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 1.intoduction about packaging.

 2.general requirement for packaging or specification of packaging.

 3.different types of packagings.

-packaging containers.

-packaging materials.

-selection of proper materials.

-collepsible tubes.

-closures.

-temper-resistant packaging.

 3.standards for packagings.

 4. FDA regulations

Introduction about packaging

 Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting


products for distribution, storage, sale & use.

 Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of


packages.

 The main use for packaging is protection of the goods inside, but packaging
also provides us with a recognisable logo, or packaging, we instantly know
what the goods are inside

The purposes of packaging

 Physical Protection - The objects enclosed in the package may require


protection from, among other things, shock, vibration, compression,
temperature, etc.

 Barrier Protection - A barrier from oxygen, water vapor, dust, etc., is often
required. Package permeability is a critical factor in design. Some packages
contain desiccants or Oxygen absorbers to help extend shelf life. Modified
atmospheres or controlled atmospheres are also maintained in some food
packages. Keeping the contents clean, fresh, and safe for the intended shelf
life is a primary function.

 Containment or Agglomeration - Small objects are typically grouped


together in one package for reasons of efficiency. For example, a single box
of 1000 pencils requires less physical handling than 1000 single pencils.
Liquids, powders, and flowables need containment.

 Information transmission - Information on how to use, transport, recycle,


or dispose of the package or product is often contained on the package or
label. With pharmaceutical, food, medical, and chemical products, some
types of information are required by governments.

 Marketing - The packaging and labels can be used by marketers to


encourage potential buyers to purchase the product. Package design has
been an important and constantly evolving phenomenon for dozens of years.
Marketing communications and graphic design are applied to the surface of
the package and (in many cases) the point of sale display

 Security - Packaging can play an important role in reducing the security risks
of shipment. Packages can be made with improved tamper resistance to
deter tampering and also can have tamper-evident features to help indicate
tampering. Packages can be engineered to help reduce the risks of package
pilferage: Some package constructions are more resistant to pilferage and
some have pilfer indicating seals. Packages may include authentication seals
to help indicate that the package and contents are not counterfeit. Packages
also can include anti-theft devices, such as dye-packs,or electronic article
surveillance tags, that can be activated or detected by devices at exit points
and require specialized tools to deactivate. Using packaging in this way is a
means of loss prevention.

 Convenience - Packages can have features which add convenience in


distribution, handling, display, sale, opening, reclosing, use, and reuse.

 Portion Control - Single serving or single dosage packaging has a precise


amount of contents to control usage. Bulk commodities (such as salt) can be
divided into packages that are a more suitable size for individual households.
It is also aids the control of inventory: selling sealed one-liter-bottles of milk,
rather than having people bring their own bottles to fill themselves.

Symbols used on packages


Fragile Use no hand hooks
This way up
Keep away from sunlight Keep away from water

Clamp as indicated Do not clamp as


indicated

The traditional “three R’s” of reduce, reuse, and recycle

• All 3 R’s are important in product and package development.


Prevention – Waste prevention is a primary goal. Packaging should be used only
where needed. Proper packaging can also help prevent waste. Packaging plays an
important part in preventing loss or damage to the packaged-product (contents).
Usually, the energy content and material usage of the product being packaged are
much greater than that of the package. A vital function of the package is to protect
the product for its intended use: if the product is damaged or degraded, its entire
energy and material content may be lost.

Minimization – (also ‘’source reduction’’) -The mass and volume of packaging


(per unit of contents) can be measured and used as one of the criteria to minimize
during the package design process. Usually “reduced” packaging also helps
minimize costs. Packaging engineers continue to work toward reduced packging.

Reuse – The reuse of a package or component for other purposes is encouraged.


Returnable packaging has long been useful (and economically viable) for closed
loop logistics systems. Inspection, cleaning, & repair are often needed.

Recycling – Recycling is the reprocessing of materials (pre- and post-consumer)


into new products. Emphasis is focused on recycling the largest primary
components of a package: steel, aluminum, papers, plastics, etc. Small components
can be chosen which are not difficult to separate and do not contaminate recycling
operations.
Energy recovery – Waste-to-energy and Refuse-derived fuel in approved facilities
are able to make use of the heat available from the packaging components.

Disposal – Incineration, and placement in a sanitary landfill are needed for some
materials. Material content should be checked for potential hazards to emissions
and ash from incineration and leachate from landfill.Packages should not be littered.

Packaging machines may be of the following general types

 Blister, Skin and Vacuum Packaging Machines

 Capping, Over-Capping, Lidding, Closing, Seaming and Sealing Machines

 Cartoning Machines

 Case and Tray Forming, Packing, Unpacking, Closing and Sealing Machines

 Cleaning, Sterilizing, Cooling and Drying Machines

 Conveying, Accumulating and Related Machines

 Feeding, Orienting, Placing and Related Machines

 Filling Machines: handling liquid and powdered products

 Package Filling and Closing Machines

 Form, Fill and Seal Machines

 Inspecting, Detecting and Checkweighing Machines

 Palletizing, Depalletizing, Pallet Unitizing and Related Machines

 Product Identification: labelling, marking, etc.

 Wrapping Machines

 Converting Machines

 Other speciality machinery: slitters, perforating, laser cutters, parts


attachment, etc

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

 All the packaging material/package manufactured shall meet relevant


standards of BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) pertaining to safety, quality
and performance wherever applicable.
 The manufacturer of packaging material/package must produce the consent
clearance as per the provisions of Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution)
Act, 1974 and Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 along with
the authorisation, if required, under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
and the rules made thereunder to BIS while applying for Ecomark.
Additionally the manufacturer shall also comply with the provisions under
prevention of Food Adulteration Act 1954 and rules made there under,
wherever necessary.

 The packaging material/package may display in brief the criteria based on


which the product has been labelled as Environment Friendly.

The packaging material/package may be sold along with instruction for proper use
and mode of safe disposal so as to maximise product performance and minimise
wastage.

• It shall also be suitably mentioned that ECOMARK label is applicable only to


the packaging material/package, if content is not separately covered under
Ecomark. It may be stated that the Ecomark is applicable to the product or
packaging material or both.

• There shall not be any obnoxious odour in laminates and products thereof.

The materials selected have following characteristic-

 They must protect the preparation from environmental condition.

 They must not be reactive with the product.

 They must not impart the product tastes or odors.

 They must be nontoxic.

 They must be FDA approved.

 They meet applicable tamper-resistance requirements.

 They must be adaptable to commonly employed high speed packaging


equipment.

Different types of packaging materials

 Packaging container-mostly 2 types of containers are widely use.

 1.glass containers

 2.plastic containers
now-a-days plastic containers are more use in syrup bottle preparation.the
selection of package therefore begins with determination of product’s physical &
chemical characteristics,its protective needs and marketing requirements.

 1.Glass containers-Glass is commonly used in pharmaceutical packaging


because it possesses superior protective qualities,it is economical &
containers are readily available in a variety of sizes and shape.

 It is essentialy chemically inert, impermeable, strong & rigid & has FDA
clearance.

 It is not deteriorate with age & with proper closure system,it provides an
excellent barrier against practically every element except light.

 Colored Glass, especially amber, can give protection against light when it is
required.

 Major disadvantages of glass as a packaging material are its fragility and its
weight.
Composition of Glass-

 Glass is composed principally of sand, soda-ash, limestone, and cullet.

 Many useful properties of glass are affected by the kind of elements it


contains.

 Reduction in the proportion of sodium ions makes glass chemically resistant;


however, without sodium or other

 glass is difficult and expensive to melt.

 Boron oxide is incorporated mainly to aid in the melting process through


reduction of the temperature required.

 Lead in small traces gives clarity and brilliance, but produces a relatively soft
grade of glass.

 Alumina ( aluminum oxide ) , however, is often used to increase the


hardness and durability and to increase resistance to chemical action.

Glass for Drugs

 The USP and NF describe the various types of glass and provide the powered
glass and water attack tests for evaluating the chemical resistance of glass.

Type-1- Borosilicate Glass.

Type-2- Treated Soda-Lime Glass.


Type-3- Regular Soda-Lime Glass.

Type-NP- General purpose Soda-Lime Glass.