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FRACTAL DIMENSION ESTIMATION

Kuntpong Woraratpanya1, Donyarut Kakanopas2, Ruttikorn Varakulsiripunth3

1

Email: kuntpong@it.kmitl.ac.th

2

Faculty of Information Technology, King Mongkuts University of Technology North Bangkok, Thailand,

Email: mook327@hotmail.com

3

Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkuts Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Thailand,

Email: kvruttik@kmitl.ac.th

Received: May 30, 2012

Abstract

A fractal dimension (FD) is an important feature, which characterizes roughness and self-similarity

of complex objects in nature images. In practice, the FD is determined by a box counting (BC) that

is one of the commonly used estimation algorithms. However, this algorithm is sensitive to the

minimum box covering requirements dependent on a box-size variation and box count, thus

making a result inaccurate. This paper proposes a triangle-box counting (TBC) method, which can

provide a more accurate result of FD estimations. This method derived from the classical BC

simply divides square boxes into two equally triangle boxes to increase the precision of the box

count and fit the requirements of the minimum box covering. The implemented algorithm is

validated the accuracy of FD estimations with respect to the theoretical FDs. The experimental

results show that the TBC method provides more accurate estimations when compared with the

classical BC method. Furthermore, the TBC method is applied to a content-based image retrieval

(CBIR) system. The results illustrate that it outperforms the classical BC method in terms of recall,

precision, accuracy, and retrieved order. The higher accuracy of FD estimations leads to the more

powerful features in applying to general and fine applications.

Keywords: Fractal Dimension, Box Counting, Triangle-Box Counting, Fractal Image, Fractal

Dimension Estimation, Content-Based Image Retrieval

Introduction

A fractal dimension (FD) is an effective measure for complex objects. It can be viewed as

a feature, which characterizes roughness and self-similarity in nature images. Over the last

ten years, the FD was applied broadly in many applications such as pattern recognition,

texture analysis, segmentation, and medical signal analysis [1]. These applications rely

heavily on the FD estimation. For examples, O.M. Bruno et al [2] applied the FD to plant

identification by using box-counting (BC) and multiscale Minkowski methods to estimate

the FD. The results of this research illustrated that both methods were strong potential to

recognize tree species. In medical applications, R.D. King et al [3] used the BC method to

estimate the FD of the cortical ribbons to discriminate patients with different degrees of

cerebral atrophy. The results of using FD successfully discriminated between the two

clinical groups. J.Z. Liu et al [4] also applied the BC method to estimate the FDs of human

cerebellum. The results indicated that the cerebellum skeleton is a highly fractal structure,

and no significant difference in the cerebellum fractal dimension was observed between

men and women. Although the achievement in applying the FD to broad research areas

was reported, almost papers suggested that the accurate FD estimation method still

required. Various FD estimation approaches were introduced, such as differential box-

counting method (DBCM), extended counting method (XCM), and fractional Brownian

motion (fBm) methods as reported in [1].

A box-counting defined by Russell et al. in 1980 [1], [5] is one of the commonly used

methods to estimate the FD in nature objects, since it is simple and practical as described

in [1], [4], [6], [7]. However, such a method is sensitive to minimum box covering

requirements dependent on the box-size variation and box count, thus making a result

inaccurate [7]. Furthermore, it provides only binary images [1]. Various papers [8], [9],

[10], [11] attempt to extend the BC capability to support gray-level images. Nevertheless,

the FD estimation for binary images remains essential for applications whose features

require high computational speed and lower space. A few research papers have introduced

to factors that help improve the box-counting estimation for binary images. For example,

K. Foroutan-pour et al [7] reported an important factor, i.e., a box size, directly related to

the accurate estimation of FDs in binary images. They proposed a procedure for defining

the most appropriate range of box sizes for any individual image, but did not report the

improved method or algorithm. A.R. Backes [12] introduced to a combination of the

multilevel Otsus approach and the FD to create a signature vector. Although this approach

achieved in classification correctness, it provided a longer signature vector taking

computation time.

As mentioned before, there are two factors directly related to the accurate FD

estimation, i.e., box size and minimum box covering. This paper proposes the triangle-box

counting (TBC) method to improve the accuracy of FD estimations. This method simply

divides each square box into two equally triangle boxes so as to increase the precision of

box counts associated with box sizes and fit the requirements of the minimum box

covering as suggested in [7]. Finally, in order to prove that the proposed method

outperforms the classical BC method, both methods are implemented in MATLAB

programming and fractal images generated by mathematical formulas with theoretical FDs

are used to validate such algorithms. Furthermore, they are implemented with a CBIR

system for evaluating their performance.

Proposed Method

In this section, the background of the BC method for fractal dimension estimations is reviewed and pointed out its drawback. The proposed method is described in the last section.

Backgrounds of Box-counting Method

In mathematics, a fractal dimension is a ratio providing a statistical index of complexity

comparing how detail in a pattern change with the scale at which it is measured [13]. On

the other hand, in applications the fractal dimension can be viewed as a feature, which

characterizes roughness and self-similarity, especially in nature images [1], [8].

A box-counting defined by Russell et al. in 1980 [1], [5] is one of the commonly used

techniques for fractal dimension estimations. This method covers a binary image with

boxes of length s, and the fractal dimension is estimated as:

FD

log( N (s )) ,

log(1 / s )

(1)

where N(s) is the number of boxes needed to completely cover the image.

In practice, the steps to estimate the FD of binary images can be described as follows.

First, providing grid sizes and counting objects N(s) which are covered with various box

sizes s as shown in Figure 1, and recording N(s) as illustrated in the 2nd column of Table 1.

Then plotting log(N(s)) versus log(1/s). Finally, fitting a least-square regression line

through the data points. A slop of a regression line represents the estimated FD.

The following example demonstrates steps of the BC method to estimate the FD of a

Koch curve fractal image with a theoretical FD, 1.2620. In this method, the important

factor for the accurate estimation of the FD is the box count. This example provides the

largest box size equal to a half of the image size and the smallest box size equal to 2x2.

The box size is reduced by half from larger to smaller for each scale of FD estimations as

depicted in Figure 1. Table 1 shows a relation between the box size, s, and the number of

boxes needed to completely cover the image, N(s). Figure 2 demonstrates the slope of the

least-square regression line. As a result, The FD estimation of the BC method is approximately 1.2131, which is 96.13% of accuracy when compared with the theoretical FD,

1.2620.

The fractal dimension requires the minimum box covering in order to estimate the FD

accurately [5]. Looking back to regard the counting objects with box-size variations as

shown in Figure 1(b)-1(e), there are many boxes that do not completely cover the Koch

curve. This fails to attend the minimum box-covering requirements. Therefore, the

estimation error caused by the box counts with box-size variations becomes the critical

factor. One way to reduce this error is providing the appropriate box counts with various

box sizes that can cover the object as well as possible. In order to overcome this problem,

the triangle-box counting (TBC) is proposed to make the requirements of the minimum

box covering possible. The following subsection demonstrates the triangle-box counting

for estimating FDs.

s

Log(1/s)

Log(N(s))

128

-2.1072

0.6021

64

-1.8062

0.7782

32

18

-1.5051

1.2553

16

38

-1.2041

1.5798

83

-0.9031

1.9191

218

-0.6021

2.3385

561

-0.3010

2.7490

the box-counting method (FD 1.2131).

Triangle-box Counting Method

The accuracy of FD estimations depends on the minimum box covering and the box-size.

In order to meet the requirements, the method simply divides square boxes provided by a

grid into two equally triangle boxes to increase the precision of box counts associated with

box sizes and fit the requirements of the minimum box covering as shown in Figure 4. For

this purpose, the algorithm for counting objects, box counts N(s), covered by triangle boxes

is proposed as follows.

Step 1:

set g to the largest box size, N(s) = 0, and i = 1, where g is grid size.

Step 2:

split a square box into two equally triangle boxes as depicted in Figure 3.

Step 3:

count non-empty boxes in both patterns, such that C1 and C2 denote counter

variables for the triangle-box pattern-1 and pattern-2, respectively.

Step 4:

N i (s) = N i (s) + 2;

else if C1 and C2 are equal to 1,

N i (s) = N i (s) + 1;

else if C1 is not equal to C2, such that C1 and C2 are greater than 0,

n = min{C1, C2};

N i (s) = N i (s) + n;

else if C1 or C2 is equal to 0,

n = max{C1, C2},

N i (s) = N i (s) + n;

else do nothing

Step 5:

otherwise Stop.

(a) pattern-1

(b) pattern-2

Figure 3. Patterns of splitting a square box into two equally triangle boxes.

9

s

Log(1/s)

Log(N(s))

128

-2.1072

0.7782

64

10

-1.8062

1.0000

32

29

-1.5051

1.4624

16

68

-1.2041

1.8325

148

-0.9031

2.1703

397

-0.6021

2.5988

1059

-0.3010

3.0249

Table 2 and Figure 4 show the box counts with various triangle-box sizes and Figure 5

shows the slop of the regression line representing FD estimation, respectively. In this case,

the FD estimation by using the TBC method is approximately 1.2630, which is 99.92% of

accuracy when compared with the theoretical FD. It significantly improves the accuracy of

FD estimations.

the triangle-box counting method (FD 1.2630).

Experimental Results

In order to evaluate the TBC method, the accuracy of FD estimation and efficiency in

implementing with a CBIR system are tested as follows.

Accuracy of Fractal Dimension Estimations

In this experiment, both classical BC and TBC methods are implemented in MATLAB

programming. The implemented algorithms are validated with fractal images generated by

mathematical formulas with theoretical FDs varied from 1.2620 to 2.0000. The fractal

10

image size for validation is 256x256, and the experiment verifies results in the form of

accurate estimations of the FD.

A comparison of experimental results shows in Table 3. In the first fractal image, its

theoretical FD is 1.2620. The FD estimation from the TBC method is 1.2472 and the

accuracy is 98.83%, whereas the BC method provides 1.1860 and the accuracy is 93.98%.

Overall it is illustrated that the TBC is able to estimate the FD close to the theoretical FD.

Especially in low and medium theoretical FDs, 1.2620-1.6280, the proposed method

evidently outperforms the BC method. In high FD images, the estimation of the TBC and

BC methods yield almost the same results, very slightly different. This experiment proves

that the TBC algorithm provides a more accurate FD solution. The next subsection

illustrates the efficiency of applying the TBC method to the CBIR system.

Table 3. Experimental Results of FD Estimation Methods Compared to Theoretical

FD.

Fractal Image

Theoretical

FD

TBC

BC

Estimated FD (Accuracy)

Estimated FD (Accuracy)

1.2620

1.2472 (98.83%)

1.1860 (93.98%)

1.4650

1.4227 (97.11%)

1.3282 (90.66%)

1.5850

1.5585 (98.33%)

1.4677 (92.60%)

1.5850

1.5635 (98.64%)

1.4561 (91.87%)

1.6280

1.5815 (97.14%)

1.5018 (92.25%)

1.8930

1.9103 (99.09%)

1.8839 (99.52%)

1.9000

1.9020 (99.89%)

1.9032 (99.83%)

2.0000

1.8949 (94.75%)

1.8962 (94.81%)

11

In this experiment, the implemented system of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is

setup as schematically illustrated in Figure 6. Such a system consists of two parts, training

and testing processes. In the training process, a training set is extracted texture and shape

features by a binarization procedure as shown in Figure 7. The binarization procedure

converts color images into gray-level images as depicted in Figure 7(b). Then the

thresholding technique and canny algorithm are applied to such gray-level images to

extract texture and shape features as demonstrated in Figure 7(c) and 7(d), respectively.

Finally, the TBC algorithm estimates the FDs of texture and shape features in binary

images (Figure 7(c) and 7(d)) and form FD feature vectors.

In the testing process, a query image is processed similarly to the training process to

achieve its FD feature vector. In addition, in order to test the FD accuracy estimated by the

TBC and BC methods in the CBIR system without any bias, two impact factors are

controlled, i.e., the similarity measures and features. The simple similarity measures L 1

distance and k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) are used, whereas the shape and texture features

extracted by FD estimations are applied to such a system. In fact, the Caladium Bicolor

image database is comprised of three core features: shape, texture, and color. Thus,

ignoring the color feature may lead to the reduction of recall and precision levels.

Figure 7. Results of the binarization procedure and canny algorithm for providing texture

and shape features, respectively.

12

A data set for experiments is a Caladium Bicolor image database consisting of 50

classes, 10 sample images for each class, totally 500 images. This data set is provided for a

training set. A part of Caladium Bicolor test images shows in Figure 8. The image size

used in this experiment is categorized into three groups, 64x64, 128x128, and 256x256,

respectively. The efficiency of FD estimations for the CBIR system is evaluated by recall

and precision which are defined as.

Re =

NRR ,

NPR

(2)

where Re is a recall; NRR is the number of relevant images that are retrieved; and NPR is

the number of relevant image in the database.

Pr =

NRR ,

NTR

(3)

where Pr is a precision and NTR is the total number of images that are retrieved from the

query.

In the experiment, a testing set consists of 195 images, 50 classes. For each class, 3-4

query images are tested with the implemented system. The average recall and precision are

calculated. Since NPR is equal to NTR, the recall is equal to precision. The experimental

results shown in Table 4 and 5 are the average recall and precision of testing with L 1

distance and k-NN (k=3), respectively. It is proved that the proposed method evidently

outperforms the classical BC method for all image groups. In Table 6, the average

accuracy of testing with k-NN (k=3) obviously illustrates that the accurate FD features

lead to the higher accuracy of image retrieval. Furthermore, when L 1 distance is applied to

the CBIR system, the TBC method can retrieve the first forth images in the same class

(Figure 9(a)), whereas the BC method can retrieve only the first images in the same class

13

(Figure 9(b)), when compared with the same recall precision values (Re=Pr=0.4). In the

same way, it provides the same results as demonstrated in Figure 10 when using k-NN.

This implies that the retrieved-image order of the proposed method is better than that of

the BC method at the same levels of the recall and precision.

Table 4. 1 Average Recall and Precision of Testing with L 1 Distance.

Image Size

TBC

BC

64x64

0.3831

0.2262

128x128

0.4205

0.2538

256x256

0.4533

0.2523

Image Size

TBC

BC

64x64

0.3754

0.2215

128x128

0.4149

0.2415

256x256

0.4344

0.2456

Image Size

TBC

BC

64x64

75.38% (147/195)

49.23% (96/195)

128x128

85.64% (167/195)

51.79% (101/195)

256x256

85.64% (167/195)

51.79% (101/195)

Conclusions

In this paper, a triangle-box counting (TBC) method is proposed to improve the estimation

accuracy of fractal dimensions for binary images. This method increases the precision of

box counts and fits the requirements of the minimum box covering by simply dividing

square boxes into two equally triangle boxes. The proposed method is simple and practical

for application implementations. This paper verifies the implemented algorithm in two

ways. First, the algorithm is tested with standard fractal images. The results of validation

with respect to the theoretical FDs show that the TBC method can estimate the FD close to

the theoretical FD. Especially in low and medium theoretical FD, the proposed method

evidently outperforms the classical box-counting (BC) method. In high FD images, the

estimation of the proposed method and the BC yields almost the same results, very slightly

different. Second, the TBC method is applied to extract shape and texture features for the

1

Since the sample images for each class in the database (NPR = 10) are equal to the total number of images

retrieved from the query (NTR = 10), this makes the average recall and precision identical.

14

CBIR system. It is illustrated that a more accurate FD feature leads to the higher efficiency

of the CBIR system in terms of recall, precision, accuracy, and retrieved order, when

compared with the classical BC method.

For future studies, the TBC approach will be extended to estimate FD for gray-level

images and color images.

Query Image

Query Image

using L 1 distance.

Query Image

Query Image

by using k-NN, k=3.

References

[1] R. Lopes, and N. Betrouni, Fractal and multifractal analysis: A review, Journal of

Medical Image Analysis, Vol. 13, pp. 634649, 2009.

[2] O.M. Bruno, R.O. Plotze, M. Falvo, and M. Castro, Fractal dimension applied to

plant identification, An International Journal of Information Sciences, Vol. 178, pp.

2722-2733, 2008.

15

[3] R.D. King, A.T. George, T. Jeon, L.S. Hynan, T.S. Youn, D.N. Kennedy,

and B. Dickerson, Characterization of atrophic changes in the cerebral cortex using

fractal dimensional analysis, Brain Imaging and Behavior, Vol. 3(2), pp.154166,

2009.

[4] J.Z. Liu, L.D. Zhang, and G.H. Yue, Fractal dimension in human cerebellum

measured by magnetic resonance imaging, Biophysical Journal, Vol. 85, pp. 4041

4046, 2003.

[5] J. Theiler Estimating fractal dimension, Journal of the Optical Society of America A,

Vol. 7 (6), pp. 1055-1073, 1990.

[6] S. Changjiang, J. Guangrong, and W. Yangfan, Study of texture images classification

method based on fractal dimension calculation, The International Joint Conference

on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 488491, 2009.

[7] K. Foroutan-pour, P. Dutilleul, and D.L. Smith Advances in the implementation of

the box-counting method of fractal dimension estimation, Applied Mathematics and

Computation, Vol. 105, pp. 195-210, 1999.

[8] J. Li, Q. Du, and C. Sun, An improved box-counting method for image fractal

dimension estimation, Pattern Recognition, Vol. 42, pp. 2460-2469, 2009.

[9] J. Feng, W.C. Lin, and C.T. Chen, Fractional box-counting approach to fractal

dimension estimation, Proceedings of ICPR '96, pp. 854-858, 1996.

[10] S.T. Liu, An improved differential box-counting approach to compute fractal

dimension of gray-level image, 2008 International Symposium on Information

Science and Engineering, pp. 303306, 2008.

[11] D. Sankar, and T. Thomas, Fractal features based on differential box counting

method for the categorization of digital mammograms, International Journal of

Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management Applications, Vol. 2,

pp.011-019, 2010.

[12] A.R. Backes, and O.M. Bruno, A new approach to estimate fractal dimension of

texture images, Image and Signal Processing, Lecture Notes in Computer Science,

Vol. 5099, pp. 136143, 2008.

[13] Fractal Dimension, Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fractal_dimension

[Accessed: Mar, 2012].

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