4. Fn ' (x) may be looked upon as a generalization of the generalized Hermite polynomial defined by Gould et al. [5, p. 58, eqn. (6.2)], and others.
See also [2] for properties of this polynomial. The generalized Hermite is
defined as
(3.4)
f sk) ,
k=o
(3.5)
F'\x)
=n
H a
+ in)].
Further, putting & = 0, one obtains a single term on the righthand side.
See also [3] for bilinear generating functions and other expansions for the
generalized Hermite polynomial,
5. For the special case lf
nomial of the type
(l*)pn^
(3,6)
n\
,.^
(3.7) C*(*>  ^ ^ E ^ )
f e
( ^ E (ft p)!p!(a + tp + 1) 
Univ. Cagliari 39
State
University,
San Jose,
CA 95192
and
MARJORIE BICKNELLJOHNSON
A.
C. Wilcox
High School,
Santa
Clara,
CA 95051
[a[a[a[a[a]]]]] = [a] = 1
1 + 2+ 1+ 1
1 +1+ 2+ 1
[a[a2[a[a]]]] = [a[a2]] =
[a[a[a2[a]]]] = [a[a[a2]]
2 +1 + 1+ 1
[a2[a[a[a]]]] = [a2] = 2
1 + 2+ 2
[a[a2[a2]]] = 8
2 +1 + 2
2 + 2+ 1
[a2[a[a2]]] = 7
[a2[a2[a]]] = [a2[a2]] =
[a[a[a[a2]]]] = 6
306
Dec. 1979
REPRESENTATIONS OF INTEGERS
COMPOSITIONS OF 6:
[a] = 1
1 + 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+1
1 + 1+ 1+ 1+ 2
[a[a[a[a[a2]]]]] = 9
1 + 1+ 1+ 2+1
[a[a[a[a2]]]] = 6
1 + 1+ 2+ 1+1
[a[a[a2]]] = 4
1 + 2+ 1+ 1+1
[a[a2]] = 3
2 + 1+ 1+ 1+ 1
[a2] = 2
1 + 1+ 2+ 2
[a[a[a2[a2]]]] = 12
1 + 2+ 1+ 2
[a[a2[a[a2]]]] = 11
2 + 1+ 1+ 2
[a2[a[a[a2]]]] = 10
1 + 2+ 2+1
[a[a2[a2]]] = 8
2 + 1+ 2+ 1
[a2[a[a2]]] = 7
2 + 2+ 1+1
[a2[a2]]  5
2 + 2+ 2
[a2[a2[a2]]] = 13
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
1+
1+
2+
1+
2+
1+
1+
2+
1+
1+
2+
1+
2+
1+
1+
1+
2+
1+
1+
2+
2+
1+
1+
1+
2+
2
1+
1+
1+
1+
1
2+
1
1
1+
2
2
2
1+ 1
1
1
1
1
2
REPRESENTATION:
a] = 1
a2] = 2
a[a2]] = 3
a[a[a2]]] = 4
a2[a2]] = 5
a[a[a[a2]]]] =
a2[a[a2]]] = 7
a[a2[a2]]] = 8
REPRESENTATION:
a] = 1
a2] = 2
a[a2]] = 3
a[a[a2]]] = 4
a2[a2]] = 5
a[a[a[a2]]]] =
a2[a[a2]]] = 7
a[a2[a2]]] = 8
a[a[a[a[a2]]]]]
a2[a[a[a2]]]] = 10
a[a2[a[a2]]]] = 11
a[a[a2[a2]]]] = 12
a2[a2[a2]]] = 13
REPRESENTATIONS OF INTEGERS
308
[Dec.
Notice that the representations of the first eight integers using the
compositions of 6 agree with the representations using the compositions of 5.
ThfLQtKim 1: Any positive integer n can be represented uniquely in terms of
nested greatest integer functions of a and a 2 , where the exponents match the
order of lfs and 2fs in a composition in terms of l?s and 2Ts of an integer
k9 n <_ Fk + 1 , where any a f s appearing to the right of the last appearing a
are truncated.
VKOofc Arrange all of the Fk + 1 compositions of k so that when a and a 2 are
inserted in the method described, then the results are in natural order. Do
the same for the Fk + 2 compositions of (k + 1) in terms of lfs and 2 T s. Notice
that the representations agree with the first Fk+1 from k. Now, for the compositions of k, tack on the right side a 2 , on the far right of the nested
greatest integer functions, and suppress all the excess right a's.
This
yields, with the new addition, representation for the numbers
F
k +l
>
k +l
>
Fk + l
k+2
'
n odd, n > 2;
[aFn]
= Fn+19
[aFn]
= Fn + 1  1, n even, n >_ 2.
[aFn]
1  3";
= [Fn + 1  B n ] .
Since gn < 1/2, n >_ 2, if n is odd, then 3" < 0, and [Fn + 1  g n ] = Fn + 1 ,
while if n is even, g n > 0, making [Fn + 1  3"] = Fn + 1  1.
Lmma 2:
[a2Fn]
= Fn + 2,
n odd, n >_ 2;
[a Fn ] = Fn + 2  1, n even, n >_ 2.
V^ooji
S i n c e aFn = Fn + 1  3 " ,
a2Fn
= aFn + 1  a 3 "
= (Fn + 2  3 n + 1 ) ~ a 3 "
= Fn+2
Then, [a2Fn]
Ldmmci 3 :
= [Fn+2
 3"] i s c a l c u l a t e d as i n Lemma 1.
[a Fn]
Vtiooji
 3 n ( a + 3)
akF
= Fn + k i f n i s odd;
= Fn+k
= a (a"  3")
/5
F
* + ~
&"Fk
 1 if n i s even.
3n+k
/5
e"+*
/5
an+k
 3" + *
/5
g^Ca^  B*)
/5
1979]
REPRESENTATIONS OF INTEGERS
ak
(  i / 3 ) *  gk
6k
309
(D* 
n>_ksk>_29
e2!c'
/5
**
1  B2fc
> 1
f = ^ B* < B*
*V 1  g2*
Thus, S Fk < ls and Lemma 2 follows.
Next, observe the form of Fibonacci numbers written with nested greatest
integer functions of a and a 2 :
F2 = 2 = [a]
FG = 8 = [a[a2[a2]]]
F 3 = 2 = [a2]
F 7 = 13 = [a2[a2[a2]]]
F, = 3 = [a[a2]]
F 8 = 21 = [a[a2[a2[a2]]]]
F 5 = 5 = [a2[a2]]
F9 = 34 = [a2[a2[a2[a2]]]]
TkdOKdm 2:
F2n+1
= [a 2 [a 2 [a 2 []]]],
and
F2n+2
= [a[a2[a2[a2[ ]]]]],
Assume
that
310
REPRESENTATIONS OF INTEGERS
l's
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
5
10
20
38
2's
0
1
2
5
10
20
afs
a 2f s
1
1
2
4
9
19
0
1
2
5
10
20
[Dec.
Suppressed a f s
0
1
3
6
11
19
 F3
= F
= F5
= F6
= F7
= Fft
2
2
2
2
2
2
Define Cn as the nth term in the first Fibonacci convolution [6], [7]
sequence 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 38, ..., where
nLn+1 + 2Fn
=Y.FiFni
Cn
and observe where these numbers appear in our table. Note that Ln is the nth
Lucas number defined by L = 1, L2 = 3, and Ln+2 = Ln+i + Ln.
Tk<LOH,2J(n 2: Write the compositions of n using lfs and 2's, and represent all
integers less than or equal to Fn + 1 in terms of nested greatest integer functions of a and a as in Theorem 1 Then
lfs appear;
(i) Cn
(ii)
Cn_i
2's appear;
(iii)
Cn_1
a2's appear;
(iv) Fn+2
(v)
~ 2 a f s are truncated;
(Cn  Fn+2
+ 2) a T s appear.
Vsioofi: Let the table just given form our inductive basis, since (i) through
(v) hold for n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Let t(n)
and u(n) denote the number of
times 2 and 1 respectively appear in a count of all such compositions of n.
Then, by the rules of formation,
t(n)
Fn + Cnl
Cn2
has the same recursion relation and tin) has the starting values of the table,
tin) = Cni for positive integers n, establishing (ii).
Similarly for (i),
uin)
= uin  1) + Fn + uin  2)
since lTs are added on the right to the compositions of in  1), keeping
uin  1) l's already appearing and adding Fn_1+1 = Fn new l f s, and all l's in
in  2) will appear, since those compositions have a 2 added on the right.
We can again establish uin) = Cn by induction.
Obviously, (ii) and (iii) must have the same count. Since the number of
a f s appearing is the difference of the number of l's used and the number of
a f s truncated, we have (v) immediately if we prove (iv). But the number of
1979]
REPRESENTATIONS OF INTEGERS
311
suppressed a T s for k is the number suppressed in the preceding set of compositions of (k  1), each of which had a 1 added on the right, plus the number
of new l's on the right, or,
F
"
k +l
k+2
>
1
1
2
2
3
5
3
4
7
4
6
10
5
8
13
(1)
ak+k
(2)
an + bn = abn
(3)
<*an + 1 = *n
(4)
(5)
ban + l  Kn = 3 and
a n = [ n a ] and bn = [ n a 2 ]
(6)
6
9
15
1
11
18
8
12
20
9
14
23
10
16
26
= bk
+l
and
aL + i
D
n
bDh + i
n
"
= 2
"
= 1
We first concentrate on the expressions in (6) for an and bn9 using the
greatest integer function, and compare to Lemmas 1 and 2. We can write Lemma 4 immediately, by letting n = Fk in (6).
Lojfnma 4:
= F2k + 1 
F2k
2k+2
a n d
2k.+ 2
a n d
2 k + 3
F2k+l
*
2 k +
Part I: n + 1 is even.
well that F2k_1
2
""1+1
so that
a
Part I I :
Let Fn + 1 = Flk = aF
ibn}9
and by (4) 92k
^i
+i
^  !
^ *
 = Fn1^^
ZK
Th^oKzm Ai
aF
^n + 2
, , + 1 = bv
+ 1
VH.00^1 P a r t I : n i s e v e n .
Lemma 4, so that (4) yields
= Z?p
2k
from Lemma 4 .
From
= 2 . Thus,
^ k + 1 + 1 = **_, + 1 = % 2 k . , + l
from F0, = av
"1
n + 1 i s odd. L e t 2?
(3) , we have
since a .n  aa
{an}.
'+!
'2k1
,, ,
^n+l
+ 1
L e t ^w + 2
F2k
= aF
and F2k_
= &F
by
REPRESENTATIONS OF INTEGERS
312
:i
2k
ik
[Dec.
h 1.
1
From t h i s we g e t
a
makii lg u s e of
2 k 
(3).
Part I I :
l
F
+1
2 k  1
2k  1
+ 1
This concludes P a r t I .
n i s odd.,
L e t FYi1 + 2
+ 1 + 1 == aa
^2k + l
2k + 1 '
+ 1 =
F
2k
+1
1+i
Fn+l
from Theorem 4.
+1
bFn +i
bj's,
. . . , ^ F n +1
F + 1 +1
F n + 1 +2 '
Fn
i +3 '
' * *9
F+2
4 1
+ ?
F
F
' ^F
and let us add a on the left to each value of the specified function, to obtain the Fk + 1 successive a^'s,
ap
, j , ap
19)
...,(2r
1979]
REPRESENTATIONS OF INTEGERS
313
Tk2.OK.2m 61 The Fn+2 compositions of (n + 1) using lfs and 2fs when put into
the nested greatest integer function with 1 and 2 the exponents on a can be
arranged so that the results are the integers 1, 2, . .., Fn + 2 in sequence.
VtlOO^: We have illustrated Theorem 6 for n = 1, 2, . .., 5. Assume that the
Fn compositions for (n  1) have been so arranged in the nested greatest integer function representations. By Theorem 5, the results of putting 2 on
the right of the compositions, or an a 2 on the right of each representation,
yields the numbers Fn + 2 + 1, Fn+2 + 2, ..., JPn+3. The adding of a one to the
right of compositions of (n + 1) yields a composition of in + 2) but it does
not change the results of the nested greatest integer representations. Thus
the list now goes for compositions of (n + 2 ) , the first Fn+2 coming from the
one added on the right of those for (n + 1) and the Fn+1 more coming from the
two added on the right of those for n. Thus, by mathematical induction, we
complete the proof of the theorem for all n _> 1.
The above proof is constructive, as it yields the proper listing of the
composition for (n + 2) if we have them for n and for (n + 1).
Notice the pattern of our representations if we simply record them in a
different way:
1 = [a] = a
2 = [a2z]1 = b
3 = [a[a2]] = ab
4 = [a[a[a2]]] = aa^
5 = [a2[a2]] = bbl
6 = [a[a[a[a2]]]] = a a ^
7 = [a2[a[a2]]] = batl
8 = [a[a2[a2]]] = a ^
In other words, Theorems 3 through 6 and Lemma 4 will allow us to write
a representation of an integer such that each a in its nested greatest integer function becomes a subscripted a, and each a 2 a subscripted b9 in a continued subscript form.
Next, we present a simple scheme for writing the representations of the
integers in terms of nested greatest integer functions of a and a , as in
Theorems 1 and 6. We use the difference of the subscripts of Fibonacci numbers to obtain the exponents 1 and 2, or the compositions of n in terms of
l?s and 2 ! s, by using Fn+1 in the rightmost column. We illustrate for n  6,
using F7.
Notice that every other column in the table is the subscript difference of the two adjacent Fibonacci numbers, and compare with the compositions of 6 and the representations of the integers 1, 2, ..., 13 in natural
order given just before Theorem 1. We use the Fibonacci numbers as place
holders. One first writes the column of 13 F7 f s, which is broken into 8 F 6 ? s
and 5 F 5 ? s. The 8 F 6 f s are broken into 5 F 5 f s and 3 F^'s, and the 5 F5fs into 3 Fi/s and 2 F 3 f s. The pattern continues in each column, until each F2 is
broken into F1 and FQ, so ending with F1. In each new column, 1 always replaces Fn F n T s with Fn_1 Fn_11s
and Fn_2 Fn_2's.
Notice that the next level,
representing all integers through FQ = 2 1 , would be formed by writing 21 F 8 f s
in the right column, and the present array as the top 13 = F7 rows, and the
array ending in 8 F 6 f s now in the top 8 = F6 rows would appear in the bottom
REPRESENTATIONS OF INTEGERS
314
[Dec.
eight rows. Notice further that, just as in the proofs of Theorems 1 and 6,
this scheme puts a 1 on the right of all compositions of (n  1) and a 2 on
the right of all compositions of (n  2 ) .
SCHEME TO FOKM ARRAY OF COMPOSITIONS OF INTEGERS n < F 7
n = 1
n = 2
n = 3
n = 4
n = 5
n = 6
n = 7
n = 8
n = 9
n = 10
n = 11
n = 12
n = 13
Within the array just given, we have used 8 F 6 's, 5F 5 's, 6 Fk's,
6F3fs,
5 F 2 s, and 8 F ^ s , where 8 + 5 + 6 + 6 + 5 + 8 = 38 = C 6 , where again Cn is
the nth element in the Fibonacci convolution sequence. These coefficients
appear in the array:
row sum
f
1
2
5
10
20
38
1*V,
3F
2Fn
?
Fn_1}s9
SFn
5Fn
f
Cn
L3 =
L L =
L7 =
3 = [a[a2]]
4 = [a[a[az]]]
7 = [a2[a[a2]]]
11 = [a[a2[a[a2]]]]
18
[a2[a2[a[a2]]]]
2
2
29 = [ a [ a z [x^ [[aa[[aa 1] ] ] ] ]
2z r ,2 r ,2 r , r 2 i
47 = [ a [oT [ a b a t o r ] ] ] ] ]
REPRESENTATIONS OF INTEGERS
1979]
315
Lmma 5:
PfWo:
for
n >. 2.
for
Thus,
n >_ 1.
for
n > 1,
establishing Lemma 5.
Ldmmci 6:
[aLn]
[oLn] = Ln
+1
= L+2 + gnA.
Tk<l0K.2m 1* The Lucas numbers L n are representable uniquely in terms of nested greatest integer functions of a and a 2 in the forms
L2n+1
L2n
A proof
Fzn + i"
[a2] ...]]]
2
2
t a t a [a
fa
2
and
Z?n
+i=
2n+
3" [a[a [a
F 2 n + 1 = [a2[a2[a2
2
, [a2] ...]]]
2
and
REPRESENTATIONS OF INTEGERS
316
1:
2:
3:
[a[a[a2]]]
"T"
[a[a[a[a2]]]] = 6 = F 5 + 1
~T~~1~
2 1
1 2
4: _
[Dec.
1 2
= 4 = ^ + 1 = ,^3
[a2[a[a2]]] = 7 = F5 + 2 =
[a[a[a[a[a2]]]]] =
9 = Fe + 1
[a2[a[a[a2]]]] = 10 = Fs + 2
[a[a2[a[a2]]]] = 11 = F6 + 3 = L 5
[a[a[a[a[a[a2]]]]]] = 14 = F7 + 1
2 l 1
1 2 1
1 l 2
1 2
[a2[a[a[a[a2]]]]] = 15 = F 7 + 2
1 2
[a[a2[a[a[a2]]]]] = 16 = F7 + 3
1 2
[a[a[a2[a[a2]]]]] = 17 = F 7 + 4
2 2
1 2
_T
"X"
[a2[a2[a[a2]]]] = 18 = F 7 + 5 =
+F
Now, notice that, since the representation giving rise to a Lucas number in the nested greatest integer representation ends with a 1 and a 2, the
next representation, taken in natural order, will end in a 2 and a 2. Consider the compositions offt,where we add two 2Ts on the right:
2 2
[a[a2[a2]]] = 8 = Lh + 1
2 2
[a[a[a2[a2]]]] = 12 = L, + 1
2 2
2 2
2 2
[a2[a2[a2]]] = 13
[a[a[a[a2[a2]]]]]
2
20
L6 + 2
21
L6 + 3 = F8
2 2
[a[a [a [a ]]]]
2 2
[a[a[a[a[a2[a2]]]
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
30
L7 + 1
31
7 + 2
32
L7 + 3
33
L7 + 4
[a [a[a[a [a ]]
2
[a[a [a[a [a ]]
2
[a[a[a [a [a ]]
2
19 = L 6 + 1
[a [a[a [a ]]]]
2
L5 + 2
[a [a [a [a ]
34 = L 7 + 5 = F Q
REPRESENTATIONS OF INTEGERS
1979]
317
the right, then the resulting nested greatest integer functions of a and a 2
have the consecutive values
^n + 3
I s ^rc + 3
2 , . . . , Ln
+ 3
+ Fn
+ 1
Fn+5.
We are now in a position to count in two different ways all the afs and
a 2 f s appearing in the display of all integers from 1 through Ln simultaneously. Of the Fn + 1 compositions of n, there are Fn which end in a 1_, and Fn_
which end in a 2_. Those ending in a 1_ are the compositions of (n  1) with
our _1_ added, while those ending in a 2_ are the compositions of in  2) with
our 2_ added. Now, if we add 2_ to each of these Fn + 1 compositions, by Theorem
5, we get the numbers
Fn + z + 1 Fn+1
+ 2 , ..., Fn + 2 + Fn
+1
= Fn+ 3 .
Of these, there were Fn ending in a _1, which now end in a 12 and cover the
numbers
and those that end in a 22 cover the numbers
^n + i +
1 *n + i + 2, ..., Ln
i + Fn + 1 =
Fn+3
when used in the nested greatest integer functions of a and a 2 in natural order. We can now count the number of ass and a 2f s used to display all the
representations of the integers from 1 to Ln+1.
We count all of those up to
and including Fn+3 by Theorem 2, and subtract the total a and a 2 content of
the compositions of (n  2), which is Cn_2 afs and Cn_3 a 2 ? s, and subtract
2Fn_1 a 2 's, or, we can count all of those up to and including Fn + 2, and add
on the Fn a ! s and Fn a 2 l s, and add the number of lfs in the compositions of
(n  1), which all become a!s in counting from Fn+2 4 1 through Fn + 2 + Fn =
Ln+1.
The first method gives us, for the number of a ? s,
(n + 2 ~
n+h
) "
n2>
" ^n+3
n2
n >
which simplifies to
Cn + 1 + Cn _ x  2Fn +1 + 2 ,
n2
n>
(C + 2 ~ Cn_z
t h e number of a ? s
(ii)
(Cn
+1
+ Cn.2+
2f
+ 2) = (Cn
 Fn+h
appearing,
Fn)
= (Cn
+l
+ C _ x  2Fn + 1 + 2)
and
+1
 Cn_3
2^.,)
318
[Dec.
REFERENCES
Krishnaswami Alladi & V. E. Hoggatt, Jr. "Compositions with Ones and
Twos." The Fibonacci
Quarterly
13, No. 3 (]975):233239.
V. E. Hoggatt, Jr., & Marjorie BicknellJohnson.
"A Generalization of
Wythofffs Game." The Fibonacci
Quarterly
17, No. 3 (1979):198211.
V. E. Hoggatt, Jr., & Marjorie BicknellJohnson. "Lexicographic Ordering and Fibonacci Representations." The Fibonacci
Quarterly,
to appear.
R. Silber. "Wythoff"s Nim and Fibonacci Representations." The
Fibonacci
Quarterly
15, No. 1 (1977):8588.
Verner E. Hoggatt, Jr. Fibonacci
and Lucas Numbers.
Houghton Mifflin
Mathematics Enrichment Series. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1969.
Verner E. Hoggatt, Jr., & Marjorie Bicknell.
"Convolution Triangles."
The Fibonacci
Quarterly
10, No. 6 (1972):599608.
V. E. Hoggatt, Jr., & Marjorie Bicknell. "Fibonacci Convolution Sequences." The Fibonacci
Quarterly
15, No. 2 (1977):117121.
V. E. Hoggatt, Jr., & A. P. Hillman. "A Property of Wythoff Pairs." The
Fibonacci
Quarterly
16, No. 5 (1978):472.
A. F. Horadam.
"Wythoff Pairs." The Fibonacci
Quarterly
16, No. 2
(1978):147151.
of Santa
Clara, Santa
and
ROBERT GIULI
of California,
Santa
University
Clara,
Cruz,
CA 95053
CA 96050
s(n,l)
= n
s(n,2)=nl
s(n,4) = n  2
s(n92m)
(2) s(n9a2m)
= n m
= s(n
 m9a)
(4) sinX' )
=1
s(n92n"k)
= k
s(n,2M2) = 2
 a) = s(n92
+ a)
1979]
sin
(D"
:(N,
(6)
(1)"
1,
Fk_
2n~2 + (  p *  1
8(n,
(7) s(n,2k)
s(n,2k+1)
+
2fci
(8)
s(n9K
(9)
s(n,3
+ (N  k +
m  1
2 ~
s(n,3 * 2fe1)
= 2(n
m) + 1,
n > 0
= 3(n
m)
1,
n > 1
= 3(n
ro)
25
n > 1
= 4(n
m)
55
n > 2
s(n,ll 2
ml
= 5(n
m)
7,
n > 2
s(n, 13 2 m  1
= 5(n
m)
8,
n > 2
s(n,15 2 m  l
= 4(n
m)
7,
n > 2
s(n,7
s(n,9
l)Fr
s(n,Z 2 k ) + 1
m 1
s(n,5
+ nF
= Ln_1
319
etc.
where 777
(10)
1 2
] V
2k )
then
(H  {2\t") * U 2 i1) 
the righthand side (after some reduction) may be rewritten as
(2n)(2n  2) ... (2n  2k + 2)
(2k)(2k
 2) ... 4 2
n(n  1) ... (n  k + 1)
fc(fc  1 ) ... 2
which is congruent to
320
Dec. 1979
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
2
1
3
2
3
1
4
3
5
2
5
3
4
1
5
4
7
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
S[190]
[2,0]
^[2,1]
[3,0]
[3,1]
[3,2]
[3,3]
[4,0]
[4,1]
[4,2]
[4,3]
[4,4]
[4,5]
[4,6]
[4,7]
[5,0]
[5,1]
[5,2]
[5,3]
Many thanks go to Dudley [1] and to Hoggatt for sponsoring the authors
to write this series of articles. At this writing, the authors still do not
know the general form of
s[ny(2r
+ l)2m)
and suggest that some ambitious reader show the relationship to the Fibonacci
numbers.
REFERENCES
1.
2.
RESTRICTED COMPOSITIONS
L.
CARLITZ
Duke University,
1.
II
Durham, NC 27706
INTRODUCTION
n = a1 + a2 + +
ak,
a* * ai+1
{i = 1, 2, ..., k  1 ) .
In the present paper, we consider the number of compositions (1.1) in nonnegative a,j that satisfy
(1.3)
ai
(mod m)
a^+1
(i = 1, 2, . .., k  1 ) ,
(1.4)
fmM
=jfmM)
k = l
denote the corresponding enumerant when the number of parts in (1.1) is unrestricted. Also, for 0 j j < 777, let fm .(n,k)
denote the number of solutions
of (1.1) and (1.3) with ax = j (mod 777).
For 777 = 2 explicit results are obtained, in particular,
(1.5)
= f
f2,i(n,k)
s " X)
W = 0, 1),
where
(1.6)
= \(n
\{k + i)
(1.7,
where
;/,<,^v =  S
(r^>
n, k = 0
m1
pm u) = n (i + ^ )
and
m 0 0 = Pm(s)  ^ f ( s ) .
For additional results, see Section 4 below.
SECTION 2
In order to evaluate fm(n,k)
the following functions. Let
9 we define
fm(n,k),
where n >_ 0, k >_1, 0 j < 777, denote the number of solutions in
nonnegative integers of
(2.1)
n = aL + a 2 + + a^,
321
322
RESTRICTED COMPOSITIONS I I
[Dec.
where
(2.2)
(mod m)
at t ai+1
{i = 1, 2, ..., k  1)
and
(2.3)
a = j
(mod m).
fm(,0) = 6 n0 ,
(i
a = J)
We also define
(2.5)
= 6/0n0
fm,i(n,0)
and
that is, fmtj(n90)
= 0 unless n=j=0
and fm
It follows from the definitions that
= 0 unless n = j = a = 0 .
 (n909a)
ml
(2.7)
/(W=E4,iW)
=
ml
j =0
a =0
EE4i(n'w
(>o^>o).
na
i =0
l
Z? = 0
[k > 0 , a = j
(mod m) ] ,
which r e d u c e s t o
m1
(2.8)
(n,k,a)
/ m > i (n  a,k
 1)
[fc > 0 , a = j
(mod
m)].
i =o
i * j
**,*(!/> = E / . . ^ . ^ v
n,k
Fm^^.y.a)
= Q
4>(/
rc,fc = 0
(n,k,a)xnyk.
1979]
RESTRICTED COMPOSITIONS II
323
SECTION 3
We f i r s t d i s c u s s t h e c a s e 777 = 2.
( fi,o(ri,k,2a)
(31)
<
Hence,
= f2il(n
The r e c u r r e n c e ( 2 . 8 ) r e d u c e s t o
 2a,k
 1)
(k > 1 ) ,
/ 0 ( n , l , 2 a ) = 6n>2a
( / 2 > 1 (n9k,2a
+ 1) = f 2j0 (n  2a  l,k
( F2iQ (x9y92a)
= 6a,
+ * 2 a 17 + * 2 a ^ 2 >
 1)
x
> 1 ) .
(*,?/)
(x9y)
= 1 +
2,1 te>2/)
^
+
2
F2
1  x2
1  x2
xy
1  x2
(x,z/)
2 , 0 ^2/)
It follows that
_^
1 +
(3.2)
F2)0(x,y)
=
3 _
_2L_
, F2sl0r,z/) =
1 +
^^
_
(l  * 2 ) 2
_1L
xy
(l  * 2 ) 2
so t h a t
(3.3)
F2(x,y)
1 + 2
1 +  ^ 1  *2 / \
1  x2
si!
x2)2
(1 From t h e f i r s t of ( 3 . 2 ) , we g e t
1
xz)^o(l
x2)2r
t'Vti2"*;1)'*'
V=0
8=0
+ Ev
r =0
r+1
'
E(2ps+sWs
8 0
 1 (2r+; V /
(3.4)
Since
i t f o l l o w s from ( 3 . 4 )
n =0
r + l8 n
that
'
'
+ E (2r; 8)*v+i.
n=0 X
r+2s n
'
324
RESTRICTED COMPOSITIONS I I
(3.5)
f2t0(n,k)
where
[Dec.
= (fc+ J ' X ) ,
2\
~ 2~^))
even
(fc odd),
that is,
(3.6)
s = ( n  (&)
Similarly,
+ J^+ii/2r+2;(2r
r= 0
+ s + x 2s
)x
s=0^
(3.7)
 .(2p8+e)*yi+
Since
r+2s+l=n
(2r+ss
+1
),v2.
p + 2 s + l = rc
2,i <*>*/> =
fZtl(n9k)x"y*9
n,k = l
(3.8)
f2tl(n,k)
= (*
* "
),
where
 / n  y(fc + 1)]
that is
(3.9)
(k odd)
(3.10)
f2,i(.n,k)
= (fe + J " ^
(i0, 1),
where
(3.11)
fl
n=0
2s <_n
so that
(3.i2)
f2>0M
=E
2s n
{(2n"3s_1)
(2n:3s)}
1979]
RESTRICTED COMPOSITIONS II
325
r+2s+l
=n
which implies
(3.i3)
/2il()
2s <_n 1
(314)
Z { ( 2 n " 3 V i _ 1 ) + (2W"aS_i)}  . D
f2,i(n)=
2s <_ n  i
(3.i5)
 2 g J ( 2 n ; 3 s ) + 2(2n  Is x)
f2M
(2n  Is  2 ) } .
SECTION k
For arbitrary m _>. 1, we have, by (2.8),
fm
(n,k,a)
[k > 0, a = j (mod m) ]
i = 0
z
together with
*3
/ m ? 0 ( n , l , a ) = 6nia
[a = 0 (mod m) ]
/ n (tt,0,a)
'
' '
FmfQ(x,y,a)
*> m , 0
6n on 6a 0n .
I t follows t h a t
ml
[a
(mod
m)]
i = l
m,3(x>y>a>>
= xa
y^2Fm,i
(x>y)
i =0
F m>0 fe,z/) = 1 +
y
^
+
FW^(*,2/)
1  ar* 1  x w i  i
(4.1)
j
m  1
^ ^(*>2/> = * ^ X X , ; ( ^ }
1  Xm
Since
w
i0
* *J"
Z X , *(*#>
i =0
i J
= F
m^X^
m,j(x>y)>
(1
 7 < * >
326
RESTRICTED COMPOSITIONS II
[Dec.
( 4 . 1 ) becomes
(4.2)
l i + ^\K.
1  x'
o (*.2/> =
(l + c J y W
\
1  xa/
. (x,y)
+ ^_m +
1  X
aJy
1  xm
1  X"
Fm (ar.j/) .
m (a,y)
(1 <0
1
~*u
1 +
1 
m. 0 <*>2/> " 1 +
m (*,2/>
xm
xjy
1  x"
m,j(x>yy
FW'(JJ,2/)
1 + _E1^_
(1 J
< 7??).
1  xm
Hence, by adding t o g e t h e r t h e s e e q u a t i o n s , we g e t
1  xr
(4.3)
jo
1 +
>Fm(x,y)
x3y
xn
1 
x"z
(4.4)
j0
= 1.
Fm(x9y)
= 1.
1 + X(/S
Put
(4.5)
P m ( 3 ) = Pm(s,ar) = 0
(1 + ^J"^)<
jo
I t i s wellknown t h a t
2
(4.6)
j =o
where
[?]
3UDZ3
 x2)
8P a
< > y
xm'J+1)
... (1  xJ")
< m).
1979]
RESTRICTED COMPOSITIONS II
327
and therefore
(A. 7)
^ ( ^ ) = ^ y
where
(4.8)
C B
00
= P B 0 0  3P m '( 3 ) =
(1  j )  " ? l a : ^ "
3 '
For example, f o r m  2 , ( 4 . 7 )
(4.9)
V.
gives
(1 + a ) ( l + ara)
F 2 (ar,2/) =
1  xz2
1 
x2)
w h i l e , f o r m = 3 , we g e t
(4.10)
F3(x,y)
(! + )(! + ) ( ! + )
1  (x + x 2 + x 3 ) s 2  2 i r 3 s 3
(s . _ 1 _ \
\
1  x3 /
SECTION 5
A few words may be added about the limiting case m = . We take \x\ < 1
so that xm * 0 and
2/
1  icm
Thus ( 4 . 3 ) becomes
(5.D
K  Z  ^  W i + E f.<,*>*v}  i .
I
j = 0 1 + XJZ/ 1 I
n,fcl
becomes
(5.2)
at f ai
+1
( = 1, 2, ..., k  1)
(i = 1, 2, ...,fc 1 ) .
E
* Jy . = i  E *jVE<i>8*aV = i + E E (uk*dkyk
j=o 1 + xJzy
j=o
e=o
 x + (1}* T^T
fel
1  #*
j=ofe= i
328
[Dec.
REFERENCE
1.
Quarterly
1 4 , No. 3
University
F. HORADAM
of New England,
Armidale,
N.S.W.,
Australia
INTRODUCTION
Jaiswal [3] and the author [1] examined rising diagonal functions of
Chebyshev polynomials of the second and first kinds, respectively. Also, in
[2], the author investigated rising and descending functions of a wide class
of sequences satisfying certain criteria. Excluded from consideration in [2]
were the Chebyshev and Fermat polynomials that did not satisfy the restricting criteria.
The object of this paper is to complete the above articles by studying
descending
diagonal functions for the Chebyshev polynomials in Part I, and
both rising and descending diagonal functions for the Fermat polynomials in
Part II.
Chebyshev polynomials Tn (x) of the second kind are defined by
(1)
= 2xTn + 1(x)
Tn+2(x)
Un + 2(x)
= 2xUn + 1(x)
 Tn(x)
TQ(x)
= 2, T^x)
= 2x
UQ(x)
= 1,
Ux{x)
2x
(3)
= ^
(n > 0 ) ,
(n >. 0 ) .
1979]
329
(i = 1, 2, 3, . . . ) s for Tn(x)
aY (x) = 2
az (x) = 2a:  2
a 3 (x) = 4a:2  6x + 2
(4)
ah(x)
a5(x)
22a: + 2
These yield
(5)
(n >_ 1) ,
(6)
are,
Descending d i a g o n a l f u n c t i o n s of x9b^(x)
from (6) [ t a k i n g b0(x)
= 0],
bl{x)
(i = 1 , 2 , 3 ,
.)', for
Un(x)
= 1
? (a:) = 2a:
(7)
b3(x)
kxl
bk(x)
8a:3
Z?5Gc) = 16a:
b6(x)
{ b7(x)
4a: + 1 = (2a:  l ) 2
12a:2 + 6x  1 = (2a:  1 ) ;
4
330
[Dec.
These yield
(8)
*> + !<*>
Notice that
(9)
(n >. 2)
and
^n (x)
&n (a?)
^T^y  W ^ T ( 2 *  1 }
(10)
(K>2)
Write
= [1 ~ (2ar  l)t]'1
Y,bn(x)tn1;
(11)
6 = b(x,t)
(12)
oo
^an(x)tn'z.
=
n=2
Calculations yield
(13)
2*H<2*l>10;
(14)
(15)
(2x  l ) i n ' t e )  2 ( n  D n t e ) = 0 ,
(16)
+ 2"(a?)
 2 ( 2 *  )bn{x)
= 0,
*n + 2 = 3 * n + i  2(>n
^n + 2 ^
= x
cf)0 = 0 , cf), = 1
Fermat
polynomial
( n >. 0 )
sequence
* n + i(*) ~ 2(})n(x)
{$n(x)}
for which
c()0(a) = 0, cj^Or) = 1
(n ^ 0 ) .
6n+2 = 3 6 n + 1  29n
n+2^)
Fermat
* e n + l(*)
6 0 = 2, 6X = 3
polynomial
 2 9n(*)
(n > 0 )
sequence
{Qn(x)}
6 0 () = 2, 0 x (x) = X
for which
(n >. 0) .
1979]
oW = 0
xto)
= 3
2 to) =
^><
3 to) =
,to) = ^ > a < r ^
(19)
5(x)
6
(a?)
^a?^+^><^
^B^C+^2^\
^0<V>4<
7 fe)
=
8 to) =
9 to) = *
 12# 5
8
 14a:
+>0^
+
60xk
(20)
for
i^'to), Dl(x)
for
Hn(x)}
and
{9to)}.
= 2,
we h a v e ,
(21)
Dn(x) = (x  2 ) "  \
(22)
0'(x) = (x  h){x
whence
2)2
(n > 2)
331
332
^n + i W
Dn(x)
D'(x)
(23)
0'+ i(aO
(n > 2)
 4
x ~ 2
Dn(x)
Dn (x)
= X
[Dec.
(w >. 2; a; ^ 2)
Also
(24)
Dn(x)
 2Dn_1(x)
D^x),
(25)
R^x)
x2
*32
xh
(26)
R[(x)
x2
x3  4
xh  6x
5
kx
x5  6x2
x 6 Sx3
+4
x7  l O x 4 +12a;
x5
# 6  10# 3 + 8
 8x2
2Bn_3(x)
Rn(x)
= xRn(x)
Ri(x)
= xRl_(x)
2Rn_3(x)
2R^3(x).
Calculations of results similar to those in (13)(16) follow as a matter of course for both rising and descending diagonal functions, but these
are left for the curious reader. (A comparison with corresponding results in
[2] is desirable.)
However, it is worthwhile to record the generating functions for the
diagonal functions associated with the two Fermat sequences. These are, for
Di(x)9 D}(x), R(x), R[(x) , respectively:
(28)
Dn(x)tn'1
= [1  Or  2)*]1';
n=l
(29)
Y^D^ix)^1
= (x  4)[1  (x  2)t]"1;
rc = 2
(30
J^Rn(x)tnx
= [1  (xt  2t3)]"1;
n =l
00
(31)
Y^K^t"'1 = t 1  2 t 3 ) [ l  (art 
2t3)Vl.
It is expected that the results of [1], [2], and [3] will be generalized
in a subsequent paper.
1979]
333
REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
NY 10977
CA 95192
CA 90024
1. The four numbers 1, 3,8, 120 have the property that the product of any
two of them is one less than a square. This fact was apparently discovered
by Fermat. As one of the first applications of Baker's method in Diophantine
approximations, Baker and Davenport [2] showed that there is no fifth positive integer n, so that
n + 1 , 3n + 1, 8n + 1, and 120n + 1
are all squares. It is not known how large a set of positive integers
{xl9
x29 . . . 9 xn] can be found so that all x^Xj + 1 are squares for all 1 <_ i < j
<_ n.
A solution attributed to Euler [1] shows that for every triple of integers xl9 x29 y for which xlx2+l
= y1 it is possible to find two further integers x3, xh expressed as polynomials in xl9 x29 y and a rational number x59
expressed as a rational function in x19 x29 y; so that x^Xj + 1 is the square
of a rational expression xl9 xl9 y for all 1 <_ i < J 5.
In this note we analyze EulerTs solution from a more abstract algebraic
point of view. That is, we start from a field k of characteristic 2 and adjoin independent transcendentals xl9 x29
..., xm.
We then set XjX. +1 = y%j
and pose two problems:
I. Find nonzero elements xl9 xl9
..., xm9 xm+l9
..., xn in the ring
R = k[xl9
..., xm; y129
..., yn.un]
yice R for 1 <. i < j <_ n.
II.
yi{J
..., xm;
yl29
x29
so that xtx.
..., xm9
xm+l9
+ 1 = y2..9
. . . , xn
and
in the field
+ 1 = y^.
; and
in part
by Grant MCS7903162
from
the
National
[Dec.
334
solution and a solution for m = 3, ft = 4 which generalize the solutions mentioned above.
In Section 4 we present a solution for m = 2 or 3, n = 5 of Problem II,
which again contains Euler!s solution as a special case. Finally, in Section
5 we apply the results of Section 4 to Problem II for m = 2, n = 3.
The case char k = 2 leads to trivial solutions, a: = xx  x2 = = xn,
zv. . = x + 1.
Many of the ideas in this paper arose from conversations between Straus
and John H. E. Cohn.
2.
+ 1 = yl3,
^ ' i / ] ) ' v ? 1
We s e t v/x1x2
+ 1 = y\3
x2 x3
iC [JJ ] j i / O o j V f c G i t X / p
with
JL J <
+ 1 = /12 and n o t e t h a t t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s
=
^1^3 + 1
equations
2/13
(i)
a? 2 a?3 + 1 = 2/23
lead to a P e l l f s
(2)
equation
^i#23
~ ^2^13
2'
2/23/xl + y13Sx2
(^7
/^i)^y
12 + / ^ 1 ^ 2 ) n n = 0 , 1 , 2 , . . .
In o t h e r w o r d s ,
y23(n)
= =.{{/xl
2/^2
/ ^ ~ ) Q/ 12 + / S T S J ) " + ( / r ,
+/^2~)(2/ 1 2  / a ; 1 a : 2 ) n ] ;
= X1
+ 2/12,
2/2 3 ( D
^2
#12 ^ s d )
# 12
+ 2#22/12;
x2)y12],
1979]
/x2yl3
 VXly2Z
where J] i s a u n i t of R[/x1x2]
frwo:
W r i t e y l3 = A + By 12 , z/ 23 = C + Zty 1 2 , where A9B9C9D e k[x1
e q u a t i o n (2) y i e l d s
(4)
x2
 xl
335
+ By12)2
= x2(A
 x1(C
9x2
].
Then
Dy12)2.
= i4(#), e t c . ,
0 = x[(A
+ C) + (B + Z % 1 2 ] [ C 4  C) + (B  D)y
12
].
Thus, one of the factors on the right vanishes and by proper choice of sign,
we may assume A(x) = C(x), B{x) = D(x), which is the same as saying that
A(xl9x2)
 C(xl9x2)
B(xl9x2)
=
X2
w i t h P,Q e k[x19x2].
D(x19x2)
jj ^
X i
X2
^ ^
""" X ]
Thus,
*2^13
^ 2 3
\/x2
= yl3
^ ~
^ ~
 = i/ 1 3 + /x^(/x~
+ (^
+ Sx~)(P
Qyu)
+ / t f ^ X P + % 1 2 ) e i?[v^57]
and, i f we s e t
/x~y
+ Vx~i/
n" =
= yx3
Jx~~2 +
+ (a?!  / ^
) (P +
Qy12)
/x^
we g e t ryn = 1.
L&mma 2:
VKOOI*
A l l u n i t s n of i ? [ / x 1 ^ 2 ] a r e of t h e form
+ 1] Cfe[ic,l/x,t]= i?*.
We now consider the units, r\*9 of i?*[/s"] and show that they are of the form:
(6)
n* = KX (t + /t2
 l ) n , K e k*; m9n e Z.
Write T)* = A + B/t2  1, where i4 and 5 are polynomials in t with coefficients in k[x9l/x]
and proceed by induction on deg A as a polynomial in t,
If deg A = 0, then S = 0 and i is a unit of k[x9l/x]9
that is, rj = Kzm,
K e k* 9 m e Z.
Now assume the lemma true for deg A < n and write
A = a n tn
+ bn_2tn2
+ .
is a unit of k[x9l/x].
= A2  (t2
1)B2
336
u2
bnl>
a*
a a
[Dec.
^nl^n2
n nl
Thus,
1) = [tA + (t2)B]
= r\*(t + / t ^ 
rf*
= A1 + B1/t ~n
+ (tB A)A2
= 1
1,
where A1 = ant
] + an_t
+ + U 2  l)(a n t n _ 1 + a. 1 t n  2 . ..) , so that
deg Ai < n and rf'c* is of the form (6) by the induction hypothesis. Therefore
r]* = n**(t A 2  1) is also of the form (6).
Now rfc is a unit of R[vt2  1] if and only if KX171 is a unit of R; that
is, if and only if m = 0.
Theorem 1 now follows directly from Lemmas 1 and 2 if we write
/x^y
and get
13
+ 1^7^23
*2#13
= K
~ *1#23
(y^7
== K
'
y/
^x\x^}n
^7^^i2
so that K = 1.
Note that Theorem 1 does not show that, for any two integers x 9 x2 for
which xYx2 + 1 is a square, all integers x3 for which x^x3 + 1 are squares;
i = 1, 2; are of the given forms. But these forms are the only ones that can
be expressed as polynomials in xl9 x29 Vxlx2 + 1 and work for all such triples .
As mentioned above, we have the recursion relations
#13 (w + 1) =
y23(n
and
therefore
(7)
xy13
(n) +
y12y13(n)9
yl2y23(n)9
+ 1) = x2yl3(n)
x3(n
+ 1) = x1 + x2 + x3(n)
+ 2x1x2x3(n)
x 3 ( n ) x 3 ( n + 1) + 1 = [ z / 1 2 # 3 ( n ) + z/ 13 (n)y23
+ 2y
12y 13
(n)#23 M ,
(n) ] 2 ,
x3(m)x3(n)
=1.
Note that while the proof in [3] is restricted to a more limited class of
solutions, the solutions there are obtained by specialization from the solutions presented here.
3. Solutions for xtxh + 1 = yjh'9  = 1 , 2 , 3 with xh9y ih e R =
#12 '#i3 '#23] w h e r e Ma = ^Xix3
+ 1; 1 <. < J <. 3.
The solution (7) using x3=x3(n)9
x^ = xk(n)
as polynomials in
can be generalized as follows.
lh2.0K.QM 3:
For x
xt xh
Ptiooj
= xl
+ x2 + x
+ 1 = y\h9
yik
+ 2xlx2x3
= xiy.k
k[x19x29x3,
xl9x2,yl2
+ 2/^.2/a ; U,j,k}
= {1,2,3}.
We have
^
_ 1 = _i + xl(xjxk
+ 1) + (xixj.
+ l)(xixk
= x.(xx + x2 + x3 + 2 * ^ * 3 +
+ 1) +
2y12yl3y23)
2xiy12y13yZ3
1979]
337
Note that since the choice of the sign of y.. is arbitrary, we always get
two conjugate solutions for xh R. This corresponds to the choices
xh = x3(n
1)
,X2 5^3 ,y
l2
~~ ^ i ^ 2 ^ 3
y \2.y \3^
13
(8)
VK.00^
x29 x39
xl9
I f we w r i t e Z 1 5 Z 2 , E 3 f o r t h e e l e m e n t a r y symmetric f u n c t i o n s of x , ,
t h e n # = 1 + 2 + 2 Y where
Y = y
J
Hence
= A 2 + E E + + 1.
y
7
1 2 ^ 13* 2 3
1 3
Gx = 2(Z X + E 3 + Y)
a 2 = E2 + ^ 4 E 1 = Z2 + Z2 + 2 2 ^ 3 + 2 ^ 7
(9)
* ^ 3
Thus,
2 E
2E
37
a 2 = 4 [ I 2 + 2 1 ^ 3 + E3 + 2E X J + 2 E 3 J + J 2 ]
= 4 [ a 2 + a 4  E2  Z ^
 Z3 + (x1x2
+l)(xlx3
+ l)(xzx3
+1)]
= 4 ( a 2 + a4 + 1 ) .
Conversely, if we solve the quadratic equation
values in Theorem 3.
e K = /cfol5^2,^3,
x5 =
(a,  l ) 2
5:
We have
tlx2.
x{x5
+ 1 =^
 o x.
 o
ah  1
l\2
/;
% = 1
'
338
Vhoofc
(11)
v
[Dec.
+ a9x2:  ox. + a, = 0 .
1 ^
3 ^
Hence
(c^  l)2(xix5
(12)
+ 1) = 4 a 3 a ^ + 2oxxt
If we s u b s t i t u t e ha3xi
(13)
(oh  l)2(xix5
+ 2 0 ^ ^
+ (a4  l ) 2 .
+ 1) = kx\

(2a:
 ito^l
2
 alxi
= (2x?  a ^
+ ko2x\
+ 1 ) ^ + (a4 + 1):
+2 0 ^
 ah  l )
 (a
 4a4  4 
4 a 2 ) #2
 oh  l ) ,
9y 13 9y2s
VKOO^1
Since we have already verified the theorem for the case #
3, x3 = 8, we may assume that
= 1, x2 =
24
2'
Thus,
18 < E 1 < y E 3 .
Similarly
^2
T3<1+^
s<2
and
(15)
80 < E 2 <  l 3 .
N e x t , J = yizU\zH23
and (15) we g e t
(16)
s a t
isfies ^
^ 3 + ^1^3
2+^~'
so
t n a t
from (14)
Thus, t h e n u m e r a t o r of 1  x
(17)
(a4  l )
 2oxok
is
 4a 3  2a x = (a^  a 1  l ) 2  a 2  4a 3  4a x
= ( a 4  a x  l ) 2  4(0^ + a 2 + 1)
 4a 3  4a x
= ( a 4  ax  3 )
 4a 3  4a 2  8 ^
 8
1979]
339
= (2E2 + 2Z 3 7 + E X E 3  2Z 3  21  2E 2  3 ) 2  8E 2 E 3  8E 2 I
 4E X E 2  4E3  8E X E 3  8 1 ^  4E 2  4E 2  16E3  167
 16EX  8
2
X (n)
'
*5 = (a  l ) 2 [ 2 Q l
+ 4a3 +
2 lG ]
"
[oh{n)
as x3(n).
 l) 2 = [x1x2x3(n)x3(n
+ 1)  l] 2
,x^(n).
Once this process is completed we can start anew, beginning with the triples
X 1 , X o , X Lin) O X . tG I , bL p , oC /(n). Each of the triples can be augmented to quadruples and quintuples, etc. In short, the family of solutions of (1) with x39
y13 '2/23 ^ a P P e a r s t o b e very large, and is quite difficult to characterize
completely.
REFERENCES
1.
2.
T. ANTONY DAVIS
Institute,
Calcutta 700035,
India
RUDOLF ALTEVOGT
Institut
der Universitat,
Munster, West Germany
Statistical
Zoologisches
ABSTRACT
The value of (j) = (/5~ + l)/2, or 1.61803... is referred to as the Golden
Ratio or Divine Proportion. Such a ratio is sometimes discovered in nature,
one instance being the mean between lengths of some organs of the human body.
Leonardo da Vinci found that the total height of the body and the height from
the toes to the navel depression are in Golden Ratio. We have confirmed this
by measuring 207 students at the Pascal Gymnasium in Munster, where the almost perfect value of 1.618... was obtained. This value held for both girls
and boys of similar ages. However, similar measurements of 252 young men at
Calcutta gave a slightly different value1.615... . The tallest and shortest subjects in the German sample differed in body proportions, but no such
difference was noted among the Indians in the Calcutta sample.
INTRODUCTION
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, Roman architect and author of Be
Avehiteetuve
(c. 25 B.C.), remarked on a similarity between the human body and a perfect
building: "Nature has designed the human body so that its members are duly
proportioned to the frame as a whole." He inscribed the human body into a
circle and a square, the two figures considered images of perfection. Later
(in 1946) Le Corbusier gave a further dimension to the subject by depicting
a proportionate human nude (Fig. 1A). In the sketch, he clearly adopted the
Fibonacci system and Golden Mean to depict the proportion in a goodlooking
human body [7], As shown in the sketch, the figure of a 1.75meter man with
his left hand raised is drawn so that the distance from the foot to the navel
measures 108 cm; from the navel to the top of the head measures 66.5 cm; and
from the head to the tip of the upraised hand measures 41.5 cm. The ratio
between 175 (height of man) and 108 is 1.62, as is the ratio between 108 and
66.5, while the ratio between 66.5 and 41.5 is 1.6. All these means are very
close to the Golden Ratio, i.e., = (/5~ + l)/2 = 1.61803... . In order to
verify this fascinating exposition, we set about taking measurements of boys
and girls in two remote centers. The experimental subjects showed no visible
signs of physical deformity.
MATERIALS AND METHOD
During the last week of October 1973, a group of 207 students (175 boys
and 32 girls) at the Pascal Gymnasium in Munster were chosen as subjects for
measurement. Also, in early 1974, 252 young men (aged 1632), most of whom
were students at the Indian Statistical Institute in Calcutta, were measured.
The following measurements were taken of barefooted boys and girls who
were asked to stand erect, but without stretching their bodies abnormally,
"kThe authors wish to thank the Director of the Pascal Gymnasium in Munster, W. Germany, for allowing them to record measurements of his pupils and
Mr. S. K. De, artist
at the Indian Statistical
Institute
in Calcutta^for
making the drawing.
Davis is grateful
to the German Academic Exchange Service
for financial
assistance
that enabled him to visit Munster in 1973.
340
Dec. 1979]
341
against a strong, vertically held pole which was marked in centimeters. With'
the help of a setsquare, three measurements were taken: total height; distance from feet to level of nipples; and distance from feet to navel depression. The following five values were computed from the above three recorded
measurements: (A) distance between navel and nipples; (B) distance between
nipples and top of head; (C) A + B (navel to top of head); (D) distance from
navel to bottom of feet; and (E) total height of subject. Figure IB illustrates these demarcations. No measurement was made of the distance between
the head and the tip of the upraised hand indicated in Le Corbusier's drawing
(Fig
1A)
RESULTS
The German and Indian data were rearranged, separately, in regular descending order, always keeping the tallest subject as first and the shortest
subject as last. These data are summarized in Tables 1 and 2.
TABLE 1.
Particulars
Total, tallest 50 observations
Total, shortest 50 observations
Grand total (for 207)
Grand Mean
Total, girls only
Total, boys only
TABLE 2.
1127
1010
4313
20.836
600
3713
2136
1757
8009
38.690
1206
6803
3263
2767
12322
59.526
1806
10516
5335
4354
19900
96.135
2885
17015
8618
7121]
32222
155.622
4691
27531
Particulars
Total, tallest 63 observations
Total, shortest 63 observations
All men (for 252)
Grand mean
1496
1314
5645
22.40
2729
2348
10166
40.34
4225
3662
15811
62.74
6678
5885
25239
100.15
E
10903
9547
410501
162.90
Calculated ratios between A & B , B & C, C & D, and D & E are presented
in Tables 3 and 4.
TABLE 3:
GERMAN STUDENTS:
Population
Tallest 25% (approximately)
Shortest 25% (approximately)
Girls only
Boys only
All students (207)
TABLE 4.
A/B
B/C
C/D
D/E
0.528
0.575
0.498
0.544
0.537
0.655
0.635
0.668
0.647
0.650
0.609
0.636
0.626
0.618
0.619
0.621
0.611
0.615
0.618
0.618
Population
Tallest 25%
Shortest 25%
All men (252)
A/B
B/C
C/D
D/E
0.548
0.560
0.555
0.646
0.641
0.643
0.633
0.622
0.627
0.612
0.616
0.615
342
[Dec.
FIGURE 1
Some differences were found to exist between the proportions of corresponding body lengths of the tallest and the shortest subjects. Statistical
tests were performed to determine: (1) the extent of the difference; (2) if
boys and girls differed in body proportions; and (3) if the Germans differed
structurally from the Indians,.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
For the set of 207 observations on German boys and girls from different
age groups, the following statistical hypotheses were tested.
Let U = A/B, V = B/C, W = C/D, X = D/E and let u, W, w9 cc represent the
corresponding sample means and the corresponding population means.
There were 27 boys and 32 girls in the same age group in the German sample.
Based on their measurements, H 0 : ]iG = \\B was tested. Here
\iG = ()iuG, \wG, ywG, \ixG) ; \iB = (]iuB, \xvB, \\wB,
It is assumed that ([/, V, W, X)
^ =25
yxB).
(ZOM'A^ZOZB).
(1/Wi + 1 / H g )
A = Ax + A2,
i = 1, 2.
'
<^>
%>
G>
*G>
(VB>
WB9XB)
1979]
3^3
German Data
El = 173.38, E2 = 152.95
E1 = 172.36, E2 = 142.42
H 0 : ]i^1 = ]AEZ was rejected because t 5 with 111 d.f.; i.e., the heights of
the shortest individuals in the Indian sample and those in the German sample
differed significantly. The variance in mean ages of the two sample groups
might also be an important reason for the difference.
DISCUSSION
The data on German students presented in Tables 1 and"3 confirm La Corbusierfs definition of a goodlooking human body.
The Parthenon at Athens is considered one of the most perfect buildings
ever constructed by man and one that has survived centuries of neglect. The
secret lies in the fact that the Parthenon was constructed according to the
principle of Divine Proportion [4]. The width of the building and its height
are in Golden Sections. Hoggatt [3] has cited further examples in which the
Golden Section has been used.
Also, it is now known [see 5] that the Great Pyramid of Giza, Egypt, was
built in accordance with Divine Proportion; its vertical height and the width
of any of its sides are in Golden Sections.
These examples confirm Vitruvius' statement that perfect buildings and
proportionate human bodies have something in common.
According to available data, the navel of the human body is a key point
that divides the entire length of the body into Golden Sections (their ratio
is the Golden Ratio). This point is also vitally important for the developing
fetus, since the umbilical cordthe lifeline between mother and fetusis
connected through the navel. Compared to the position of the navel, the line
of the nipples is not particularly important, because it does not divide the
body (above the navel) into Golden Sections. Data from both Germany and India confirm this fact.
3kk
[Dec.
There is a close connection between the Golden Ratio and the Fibonacci
Sequence1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, ... . Each number is obtained by adding
the two numbers just previous to it. This numerical sequence is named after
the thirteenthcentury Italian mathematician Leonardo Pisano, who discovered
it while solving a problem on the breeding of rabbits. Ratios of successive
pairs of some initial numbers give the following values:
1/1 = 1.000; 1/2 = 0.500; 2/3 = 0.666...; 3/5 = 0.600; 5/8 = 0.625;
8/13 = 0.615...; 13/21 = 0.619...; 21/34 = 0.617...; 34/55 = 0.618...;
55/89 = 0.618... .
Thereafter, the ratio reaches a constant that is almost equivalent to the
Golden Ratio. Such a ratio has been detected in most plants with alternate
(spiral) phyllotaxis, because any two consecutive leaves subtend a Fibonacci
angle approximating 317.5 degrees. Thus, many investigators of phyllotaxis
identify the involvement of Fibonacci series on foliar arrangement, the most
recent being Mitchison [6].
(please
of Technology,
Sydney,
Australia
INTRODUCTION
{ Sl , s2,n...,
where {un}
8p }
= M ,/
" 1 ,M *. ! M*,!
= 1,
and
un\
= unun^i
with
u0l
= 1.
... w l v
\819
v
. . . , Sr)~f^1\s1
 6 y , . . . , sr 
6rJ)
1979]
3^5
THE COEFFICIENTS
where 6sn is the Kronecker delta and the PPJ are arbitrary integers. We designate \Ur nj
fundamental sequence \U2 n\ > Since this sequence is used frequently, we let
K5+,}K}}
VK.00^'
vi
ST* (r)
(r)
= 2s Urj,r+munmj
jo
'
L1
=MMLIMM
n  m>
and so from equating the elements in the last row and last column we get
(r)
un
v 1
<!)
(r)
v{r)
u
u
3L^
=0 r j,r +m r,r +n r,
r,r+n
= Yu(r).
uir) ..
a r  j,r +m n m  j
J=0
{.
{b
such that
' ' 5
l
} = ? ' /'
^T'U
. . . , op > u
r
r
n = 2^
i =l
M(2)
jM(2) ,
W (2)
,M(2) ,
tfilJ'
Fibonacci multinomial
346
3.
Th&QSLQjm:
is given by
THE RELATION
{fli. . S*fu~fa\8i
in which s^
and
Plooj:
[Dec.
. . . . sr  5 rj } M y '^+1.2+
 &ljt
= n  m  i + l
r).
y J s^ = 2^ (n  m  i + 1) = r(n  m + 1)  2j ^
= rn  rm + r  ~r{r + 1)
= rn 4 r  yr
 rm = n.
(r)
L(r)y(r)
+ + M ( r ) c/ ( r ) 1
nr\unmur,r+m
T
M
k.
i
iw
(fromthe l e m m a )
CONCLUSION
(2) , ( 2 )
2k ^2,fe + 2
7 . (2) , 7 , ( 2 ) ,
= ULI\K)U
s as required.
As an example, suppose r = 2,
s 2 =fc,and the theorem becomes
i2^ +
A
&
l,r+mj
... !
= 4 r l !w n r) ^ s ^ ! ^
= <
"nmr+1
+ l , and
(2) , . ; ( 2 )
^2?C ' ^ l , f e + 2
(2) l ? . (2) ,
+^
+ 2^ ^ J ^ .
(F) in Hoggatt [3] (in our nota
1979]
3^7
l9k
22U2,k
+2
+ l'
(2)
J =1
3
P
^22
21
P
^ 2 1P^ 2 2
p2
_ p
_p2
p
r
2 1^22
. p2
^22
p3
_ Opr
p
^2 1
* 2 1 ^ 2 2
REFERENCES
E. T. Bell. "Notes on Recurring Series of the Third Order."
Tohoku
Mathematical
Journal
24 (1924):168184
H. W. Gould. "The BracketFunction and FonteneWard Generalized Binomial Coefficients with Applications to Fibonomial Coefficients." The
Fibonacci
Quarterly
1 (1969):2340, 55.
V. E. Hoggatt, Jr. "Fibonacci Numbers and Generalized Binomial Coefficients." The Fibonacci
Quarterly
5 (1967):383400.
V. E. Hoggatt, Jr., & G. L. Alexanderson.
"A Property of Multinomial
Coefficients." The Fibonacci
Quarterly
9 (1971), 351356, 420421.
D. Jarden. Recurring
Sequences.
Jerusalem: Riveon Lematematika, 1966,
p. 107.
A. G. SHANNON
Wales Institute
of Technology,
Sydney,
IDEALS
Australia
348
Tkzotim
1:
wn e (<p>, <<?>).
Vftpo^i
a9b
[Dec.
e <<7>.
q(pb)
that is,
^ n P > , <<?.
The general term of {wn} can be expressed in terms of
a = (p + /(p^ty)
and
as follows:
w w = Acxn + B3 n
(2)
Hence,
Vn = p'V'ni
 <7^_2
( w i t h s u i t a b l e i n i t i a l v a l u e s and pr9qr
a r b i t r a r y i n t e g e r s ) and wn i s
as b e f o r e .
Define {vm} E {wn} when wn  vm e S f o r s m a l l n,m where
defined
VHOP fa Wn S =
f o r m <_ N9 s a y .
p'vN
Hence,
( i i ) abeS
N+I
a
Now,
and
TV
P N~
implies
baeS;
then
n9m.
Q'^NI
qrVN_
e
S.
anc
^ie
r e s
ult
follows.
1979]
3^9
= {wn} for any n,m9 then {vm} = {wn} for all n,m,
n + i ~ wn ~ wni* w n e r e P l s
These could be useful in Lie algebras.
prime.
REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
G . SHANNON
of Technology,
1.
If Prl , Pr2 , ..., Prr
Sydney,
Australia
INTRODUCTION
+ 1
.I)(l)i'
+ 1
^C
r^
(8 = l  2 , . . . , r ) ,
>1.
J =1
This is a generalization of of W s n f studied in detail by Horadam [1, 2, 3,
l
;
4, 5 ] .
Hilton [6] partitioned Horadam*s sequence into a set F of generalized
Fibonacci sequences and a set L of generalized Lucas sequences. We extend
this to show that GO can be partitioned naturally into r sets of generalized
sequences.
350
[Dec.
NOTATION
( (s = 1, 2, ..., r) by
\Vsn
fc+
**<D
V
fci
(2.2)
and
d = det >
where D is the Vandermonde matrix
ar2
*r2
r 1
a r2
v1
rl
pi
ar
(r)
and the A8j
are suitable constants that depend on the initial values of the
sequence:
K1
*2i'
^2r / '
k l
= (l) k + 1 P 2 . f c ^ ( nipfe
3.
as
required.
(r)
It follows from (2.1) that we can represent 7^, by
(r)
^"TX^
Jl
(*l, 2, ....*)
so that
and 7 r n
1979]
,3r^RW
= d
2^B3j
351
n
rj
j  l
= d3ry
(r)
n>
d=i
We shall now consider the derivation of one sequence from another, so
that in what follows the results hold for any of the r sequences. Thus there
are r such partitions.
(r)
We say that Wsn is in Fibonacci form when it is represented as in
r
WJZ =^YlArjalj
(3.1)
\d\ * 1
j = i
(3.2)
W^ = XX.a^
\d\ * 1
ji
w(ry
w
sn
where
7W
W,
sn
2J
rj arj '
(p) ' )
j
We say (like Hilton)
sWsn
s w
f is derived
distinction between
from
not unity,
the sequence
because when
distinct for all values of s, but the groups of sequences would have the basic Lucas form. Now
Us?'
and so Wgn
=Z
vjart
= d[lj[ I t
*ja*j)
= dh' sn >
a = [Arl,
Ar2,
. . . , Arr]
and
y = [^(or>, * t f \ , < ; )  1 ] r 
352
[Dec.
a = dB~lw
So
i n which
dD'1
= [dQK]
I I farm  am)
(D
For v = 2,
XI
p +m9n
m >n
^i
mp
a22
1
a21
D'
where d = a 2 2  a 2 x .
For r = 3,
ot3 j
cx32
a3
33a32(a33 "
0t
32)' ~ ( a 3 3
2)(a33 "
(a
32>'
3 "
3 2
etc.
For v  4,
d
4l
2
41
ll
12
. 
etc.
13
lf
etc.
ll
d12 =
.2alt3a^(a.3"a.2)(a^~a.2)(aa43)
(alt2alt3+ai+3alfl++a1+lta1+2)(aI+3alt2)(a1+2+aI+2)(a4I+alf3)
d 1 3 = ( a 4 2 + a 4 3 + 0 ^ ^ ^ ) ( a 4 3  a i f 2 ) ( a 4 4  a t + 2 ) ( a 4 4  a 1+3 )
d 14
o^g).
^PK^S,K1
K
= 1
a n d
sn
2^
Pl
rparp>
1979]
so
(3.3)
W%> =
E^p^i
p =1 K = l
\Kn)
>
and
and t h a t
A
y(r)
sn
dxM
y^
sn
Since
(34)
Y^
(n = 0, 1, 2,
...).
= E E < V <*<!>
P1
from (3.3)
Kl
and
r
= ]T
(3.5)
r
L^PK^p^Ki^
p =1
from
(3.4).
K=l
Us?}
V
then
Vh.00
then
'
e w(Ppl, . . . , P ^ ) ,
X^
' =E
P< u%xs%
So
{*>}
1>
Js(nr)' = 
e ui(P p l , . . . , P)
f rom
<33)
f/s(r) = E
U
P< r P ^ K  1 .
n<r,
ic
n<P,
< r,
x^ = r 2 E E ^ r > s ( , l i . < *,
P
but
<
then
If { x s ( ^  e i o ( P r l ,  . , P H . ) ,
P
if
f o r some
^ I E L ^ P K ^ P ^  I '
35^
[Dec.
THEOREMS
The basic linear relationships between \Xg* ? and jlg > are described
in the following theorem.
^
'
^
TkdOKUm A:
r
<42)
?n+m =
p =1 K = l
(43)
for
all n > 0.
p =1 K =1
Vh.00^1 For each of (4.2) and (4.3) we need only require that the expression
is true for v adjacent values of n.
(4.1) = ^ ( 4 . 2 ) ;
then
I =
E^P^rp^l*
from
< 3 ' 3 )
p=l K=l
Thus (4.2) is true for n =0. Let t >_ r and assume (4.2) is true for 0 _<n <.
* # + , = 2 > 1 ) ' % * . $ + ,  , . from (1.1),
r
=
.
a
2 ^ 2 ^ 2^p>< p(~
J=l
1)
2 ^ 2^^PKarp2^ ^ 1 ^
P1 Kl
j=
p  1 K 1
E ^ P K ^ P ^ S ^ + KI'
rj J s , t  j + K  i
^J^.tj+Ki
as
ic
required.
sn)
71 JLl^dPKa%Y8*Kl>
for
n < r9
d
p K
it follows from the generalization of Hilton's Theorem 2(.ii) that
{*'}{*:>}.
Similarly, it can be shown that (4.2) ==>(4.1).
Theorem A.
1979]
355
and d 2 f o>
e w
if
^2 iSZI^pK^p^Mp
for a11 n
^ 2 I ^Z/^pKarp(JL)s,K i>
forat
if
> 0 n < p;
least
one
^5 0 n < P.
VfWO^}
iff { ^ f
e F
Lo
sn)
<*2W*?
for
all n > 0,
ant
=E E
P
Let
yj} = d
Then
i/> =
P
Since xj$
a t
least
or d Hx^.
^ p ^  1
o n e
n >_ 0.
By Theorem A,
K
2
^^
for a l l n > 0.
L^PK^rp^l^
0 < n < P.
e F9 d2 \ ^ X/^PKa"p^s,K 1
P
Therefore,
^ 2 I xsn* ^ o r
d2 \y^r'
r o rat
356
[Dec.
an i/(r)
(r) = y> Yd
d2
^ sn
PK **P Ms, K  1
^ ZJ
p K
(id)
e L9 suppose that
= d2myM
for
all n > 0,
lz/(r)> e L and
Clearly d2 \ y ^
X
, or d2 \y& , ..., or d2 j ^ _
sn
=^
u
& P
p K
^ r 0 < n < P.
Let
Then
*?  i L E d p K ^ p i / . , , 0 < n < P .
"
? Theorem A,
p K
Since Ljrt\
e L, d2 
So x $
, # ^
y*n
and since d2 t v
^ K ^ P ^ K I
LE^pK^p^irKi
' p
f o r
f o r
or d2 lw, , .. , or d2 t y
i ^s0
i ^sl
But
, it follows that
* ^a,r  1
p K
d = II (arj  ark).
j >k
1979]
If we
357
let
rl
a
rj = \ HWS+ld
Z~jk ' (J * 1 , 2 , . . . , 20 ,
fc = 0
rj
Zrf wksn+ra
fe = 0
which seems to be a more useful form than the corresponding multinomial expression.
REFERENCES
1.
INTRODUCTION
A sequence S ~ \ i\ii
2 ... f natural numbers is said to be complete
(see [4]) if every positive integer can be represented as the sum of distinct
terms of S. If, furthermore, the sequence is nondecreasing and begins with
sx = 1, then a necessary and sufficient condition in order that S be complete
is:
s
n+i 1
1 +
Y1
for n > 1
i>
(see [2]).
Note that this condition includes the possibility that some members of S may
be equal, thus corresponding to a representation in which certain terms may
be repeated, as has been considered [1].
It is shown in [3] that completeness is preserved under certain transformations of 5, an example of which is x > <(ln #>, where In x is the natural
logarithm of x and <ln x)> is the smallest integer greater than In x. Two
complete sequences to which this transformation is applied are the Fibonacci
sequence and the sequence of prime numbers (with 1 included).
We will develop here conditions, on S and the transformation considered,
which guarantee that the transformed sequence is degenerate in the sense that
it includes all natural numbers (and hence is complete). The above two sequences, discussed in [3], satisfy our conditions.
2.
DEGENERACY
than x.
Lemma:
VKOOJi
Clearly, x >_ y
implies <#> >^ <#>
We now use this property in the proof of our fundamental result. Note
that the sequence S need not be complete.
*Partially
supported
Canada.
**Partially supported
5072 of Laval
358
National
University.
de
Recherches
Dec. 1979
359
Tfieo/Lem: Let S = {s^L=i s 2,... t>e a sequence of natural numbers and let / be
a realvalued nondecreasing function defined on S such that
lim fist)
= .
0 < f(si+1)
since / is nondecreasing,
 f(Si)
< 1.
/
\
<f(si+1)>
But since lim fis^)
< 2; .
<f(Si)>
= <
(</(si)> +1.
= the transformed sequence
{</<<}i1.2,...
cannot remain eventually constant and so'A
"D {M, M + 1, . . . } .
Examptt
2:
the prime numbers with 1 included, the transformed sequence passes through
all natural numbers. The inequality condition of the corollary is satisfied
by virtue of Bertrandfs postulate p
< 2p , where p is the nth prime [5].
360
[Dec.
Examptd 3** Again, if a = e but with the sequence S now the sequence of Ficonacci numbers, the image is still IN, for
v
(1 + /5) _ , (l  /5 V , (l + /5 , A_ ^ _
^n+1 =
2
*F" + \ 2 /
V 2
" 7 ^ eF"B
Exampte. 4'*
K i n L>n = 1, 2, ...}=
The last three examples in fact satisfy the stronger conditions of:
CoXoZtd/iy
Let 5 =
2:
starting s
^ L
= 1
Then
^LOO:
sn
+2
+1
sn+v
*<
^si
f r a H ^ 1
Then
ln
<?st+2  ln e s^ + 1 lna(a
Furthermore, M = <lncl> = 1.
met.
3.
+ i) 1.
As can be found in [3], there exist transformations which do not degenerate complete sequences, e.g., the Lucas transformation and the function
fix)
We note that even the quantized logarithmic transformation, x > <ln x>, does
not itself produce degeneracy as is shown by a complete sequence that begins
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 22, ... . '
Another example of an explicit function which sometimes degenerates sequences is Jl(x) , the number of primes not exceeding the real number x. It is
clear that this function degenerates the sequence of primes itself; as would
the counting function of S, an arbitrary (countable) sequence, degenerate S.
However, the image of the Fibonacci numbers under II is not IN, since 11(8) = 4
but 11(13) = 6.
1979]
361
All the sequences above are complete (although repetitions must be permitted in Example 1 if a > 2), but the theorem does not assume completeness.
We conclude with an example of a sequence which is not complete but by an immediate application of Corollary 1 is seen to be transformed into IN under
f(x) = In x. The sequence in question is s 2 = 1, s 2 = 2, and for n >_ 3 ,
sn = 5 2
. To see that this sequence is not complete, observe that
5 2
 1, for n >_ 3,
H. L. Alder.
"The Number System in More General Scales."
Mathematics
Magazine 35 (1962):145151.
2. John L. Brown, Jr. "Note on Complete Sequences of Integers." The American Math. Monthly 68 (1961):557560.
3. John L. Brown, Jr. "Some SequencetoSequence Transformations Which Preserve Completeness." The Fibonacci
Quarterly
16 (1978):1922.
4. V. E. Hoggatt, Jr. & C. H. King. "Problem E1424." The American
Math.
Monthly 67 (1960):593.
5. Waclaw Sierpinski. Elementary
Theory of Numbers. Warszawa, 1964.
Case Western
Reserve
University,
Cleveland,
OH 44106
ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION
. . . 9 an),
"kThe authors would like to express their appreciation to Professor Dong Hoon
Lee (Department
of Mathematics,
Case Western Reserve University)
for his time
and helpful
discussions.
Part of this work was supported
by the Office
of Naval Research
under
contract number
N0001467A04040010.
362
[Dec.
and for finding the general solution of a linear diophantine equation in which
these
integers appear as coefficients. A classical procedure for finding
the gcd of
integers is based on the repeated application of the standard
Euclidean Algorithm for finding the gcd of two integers. More specifically,
it repeatedly uses the argument:
gcd (al9
a 2 , ..., an)
a29
a3)
(1)
(2)
alxl
a1x1
+ a2x2
+ a2x2
+ + anxn
+
= 0;
' + ccnxn = a 0 .
(3)
x = x + k^p
+ k2xF
+ ... + kn_xxF
(2) and kl9
k29
,
..., kn^1
1979]
363
, n,
Thus,
d) = d.
THE ALGORITHM
We now present the algorithm to find the general solution of the linear
diophantine equation (2). The method is based on Lemma 1, namely, it finds
the generator (xF , xF , ..., ^Fn.x ) f (1)a s well as any one solution x of
(2), so that any solution of (2) can be expressed as in (3). A solution x
of (2) is found as a byproduct of finding the generator. We list the steps:
Step
0.
Set k = 1, b[X)
= a19
&2(1) = a 2 , ..., b
= an9
and N = n.
Also let
x{b[X))
xib)
where x{b)
a0 = b.
Stdp
7.
Find i n t e g e r s 2 , 3 , . . . , &N so t h a t t h e y
J,
^2
= l2bzm
= ,*,< +
2>
^3>
satisfy
2.
Find a s o l u t i o n
follows:
#(&J) f o r a a: + a2x2
+ b[.
+ + anxn
= bf
 . . .  ZNx(b^k)
as
) .
364
3.
[Dec.
If b[ = 0, x(b[) is one of the generating vectors. Eliminate one variable, i.e., N  N  1, and set
(k+D _  m
b+1)
 iu \ b+1) = b
~~
'1
We now give three results which show the validity of the algorithm.
TktQKQJfn 1: There is a onetoone correspondence between the solutions of (4)
and (5):
(4)
+ #2^2 +
a1x1
+ <2nXn
0;
u
b(k)
+
u
0.
^ n Hn
}
(*)
Here b
^0,&
b^
^0
+ 0 correspond to the values obtained for
j..o,
o,
, ....,
. . . . . . ib^
A'
2
bi in the kth. iteration of Step 1, as far as N  n.
(5)
K)
,<*)
K)
(fe)
VKOO^'
Consider the following two equations corresponding to any two consecutive iterations of the algorithm:
(*),.(*)
(kth i t e r a t i o n ) b^'
y\K) + ,<*>,.<*>
by
( k + l s t iteration)
(k)
(b\
 WPW + V + bPy?*1*
iMk)
(fc)
y1
W (fe+D
yl
(fe)
> y2
^(fc+l)
#2
y & + V
2"i.
(k+l)
^nU \
+ ^(y(fc+1)
(*)
2/n
(k+l)
J/n
Using v e c t o r  m a t r i x n o t a t i o n , we have
(k+l)
(fc+l)>
#2
,(fc)
Ty
(k+l)
(k+l)
1979]
x2
365
Mym
det T\ = det M\ = 1.
Assume that there exists a matrix Mr with det MT\ = 1 such that x = Mry
Substituting y
(7c)
= 5 2/
(k+1)
k+1)
, we get x = M Ty^
As
Thus, x = My
where A? = Af'27 and  det M = 1.
It is well known (e.g., see [7]) that, if there exists a matrix M such
that x  My with det M\  1, there is a onetoone correspondence between
the solutions x and z/. Thus, the theorem is proved. Q.E.D.
lk<LOh,QM 2: If (yF
ing (xp , xF , ...,xF
, z/^, , ... , yF
) is the generator of (5) , the correspond) is the generator of (4).
n1
x = My <* ^ ( 3 ^ + 3 ^
= 3 ^
and thus a contradiction.
+ +'Bn.i2/Fn.1 >
+ 3 2 ^ F 2 + ... +
KIXFH_X
>
Q.E.D.
Tkzofi&m 3: Assume that Z = gcd (ax, a 2 , , an) = gcd (a2, ..., a n ) . Then
the general solution of (6) can be expressed as x = kx + xf,
where k is an
integer, x any solution of (7), and xT the general solution of (8).
(6)
a x
i\
^2^2 + .. + anxn
=0;
(7)
aY + a2x2
+ ... + anxn
= 0;
(8)
a2x2
+ + anxn
= 0.
P/L00^: Since <i divides a x , we have, for l integer, a x = id, and thus there
are solutions x2, # 3 , .. . , # n to (7). This means (6) has solutions when x1 is
fixed to any integer. Clearly, x is any such solution to (6) in which xx 1. Observe that all solutions for (6) can be characterized by fixing xx to
any integer k and solving (6) in the remaining variables, x^, #3? ...? xn.
More specifically, for x1 fixed to k, we want all solutions which satisfy
(6)'
axk.
366
+ ... + kn_2xF
[Dec.
is the general solution for (6) for integer, k19 k2, ..., kn_l9 where kxis
a solution satisfying (6) f and (xF 9 xp 9 ...9xF
) is the generator of (8)
l
2
n2
with xx = 0. Setting
'
n2
i1
means that #' is any solution to (8), and hence the result.
3.
Q.E.D.
Table 1 lists the computational process for finding the generator (xp ,
xp ) for a 3variable diophantine equation with the righthand side equal to
zero. The two vectors
and
form the generator.
From Theorem 1, there is a onetoone relationship between (9) and (10):
(9)
8913a:2 + 5677x2 + 4378* 3 = 0;
(10)
10z/2 +
5y2 +
3z/3 = 0.
27
10
42
1 3 J ,, det M\ = 1.
25/
of (9).
Iteration 10 of the algorithm (cf. Table 1) finds a solution
y =
for (10), and from Theorem 3, the general solution for (10) can be found as
fc{2 J + y \ where y > = ( y 2 J
is the general solution for (10) with y 1 = 0.
performed to find the general solution for
(11)
5y2 + 32/3 = 0.
1979]
Thus,
(i)
md
(J)
TABLE 1.
Iteration
k
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
b[k) = l2b
8913 =
5677 =
4378 =
3236 =
1299 =
1142 =
638 =
157 =
33 =
10 =
5=
3=
2=
367
ALGORITHM COMPUTATIONS
+ i ^
1(5677) +
1(4378) +
1(3236) +
2(1299) +
1(1142) +
1 (638) +
4 (157) +
4 (33) +
3 (10) +
2
(5) +
1
(3)
1
(2)
2
(1)
0(4378) +
0(3236) +
0(1299) +
0(1142) +
0 (638) +
3 (157) +
0 (33) +
2 (10) +
0
(5) +
0
(3) +
+
+
+
K
8913
5677
4378
3236
1299
1142
638
157
33
10
5
3
0
2
1
0
*i
x2
x3
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
5
3
27
4
57
23
19
61
0
1
0
1
1
1
3
0
4
3
10
13
17
23
36
95
0
0
1
0
1
1
2
2
5
10
42
25
94
17
8
1
Repeating the
368
[Dec.
Finally, Table 1 displays a solution for the equation with the righthand side equal to 1 = gcd (8913, 5677, 4378). The general solution for the
equation with the righthand side a0 can then~be expressed as:
+,:
and kz
are integers.
REMARKS
6. T. Saaty. Optimization
7.
in Integers
and Related
Extremal Problems.
Reading, Mass.:
New
AddisonWesley,
by
A. P. HILLMAN
University
of New Mexico,
Albuquerque,
NM 87131
DEFINITIONS
The Fibonacci numbers Fn and the Lucas numbers Ln satisfy
F
and
2 = Fn + 1 +
n +2
= L
n+1
n>
n>
0 = 0, F : = 1
0
> Ll
= 1
Proposed by Phil
Mana, Albuquerque,
NM
Find the "least common multiple of the integers in the infinite set
{29  2, 3 9  3, 4 9  4, ..., n9  n,
B413
...}.
Roanoke, VA
Let Sn = Ln + 5 + ( ^jLn
+2
~^
Roanoke, VA
\2/Li
llm
Determine a11 n in
^23 '
>
Proposed by V. E. Hoggatt,
Jr.,
University,
San Jose, CA
369
370
B416
[Dec.
Jr.
and hence
F
n +2 ~
n+1 '
Prove that every positive integer m has at least one representation of the form
N
m =
Z aiFj>
N
NM
for n e {4, 5, 6, . . . } .
fin)
be defined by
= [a + bn + on2 +
dn3]l
SOLUTIONS
Partitioning Squares Near the Diagonals
B388
Roanoke, VA
Show that
l + 3 + 5 2 + ... + (2w  l ) 2
by Phil
Mana, Albuquerque,
NM
*.+*, + + * , . . ,  (D* a ) * ( ? )
 ( 3 ) [ ( $ )  ( 5 ) ]  [(*,")ft)]
= ( 2 3 +1 )Alsp solved by Paul Bracken,
Wray G. Brady, Paul S. Bruckman, R.
Garfield,
Hans Klauser (Switzerland),
Peter A. Lindstrom, Graham Lord, Ellen R. Miller,
C. B.A. Peck, Bob Prielipp,
A. G. Shannon (Australia) , Sahib Singh, Paul Smith,
Lawrence Somer, Rolf Sonntag (W. Germany), Gregory Wulczyn, and proposer.
1979]
371
Proposed
by Gregory
Wulczyn,
Bucknell
University,
Lewisburg,
PA
Find the complete solution, with two arbitrary constants, of the difference equation
(n2
Solution
 2(n2
+ 3n + 3)Un+2
by Paul S.
Bruckman,
+ n + l)Un+1
+ (n2  n + l)Un
= 0.
Concord, CA
Let
Vn = (n2  n +
(1)
Then, Vn + 1 = in
(2)
or
(3)
+ 2
"
l)Un.
i + Vn = 0,
A27n = 0.
(4)
w +1
R. Garfield,
C. B. A. Peck,
Sahib
Singh,
Paul
Proposed
by V, E. Hoggatt,
Jr.,
San Jose
State
University,
San Jose,
CA
J.
Solution
by Ralph Garfield,
College of Insurance;
Laval; and Paul Smith, University
of Victoria
Graham Lord,
(independently).
Universite
Solution
by Wray G. Brady, Slippery
Rock State College; Robert M.
Giuli,
University
of California,
Santa Cruz, and Herta T. Freitag,
Roanoke, VA
(independently).
Gk
(x)
= (1 
 x) or
x)Gk(x).
372
 1/(1  x)k
Solution
by Paul Bracken
pendently)
.
Let Fk (x)
= (1  x)'k"1
Phil
= 1/(1  x).
= G0(x),
Fk(0)
=1=
dFk(x)/dx
since GQ(x)
Peck
(inde
= (1  x)~
F0(x)
(Toronto);
+1
[Dec.
Gk(0),
= (k + l ) ^+ 1(ar).
for k = 0, 1, 2, ... .
A. G. Shannon,
Sahib
Singh,
Gregory
Wulczyn,
Proposed
by M. Wachtel,
Zurich,
Switzerland
Solution
by Paul S. Bruckman,
Concord,
California
(1)
= (y1 + x^5)n
yn + xn/5
where (x19y1)
, n = 1, 2, 3, ...,
= a
+ 5 )/2 = (a
6n
and 5 = 4"
= b.
Note
6n
+ )/2, and
O)
6
, or
7
2 (a  2>) '
and yn
satisfy
1979]
(4)
 18sn+1 + zn = 0.
(An+1 _
Moreover, L  lim (x
/xn) = lim I
=
n
n w
i.e.,
"
" \ A " B
(5)
L = a
373
zn+2
Also solved
Smith, and
by .Wray G. Brady,
proposer.
C. B.A.
Peck,
n+1
B
A. G. Shannon,
Sahib
Singh,
Paul
Proposed
by Phil
Mana, Albuquerque,
Solution
Y
by Graham Lord,
Universite
NM
Find constants h and & such that
Laval,
Quebec
GarSingh,
Proposed
by V. E. Hoggatt,
Jr.,
San Jose
State
University,
San Jose,
Solution
by Paul S. Bruckman,
n
/n\/n+l\
n  k + lU/U+ir
Concord,
CA
Pn = I I Tv = I I &(& + D / 2 = 2 " n n ! ( n + 1) !
fci
PnlPkPn_k
Show that
fnl
UJ
CA
[j]
*i
n\(n
P
fePnfc
Therefore
+ l)!2fe2n"fe
2 n !( + 1)1 (n  k)\(n
(n + 1)1
+ 1 
k)\
_ (Mill)
k\ (n  k)!
(fe + 1 ) ! (w + 1  &)!
n  &+ 1 "
Also solved by Herta T. Freitag,
Ralph Garfield,
Peter A. Lindstrom,
C. B.A.
Peck, Bob Prielipp,
A. G. Shannon, Sahib Singh, Paul Smith,
Gregory
Wulczyn,
and
proposer.
*****
PA 17745
Proposed
(A)
by Larry
Taylor,
Briarwood,
NY
.7
(mod p) , prove
that a, a + 1, a + 2, a + 3, and a + 4 have the same quadratic character modulo p if and only if 11 < p = 1 or 11 (mod 60) and (2x/p)
= 1.
(B)
Proposed
by Paul Bruckman,
L e t [a , a , . . . , an]
Concord,
K
=
Wn>k = p n ( a x , a 2 ,
[al9
a2,
. . . , an)qfe(a15 a2,
...,
 pk ( a x , a 2 ,
Pn^
Proposed
England
by David
. . . , ^ f e ) ^ n t o 1 5 az *
. . . ] , n = 1, 2 , . . .
a fc )
^)
Prove
CA
g e n t of t h e i n f i n i t e s i m p l e c o n t i n u e d f r a c t i o n
A l s o , d e f i n e p 0 = 1, ^ 0 = 0. F u r t h e r , d e f i n e
(1)
b,
Wn>^.
Singmaster,
Polytechnic
of the
South
Bank,
London,
37A
Dec. 1979
10
19
64
225
928
University,
375
Clearly, an + n = bn.
b)
e)
anc
* ^
d)
S h o w t h a t if n
= 2m+l
t n e n
^n
^2^ +2 ~ *
San Jose, CA
F2m+S.
^im + i ~ *
^2m + 2'
a n d
^2m + 3 ~
1B
SOLUTIONS
EdAJtohslcit Uotzt
the issue
and
Continue
H278 Proposed by V.E. Hoggatt, Jr.,
(Vol. 16, No. 1, Feb. 1978)
Show
University,
San Jose, CA
n  1
(Continued fraction notation, cyclic part under bar.)
Solution
University,
and remainder
Lewisburg,
PA
(an"2  3n~2)
2 <
D <
10 < 5D < 15
[/5D] = 3.
(Fn5Fn + 1) = 1 implies (Fn,Fn + 2) = 1. /BF has a unique periodic C.F. expansion with first element 3 and terminal element 6.
^
+1
^F
=L
2 n +2 + 2 (  l ) 
 L2n
+2
+ (1)% = (1)",
x
^n + l* 1J = Fn
is a solution of x2  5Dy2 = 1.
For the p. and qi convergents formed from the C.F. expansion of v5D to
terminate with p L _,, and q F^^ the middle elements must be (n 1) ones.
Also solved
by the
proposer.
376
[Dec
A Rare Mixture
H279
Proposed by G. Wulczyn,
Bucknell
(Vol. 16, No. 1, Feb. 1978)
University,
Lewisburg,
PA
^ 2vi+2> 6r^hn+
12r
(b)
Solution
n+ 6 r
(a)
^hr
by Paul Bruckman,
m
LmmcL 1:
L3m  (l) Lm
m
Vtiooji
*' ^n + hr
Concord,
= (a
~ ^n + 2r + l^
"" n
CA
 b )(a
2m
+ bm )
2m
b )
VKooji
= 5FmF2m.
m
2:
L3m  (l) Lm
Imma
~ n.+ 2r'
+V
= ahu + bhu
= 5FmF2m.
 4(l)w).
 h(l)u(a2u
+ b2u ) + 6 .
Therefore,
25<y  F%) = ahu  ahv
+ bhu
 4(l)*a2w
 ^
 4(l)Mfc2" +
h(l)vb2v
= (a 2 w + 2 y  b2u + 2v)(a2u~2v
u u
+ 4 (  l ) a2
b2u~2v)
+v
u v
(DvUavU)
(lfV'*)
 ^(l) a
(a   4 (  l ) ^ w + y(Zpu"y  5F2u + 2vF2u2v
 4 (  l ) * ( a + y  bu + v)(au~
= 5F
 20(l)uF
2U+2V
2U2V
5Fu+vFuv(Lu+vLuv
bu~v)
F
^U + VL UV
" 4(l)
),
which i m p l i e s t h e s t a t e m e n t of t h e lemma.
Umm:
(  l ) % n + 1 = (l)V 3 m /Fm .
TMOj: (  D % m + 1 = (Dm(L2m + (If)
I ~3m
= (lf(a2m
+ amba + b2m)
f7
u3m l
= F F
5
"" ( ( _ 1 )
(L
3 m 1 2n + 3mK
~ Fn + m)
2rn + 1) P n + 2m
 4Cn
3m 2n+3m
*K
n +3m
1J
y
'
 {(l)mL2m
+ l)jrFmF2n+3m
(LmL2n
+ 3m
 h(l)n
+ 2m
3m^3m
~ (("!)
^2m
^)FmLm
1979]
377
~ 5 F2n + 3mLZn+3m(F3mL3m
~ ^_1^
3mLm)
( a p p l y i n g Lemma 3)
=
3mFkn
6m(L3m
"
mFZmFBmFhn+6m
( _ 1 )
*)
Lemma
^ '
Therefore:
_ ((l}mL
p^
+ l)(Fk
 Fh
)Fh=FFFF
solved
by the
proposer.
Mod Ern
H280
Proposed
by P. Bruckman,
Concord,
Prove t h e congruences
(1)
F3.2
= 2* + 2 (mod 2 n + 3 ) ;
(2)
L3,zn
Solution
by Gregory
Wulczyn,
Bucknell
University,
Lewisburg,
PA
2 \F3,2n
t
2 \L3.zn
Assume F 3 . 2 n
= 2
F3.2n+i
= 2,
r > 19 n >_ 1;
i f and only i f t = 1.
n +2
(mod 2
=F3.2nL3.2n
) = 2n + 2 (mod 2 n + lf )
E 2 n + 3 (mod 2 n +
2 n +2
(mod 2
It
).
= L ^ + 2.
2 n + f
Volume
Proposed
p1
P2
P3
P4
P5
Hl
H2
H3
H4
H5
H6
H7
H8
H9
H10
Hll
H12
H13
H14
H15
H16
H17
H18
H19
H20
H21
H22
H23
H24
H25
H26
H2 7
H28
H29
H30
H31
H32
H33
H34
H35
H36
H37
H38
H39
H40
H41
H42
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
13
13
13
13
13
13
14
14
14
14
21
21
21
21
21
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
23
23
H43
H44
H45
23
23
23
Volume
Solved
22
31
Article
Article
13
13
13
13
13
13
14
14
14
14
14
14
14,21
22
22
22
22
23
23
33
23
23
24
32
24
24
24
Article
31
31
Article
33
31
32
32,33
42
No.
H46
H4 7
H4 8
H49
H50
H51
H5 2
H5 3
H5 4
H55
H5 6
H5 7
H5 8
H5 9
H60
H61
H62
H63
H6 4
H65
H66
H6 7
H6 8
H6 9
H70
H71
H7 2
H7 3
H7 4
H75
H76
H7 7
H7 8
H7 9
H80
H81
H82
H83
H84
H85
H86
H87
H88
H89
H90
H91
H92
H93
H9 4
H95
H9 6
Volume
Proposed
24
24,43
24
24
24
24
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
32
32
32
32
32
32
33
33
33
33
33
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
41
41
41
41
41
41
42
42
42
42
42
43
43
43
43
43,44
43
43
43
378
Volume
Solved
Article
34
34
43
43
43
Article
44
Article
44
44
44
55
51
51
51
51
52
53
52
Article
53
41
55
53
53
53
53
61
61
61
61
111
121
64
62
62
No.
Volume
Proposed
H97
H98
H99
H100
H101
H102
H10 3
H104
H105
H106
H107
H108
H109
H110
Hlll
H112
H113
H114
H115
H116
H117
H118
H119
H120
H121
H122
H123
H124
H125
44
44
44
44
44
44
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
52
52
52
52
52
52
53
53
53
53
55
55
55
H126
H127
H128
H129
H130
H131
H132
H13 3
H134
H135
H136
H137
H138
H139
H140
H141
H142
H143
H144
H145
H14 6
61
61
61
61
Not
62
62
62
62
62
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
66
66
66
66
Volume
Solved
64
72
64
64
92
66
66
66
66
66
111
71
71
71
71
111
71
72
72
72
72
Partial
111,112
73
72
73
73
published
73
75
75
75
75
75
81
81
83
81
83
83
83
84
84
Dec. 1979
No.
H147
H148
H149
H150
H151
H152
H153
H154
H155
H156
H157
H158
H159
H160
H161
H162
H163
H164
H165
H166
H167
H168
H169
H170
H171
H172
H173
H174
H175
H176
H177
H178
H179
H180
H181
H182
H183
H184
H185
H186
H187
H188
H189
H190
H191
H192
H193
H194
H195
H196
Volume
Proposed
379
66
84
71
71
84
71
84
71
85
71
72
85
72
85
72
85
72
91
72
91
73
91
73
91
73
91
73
92
75
91
75
94
75
91
75
94
81
94
81
95
81
95
83
95
83
83
95
84
95
84
95
34 Partial 112
85
95
85
102
85
102
91
102
102
91
103
91
103
92
92 Remark 112
103
94
103
94
104
94
104
95
104
95
106
95
104
102
104
102
106
102
104
103
112
103
106
103
115
104
115
104
No.
H197
H198
H199
H200
H201
H202
H203
H204
H205
H206
H207
H208
H209
H210
H211
H212
H213
H214
H215
H216
H217
H218
H219
H220
H221
H222
H223
H224
H225
H226
H227
H228
H229
H230
H231
H232
H233
H234
H235
H236
H237
H238
H239
H240
H241
H242
H243
H244
H245
H246
Volume
Proposed
Volume
Solved
104
121
106
121
106
122
106
122
106
122
106
123
106
106
111
123
111
123
111
124
111
124
111
124
111
124
111
111
111
111
112
112
131
112
131
112
131
112
132
112
132
113
132
113
113
134
113
113
166,171
113
133
115
134
115
115
134
121
141
121
141
121
141
121
141
122
142
122
142
122
142
123
142
123
143
124
143
124
143
124
143
Not published
Not pub. 143
Not pub. 145
131
145
131
145
*****
No.
H247
H248
H249
H250
H251
H252
H253
H254
H255
H256
H257
H258
H259
H260
H261
H262
H263
H264
H265
H266
H267
H268
H269
H270
H271
H2 72
H273
H274
H275
H276
H277
H278
H279
H280
H281
H282
H283
H284
H285
H286
H287
H288
H289
H290
H291
H292
H293
H294
H295
H296
Volume
Proposed
Volume
Solved
131
131
132
132
132
133
133
133
134
134
134
141
141
141
142
142
142
142
143
143
145
145
151
151
151
152
152
153
153
154
154
161
161
161
162
162
162
162
165
165
165
165
165
166
166
166
166
166
171
171
151
151
151
151
152
152
152
173
153
154
153
153
153
173
154
154
154
161
161
161
162
162
165
165
173
166
166
171
172
173
VOLUME INDEX
ADIKESAVAN, A. S. "A Modification of Goka's Binary Sequence," 17(3):212220
(copauthor, S. Narayanaswami).
AHUJA, J. C. "Concavity Property and a Recurrence Relation for Associated
Lah Numbers," 17(2):158161 (coauthor, E. A. Enneking).
ALLARD, A. "Periods and Entry in Fibonacci Sequence," 17(l):5157 (coauthor,
P. Lecomte).
ALMEIDA AZEVEDO, J. E. de. "Fibonacci Numbers," 17(2):162164.
ALTEVOGT, RUDOLF. "Golden Mean of the Human Body," 17(4):340344 (coauthor,
T. Antony Davis).
ANDERSON, DAVID A. "The Diophantine Equation Nb2 = c2 + N + 1," 17(l):6970
(coauthor, Milton W. Loyer).
ARKIN, JOSEPH. "On EulerTs Solution to a Problem of Diophantus," 17(4):333339 (coauthors, V. E. Hoggatt, Jr., and E. G. Straus).
BALLEW, DAVID W. "Pythagorean Triples and Triangular Numbers," 17(2):168172
(coauthor, Ronald C. Weger).
BERGUM, GERALD E. "Infinite Series with Fibonacci and Lucas Polynomials,"
17(2):147151 (coauthor, V. E. Hoggatt, Jr.).
BERZSENYI, GEORGE. Problems Proposed: H274, 17(1):95; H302, 17(3):286.
Problems Solved: B378, 17(2):186; H275, 17(2):191.
BICKNELLJOHNSON, MARJ0R1E. "Pythagorean Triples Containing Fibonacci Numbers: Solutions for F2 F% = X 2 ," 17(1): 112.
"Reflections Across Two
and Three Glass Plates," 17(2):118142 (coauthor, V. E. Hoggatt, Jr.).
"A Generalization of WythoffTs Game," 17(3):198211 (coauthors, V. E. Hoggatt, Jr., and R. Sarsfield). "Addenda to fPythagorean Triples Containing
Fibonacci Numbers: Solutions for F2 F% = K2,'" 17(4):293. "Representations of Integers in Terms of Greatest Integer Functions and the Golden
Section Ratio," 17(4):306318 (coauthor, V. E. Hoggatt, Jr.).
BOARDMAN, JOHN. "The Normal Modes of a Hanging Oscillator of Order 71/," 17(1):
3740.
BOHIGAN, HAIG E. "Extensions of the W. Mnich Problem," 17(2):172177.
BRACKEN, PAUL. Problems Solved: B388, 17(4):370, B390, 17(4):372, B392,
17(4):373.
BRADY, WRAY G. Problem Proposed: B406, 17(3):281. Problems Solved: B388,
17(4):370; B389, B390, 17(4):371; B391, 17(4):373.
BRUCKMAN, PAUL S. "Some Divisibility Properties of Generalized Fibonacci
Sequences," 17(1):4249. Problems Proposed: B396 (based on the solution
to B371), 17(1):90; H303, 17(3):286; H308, 17(4):374. Problems Solved:
B370, B371, 1.7(1) ;91; B372, B373, 17(1):92; B374, B375, 17(1) :93;
H274, 17(1) :96; B376, B377, 17(2):185; B378, B379, 17(2):186; B380,
17(2):187; B381, 17(2):188; H275, 19(2):192; B382, B384, 17(3):283;
B385, B386, 17(3):284; H275, 17(3):287288; B388, 17(4):370; B389,
17(4):371; B390, 17(4):372; B391, 17(4):372373; B392, B393, 17(4):
373; H279, H280, 17(4):376377.
CARLITZ, LEONARD. "Restricted Multipartite Compositions," 17(3):220228.
"Restricted Compositions II," 17(4):321328.
COHEN, M. E. "On Some Extensions of the WangCarlitz Identity," 17(4):299305 (coauthor, H. Sun.)
COHN, HARVEY. "Growth Types of Fibonacci and Markoff," 17(2):178183.
380
Dec. 1979
VOLUME INDEX
381
382
VOLUME INDEX
[Dec.
HOGGATT, V. E. Jr.
(continued)
B381, 17(2):187; H275, 17(2):192; H276, 17(3):287288; B415, 17(4):369;
B416,.17(4):370 (coproposer, G. Jakubowski); H278, H310, 17(4):375.
HORADAM, A. F. "Sums of Products: An Extension," 17 (3):248250. "Chebyshev
and Fermat Polynomials for Diagonal Functions," 17(4):328333.
INDEX OF ADVANCED PROBLEMS, 17(4):378379.
JAKUBOWSKI, GENE. Problem Proposed: B416, 17(4):370. (coproposer, V. E.
Hoggatt, Jr.).
JOHNSON, N. Problem Solved: H276, 17(3):287288.
JOSCELYNE, CHARLES. Problems Solved: B376, 17(2):185; B379, 17(2):186.
JOSEPH, JAMES E. "Maximum Cardinalities for Topologies on Finite Sets," 17
(2) .97102.
KIMBERLING, CLARK. "Strong Divisibility Sequences and Some Conjectures," 17
(1):1317. "Greatest Common Divisors of Sums and Differences of Fibonacci,
Lucas, and Chebyshev Polynomials," 17(1):1822.
KLAUSER, HANS. Problem Solved: B388, 17(4):370.
KOCHER, FRANK. Problem Solved: B376, 17(2):185.
KUENZI, N. J. Problem Solved: B380, 17(2):187 (cosolver, Bob Prielipp).
KUIPERS, L. Problem Proposed: H298, 17(1):?4.
LECOMTE, P. "Periods and Entry Points in Fibonacci Sequence," 17(1):5157
(coauthor, A. Allard).
LIGHT, F. W. Jr. "Enumeration of Truncated Latin Rectangles," 17(1):3436.
LINDSTROM, PETER A. Problems Solved: B388, 17(4):370; B393, 17(4):373.
LORD, GRAHAM. "Degeneracy of Transformed Complete Sequences," 17(4):358361
(coauthor, Herve G. Morin). Problems Solved: B376, 17(2):186; B378, B379, 17(2):186; B388, 17(4):370; B390, 17(4):371, B392, 17(4):373.
LOYER, MILTON W. "The Diophantine Equation Nb2 = c2 + N + 1," .17(1):6970
(coauthor, David A. Anderson).
MANA, PHIL. Problems Proposed: B394, 17(1):90; B404, B405, 17(2):184;
B412, 17(4):369; B417, 17(4):370 (coproposer, R. M. Grassl). Problems
Solved: B370, 17(1):91; B380, 17(2):187; B388, 17(4):370; B390, 17(4):
372; B392, 17(4):373.
MCLAUGHLIN, WILLIAM I. "Note on a Tetranacci Alternative to Bodefs Law," 17
(2) .116118.
METZGER, J. M. Problems Solved: B376, B377, 17(2):185.
MIDTTUN, NORVALD. "Congruences for Certain Fibonacci Numbers," 17(1):4041.
MILLER, ELLEN R. Problem Solved: B388, 17(4):370.
MORIN, HERVE G. "Degeneracy of Transformed Complete Sequences," 17(4):358361 (coauthor, Graham Lord).
M0RIT0, SUSUMU. "Finding the General Solution of a Linear Diophantine Equation," 17(4) : 361368 (coauthor, Harvey M. Salkin).
MULLEN, GARY L. Problem Proposed: B401, 17(2):184. Problem Solved: B376,
17(2):185.
MURPHY, JAMES L. Problem Proposed: H300, 17(2):189.
NARAYANSWAMI, S. "A Modification of Goka's Binary Sequence," 17(3):212220
(coauthor, A. S. Adikesavan).
NEUMANN, B. H. "Some Sequences Like Fibonacci's," 17(l):8083 (coauthor,
L. G. Wilson).
O'DONNELL, WILLIAM J. "A Note on a PellType Sequence," 17(l):4950. "Two
^Theorems Concerning Hexagonal Numbers," 17(l):7779.
OWINGS, JAMES C., Jr. "Solution of (y
Numbers," 17(1):6769.
" \
+ 1
) = (
/
\x
) in Terms of Fibonacci
t 1/
1979]
VOLUME INDEX
383
384
VOLUME INDEX
Dec. 1979
TRIGG, CHARLES W. Problems Solved: B376, 17(2):185; B382, 17(3):283; B385, 17(3):283284.
TURNER, STEPHEN JOHN. "Probability Via the Nth Order Fibonacci^7 Sequence,"
17(l):2328.
VOGEL, JOHN W. Problem Solved: B381, 17(2):188.
WACHTEL, M. Problem Proposed: B410, 17(3):282. Problems Solved: B376,
17(2):185 (cosolver, E. Schmutz); B391, 17(4):372373.
WALL, CHARLES R. "Some Congruences Involving Generalized Fibonacci Numbers,"
17(l):2933.
WEGER, RONALD C. "Pythagorean Triples and Triangular Numbers," 17(2):168172
(coauthor, David W. Ballew).
WEINSTEIN, GERALD. uAn Algorithm for Packing Complements of Finite Sets of
Integers," 17(4):289293.
WHITNEY, RAYMOND E. Problems Proposed: H254, H271, 17(3):288.
WHITNEY, RAYMOND E., Ed. "Advanced Problems and Solutions," 17(1):9496;
17(2):189192; 17(3):286288; 17(4):374377.
WILSON, L. G. "Some Sequences Like Fibonacci's," 17(l):8083 (coauthor, B.
H. Neumann).
WOO, NORMAN. "A Note on Basic AfTuples," 17(2):165168.
WULCZYN, GREGORY. Problems Proposed: B397, 17(1):90; H295, 17(1):94; B402, B403, 17(2):184; H299, 17(2):189; B409, 17(3):281. Problems Solved:
B370, 17(1):91; B376, 17(2):185; B378, B379, 17(2):186; H275, 17(2):
191; B382, B383, B384, 17(3):283; B385, 17(3):283284; B386, 17(3):
284; B388 17(4):370; B389, 17(4):371; B390, 17(4):372; B392 , B394,
17(4):373.
ZWILLINGER, DAN. Problem Solved: B380, 17(2):186.
(continued
from page
344)