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Avancier

Avancier Methods (AM)


INITIATE
Define architect roles
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See also Some


architect role
definitions

Avancier Methods

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Initiate
Establish capability
Establish directives....
Scope the endeavour
Get vision approved

Govern

Manage

Plan

Training at http://avancier.website

Study the strategic context


Establish authority for architecture
Define the architecting organisation
Define the architecture processes
Define the architecture resources

Architect

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Architecture domains
From Business through Information Systems to
Technology

Training at http://avancier.website

Architects support and enable a business by

Focusing on business roles and processes that


are systemisable (repeatable and deterministic)
are digitisable (create or use digitised data)

Shaping and steering the portfolio of systems that


enable and support, monitor and direct
business roles and processes

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Business
Process

Process
Information
Systems
Data

Ensuring a robust IT platform


IT platform
Technologies

Training at http://avancier.website

Architects look for opportunities to exploit information


The digitisation of business processes has enabled
business to:
standardise and integrate business processes and data to a
degree that was impossible before
perform new information-related processes, and
gather new kinds of business intelligence about entities and
events of interest to business managers.

Timely and good quality information helps managers:


Faster rate of change

Business
Process

Process
Information
Systems
Data

Products and services change more frequently


Exponential growth in mobile devices and internet.

Global competition and knowledge sharing

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Workers available across the world - any time of the day.


Intellectual property is hard to protect
Cross-enterprise communities exchange information.

Training at http://avancier.website

IT platform
Technologies

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Architecture roles by level


According to survey and standard

Training at http://avancier.website

Architect roles in IT organisations


Many job titles used in
adverts
Many are ambiguous
There are inconsistent
names and definitions

Survey 1: over two thousand IT job


adverts with architect in the title.
Survey 2: over one thousand roles
from a different source

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Architect job title in job advert


Technical Architect
Solution(s) Architect
Enterprise Architect
Network Architect
System(s) Architect
Infrastructure Architect
Information or Data Architect
Application(s) Architect
Security Architect
Java Architect
Software Architect
Functional Architect
IT Architect
Product Architect
Oracle Architect
SAP Architect
Business Architect (1) Analyst (2)
Technology Architect
Environment Architect
Process Architect
Development Architect

Training at http://avancier.website

Survey 1
960
177
56
39
27
24
35
19
16
16
14
9
6
4
4
4
3
2
2
1
1

Survey 2
141
433
105

75
53
53
21

37

70
27

The top three architect job titles as a hierarchy


Architect job title in job advert
Technical Architect
Solution(s) Architect
Enterprise Architect

Avancier

Survey 1
960
177
56

Enterprise architects
Elaboration
Refinement
Specialisation
Concretion

Solution(s) architects
Technical architects (mostly specialists)

Training at http://avancier.website

Abstraction

Survey 2
141
433
105

Architects as seniors

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Architect roles are seen as senior, directing, decision-making roles.

Circa 2007!

But architectural decisions need to be understood at every level


And architecture description can be done by juniors

Training at http://avancier.website

Skills Framework for the Information Age (SFIA)

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The UK standard
A small selection of roles shown below
Note the seniority of EA and SA roles
Role
Enterprise architecture
Solution architecture
Project management
Business analysis
Business modelling
Requirements definition and
management

System design
Database design
Software development
Database admin

Responsibility level

2
2

3
3
3

4
4
4
4

5
5
5
5
5
5

6
6
6
6
6
6

2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3

4
4
4
4

5
5
5
5

6
6

Training at http://avancier.website

7
7

Q) When can I start out as an architect?


In building architecture, architect is protected in law.
You cannot put the term architect on your business card until you
have qualified after an intensive 7 years.
academic education
practical work done under supervision.

So, should an enterprise or solution architect should have 7 years


experience of relevant projects?

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Solution Architects

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Solution Architect goals

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Focus on success in solution delivery


Design and deliver an effective and efficient solution
Identify and manage technical risks along the way.

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Solution Architect role in SFIA


A leadership, guidance and coordination role wrt a specific system.
SA Level 6: [top level design and coordination]

leads architectures for complex systems, manages the target design


ensures consistency with specified requirements
responsible for the balance between functional, non-functional and ITSM requirements
selection of solution components
co-ordinates design activities, promoting the discipline to ensure consistency.

SA Level 5: [still high level design]

logical models of components and interfaces


detailed component specifications
detailed designs for implementation using selected products
assists in technical plans and cooperates with business assurance and project staff
ensures relevant technical strategies, policies, standards and practices are applied.

Training at http://avancier.website

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Solution Architect role in general


Address sponsors and stakeholders who
have problems and requirements, and
want systems to support business roles and processes.

Work closely with


project managers, EA and solution directors
business analysts and business change specialists

Lead others by
shaping and direct solutions

Attend early to
critical non-functional requirements and
physical design matters

Govern delivery
may double as a project-level technical/software lead.

Training at http://avancier.website

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Solution Architect as generalist and risk mitigator


SFIA says:
leads architectures for complex systems, manages the target design
co-ordinates design activities, promoting the discipline to ensure consistency.
ensures relevant technical strategies, policies, standards and practices are applied.

Solution Architect
Requirements
Specialists

Database
Specialists

Software
Specialists

Technology
Specialists

Team of Software and other Technical Specialists

The right hand (wo)man of the programme/project manager.


An experienced generalist who joins up specialists to deliver the solution
Smells out costs and risks, and ensures they are addressed.

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Enterprise Architects

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Without EA, silo (or point) solutions proliferate


A silo is an organisation unit or application that:
is not standardised

does not follow the same rules or processes as another doing the same thing

is not joined up

does not share information with another doing something different

does not share/reuse common services

at the business or technology level.

Silos are the result of architects being given only narrow projectspecific objectives.
Where to find the motivation and ability to avoid or reduce silo
solutions?

Training at http://avancier.website

Avancier

EA is more strategic than SA


SFIA defines EA development in 16 sentences in which
strategy, strategies and strategic appear 18 times.
setting strategies, policies, standards and practices appears twice

EA is more
Strategic
Cross-organisational
Abstract

SA is more
Tactical
Local
Concrete

Training at http://avancier.website

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EA as Strategy Ross, Weill and Robertson

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Prompts EAs to position an enterprises operating model


in a quadrant of a standardisation/integration grid.

Integration

Positioning the Operating model for core business processes


High integration

Coordinated

Unified

Low integration

Diversified

Replicated

Low standardisation High standardisation


Standardisation

EA aims for integration and reuse of business systems


shared processes
shared data
shared services

Training at http://avancier.website

EA is more abstract than SA


EA works at the highest level of
abstraction
with

coarse-grained descriptions,
generic components
idealised/conceptual models, and
strategic road maps.

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The Enterprise Architect


has the responsibility for architectural
design and documentation at a
landscape and technical reference
model level.
often leads a group of the Segment
Architects and/or Solution Architects
related to a given program.

elements in an enterprise architecture


may still be considerably abstracted
from Solution Architecture, design, or
implementation views.
TOGAF

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Enterprise Architect goals

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Optimise an enterprises many services and systems


Remove redundancy
Standardise services and systems
Improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the whole enterprise

de-duplicated,
standardised,
interoperable and/or integrated.

Integration

Has to
Understand the enterprises estate,
Deliver cross-organisational road maps and EA collateral, and
Govern Solution Architects to ensure that solutions are
High
Low

Positioning the Operating model


Coordinated
Unified
Diversified
Replicated

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Low

High

Standardisation

Most modern EA frameworks indicate that


EA strives for enterprise-wide optimisation of business systems.
EA defines enterprise-level principles, standards, patterns and
high-level architecture descriptions so as to:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

enable cross-organisational systemisation of a business.


encourage integration and standardization (reuse) if business
processes.
align information systems to business needs across the four primary
architecture domains.
define a strategic context for business system changes.
abstract architecture documentation from implementation
organise and maintain architecture descriptions for future
understanding and change impact analysis

Training at http://avancier.website

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EA cannot be all things to all people


The enterprise architects role is not to

direct business strategy


manage programmes
manage human resources
develop software

An EA is not expected to lead the design and planning of

a hardware product
a production line
a marketing strategy
an IT data centre
organisation design from a sociological perspective

Though EA should be coordinated with all the above

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Enterprise and solution architects


Working together in an organisation

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What do SA and EA share?


Enterprise and Solution Architects
address the same architecture domains
at different levels of abstraction and with different goals.

Share a great deal by way of

Skills
Knowledge
Terms and concepts
Techniques

Enterprise architects cannot succeed without Solution Architects


who speak the same language and work in a systematic way.
Both need to understand Solution Architecture before they can
successfully tackle more political enterprise-wide challenges.

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An enterprise architecture team

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The EA team is often composed of domain/specialists who


take the cross-organisational & strategic view of their domain.
define a road map for their own domain

(which may cut across other domain road maps and business change plans)

not dedicated to any particular solution delivery.


Team of Enterprise Architects
Business
Specialists

Data
Specialists

App
Specialists

Technology
Specialists

Solution Architect

Requirements
Specialists

Database
Specialists

Software
Specialists

Technology
Specialists

Team of Software Architects and Technical Specialists


Team of Software Architects and Technical Specialists

Training at http://avancier.website

Enterprise Architect

Solution Architect

Often works for an enterprise, is a manager or member of a central


EA function, superintends work done by service providers.
Optimises the enterprise systems by integration or standardisation.
Aims for enterprise-wide integrity and quality.
Responsible for the quality and completeness of strategic road maps.
May specialise in one architecture domain.
Looks to increase business agility and technical agility.

Often works for a service provider in the bid and/or delivery phase.
Shapes and steers a solution, usually at a project level.
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Aims for delivery quality: focused on critical success factors, esp. nonfunctional qualities.
Responsible for the completeness of solution outlines and high-level designs.
Understands all facets of system design well enough to join up a coherent
solution architecture
Shares responsibility for time and cost of solution delivery.

Leadership and governance


Engages with senior executives and their strategies.
Acts as highest-level design authority.
May lead architects in a programme, and guide them on
standardisation and integration opportunities.
May assign other architects to work on discrete developments.
Defines general principles, standards, and reusable components.
Governs that solution architects comply with relevant overarching EA.

Leadership and governance


Joins up business analysts, software architects and technicians
Submits solution architectures for approval to higher/other authorities.
Joins lower-level technical specialists to each other and the overall
architectural landscape.
Identifies and mitigate technical risks, with delivery time and cost in mind.
Adopts general principles, standards, and reusable components.
Governs solution delivery, may be asked to heed relevant overarching EA.

Planning level and time frame


Considers the whole enterprise as a system.
Sets out strategic cross-organisational road maps
Addresses the politics of cross-organisational concerns and goals,
setting strategic and cross-organisational directions.
Governs diverse programmes over the long term.

Planning level and time frame


Considers selected business roles and processes.
Relatively tactical: the migration path for a programme or project.
Does what has to be done to address specific problems and requirements,
and shape and steer system changes with an eye on risks and costs.
Shapes specific solutions over a shorter time frame.

Design and documentation


Designs and documents the enterprise system estate (aka
landscape) and reference models.
Works at the highest level with coarse-grained and logical outlines
Documents the architecture of the enterprise enough to enable
impact analysis.

Design and documentation


Designs and documents solutions to specific business problems.
Works at a middle level, elaborates from the abstract to the concrete, selects
physical components.
Describes the architecture of a system that is the outcome of one endeavour,
at a level sufficient for detailed design and building to proceed.

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Architecture roles by domain


From Business to Technology

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Architect Roles by Domain

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There is no industry standard!


An EA team usually divides roles by level and/or by domain

The architects working space


Domain
Level

Business
Architecture

Data
Architecture

Enterprise Architecture
Solution Architecture
Software Architecture &
Technical Specialisms

The power and the politics vary widely

Training at http://avancier.website

Applications
Architecture

Technology
Architecture

BCS reference model of architect roles by domain and levels


Any given role may span more than one column and row

Business
Enterprise level

Solution level

Software and other technical domain specialism level

Training at http://avancier.website

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BCS E&SA reference model architecture work space

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Business
view

Information/data
view

Applications
view

Infrastructure Platform
view

Enterprise/Business
Standardisation & integration
of business roles & processes
Business function/capability hierarchy
Business products & services catalogue
Business processes and roles
Etc.

Enterprise/Data
Data standardisation & integration
Data store & data flow catalogues
Maps data to business functions
Business data model & views of it
Canonical data model(s)
Core business data entity life cycles
Etc.

Enterprise/Apps
Business app standardisation &
integration
Business app portfolio/catalogue
Maps business apps to business functions
Business app life cycles and road maps
Etc.

Enterprise/Platform
Platform standardisation & integration
Platform technology portfolio/catalogue
Platform services portfolio/catalogue
(TRM)
Platform technology life cycles and road
maps
Etc.

Solution/Business
For a required system/solution:
Business services
Business processes and roles
Mappings to goals & locations
Requirements catalogues
Use case diagrams and definitions
Outline UI (or other I/O) designs
Etc.

Solution/Data
For a required system/solution:
Maps data to processes and roles
Logical data models
CIA requirements
Data qualities/meta data
Etc.

Solution/Apps
For a required system/solution:
Maps use cases to processes and roles
Maps business apps to use cases
Design for NFRs
Coarse-grained app components
Coarse-grained sequence diagrams
Etc.

Solution/Platform
For a required system/solution:
Maps platform to business apps
Platform technology definitions
Client & server node definitions
Design for NFRs
Outline deployment diagrams
Outline network diagrams
Etc.

Software/Business
Detailed use case definitions
Detailed UI designs
Governs UI implementation
Etc.

Software/Data
Detailed database design
Detailed message design
Governs database administration
Etc.

Software/Apps
Detailed (fine-grained) software design
Governs software development
Etc.

Software/Platform
Detailed deployment diagrams
Detailed network diagrams.
Governs platform and network
configuration
Etc.

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Organisation A
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Business

Apps

Data

Enterprise Architects

Solution Architects
BA

Solution Designers

Training at http://avancier.website

Infrastructure

Organisation B

Data

Business

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Apps
Strategic plan

Business Analysts

Systems Analysts

Infrastructure
Enterprise
Architects

Outline solution

High level design

Detailed design

Technical specification
DBAs, Programmers, and Operators
Training
at http://avancier.website
Code
and
configuration

Solution
Architects

Software Architects
and Technical Specialists

Organisation C
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Training at http://avancier.website

Organisation D
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Drivers

Strategic
Management

Products &
Services

Channels
Other
management
functions

Business
Arch

Processes
and Data

OD
HR
FM

The
EA space

Customer Business
Goals, Visions &
Segments Model Initiatives

Organisation
Applications
Design
Operating
Model
Human
IT
Infrastructure
Infrastructure
Offices

Data Centres

Training at http://avancier.website

Data
Arch
Apps
Arch

IT
Arch

Avancier

Architect as designer and governor


one who designs buildings and superintends their
construction

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Architecture and architects (after Chambers 20th century dictionary)


Architecture:
The art or science of building.
In a specific sense, one of the fine arts

Architect:
Master builder [from the Greek].
One who designs buildings and superintends their construction.
Any maker; a contriver.

Training at http://avancier.website

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People called architect sometimes


Play roles as
business analyst
project manager
But that is not our focus here

Avancier

Install systems
Manage operational systems
Monitor systems and diagnose faults
Mend a system when issues arise
Document a (baseline) system after it
is built

But really, that is engineering,


operations, fire fighting, documentation

Training at http://avancier.website

Architects as architects

Contextual information
stakeholders, concerns,
requirements, principles,
time, cost, and other
precursors that architects
must respond to.

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System descriptions

idealise
abstract level

create and use

inform

Operational systems

Architects

observe and envisage


already built and to be built

Training at http://avancier.website

Architects as describers

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Architectural
description
specifies the structure
and behaviour of a
system;
can exist before and after
the system

idealise

create and use


Operational system

Architects

observe and envisage

Training at http://avancier.website

a collection of interacting
subsystems; an
encapsulated set of
processes that transform
input into outputs.

Architects as describers

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Architects have to learn how to produce plans containing architecture


descriptions,

Just as builders must learn how to build to those specifications.

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Architect as chief designer


Given a customers requirements for an operational system
The architect must set out the form and functions of that system.

Direct others in the detailed design and building of the system

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Architect as chief designer


Architect: Master builder [from the Greek].
One who designs buildings and superintends their construction.

Should
Understand business and technical contexts
Understand design patterns and trade offs,
Understand the strengths and weakness of materials
Create and evaluate different options
Make decisions
Design and describe new (target) systems
To an acceptable level of detail

Training at http://avancier.website

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Architecture as higher level design


Higher level design

Directs and constrains

Strategies and road maps

Longer time -> Shorter time

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Lower level design


Shorter term sprints and deadlines

Broader goals, longer processes and


Narrower requirements, shorter
Composition -> Decomposition
coarser-grained subsystems
processes and finer-grained components

Standards, principles, patterns and


Application of standards, principles,
Generalisation -> Specialisation
reference models
patterns and reference models
Business needs and idealised
system descriptions

Idealisation -> Realisation

Encapsulation by services in
interfaces

External -> Internal

Required services and processes

Behaviour -> Structure

Training at http://avancier.website

Physical technology solutions

Realisation by internal roles and process


Designed roles and interfaces

How far can an architecture description be refined?

Avancier

The level of detail depends on


the breadth of the system or endeavour
the constraints on the available time, money and resources.
Three dimensions of scope
Breadth

Constraints

Depth

Size & complexity of


system or project
Large / Medium / Small

Time & resources to


describe the system or project
Little / Moderate / Lots

Level of detail reachable


in descriptions or plans

Large

Little

Vacuous

Medium

Little

Sketchy

Large

Moderate

Sketchy

Medium

Moderate

Elaborate

Small

Little

Elaborate

Large

Lots

Elaborate

Small

Moderate

Fulsome

Medium

Lots

Fulsome

Small

Lots

Complete

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How far should an architecture description be refined?


Until the cone of uncertainty has narrowed sufficiently that
stakeholders understand the benefits, costs and risks
a decision to invest in the next stage can be made.

Vision

Outline

Plan

Build

Implement

Focus early on costs and risks associated with NFRs.


Analysts complete functional requirements incrementally

Training at http://avancier.website

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Architect as governor

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Architect: Master builder [from the Greek].


One who designs buildings and
superintends their construction.
Architecting
Govern
builders

Hand
over
Govern
operational
change

Training at http://avancier.website

Architects should

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Identify fire risks and


design to prevent fires breaking out,
rather than fight them later.
Which can be a thankless task!

Training at http://avancier.website

How much architecting does an architect do?


"Architecting" is the high-level design of the structure and behaviour of
systems.
"Architects" are accountable for this - even if they don't actually do it
themselves.
An architect may spend a minority of time on architecting - but they
need to understand it deeply - to be accountable for it.

Where architects are called in after major design decisions have been
made by non-architects, the architect is left with a fire-fighting role, for
which they also need to understand architecting.
From a LinkedIn discussion

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Avancier

Architecture backgrounds
From Business to Technology

Training at http://avancier.website

Q) What experience do I need?

Avancier

It helps to have experience of detailed design and low-level


architecture descriptions - in junior and specialist roles

Business

Enterprise & Solution Architecture

Requirements

Infrastructure

Data

Applications

Software

Training at http://avancier.website

Technology

Probably the most natural background?

Avancier

Roles in data architecture/design and software architecture/design.

Business

Enterprise & Solution Architecture

Requirements

Infrastructure

Data

Applications

Software

Training at http://avancier.website

Technology

Another entry route

Avancier

Some arrive from roles in requirements analysis


OK, though some of those find the techy bits scary.

Business

Enterprise & Solution Architecture

Requirements

Infrastructure

Data

Applications

Software

Training at http://avancier.website

Technology

Another entry route

Avancier

Some arrive from roles in infrastructure architecture/design


OK, though some of those find the abstraction scary.

Business

Enterprise & Solution Architecture

Requirements

Infrastructure

Data

Applications

Software

Training at http://avancier.website

Technology

Q) Can I be an architect without years of experience?


An architect should have a holistic understanding of all domains.
He/she must talk to specialists in every area with confidence,
address architectural risks and costs, and make decisions.
So, he/she does need several years relevant experience.
However, training is intended to shorten the experience needed

Training at http://avancier.website

Avancier

Avanciers training for Enterprise & Solution Architects


A broad view of architecture
A contextual understanding that is
useful for project-level technical/software/infrastructure architects
necessary in more senior architect roles.

Knowledge and techniques that are


useful at every level of architecture, and also:
specific to different levels of enterprise and solution architecture.

Training at http://avancier.website

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Methods and resources


Avancier Methods
are useful with all
architecture
frameworks that share
similar ends and
means

Avancier

BCS E&SA
reference model
ArchiMate
Language
Framework

http://avancier.co.uk

TOGAF
The Open Group

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Methods
CSCs domains of
change (POLDAT)

IBMs view EA
EA as Strategy
MIT

Training at http://avancier.website