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Avancier Methods (AM)
Define architect roles
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See also “Some
architect role

Avancier Methods


Establish capability
Establish directives....
Scope the endeavour
Get vision approved




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Study the strategic context
Establish authority for architecture
Define the architecting organisation
Define the architecture processes
Define the architecture resources



Architecture domains
From Business through Information Systems to

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Architects support and enable a business by

► Focusing on business roles and processes that
■ are systemisable (repeatable and deterministic)
■ are digitisable (create or use digitised data)

► Shaping and steering the portfolio of systems that
■ enable and support, monitor and direct
■ business roles and processes




► Ensuring a robust IT platform
IT platform

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Architects look for opportunities to exploit information
► The digitisation of business processes has enabled
business to:
■ standardise and integrate business processes and data to a
degree that was impossible before
■ perform new information-related processes, and
■ gather new kinds of business intelligence about entities and
events of interest to business managers.

► Timely and good quality information helps managers:
■ Faster rate of change



Products and services change more frequently
Exponential growth in mobile devices and internet.

■ Global competition and knowledge sharing


Workers available across the world - any time of the day.
Intellectual property is hard to protect
Cross-enterprise communities exchange information.

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IT platform

website .Avancier Architecture roles by level According to survey and standard Training at http://avancier.

website Survey 1 960 177 56 39 27 24 35 19 16 16 14 9 6 4 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 Survey 2 141 433 105 75 53 53 21 37 70 27 .Architect roles in IT organisations ► Many job titles used in adverts ► Many are ambiguous ► There are inconsistent names and definitions ► Survey 1: over two thousand IT job adverts with architect in the title. ► Survey 2: over one thousand roles from a different source Avancier Architect job title in job advert Technical Architect Solution(s) Architect Enterprise Architect Network Architect System(s) Architect Infrastructure Architect Information or Data Architect Application(s) Architect Security Architect Java Architect Software Architect Functional Architect IT Architect Product Architect Oracle Architect SAP Architect Business Architect (1) Analyst (2) Technology Architect Environment Architect Process Architect Development Architect Training at http://avancier.

The top three architect job titles as a hierarchy Architect job title in job advert Technical Architect Solution(s) Architect Enterprise Architect Avancier Survey 1 960 177 56 Enterprise architects Elaboration Refinement Specialisation Concretion Solution(s) architects Technical architects (mostly specialists) Training at Abstraction Survey 2 141 433 105 .

decision-making roles. . Circa 2007! ► But architectural decisions need to be understood at every level ► And architecture description can be done by juniors Training at http://avancier.Architects as seniors Avancier ► Architect roles are seen as senior.

website 7 7 .Skills Framework for the Information Age (SFIA) Avancier ► The UK standard ► A small selection of roles shown below ► Note the seniority of EA and SA roles Role Enterprise architecture Solution architecture Project management Business analysis Business modelling Requirements definition and management System design Database design Software development Database admin Responsibility level 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 Training at http://avancier.

► So. “architect” is protected in law. ■ academic education ■ practical work done under Avancier .Q) When can I start out as an architect? ► In building architecture. ► You cannot put the term “architect” on your business card until you have qualified after an intensive 7 years. should an enterprise or solution architect should have 7 years experience of relevant projects? Training at http://avancier.

Avancier Solution Architects Training at .

website .Solution Architect goals Avancier ► Focus on success in solution delivery ► Design and deliver an effective and efficient solution ► Identify and manage technical risks along the way. Training at http://avancier.

policies. non-functional and ITSM requirements selection of solution components co-ordinates design activities. ► SA Level 6: [top level design and coordination] ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ leads architectures for complex systems. manages the target design ensures consistency with specified requirements responsible for the balance between functional. Training at http://avancier.Solution Architect role in SFIA ► A leadership. guidance and coordination role wrt a specific system. ► SA Level 5: [still high level design] ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ logical models of components and interfaces detailed component specifications detailed designs for implementation using selected products assists in technical plans and cooperates with business assurance and project staff ensures relevant technical Avancier . standards and practices are applied. promoting the discipline to ensure consistency.

Solution Architect role in general ► Address sponsors and stakeholders who ■ have problems and requirements. ► Work closely with ■ project managers. Training at http://avancier. and ■ want systems to support business roles and processes. EA and solution directors ■ business analysts and business change specialists ► Lead others by ■ shaping and direct solutions ► Attend early to ■ critical non-functional requirements and ■ physical design matters ► Govern delivery ■ may double as a project-level technical/software Avancier .

Solution Architect Requirements Specialists Database Specialists Software Specialists Technology Specialists Team of Software and other Technical Specialists ► The right hand (wo)man of the programme/project manager. promoting the discipline to ensure consistency. policies. and ensures they are Avancier . ► An experienced generalist who joins up specialists to deliver the solution ► Smells out costs and risks. ■ ensures relevant technical strategies. standards and practices are applied.Solution Architect as generalist and risk mitigator ► SFIA says: ■ leads architectures for complex systems. Training at http://avancier. manages the target design ■ co-ordinates design activities.

website .Avancier Enterprise Architects Training at http://avancier.

► Silos are the result of architects being given only narrow projectspecific objectives. silo (or point) solutions proliferate ► A silo is an organisation unit or application that: ► is not standardised ■ does not follow the same rules or processes as another doing the same thing ► is not joined up ■ does not share information with another doing something different ► does not share/reuse common services ■ at the business or technology Avancier . ► Where to find the motivation and ability to avoid or reduce silo solutions? Training at http://avancier.Without EA.

policies. ■ “setting strategies. standards and practices” appears twice ► EA is more ■ Strategic ■ Cross-organisational ■ Abstract ► SA is more ■ Tactical ■ Local ■ Concrete Training at Avancier .EA is more strategic than SA ► SFIA defines EA development in 16 sentences in which ■ “strategy”. “strategies” and “strategic” appear 18 times.

“EA as Strategy” . Weill and Robertson Avancier ► Prompts EAs to position an enterprise’s “operating model” ► in a quadrant of a standardisation/integration grid. Integration Positioning the “Operating model” for core business processes High integration Coordinated Unified Low integration Diversified Replicated Low standardisation High standardisation Standardisation ► EA aims for integration and reuse of business systems ■ shared processes ■ shared data ■ shared services Training at http://avancier.

generic components idealised/conceptual models.” ► “elements in an enterprise architecture may still be considerably abstracted from Solution Architecture. and strategic road maps.” TOGAF Training at http://avancier. or implementation views.” ■ often leads a group of the Segment Architects and/or Solution Architects related to a given program. Avancier ► “The Enterprise Architect ■ has the responsibility for architectural design and documentation at a landscape and technical reference model level. design.EA is more abstract than SA ► EA works at the highest level of abstraction ► with ■ ■ ■ ■ coarse-grained .

■ interoperable and/or Low High Standardisation . ► Deliver cross-organisational road maps and EA collateral. and ► Govern Solution Architects to ensure that solutions are High Low Positioning the “Operating model” Coordinated Unified Diversified Replicated Training at http://avancier. ■ standardised.Enterprise Architect goals ► ► ► ► Avancier Optimise an enterprise’s many services and systems Remove redundancy Standardise services and systems Improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the whole enterprise ■ de-duplicated. Integration Has to ► Understand the enterprise’s estate.

enable cross-organisational systemisation of a business. define a strategic context for business system changes.Most modern EA frameworks indicate that ► EA strives for enterprise-wide optimisation of business systems. 4. abstract architecture documentation from implementation organise and maintain architecture descriptions for future understanding and change impact analysis Training at http://avancier. standards. patterns and high-level architecture descriptions so as to: Avancier . 2. encourage integration and standardization (reuse) if business processes. 3. 5. 6. ► EA defines enterprise-level principles. align information systems to business needs across the four primary architecture domains.

website Avancier .EA cannot be all things to all people ► The enterprise architect’s role is not to ■ ■ ■ ■ direct business strategy manage programmes manage human resources develop software ► An EA is not expected to lead the design and planning of ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ a hardware product a production line a marketing strategy an IT data centre organisation design from a sociological perspective ► Though EA should be coordinated with all the above Training at http://avancier.

website .Avancier Enterprise and solution architects Working together in an organisation Training at http://avancier.

► Share a great deal by way of ■ ■ ■ ■ Skills Knowledge Terms and concepts Techniques ► Enterprise architects cannot succeed without Solution Architects who speak the same language and work in a systematic way.What do SA and EA share? ► Enterprise and Solution Architects ■ address the same architecture domains ■ at different levels of abstraction and with different goals. ► Both need to understand Solution Architecture before they can successfully tackle more political enterprise-wide challenges. Training at Avancier .

Team of Enterprise Architects Business Specialists Data Specialists App Specialists Technology Specialists Solution Architect Requirements Specialists Database Specialists Software Specialists Technology Specialists Team of Software Architects and Technical Specialists Team of Software Architects and Technical Specialists Training at . ■ define a road map for their own domain ● (which may cut across other domain road maps and business change plans) ■ not dedicated to any particular solution delivery.An enterprise architecture team Avancier ► The EA team is often composed of domain/specialists who ■ take the cross-organisational & strategic view of their domain.

and reusable components. elaborates from the abstract to the concrete. superintends work done by service providers. Design and documentation Designs and documents solutions to specific business problems. setting strategic and cross-organisational directions. esp. Avancier Aims for delivery quality: focused on critical success factors. selects physical components. Shapes and steers a solution. Responsible for the quality and completeness of strategic road maps. Planning level and time frame Considers selected business roles and processes. Sets out strategic cross-organisational road maps Addresses the politics of cross-organisational concerns and goals. Identifies and mitigate technical risks. Often works for a service provider in the bid and/or delivery phase. Acts as highest-level design authority. May lead architects in a programme. Design and documentation Designs and documents the enterprise system estate (aka landscape) and reference models. is a manager or member of a central EA function. at a level sufficient for detailed design and building to proceed. May specialise in one architecture domain. Leadership and governance Joins up business . Understands all facets of system design well enough to join up a coherent solution architecture Shares responsibility for time and cost of solution delivery. Training at http://avancier. usually at a project level. Responsible for the completeness of solution outlines and high-level designs. software architects and technicians Submits solution architectures for approval to higher/other authorities. standards. Governs that solution architects comply with relevant overarching EA. Joins lower-level technical specialists to each other and the overall architectural landscape. Optimises the enterprise systems by integration or standardisation. Planning level and time frame Considers the whole enterprise as a system. Works at a middle level. Adopts general principles. Relatively tactical: the migration path for a programme or project. Leadership and governance Engages with senior executives and their strategies. may be asked to heed relevant overarching EA. and guide them on standardisation and integration opportunities. and reusable components. May assign other architects to work on discrete developments. Looks to increase business agility and technical agility. Governs diverse programmes over the long term. Governs solution delivery. Shapes specific solutions over a shorter time frame.Enterprise Architect Solution Architect Often works for an enterprise. Does what has to be done to address specific problems and requirements. nonfunctional qualities. Describes the architecture of a system that is the outcome of one endeavour. with delivery time and cost in mind. and shape and steer system changes with an eye on risks and costs. Works at the highest level with coarse-grained and logical outlines Documents the architecture of the enterprise enough to enable impact analysis. Defines general principles. standards. Aims for enterprise-wide integrity and quality.

website .Avancier Architecture roles by domain From Business to Technology Training at http://avancier.

Architect Roles by Domain Avancier ► There is no industry standard! ► An EA team usually divides roles by level and/or by domain The architects’ working space Domain Level Business Architecture Data Architecture Enterprise Architecture Solution Architecture Software Architecture & Technical Specialisms ► The power and the politics vary widely Training at Applications Architecture Technology Architecture .

BCS reference model of architect roles by domain and levels ► Any given role may span more than one column and row Business Enterprise level Solution level Software and other technical domain specialism level Training at Avancier .

Enterprise/Data Data standardisation & integration Data store & data flow catalogues Maps data to business functions Business data model & views of it Canonical data model(s) Core business data entity life cycles Etc.BCS E&SA reference model – architecture work space Avancier Business view Information/data view Applications view Infrastructure Platform view Enterprise/Business Standardisation & integration of business roles & processes Business function/capability hierarchy Business products & services catalogue Business processes and roles Etc. Enterprise/Apps Business app standardisation & integration Business app portfolio/catalogue Maps business apps to business functions Business app life cycles and road maps Etc. Solution/Data For a required system/solution: Maps data to processes and roles Logical data models CIA requirements Data qualities/meta data Etc. Solution/Platform For a required system/solution: Maps platform to business apps Platform technology definitions Client & server node definitions Design for NFRs Outline deployment diagrams Outline network diagrams Etc. Training at http://avancier. Enterprise/Platform Platform standardisation & integration Platform technology portfolio/catalogue Platform services portfolio/catalogue (TRM) Platform technology life cycles and road maps . Solution/Business For a required system/solution: Business services Business processes and roles Mappings to goals & locations Requirements catalogues Use case diagrams and definitions Outline UI (or other I/O) designs Etc. Solution/Apps For a required system/solution: Maps use cases to processes and roles Maps business apps to use cases Design for NFRs Coarse-grained app components Coarse-grained sequence diagrams Etc. Software/Apps Detailed (fine-grained) software design Governs software development Etc. Software/Platform Detailed deployment diagrams Detailed network diagrams. Software/Business Detailed use case definitions Detailed UI designs Governs UI implementation Etc. Software/Data Detailed database design Detailed message design Governs database administration Etc. Governs platform and network configuration Etc.

website Infrastructure .Organisation A Avancier Business Apps Data Enterprise Architects Solution Architects BA Solution Designers Training at http://avancier.

and Operators Training at http://avancier.Organisation B Data Business Avancier Apps Strategic plan Business Analysts Systems Analysts Infrastructure Enterprise Architects Outline solution High level design Detailed design Technical specification DBAs. Code and configuration Solution Architects Software Architects and Technical Specialists .

website .Organisation C Avancier Training at http://avancier.

website Data Arch Apps Arch IT Arch . Visions & Segments Model Initiatives Organisation Applications Design Operating Model Human IT Infrastructure Infrastructure Offices Data Centres Training at http://avancier.Organisation D Avancier Drivers Strategic Management Products & Services Channels Other management functions Business Arch Processes and Data OD HR FM The EA space Customer Business Goals.

Avancier Architect as designer and governor one who designs buildings and superintends their construction Training at .

Any maker.” Training at http://avancier. One who designs buildings and superintends their Avancier . one of the fine arts” “Architect: Master builder [from the Greek]. In a specific sense. a contriver.Architecture and architects (after Chambers 20th century dictionary) “Architecture: The art or science of building.

documentation Training at http://avancier.People called ‘architect’ sometimes ► Play roles as ► business analyst ► project manager ► But that is not our focus here ► ► ► ► ► Avancier Install systems Manage operational systems Monitor systems and diagnose faults Mend a system when issues arise Document a (baseline) system after it is built ► But really. that is . fire fighting. operations.

cost. time. requirements. Avancier System descriptions idealise abstract level create and use inform Operational systems Architects observe and envisage already built and to be built Training at http://avancier. principles.Architects as architects Contextual information stakeholders. . and other precursors that architects must respond to.

Architects as describers Avancier Architectural description specifies the structure and behaviour of a a collection of interacting subsystems. . an encapsulated set of processes that transform input into outputs. can exist before and after the system idealise create and use Operational system Architects observe and envisage Training at http://avancier.

Training at .Architects as describers Avancier ► Architects have to learn how to produce plans containing architecture descriptions. ► Just as builders must learn how to build to those specifications.

Architect as chief designer ► Given a customer’s requirements for an operational system ► The architect must set out the form and functions of that system. ► Direct others in the detailed design and building of the system Training at Avancier .

” Should ► Understand business and technical contexts ► Understand design patterns and trade offs. ► Understand the strengths and weakness of materials ► Create and evaluate different options ► Make decisions ► Design and describe new (target) systems ■ To an acceptable level of detail Training at http://avancier.Architect as chief designer ► “Architect: Master builder [from the Greek].website Avancier . ► One who designs buildings and superintends their construction.

Architecture as higher level design Higher level design Directs and constrains Strategies and road maps Longer time -> Shorter time Avancier Lower level design Shorter term sprints and deadlines Broader Physical technology solutions Realisation by internal roles and process Designed roles and interfaces . shorter Composition -> Decomposition coarser-grained subsystems processes and finer-grained components Standards. Generalisation -> Specialisation reference models patterns and reference models Business needs and idealised system descriptions Idealisation -> Realisation Encapsulation by services in interfaces External -> Internal Required services and processes Behaviour -> Structure Training at http://avancier. principles. longer processes and Narrower requirements. principles. patterns and Application of standards.

Three dimensions of scope Breadth Constraints Depth Size & complexity of system or project Large / Medium / Small Time & resources to describe the system or project Little / Moderate / Lots Level of detail reachable in descriptions or plans Large Little Vacuous Medium Little Sketchy Large Moderate Sketchy Medium Moderate Elaborate Small Little Elaborate Large Lots Elaborate Small Moderate Fulsome Medium Lots Fulsome Small Lots Complete Training at .How far can an architecture description be refined? Avancier ► The level of detail depends on ► the breadth of the system or endeavour ► the constraints on the available time. money and resources.

How far should an architecture description be refined? ► Until the cone of uncertainty has narrowed sufficiently that ■ stakeholders understand the benefits. Vision Outline Plan Build Implement ► Focus early on costs and risks associated with NFRs. ► Analysts complete functional requirements incrementally Training at http://avancier. costs and risks ■ a decision to invest in the next stage can be Avancier .

Architect as governor Avancier ► “Architect: Master builder [from the Greek].website .” Architecting Govern builders Hand over Govern operational change Training at http://avancier. ► One who designs buildings and ► superintends their construction.

► Which can be a thankless task! Training at . ► rather than fight them later.Architects should Avancier ► Identify fire risks and ► design to prevent fires breaking out.

► An architect may spend a minority of time on architecting .but they need to understand it deeply . the architect is left with a fire-fighting role. ► Where architects are called in after major design decisions have been made by non-architects. ► From a LinkedIn discussion Training at Avancier . ► "Architects" are accountable for this .to be accountable for it.How much architecting does an architect do? ► "Architecting" is the high-level design of the structure and behaviour of systems. for which they also need to understand architecting.even if they don't actually do it themselves.

Avancier Architecture backgrounds From Business to Technology Training at .

Q) What experience do I need? Avancier ► It helps to have experience of detailed design and low-level architecture descriptions .website Technology .in junior and specialist roles Business Enterprise & Solution Architecture Requirements Infrastructure Data Applications Software Training at http://avancier.

Probably the most natural background? Avancier ► Roles in data architecture/design and software architecture/ Technology . Business Enterprise & Solution Architecture Requirements Infrastructure Data Applications Software Training at http://avancier.

Business Enterprise & Solution Architecture Requirements Infrastructure Data Applications Software Training at http://avancier. though some of those find the “techy” bits Technology .Another entry route Avancier ► Some arrive from roles in requirements analysis ► OK.

Another entry route Avancier ► Some arrive from roles in infrastructure architecture/design ► OK. though some of those find the “abstraction” scary. Business Enterprise & Solution Architecture Requirements Infrastructure Data Applications Software Training at Technology .

► He/she must talk to specialists in every area with confidence. ► Avancier . and make decisions. he/she does need several years relevant experience.Q) Can I be an architect without years of experience? ► An architect should have a holistic understanding of all domains. address architectural risks and costs. training is intended to shorten the experience needed Training at http://avancier. ► However.

and also: ■ specific to different levels of enterprise and solution architecture.Avancier’s training for Enterprise & Solution Architects ► A broad view of architecture ► A contextual understanding that is ■ useful for project-level technical/software/infrastructure architects ■ necessary in more senior architect roles. ► Knowledge and techniques that are ■ useful at every level of architecture. Training at Avancier . .Methods and resources ► Avancier Methods are useful with all architecture frameworks that share similar ends and means Avancier BCS E&SA reference model ArchiMate Language Framework ► TOGAF The Open Group Avancier Methods CSC’s domains of change (POLDAT) IBM’s view EA EA as Strategy” MIT Training at http://avancier.