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School of Engineering and Design

HEAT PIPES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS TO


HVAC SYSTEMS
&
PROGRESS WITH THE SIRAC KICK START
FUNDING

by
Dr Hussam Jouhara
S h l off E
School
Engineering
i
i andd Design,
D i Brunel
B
l University
U i
i
Tel: +44 (0) 1895 2 67656, Email: hussam.jouhara@brunel.ac.uk

Centre of Energy & Built Environment Research (CEBER)

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School of Engineering and Design

Overview
Heat pipe, what is it?
Heat Pipe in HVAC Systems: Sample Projects
Th Progress
The
P
with
i h the
h SIRAC Kick-Start
Ki k S
F d
Fund

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School of Engineering and Design

Why Heat Pipes!

The technology is challenging as of the various heat transfer mechanisms involved.


It is an old technology,
technology which is finding its way to be irreplaceable by the industry
in certain applications.
Heat pipe base energy systems: This area is still a fertile ground for IP Generation.

Centre of Energy & Built Environment Research (CEBER)

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School of Engineering and Design

Heat Pipe in a
laptop

In case you have not seen a Heat Pipe, it is everywhere


Centre of Energy & Built Environment Research (CEBER)

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School of Engineering and Design

Heat Pipe in HVAC Systems: Sample Projects


Experimental and theoretical investigations are being carried out on
h pipe
heat
i heat
h exchangers
h
(HPHEX ) for
(HPHEXs)
f applications
li i
i
in:
Free reheat in dehumidification systems
Waste energy recovery (heating or cooling effects) from
building stalled air
H ti Emitters
Heating
E itt

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Sample Project 1:
HPHex for Application in Energy Efficient
Dehumidification Systems

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Typical Dehumidification System

Energy wastage in the reheating process

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Heat Pipe based Dehumidification System

HPHEX

Chilled Coil
No reheat energy required

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Energy Analysis
11

30
C

12

11

10

eg
rat
ure

J/ k
g(

em
pe

ha
l py

nt
t io

En
t

tur
a

Humidity ratio - g/kg((a)

Sa

tur
a

20

3
10

90

10

80

%
80

0. 85

70

% Energy Consumption
Heating
60
0kW

10

40%

60

40

50

0.80

20
30
Dry bulb temperature - deg C

Coil
Energy
LoadLoad
Coil
Energy
4747kW
kW

30

%
80

20%

10

20

40

80

70

12

20

g(a)

10

0. 85

0.80

-k

em
pe
nt
t io

En
t

Sa

90

7.2 kW (Electric)
Heater
Energy Consumption
7.2kW (Electric)
40%

60

50

%
60 Heater Energy Consumption

10

.m/k

10

- cu

g(a)

10

.m/k

- cu

Coil Energy Load


52kW

70

me
Volu

me
Volu

Coil Energy Load


52 kW

30

20

20

40

11

a)

-d
rat
ure

a)
J/ k
g(

30

0.90

60

50

20

80

0.90

ha
l py

-k

70

90

eg

80

10

0.95

0.95

90

The assumed
humid air mass
flow rate is 1 kg/s

Humidity ratio - g/kg((a)

12

-d

10

12

11

60

20%

10

20
30
Dry bulb temperature - deg C

40

50

The chilled coil becomes 10% smaller and no heaters are needed. (Jouhara, 2009)

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Waste Heat Recovery, Loop HP HEX

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Air-Side Thermocouples

T1

T2

T3

T4

80

ature (C)
Air Tempera

70

Th

60

50

40

Tc

30

Tc= Th

20
0 .0

0 .2

0 .4

0 .6

0 .8

1 .0

1 .2

1 .4

D is t a n c e (m )

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Sample Project 2:
HPHex for application in Waste Energy
Recovery from Building Stalled Air

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Typical Air Conditioning Configuration

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Typical Heat Pipe based Air Conditioning Configuration

Free heating
(Heating Energy Recovery Mode)
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Inline Configuration

Staggered Configuration

Aluminium
fin stack
500/m

Condenser
section

Adiabatic
section

Evaporator
section

HPHEX Investigated
For Lower Pressure Drop

Centre of Energy & Built Environment Research (CEBER)

For Higher Heat Transfer Rate

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Cold Air Inlet

Cold Air Exit

Rotating Base

Hot Air Exit


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Hot Air Inlet

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School of Engineering and Design

Waste Heat Recovery SHP HEX

I li ti Mechanism
Inclination
M h i
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Passive Waste Heat Recovery Heat Exchanger for Applications in Process Industries
&V il i Systems.
&Ventilation
S

Wicked Heat Pipe System


Wickless Heat Pipe System

Typical configurations

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Sample Experimental and Modelling Results


0.6
0.55
0.5

Efffectivness

0.45
0.4
0.35
0.3
0.25
E
Experimental
i
l Effectivnes
Eff i

0.2
0.15

Theoretical effectivness

01
0.1
0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

Mass flow rate (Kg/s)

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Sample Project 3:
Heat Pipe Based Heating Emitters

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New Patent: Heat Pipe based Emitter

(J h
(Jouhara
& Robinson,
R b
2010)
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The SIRAC KickKick-Start Fund

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School of Engineering and Design

The
h Team

Innovative Manufacturers of Heat Exchange Products

Commercialisation Consultants
(specialising in heat transfer & engineering)

Research &
Novel Heat Pipe
Technology

Introduced at SIRAC event


SIRAC Kick-Start Fund instrumental in Consortium
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School of Engineering and Design

SIRAC Kick Start Fund

500 granted by SIRAC in March


2009
Travel & research costs covered
facilitating consortium meetings,
design and development
Long-term collaborative
relationships established

Centre of Energy & Built Environment Research (CEBER)

founded by

funded byy

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School of Engineering and Design

Heat Exchanger Design

Several design
g meetings
g considering
g
technology and the needs of the market
Designs finalised between Coolers &
Condensers and Brunel University

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Market Studyy

Report prepared by NeQstep Limited

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Where is the Demand?

Code of Conduct on Data Centres Energy Efficiency


2008 defines two key areas:
IT Load
Facilities Load (inc
cooling systems

... and states energy


efficiency must be
maximised to meet
EU energy policies
Centre of Energy & Built Environment Research (CEBER)

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School of Engineering and Design

Th Code
The
C d off Conduct
C d t has
h also
l
already
already identified an increasing willingness of
manufacturers and vendors to compete on the basis of
energy efficiency in data centres
centres
Businesses are becoming increasingly aware of their
environmental
i
l impacts
i
andd the
h needd to reduce
d
these.
h
p
need to be aware of the financial,,
Data centres operators
environmental and infrastructure benefits to be gained from
improving
p
g the energy
gy efficiency
y of their facilities through
g
optimisation of power distribution, cooling infrastructure,
IT equipment and IT output.
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School of Engineering and Design

Free Cooling

ASHRAE's Thermal Guidelines for Data Processing


Environments recommends:

temperature 2025C

humidity 4055%

ma dew
max
de point 17C

outside temperature of
15 20C required
15-20C
i d to
gain 'free cooling'

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6,783 hours of 'free cooling'


g out of a p
possible 8,760
hours
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School of Engineering and Design

Conclusion

Between 30-60%
30 60% of data centre energy consumption is
attributed to cooling technology
The potential
Th
i l saving
i by
b implementation
i l
i off the
h Heat
H Pipe
Pi
solution would save UK data centres between approximately
2 1 - 4.3
2.1
4 3 TWh
Heat transfer coefficient of the Heat Pipe solution and the
th
thermal
l properties/response
ti /
off the
th building
b ildi require
i further
f th
study
Clear potential identified - development in partnership with
the data centre market now sought

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Other Results

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Active Collaborators

Coolers & Condensers and Brunel University have


continued to collaborate on many heat transfer and
energy projects
Further plans for a possible joint application for
research funding in the sector
Coolers
C
l
&C
Condensers
d
already
l d supporting
ti MSc
MS
students project in Brunel University

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Thank You
END

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